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HanDa00xs Fon OLD TESTAMENT EXEGESS David M. Howard Je, serie editor Inept Pch: An sgl Hand (xo Pee Voge me Genconing nrg he Ht Bok An Ext Hand Reber: Chile ning he Wik i: Extend (ton Recked Ste ork ricoming ning be al An Bg od ‘ering Pt An Ex Handi tong) nein pi Lira: A agli) HANDBOOKS FOR OLD TESTAMENT EXEGESIS INTERPRETING THE PSALMS ‘An Exegetical Handbook Mark D. Futato David M. Howard Jr S Kregel x radtice-Pofessonl —— APPRECIATING THE POETRY of wok i my ea eit wtb post ekg, oon ge bie he on of ef pt. (ox asi nt Do YoU APPRECIATE HOETIY? You may oF msy not, Not every ‘one does. didnt appreciate poetry very much until Bega to sy Hebe poetry + good numberof yeas ago I you're like me, this shaper sy open ups new world or you. What a “Tenely per” Yu esinution, and who sll poe”? Which any, de fle Towing do you appreciate? ‘Once upon a midnight dary, whi ponte weak an weary (Over many qin and cris volume of fargo fore ‘While node eal app, wale ter ane ppg ‘Asofsomeone gel tapping pping at my chamber dr Tis sone vat” I tered, "tap ty chamber dor (Only his and sing nar" rere Tae Aho het a fie hee bw wrmmnerin TPA Scpember eth the yur sats ome Morning broke ier today ‘ony ler coll Sepsmber morning Tesaeun alight Youtcan eli . vith dhe ate of smn lin my mouth ‘yl beste aut cole ‘apap cop— Nong rom home ‘The metered shyme of Poe, the ee verse of McK andthe hak ‘of Hesham are jos de of any syle of Engl powty Yet set ‘the erence i bere the poetyof Poe, McK, ‘tenet the dilerenebeewoo ese El posts ath posts ‘sho wre the pals “Toappreciatea lovely poem found inthe Pans and wien by 2 shill Hebrew poe eques ates Bsc knoe of what nk Hebe poetry post. And the more you appreciate the pty ofthe rss, the more you wl get their mesa. Sone hey interpreting. ‘he pus sundersadingand appreciating thr poc estes Ths isthe ask of hap. Before geting into the specific characteris of Hebrew por, ‘kev lok a a bre deinton: Hebe pry ype of Met ht munca he neem paleo en ary nih mea lh Cae Ch ah detain th tare ney. Major setons of thi cape il yo in de Erp snd magery. Foro ee be ad dat Hew prose SESE mam preload nyey. 0 ee conse and seamen fetes tat carcterize Hebrew poetry and ings fom prox “my have wondered why ths definition contains no eference tociterdiye ormract Weck oye and meter athe Gettpucey, bens ince dno weve bem expe wo po= SESS tajut wer up hel" There mos univers “esmenthowecs ht fe na tie of Hebrew pty. Sacco we dee appr yng ain Pa 1213 (thors tranton pear ew abn wtb pare “ain ont a (he wil oper rf sp") spew cure ‘yin hice sata Wl ‘Bu tieapparent cn shyt accidental, esting from the form of Hebrew words with pronoun suns rather than oa stained efor vorhyme “The presence of metro the ether han, i bite, Two main proponl have been oteed for recognising meter in Hebrew pty. Some schol olow sytem of counting pb, while gees count ‘cons, Many the scholar, of which group [include myo, beleve ‘ac nite syste does asic to alee dats Wat we ean say wi ‘offen tht pos hes Hebrew ae terse rad elaivey eal Imleng, ex though we have no asrament fr esr ts tee length with precision ance t, fr example, ie prone secu of ura’ victory i Js 4a he post count thts ie cory Jade 5 demontrtc the terse natu of Hebrew pctry This tener elt tne of rammnatial atures eat ‘ecu ofen Hebrew poetry than at Heb pron. Hebe 4 Inrenensrin re aa Sein erica eet crater ets sentences one gems ‘Creation in Psalm 104. a Post account of Sine teens, prelim, and imagery ate relative mesg ‘othe boundary beeen pty an roa ines te Westra dealing here wa ieraren gene sad pny rl, and not with asc equ, Soe sed ge oe uicent pac tobe reste wan the pues ofc ‘rary comes The pot ne of Palin I orale sn wih anhing ike the rol ofthe ns a 2d poe ts beer viewed spe of etre seeing ee ‘tina thr hn ld es” ANALYZING THE PARTS While we could gin with as of Hetew pons (ound snd morphlog (or th bc uldngtiodscteeey oe ak 5M no ne "oman nem hi pe ‘ue sew oem se tap Kees ems 95 bre a el pac > Bi Ret Xe Hl Riches apt ery Set Aacienne ta Pomme es instead tart ata higher evel, the level ofthe poetic ine * Then we will Took at how poe bat ines tageder wo form stops and how they, at Sines, goon to batch ropes int stanza. ‘The Line ‘Aline can be viewed a8 the basic uni of Hebrew poetry A linet otto be confused witha sentence in English, because many lines con- tain mote dan one complete sentence. Pal 17:1 is ease in pint. Pre the LORD, al you nations. "Exo hima you peoples. Also line snot to be confsed with averse inthe Bibl, because ‘many verses conan more an ne line asthe ein Pal 479. Line 1: The euler ofthe world have gathered together with people ofthe God of Abraham. Line 2 Forall the kings ofthe exth belong God. eis highly honored everywhere. an) “This one verse contains two lines and three sentences, Wha, though, compete line? ‘Before defining in, wil describe ane. The mos equent Ke in Hebrew pocry is made up of two halves, Each balline iced 3 colon,’ 10 the basic ine is alle 3 biealon. Look 3¢ Pn 921 for example. kis god to give thanks 9 the LORD, tong praises othe Most High van) Tors dma he ne ht dln er poy Aba Sa ‘Si i oS nF ie ‘© ene Habe eStore Wisse Ese, 180, 33, done [Notice that the cols (pra of colon) correspond “to give thanks to the LORD" correrponde with “to sng prises to the Moss High.” ‘Thiscorespondence ithe exence of parle, which dacused in euil below For now, we can dfinea linea one complet palit ‘expression of hough” ‘While mostineare made upoftwo col, ome contain thee Wecall such line trieolon. Psi 1123-10 provides ewo clea examples, ‘They [he ightcou] share fely and give generously vo howe in need, “Thee good ded willbe remembered forever. ‘They will have influence and honor The wicked wil sce thir and be infra. “They will grind heir eth in anger, hey will nk a3, dei hopes tare (wen) Sometimes ine can contin four cla, We ll sch ine tetra colon or quatrain sin Pam 2:1-2and Pan 96-11-12, Honor the LORD, you heen beings hoor the LORD for hi glory and strength Honor the Lon forthe glory of his mame. ‘Worship the Loni inthe splendor of his holiness. we) Lecthe heavens be gla and et che cath rejoice! [Let the ea and everythin ieahout hi pas! [Let he fies and thei cops bur fre wa jo! Lethe trees ofthe forest ute with pase! ‘ser ) (On occasion, a psalm contains the somewhat anomlos “mono colon.” of which the exprenion FI59D (Prave the LORD!) Avmscisna Ta ony Co ne example. Thi Hebrew eprenion occas wens nes in the book of Pale ad ony athe bepnning or ening of pom Hebrew 179997 ia bes undersond san opening and eosin cla ‘muon, rindi bythe exclamation point aed inthe NL "Numerous morn tarltons, ke he NV and NT we sees findeoaions to indice the anna ine. The fi colon colon A) wl be othe let margin. Te second colon (san 8) wl ava be {feted by on indentation, in the examples above Tol il kept second and hind cl at the sae lev of ndentation. Smee dh level of indentation i employe, meaning ly {bee was not enough oom nthe column wget the ei exon on fone line of rt, othe pulser wrapped that col doe the ‘esl. Ths sing am ion make fra mere sexhealy sing pretenation ofthe post nes of Hebrew pry, sieeve tal cnn the ced fr hid level finden, “Te se uni of poem the, te ine sally ade om 90 cola but sometimes made fot on, de, of ut The Strophe When wing prose, we group rtd entences together to form 2 paragraph, When writing poetry we group related ines together form strophe. A strophe iin posry what paragraph in rose "Numerous moder tania incate dhe divin Been 0- pies by plicing eta space between them. This extra space Fnctions like the indentation that marks the bepnning of anew paragraph i English pro "The primar bss for grouping ines int trphe isnt, A sto ‘he isa group oflines het for on common dheme; one idea olds the verein the erophetogeter In he NET of Psalm 13, for exam, ‘ext pce appt beoween verses 2-3 and verses 4-5, indicating the trophes vere 12,34, and 8-6. Not that verses 1-2 foes on the ‘question, "How long?” Vere 3-4 make specific roquest: “Tur,” [Rewore.”*Don'tlee"~Don’ tee" confidence they expres: Tyee 5b ee OD wel yA Cece SESS hn cere a renner Pats Hebrew poets used other techniques or grouping ins into stophes. ‘Onetcchnige ie the alphabet acon An alphabetic erst ues the Jeers of the alphabet to stracre + poem. Palo 19 isan eightld across ach group of eight lines ined togeter by the use of dhe ‘sme leterofthe alphabets the fist ter inthe fst word ofeach ine. So, for example the fist word in each line of verses 1-8 begin with slop the fs ee ofthe Hebrew alpabed) theft word in each ine ‘of verses 916 begins with eth (the second ler ofthe Hebrew aiph te) and s0 on through verses 169-176, where the Ese word in ac line begins witha (hen leer ofthe Hebrew aipha) ‘Aoctcan akouse gramar to group lnesinto topes, sin Pan 148, This pa is maturally vided nto two tropes: verce 1-6 and verses 7-14. (Note thatthe NLT puts exta space Benen v6 ad 7) The theme of yeses 1-6 i und in vere 1 “Pre the LORD fiom the heavens! The theme of verses 7-1 i found sn were 7: “Praise the LORD fom dhe eth" The universe i often picared 3 ‘workyered in the Old Tesument heaven above and earth beneath (Gee Gen. 11). Corresponding to this division, the poe divide his oer ita wo srophes. In the fin, the poe iter dhe heavens to pase the Lord, and in the second he invites the earth wo do 3. In ‘edition to the uit of subject mater the poet employs head linkage ‘fo mat the beginning ofeach srophe. Head linkage i the erry technique of marking the begining of wo sequential secons by repeating grammar or vocab (19 Sgr MATA bn Prive the LORD on the wens ise the LORD rom the earth In both stropher, varity of subject ae called pon to pate the Loed (wv. 2-4 and we 8-12), The poe then silo the imperative to thease inverse and vene 13 ‘iho te pecorino Selene aa Seite a Ren tne ee Arrmacaes TH POETRY ey (59 myn eetng Ho. ‘Leedhem pease the name ofthe LORD, (tay myn oer eT Lecthem pase the name ofthe LORD. Each of thes sis wo the jusive is chen fllowed by 2 reson sles: (0.58) wey AB ITD orb commanded and they were created (e139 199 By aI Forhisname sone nea “The flowing lines cach begin with aawusrelave imperfect vers (6) ETRE He set them (4) om Hehas aed up In Palm 148 the poet has wed epeated grammatical saucers to restea parallel pattern, which, ken together, summons the whole universe to pas the Lord. Paying attention othe seophic structure ‘of Hebrew poems, then, 2 key to flowing the poetic thought, nd keep the interpreter fom geting lost inthe fret of teers. ‘The Stanza Some poems, in arcu longer ones, wl have so or more sro= hes that focus on the sme theme, We ela group of csely relied Suophesa stanza. Palm 159, fr example, s comprised of wo stanzas—veses 118 and verter 19-24. The fist stanza focuses on the nature of God and ‘saved int four mrophes, Verses 1-6 elect on God's knowledge. bay rensneToe mPa [Note how the pos the repetition of word (reece in the NU1) to focut ou tention on God! knowledge: know” (18), “know” (6.23), "now" (28), "now" (3, know” (4), “knowledge (66a). eres 7-12 select om his presence: "can never escape fom {your api”. 7a), "Lean never getaway from your premncs” (7), "Joure there 8) "youaze there” 8b), "even hee” 10) ‘innot hide om you" (123). Vers 13-16 reflect God's eare "You ‘made. my body” (13), "and knit me eogeter” (138), "You ‘watched mc” (153), "ou sw me” (6a). eres 1718 coneade this stanas by repeating is themet "How precious ae your thought (0017) and "you are sl with me" (18) Inthe second stanza the poce responds to this rection in 40 strophes. Vers 19-22 area roquest forthe elimination of er by ‘liminating “the ober,” Vere 25-24 area reuest forthe elinination ‘fei mn "me." (One othe technique employed by this poets called inclusion.” An incsion isthe use of the same o imi grammar or content atthe beginning nd end ofa poem or stanza or rope, lathe fst wes of the ne seophe the poet ay, (© LoaD, you have examined my heart and know everything about me, un) ‘Ain the fire verse ofthe last rope the poets sys, ‘Search me, © God, and know my eats ‘este nd know my ansious thoughts oun) “This rpeton ofthe examination motif providesa sens ofclonie and shows tha the overarching concern ofthe poem iran eve deepening relationship between the poet nd God. Ths theme underscored the conclading ves Arenacisne ma Pore ps) Poin out anything in me tht offends you, ‘and lead me slong the path of evel an) [As with stops, 40 with anes: segmenting 2 poem ino stanzs hp to better underand the How of the poe’ thoght and there- Tyrhepe arto beter understand he poor. eis clear that undesanding the parts of poem lis, strophes, and sanz) baie wo undentanding Hebrew pot. We en 200 Tl on eit foundation by takings closer look t how Hebrew poes exprened their hough paral nes. PENETRATING THE PARALLELISM Hebrew pots expressed tei thougsin poems comprised flies, strophes, and a ines, stanzas, We have sen how topes and stanzas 2c put togetier, but what comprises line? Since Hebrew poety has ‘bo apparent meter or thyme, what make ine ane? the heat thanswerto this quetonit "parla "Inaline theres parcular reationhip beeen the col, ceri ow of dough fom one colon tothe next, We call dus fw of thought oe relationship “pus.” ‘What fs Parallelism? Comepondene At is core, purl is omepndee. Adele Bedi has sid that comespondenc the very cence of parallelism," Sime, Tremper Longman has sid hat “pales refs tothe corespondence which ‘occurs between the pater of poetic in" We eam, then, hat parilim is elatonship of corexpondence beowen the col of poetic line* TAGE ei ign 15 Lng a a ea 1 MOND fen aed eT ped Mg ae Pag NE Fetinng ba renner ni Past ‘The correspondence between the co en occur on a numberof levels lemay occu, fr istance, on the level of grammar or onthe level of meaning Since English grammar and Hebrew grammar ae jute dierent, appreciating grammatical pura requires know fig oftasic Hire grammar. Corespondenc on the level of mean ing, however, can be appreciated to age extent by thote reading Hebrew poet in ashton, Let’ take Took a both evel” Comspondnce in Grammar A times the degre of correspondence on the gamiatical levels so high thatthe grammar ofeach colon is identical Pam 10810 an cnnph ‘ub npp wwgne wb Not cconding to oust ashe done tow (estos rnsaon) aobp doy wows wb "Not according o our nites at he repaid upon (author's tana) Both cola te comprised ofthe identical grammar: negative adverb + reposton governing noun with pronoun sux = verb preposion ‘with pronoun salix: This example should not lad ws, Boweer, 0 ‘Squat grammatical ples and gna set "More often than not grammatical parallels expres hough gata ele, tat, he sabsiation i the Second colon of Something grammatical diferent fom, butequivalen to, an element inthe ise colon" Psalm 17-1 provides an example of grammatical uialence “Fegan a oh pe Bl, yan Bl Pn, 3 Arenacianine ma Porn es pirbp mrrnis on Prise the LORD ll nao. (euthors easton) prerdp wma Gort him all peoples. (eutor’sransaon) Here, fo the divine name inthe fist colon (TM), the post ht substiited the grammatically equivalent pronoun, hi (7) a the second colon. The kind of substations posible are seeming end les a there wore not only morphologic equivalent but abo sy tactic equivalents atthe daponl ofthe ancien poet” An awareness fof grammacal pall wil enable the sadene who can weal Ol “Tesiment poetry in Hebrew tose parle dat not evident 19 coe who reads the pocty in English "The parallel lines in the ewo previous examples have col th ae cerning dentin meaning, Sometimes, however, the grammars ‘Mena bur the meanings noe. Palm 103:3 3 good example: sanrhet nea ‘wo prone all your nig rs) sorebnmrgb wen who heal your diseases (ss) Sinand sickness are certainly closely elated concepsinancien isle theology, as Pr 383-5 makes lee Becaue of your anger, my whale body isick ‘my eslh ir broken because of mis My guleoverwhels me— itisa burden to heavy to best, pe erexmeerve se Pe My wounds fster and sink because of my fol sins ot) Bur no everyone who sinned inthe Old Testament got sick, and rot every sickness was a result of in, s the book of ob lal tech 7 Sosin and sce ae not identical, nor ae fogienes and eal ‘ng. Thr, the cola in Pas 103:3 are denial in grammar but notin meaning Companies Meoing ‘Semantic pails is the conespondence in meaning that ox its between the cola ofa poetic Hine. At mes thie corespondence mounts o identity meshing ain Pai 926 (7 (Only simpleton would not know, ‘And ony 3 fool would noe understand this, at) Robert Ale refs to this kindof corespondence 3 “tate sy ‘onymity"® While may not be fio eal uch state ines ae, they re no the rule for how the ola of poetic ine relate on the level of comp The correspondence n meanings no typically a exact ain Pal 9256 [7], This an be demonstrated fom Psi 92:12). le ingood give thanks othe LORD, ‘ong praies tothe Mow High, on) "To give thanks” obviously corresponds with “to sng praive” a oes “Lon,” with “Most High” But the meaning of Hebrew 27> and "BE ae by no means identical Hebrew 77 in the Hpi means to pve dunks orto pave inthe sense of enfin or acknowledging Rabe Ah Ad ew Yo Dn, 2 Armmaciivo me oer wm who the Lordi and what he has done, and WBE mens “to pay a Instrument, to sag which helps exp the refrence 0 nt ‘ments in vee 3 ccornpanied bythe tn-stinged hap sd the melody ofthe ye we) Lineslik Palm 92:15, however, seemingly have very ile corespon dence aa, ‘They will declare, "The Loan iss! Heismy ook ‘Thetis no evi in him!” an) What kind ofcorspondence docs exit then, esween the col of poate? How Does Parallelism Work? An Older Undestaning CS. Lewis spoke forthe vast majority of eudents of Hebrew po- etry when he deine paallcim atthe poetic technique of "ying the tame thing twice in irene words" Lewes wa prt of long seam of scholars that owed from the headwater of Robert Lowe 1753 Lauro he Sond Poy of the Hebe. In tex ectres Lot described puraelsenstechnsgueofpoctwho "expres in many a ferent ways dhe same thing in diferent words” ‘Since according © Lowth, in pura" proposons delivered, and second i subjoined to it. equivalent, o contrasted," some Hoe ACO 13 nd ae aman, he Mage a ea 2 RIED wesc tas TOC 4-7 Be heh th es erexmeno as PAs pall ines are id tobe “synonymous” (yng the sme thing twice {dren word), while others re dt be “antesc™ (yng the ‘ie thingcnie with opposite expresions).Anexample othe former ‘would be Pain 92:12 “The sightcous wil oui ike pal wee, ‘hey wl grow ke a cedar of Lebanon ‘The book of Proves has many examples ofthe ter, Proverbs 18 being just one -My cid iten when your father corrects you Don't neglece your mothe’ insuction (can) Buedhere wat third category ofp for Lowth—“nnthetis” Syatheic pall refers to thom many nes wherein the second ction doesnt rely sy the ame thog apn either difirent ‘epposte wor, but simply adds new information tothe fst colon "The need foe ti third category eventual cle ito question the dlequacy ofthe ober undersanding of parallelism s “ying the same thing ewice i diferent words” Ara eu, a new underanding hat ‘ben formulated in recent yar A New Understanding Students of Hebrew poetry have articulated anew undentanding of prim, one that think beter eft how pain work 1 have put i this way: "Pals isthe at of saying someting sini- lar in boeh cola but witha diferene aed inthe second coin," [Usaly there is some kind of movement from the first the second «colo, some kind of addition, ‘ets look at several examples fom Psalm 29, begining with Bee te en Ae AB i eA Arenscinine ne Prey ba Honor te LonD, you heavenly beings Thon the Lon fr hi glory and szengh. on) ‘The repetition of “honor the LORD" establishes 2 correspondence bere thee two col which invites ut to read the ola ogee. Hivingensblished the correspondence, the poet then sda diference: ‘he Bit colonels ho to ve honor to the Lord—the ange snd he vecond colon athe ide of wha the angela oe honor to the Lord for, namely, hi glory and szengeh. Vere presents 3 ferent Kind of movement “The voice ofthe LORD is powerful the wie of dhe LORD i mae, Here the dirence isthe simple change fiom one chances tic (power) to another (majesty). Verse 5 has yet anther Kind of ‘The oie ofthe LORD beaks the cedars: the LORD breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon, “The movement i from “cedar” to “cedars of Lenn.” To the ancient this woul be ike our yng, “The wind lew down redwood tet, and not jos any redwood tee, but those colon redwoods of| northern Caimi" Final, lok vere 10. ‘The Lonp st enthroned over the ood: the LORD is enthroned King fev “The fist colon tells us whee dhe Lord's throne hasbeen st p— above dhe forces of chaos that he hs vanquished in bale. The seca on lls rh og this rue—forever™ ‘My objective isnt to provide a ist of the kings of dierences you wl na you select on paral ines My objective ito soqaint you FIR aR anlage Rie de Shore oti aga sn oy ere re ascas ‘with he principle da pall that fying somthing sir toch oa bt with fence abel nthe onde, Hib poets ths invite us to ead sow looking fora dierence inthe second colon, be ‘hae diference smal or great. ‘Before lang this dscasion of prelim les ook atone more texto illstate how our undersanding of the nate of parallia ects our inerpeation of poetic ines. The Hebrew text of Pala, 1501 reads, tones baba Prise God in is anctuary 49 op tn ris hii i mighty even! In the Old Tesament, the Hebrew word UP ("holine") f= quently refers to Gods ancuary:" ln kepig with di most Engh teasaions use the word “anctary” here” Bu does anctary” re fee to God's sancuary sn heaven or on earth? If palin i ying the same thing evice in diferent words the sanenay ie in heaven sven the second colon, "praise hin init mighty heen.” This the “undersanding of NLT Lo, which readers the fit colon, “Praise God his evenly dweling” I, howeve, paral ying something Simin each colon bu with a diftence in the second colon it 8 kel dha the sanctary ion earth” The sense would then be “that ‘worship cannot be confined to smal bling ina parclar ei. The Lord's grndearcan only be adequstely pred in the arphihente of the cosmos Whther {am night or wrong ot how to fead this ine |s nota mporant a seeing thatthe ol understanding of ow par alelsm work hat the potenal of fattening the text, wile the new Understanding opens up porblisies fora richer ead. 5S Seo mn 4 Cry Ah 2 iy Cin, ae 9-19, ATE Nae Aga 305.30, ‘macnn Tg oETRY ‘When we re the poetic ines of pati slowly snd by reflec ing on how the second colon sds to the sese of he is, uF tunderstandng ofthe text deepens and our delight inthe text, boss. Understanding what parallelism is and bo ie works enriches aur experience of hearing God speak wo us through the Pasi SEEING THE PICTURES “Images ae the glory pethaps the esence of poetry the enchanted ane ofthe imagination imide gly, eve alive and ever chan ing” say. Alonso SchkeL® Willan P. Brown, inhi iurinating work, Seng he Ps Tsay of Map, maintains hat imagery '5 "he mos nic bldg block of poet." Leland Rye na lar ein asad that "poetry isthe language of images."™ ‘A quick lok a the beginning of Palm 104 support these ass ment abit yes no less than eightimages inthe ist four verses God ‘clothed wth splendor and wrapped in ight setching ue the hen ns ikea tent, lying foundation beams fri howe the celestial ‘raters, making clouds his chariots, edn on the wings ofthe in Inaking winds it menenges and lghiing hs servant, Nothing comparable wth i found in prose. Prose eral employs imagery bourne wih the intensity or density of poe. Images Touch the Emotions snd Engage the Mind Job Calvin called the book of Pans “an Anatomy fl he Pats ‘ofthe Sool" Calvin used this language Because he was in tuch with how profoundly the palms touch our emotions. One ofthe reasons ‘why the pss touch our emotions and hae endeared themselves 0 ‘he hearts of God's people throughout the centuries is the high r= quency of mages they employ. 3S Si le 3 Mtg han Sl Pe 4 Thy fa ne Wee 25. dias Be Lae nd Ripe Zt, 808. 3 fn tatty ge ap er ro Irrgang THe PALMS cour emotions and capvate ou imayinations” At tines, before out Jmagiatons can appreciate the poetry, cur minds ned 0 understand {he imagery. So to Summarize and concde this study of imagery. cert tps for anaiying poetic images 1, oy th tame doin, Mot of he te this apis quite cay ‘When che pamist ys, “The LORD i my Shepherd" the Lod Is the obvious eget domain. The target domain i nota dear, however. in a image le, "thir oat isan open grate” (Ps. 59, [H0).Comestis the key t ideniying the age In hs vere dhe oe fs to dhe "word ron die mouth” and how “hey speak ecg” which ois tothe enemysspeech the age domain, 2, Sly te sue domain thoroughly 30 that you can “experience ‘he image 2 try ain sly sensory way 3 possible” "The more you lem about the ordinary ves ofancient eaeites, ‘the more clarity ou wil have in cing the pctares the ancient poet painted with their words There ino sbtte fr the dy ofthe opography, ciate, and agricul practices nan Cent acl, because then hee ae primary spect of "ordinary ie" dhe psalms dew upon to ceate images * Two reference works deterve special mention fr the study of imagery in dhe book of Palms. One isthe Diary of ial Imag, which "hve dean upon repeatedly inthe freging dicwson. Tht volume coats concie and iluminatingartles on virally ‘ery image wed inthe Old Testament and isin my eximaion tm indispensible toa A second is The Solio he Bia Wi: Aen Near Ease leg an he Bak of Pas 3 Smt cnt Th etn pe 5 Ofte mda ppg tnd De By The Cty STR Sn aoe Ca ee pe be, 5) gh ed pre x al pd senna hh, we ‘estrecho Lf a4 Da tga (Papa Pk gh act rl cb i saat fun aca warn Bry Sei af i Cie iy on Ca Rasen aoe (Cami in +5 SRE a nary i at Arrears THs Pour 1 “This volume goet step further by providing dering of much “onary Hi” nce ancien Nea Eat, along with eplaatons sttohow thes ancient graphicsbear onthe interpretation fie ges sed in Pals 23, Mf te eof te ue ha is oscil wth be tal, Conte once again the ky. Look frcues within the immed cone tex that suppor the ascition) you think the pot intend to tke. fn Palm 1274, fr example, the poet congare 3 as sont to arrows. The yt the image is ound in the next er, whch, How jyflis che man whose quivers fl of them! He wll nt be ptt shame when he conf is sccuer 3 he ty en am ‘The reference to cononting accusers leads to associating a rows with defense: Numerous sous provide ample defense, ust. te numerous arrows do, FOLLOWING THE PATTERNS “Hebrew poes used structural patterns in ogaizing thir composi tions. Following these paerns deepens our undestanding fad a> precinion fo, the india psalms, because patterns add beat othe poems and communicate meaning, Hebrew poet used paterson all levelrof their poetics, sophie, and entre poems The allowing dbcssion look the eee baie pater linet, paral and sym= ‘merical Poet employed numero varatons on thes is the, Linear Patten ‘The Hear pattern isthe most common pater and the eset te follow In the linear patern the unis low cach other in 2 FEO a eS ft a 01 renrueTeo me Pans onrepeaing oder: A B C.D E (oth ech leer representing one ‘un Pain 2:63am example of neat ine Ute re Lae sap freee ‘dt hese ig on Zon | my bay il ‘Thine would be presented: AB C || DE (wih ndcaing the brea betwee the tw co) ‘Many suophes ae aeanged ina near ion. Take Pal 106:27~ 230aean example: |. All depend on God (27) 1B. God proves (28) ©: Gord with 29) D. God renews (30) Palm 150 provides an example ofan entice poem with 3 linear AA Callto pase the Lord dhroughout the univers (1) 1B, Calle pase the Lond for is dood 2) (C. Calla pine dhe Lord with instruments (wv. 3-5) D. Calla prise dhe Lord byl eresares 6) Parallel Pattern ‘The parallel pattern is gste common nthe Ol Tesment ade ‘pial formed by two col the units ofthe second colon parallel or ‘match the uni inthe fin colon ™ Given the mature of paalinin poeta dacused above, sno suprising tha the paral pater fRequent in poe ines. Look t Pal 19: ‘Theheavens | proc | the glory of God | ‘The skies | ipa | hit craftmanship. (oan) This Hine would be represented: A.B C | A'B' Cn avon to is aesthee beauty and ead to memorization, the parallel patern ‘communicates meaning 2 ines the reader “to compe, coat, reteate, emphatize, explain, and loerate."” For most mem ea fete glory of God!” iaathersburact concep The pall per helps us to understand that “he glory of God” wae quite concrete for the ancient poet: the second colon expuine “the glory of God” "is crafsmanship." We see Goa glory when we look a Gos cresin. Palm 192 ba he ential srs: Day by day | they pour ut | specs [Night by igh | they dele | knowidg. hochors anion) ‘Day by day coupled with night by nigh emphasizes the unin= terruped nate of restos communicative power. ‘An example ofthe paral pera in an ence pk fund in Palm 100." A Galleo pate the Lord (1-2) B " Resonsto pra the Lon (3) Av Calleo pate the Lord (4) 1B Reson to pat the Lond 8) Among other functions, hi parallel patern intr u to wed to concepts the Lord made us to be his people (3), and the Lod ira {ood ad loving God in i lasonsip with us (% 5), We ive aie of Prac and grastudebecase we havea good and loving Crestor. 2 SC nn ca dnd NAR 9, age Sa 8 i teppei We ‘While the ancients were at home withthe repetition involved in the parallel pattern, we ae not. Ou terry conventions, i Bt lew such repetition. Modern expsiton of these ancient text wil ‘ot thetere, fen beable wo mutor the structure of dhe tet in the surctue of tice presentation ofthe text A presentation of Pal 100 ‘would likly have wo ein division call fo pre (combining the content of v.12 and v4) and reson for pre (combining the con tentofv. Sand. 8). ‘Symmetrical Pattern ‘The ial pauer isthe symmetrical pattern. Like the ple fara, the symmescl pattern volves repestion. The deren {hat che symmewilpaten ads dhe ierion of onder othe pe ‘ion: ABC [| C1 A" Palm 51:2 [4] offers an example of ice yn smetiline ‘ash me clean | fom my gil “To miro dhe Hebe had to alr standard nga word onder inthe second colon. No English wanltion l Lnow of (or do many texts ike his one) replicas the order of the Hebrew text this pine Insea, che symmetrical paten wil ofen be obscured in Engh ‘ranstions that rive for good Eng tye. Thus reading the text in Hebrew s obviously the only way to appreciate some othe features ‘the poetry of the Old Tesament ‘Often the pot wil use a variation of the metic pattern tht is not filly symmercl Pan 69 [10] san example Has ened | the Loa | my plea: "he LORD | my prayer | wl answer, {author's tranlaton) aa See ‘Agim, I had to alee standard English word order. The patra in Hebrew is AB C | B'C A’ By plang the two verb a the beginning snd the end, the poet cretes the fing of hope and confidence in ‘moving om "has hear to “will anrwer.” This movement under ‘cored by shift in grammar rom the Hebrew perfect ps in th is verb tothe Hebrew imperiec (ire) Pal 70 in tes enery follow the symmetrical pater A Hurry co elp (1) B Curseson the wicked (vw. 2-3) Blessings on the righteous (4) 1X Harry elp 5) ‘The repetition of “hurry” and “hlp"in vere {and verse S provide «sete of lomare inthis emotional prayer. In aden the epetions ‘reat hope and eonfdence there 3 tit in “help fom vee 1 ‘ere Sin vere 1 “help” is an imperative, expresing plea help sme") inverse 5 “hep” 6 noun, exposing condence i he Lod (You ae my help). The symameeielputern cetera beauty that communicates meaning. A thee puter, n ft, help snot ly flee poetry bat to understand is wel, EXCURSUS: MYTHOPOEIC IMAGERY “Mythopoeic imagery is 2 special kind of imagery found in the book af Piss and cewhere inthe Old Teament With ht een refer to those txts da se the ngage of ancient Nest Eaten sy thology ina Ggursive way 2 communicate uth about the God of Israel L_ Alonso Schl arcultes my vew on thse texts quite wel we ake at models che undoubtedly mythologicl texts of (he ancient Near East... ticle that the OT hm aid impr... The Hebrews donot welcome myths martes tate hae modify a contig yt mal ir “Beam a