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Chemistry Review Answers

1) Definitions
Atom: The smallest unit of matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Molecule: Two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Atomic #: Is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom, which
determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic
table.
Chemical Formula: The number and kind of atoms that make up a molecule of
material.
Nucleus: The positively charged, dense centre of an atom.
Density:The amount of matter that occupies a certain space. The mass per unit
volume.
Electron Shell: Energy shells around the nucleus where the electrons move.
Electron: Negatively charged particle. Found in electron shells surrounding the
nucleus.
Proton: Positively charged particle. Found within the nucleus.
Neutron: Neutral particle. Found within the nucleus.
Element: The simplest form of a substance. The smallest particle of an element is
an atom.
Mass #: The mass of an element in AMUs (atomic mass units). Protons + Neutrons
= mass of the element.
Chemical Property: A material's properties that becomes evident during a
chemical reaction.
Physical Property: The physical characteristics of a substance that you can
observe with your 5 senses.

2) See http://www.ptable.com/ for a great labelled periodic table!!

Key Characteristics of the Periodic Table


METALS:

Most common form of matter

75% of the P.T.

On the left side of the staircase

Lustre

Malleable

Ductile

Solid (Hg is liquid)

Conducts heat and electricity

NON-METALS:

Right side of the P.T.

15% are non-metals

No lustre

Brittle

Does not conduct heat or electricity well

Insulators

Solids, some gas, liquids

METALLOIDS:

Surrounds the stair case

6-10% of elements on the P.T.

Some properties of metals but not all.

Solid at room temp.

Some have lustre

Semi-Conductors

3) Bohr Diagrams (#neutrons = atomic mass - # protons)

Nitrogen

Neon

Fluorine

Calcium

Hydrogen

Suba
tomi
c
Parti
cle

Proto
n

Neutr
on

Elect
ron

Sym
bol
and
Char
ge

p+

e-

Mas
s

Loca
tion

1
amu

1
amu

1/18
37
amu

at all.

5) Chemical and Physical Changes

Physical

Nucle
us

Nucle
us

Elect
ron
shell
s

Sodium

4) Protons and
Neutrons make
up most of the
mass. Electrons
have so little
mass, its
virtually no mass

No new substance is formed just a change in physical appearance.


New properties can appear.

Chemical
Always causes at least one new substance to be formed (change in
chemical formula) with new properties.
May be difficult or impossible to change back.

6) Chemical or physical?

Ice Freezes =Physical

Potassium metal reacts violently in water= Chemical

You dissolve some salt in your soup= Physical

You light a match= Chemical

You notice rust is appearing on your car= Chemical

Water left over night evaporates= Physical

7) Why does ice float on water?

Ice (solid) is less dense than water (liquid). Therefore ice floats on water.

Particles are farther apart in the solid than in the liquid.

Density:
D = Density

*Memorize this formula**

M = Mass
V = Volume
Formula:
V

D=M

8) If the water went from 500mL to 700ml the crown has a volume of 200ml
(volume of the submerged object is equal to the volume of water it
displaces). Therefore:

D = M/V = 4.5 kg / 200 ml = 0.0225 kg/ml

0.0225 kg/ml (1000 g/kg) = 22.5 g/ml = 22.5 g/cm 3

Therefore the crown is not made of pure gold

9)

10) Mendeleev The first to arrange the periodic table

11) The reactivity of elements is determined by the number of valence


electrons the element has. The closer the elements electron configuration to
that of its nearest noble gas, the more reactive the element is. (remember all
elements want to have the same electron configuration of their nearest noble
gas they want a complete shell of electrons)

12) The Halogens and the alkali metals. The Halogens because they are one
electron short of having a complete outer shell of electrons, and the alkali
metals because they just need to lose one electron to have a full outer shell
of electrons.

14) Both are balanced

The first has on the reactant and product side: 2 Al, 3 Br, 6 K, 3 S, 12 O

The second has on the reactant and product side: 6 K, 9 S, 6 C, 6 N, 2 Fe,


12 O

15) For lab safety know the following:

WHMIS stands for: Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System.

MSDS stands for: Material Safety Data Sheet

Check out the following site for the symbols and what they are:
http://www.ehs.utoronto.ca/resources/whmis/whmis9.htm