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G..GM>]l$

H GM>]l$
{VS*&2 &3, MSl&2

G GM>]l$Z 5 r$. Z lls s


]l$_ {VS*&2, 2008Z ll 16 {$ AylV>$ A...

Ayl Af$
$ MSt,
H tyl P,
]lMyl.

ll g$ B$ ]l$_ 9
 B{l{l >{t B$ ]l$_ 4 
HDI ]l$_ 3 {$
>Z$ SZ MS*y 15 {$ ]l^la A]lM>]l. D sZ r$t ^lyMS M
$]l$ A ^l$M. s r$ ]l]l*]l g$ l B*Z ]l$]l
]l*$$ Al$]l ^l*. ]l*l]l BMS BV> lt ^ll ]l*$P$
$V> ^^l$a.

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{VS*&2, &3, S&2 G..GM>]l$, s&1


g*$
g*$ As H$s?
f. Hy M>Z JMS lZ El A]l A]l$ ]l$ ]l]l$, s ]l*Ps
l MSP^lV> ]l^lal g*$.
g** ~^l A>$ M>M>$ H?
1. f ]l]l$$/{MS ]l]l$$
2. {]l$/{>$MS$$, 3. ]l l]l /r$tyl,4.]l]l]l/]l]lMS$$/ >MS$$
g*$ VS]lZMS $MS$l?
]lyl>$, VS l*O]l ]l$]l#$, ]l*l$MS ]l$]l#$
g** VS^lyMS BMS ]l]l]l$ G V>$V> ]lYMS^$?
1. {l$MS VS, 2. $ VS, 3. l$ VS.
{l$MS VSZMS ]l^la?
]l]l$, $ l, Ar l, ]l$l l, VS]l$$, M>$
$ VS ZMS ]l^la? f. l*, >,l$, V>, s >
l$ VS Z ]l^la?
]lMS, f, Zr$, tr$, MSV, C]l*, $ Gts, {st,
MS]lMS, tg, ]lMSVSl, ]l*hMS ]l$ llO]l.
g$ B* VS^l ?
(2008, {VS*&2)
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C.S.O. (Central Statistical Organisation) 1951Z

H>r$ ^l>$.

>{t B* VS^l ?

H>r$ ^l>$.
llZ g** MSP_ G]l$?
$ h & 1868
$ h >]l {VSl?
"Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India"- D {VSlZ ll l]l$ {s$ G
^l$MS$ ]l^$.
12. $ h VSM> {M> B$?
f. g*$ 340 Mr$-, l B$ & 20/&
13. {Z GK VSM>]l$ H]l$ ^l$? f. Ols
14. GK VSM>]l$ 1977 ]l$_ H]l$ $$$?
f. NAS - National Accounts and Statistics
15. MS{l VSMS >Q (C.S.O.) H >QZ VSV> ^l $? f.{M> ]l${l >Q
16. ]l/f g*$ As H$s? (Real National Income)
f. {$l ]ll El, B ]ll l VS$^lV> ]l^la.

D.E.S. (Directorate of Economics & Statistics)1971Z

RNI = Q1 P0
RNI = Real National Income
Q1 = Present Year Production
P0 = Base Year Price

17. ]l$]l*{l# g*$ As H$s? (Nominal National Income)


f. {$l ]ll El, {$l ]ll ]l*Ps l VS$^lV> ]l^la.
Nomial National Income = P1Q1
P1 = Present Year Price
Q1 = Present Year Production

18. ]l (f) g*$ =?


]l$]l*{l# g*$
_____________________
100
f.
l *_
19. l *_?
f.

P1
100
P0

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]ll l
P2 = VSl ]ll l
g** >{$V> MSP_? f. .MS.B..>]l# (1931&32)
g** GMS$P]l$ VS_?
{yl { & 3 $ (1). 1911, 2) 1922, 3) 1931
g*$ MS$s (National Income Committee) G#yl$ H>r$ ^l>$?
1949
g*$ MS$s AlS$yl$? f. .. ]l$
($$& .MS.>, yl.B.V>ylY)
{MS ]ll (Base Year) As?
Gs Jyll$yl$MS$$ JMS BMS ]ll. l "B ]ll' As$.
llZ $MS$]l B ]ll? f. 1948&49
g*$ VS]lMS$ {$l E*W$]l B ]ll? f.2004&2005
B ]ll l BV> g** MSP_]lrl
H]l$s$?
]l f g*$
g*$Z V>$?

P1 = {$l

C + I + G + (X M)

C - Comsumption - *VS
I - Investment - r$tyl

r$tyl/]l$

G - Government Expenditure - {$l


X - Exports

M - Imports

29. *VS As? f. {lSV> ]l$]l MMS]l$ a ]l$ ]lO ^l Q$a.


E: B >$, ]l{$, l, Oll, ]l$ llO]l.
30. g*$Z GMS$P]l VS Eyl?
f. *VS (]l$, ]l *VS)
31. *VS ]l$ lO Byl Er$? f. B$O
32. *VS As?
f. B*MS, *V>MS ]l$l E]l l
33. $ ]l$]l#]l$ El ^l$yMS ElMS ]l$]l#O ^l Q$a?
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r$tyl ]l$
]l*]l]l# MMS]l$ SV> a ]l$]l#]l$ H]l$s$?
ElMS ]ll]l ]l$]l#$
]l$l BMS ]l]lZ ElMS A$ Q$a]l$ G]l$ $? f. {$l
g$ El G $V> MSP^l]l^l$a?
1) El M>M> lt
2) ]l*Ps lZ
~l M>Z JMS l $$ El ^l]l A]l$ ]l$ ]l ]l*Ps $]l]l$
H]l$s$?
* g*l (GNP - Gross National Product)
l $MS$ {]l$^la g* $ ]l]l?
GNP-Gross National Product & * g*l
]l$]l l $$ l>Z Bj_]l ll MS Eyl?
f. GNP
*g*l (GNP)Z {lMSO l $?
MS l M>MS B$ (NFIA - Net Factor Income from Abroad)
JMS l B$ GMSPyl El A Al MSs G]l$ El ^l>l MS
{]lQ$^la ]l]l? f. GNP - Gross National Product
l> ]l$_ ]l^la B$ & l>MS$ ^l ^l#$ l ]l^la?
MS l M>MS B$ (NFIA)
GNP MSP#Z $M]l ]lQOl$]l g{VSl?
yl$ $ MSP^lMS$y ^l*y (A]l$ ]l$]l#]l$ ]l*{ll$ MSP^).

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44. C+I+G+(XM)+(RP) ?
f. GNP & * g$ El
45. * l$ ElMS + l VS MSl ]l^la = GNP &* g$ El
46. A]l ^l]l l>Z H ]l]lMS$ AMS {]lQ Er$? & GNP
47. A]l ^ll$l$]l l>Z H ]l]lMS$ AMS {]lQ Er$?
& GDP - Dross Domestic Product & * l$ El
48. * g$ ElMS (GNP), * l$ ElMS (GDP) ]l$l ]l?
& NFIA - Net Factor Income from Abroad (MS l M>MS B$)
49. * ElMS, MS ElMS ]l$l E]l ]l? f. l$VS$l (D-Depriciation)
50. * El ]l$_ l$VS$l l?
f. MS El ]l$. (G D = Net Product)
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MS ElMS l$VS$l MSl? f. * El ]l$. (Net + D = Group Product)


MS l B$ (NFIA) llMSV> Es?
* g$ El (GNP) GMS$P]lV> Er$.
MS l B$ (NFIA) $lMSV> Es?
* l$ El (GDP) GMS$P]lV> Er$.
* g$ El (GNP) = * l$ ElMS (GDP)MS G#yl$ ]l*]lV>
Er$?
1) MS l B$ *]lV> (0) E]l#yl$
2) l> ]l$_ ]l^la B$ (R-Receipts) = l>MS$ ^l ^l#$ (P-Payments)
55. Hy M>Z, JMS lZ El A]l A]l$ ]l$ ]l ll $]l]l$
H]l$s$? f. GDP - * l$ El
56. Hy M>Z, JMS l Gl ll _ l ]l]l? f. GDP
57. GDP =?
f. GNP l MS M>MS B$
58. GNP = f. GDP + l MS M>MS B$
59. "GMSPyl' El A Al MS {]lQ C_a]lrl, A? f. GDP
60. "G]l$' El ^l>$ Al MS {]lQ C_a]lrl, A? f. GNP
61. V> GNP, GDPZ H GMS$P]lV>?. f. GNP
62. MS- g-$ El- (NNP-Net National Product) As?
f. *- g-$ -E-l- ]l$_ l$-VS$-l- (D) -l- -]l-^la-. (GNPD = NNP)
NNP = GNPD (--) C + I + G + (XM) + (RP)D (D = Depreciation)
63. MS- l*l- (NDPNet Domestic Product) As?
f. *- l-*l- ]l$_ l-$-VS$-l- (D) -l- ]l^la-. (GDPD = NDP)

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NDP = GDPD

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MS- -g--$ El-- (NNP), MS l$ E-l- (NDP)Z $M A?


l$-VS$-l- (D-Depreciation)
NNP+D = GNP/MS- g*lMS, -l-$-VS$-l- MS--l ]l^la. f. -*- -g-*l-
NDP+D = GDP/MS- l-*l-MS, l$-VS$-l- MS--l ]l^la-? f. * l*l-
]l*P-s l-- lt B-$ =
E-l- M>-M>- Q-l$ lt B-$ + -S ]l$-$ -yl-$
El- M>-M>- lt B-$ =
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f. -]l*--P-s l- lt B-$ S ]l$-$ + -yl-$


68. * g-*-l- ]l$_ E-l- M>M>-$ -^l-^l -S ]l$-$ l, El- M>-M>-
S-]l*--MS {$-l C^la -yl--]l$ -MSl ]l^la?
f. -E-l- M>-M>- Q-l$ lt * g-*-l-. (GNPFCGNP at Factor Cost)
GNPFC = GNP Indirect Taxes + Subsidies (or)
GNPMP Indirect Taxes + Subsidies (GNPMP GNP at Market Price) or
C + I + G + (XM) + (RP) Indirect Taxes + Subsidies

69. ]l*-P-s l-Z * g-*l- As? (GNPMP GNP at Market Price)?


f. GNPMP = GNPFC + Indirect Taxes Subsidies
El- M>-M>- Q-l$ lt * g-*l--MS -S ]l$-$ MS--, -yl-$ -l-
]l^la- GNPMP.
70. -yl-$ As?
f. -E-l-- {l--^l-y--MS- El- M>M>--MS$ El- --MS$ {$l C^la {l-M>-$ l-$.
71. El- M>-M>- Q--l$ l--t * l*El- As? (GDPFC GDP at Factor Cost)
f. -*- l--*l- ]l$-_ -S ]l$]l$ -l-, {$-l C^la yl--]l$ MS--l ]l^la-.
GDPFC = GDP Indirect Taxes + Subsidies (or)
GDPMP Indirect Taxes + Subsidies

72. ]l*P-s l-Z * l--*-l- As? (GDPMP GDP at Market Price)


f. GDPMP = GDPFC + Indirect Taxes Subsidies
GDPMP = E-l- M>-M>- Q--l$ lt * l--*-l- + -S ]l$$ -yl-$.
73. E-l-- M>-M>- Q-l$ lt MS- g--*-l- (NNP at Factor Cost NNPFC) As?
f. NNPFC = NNPMP Indirect Taxes + Subsidies (or)
NNP Indirect Taxes + Subsidies

-s: El- M>-M>- Q--l$ lt MS- g-*-l-l "g--*--$-' As-$.


74. ]l*P-s l-Z MS g-*-l- (NNPMP or NNP) As?
f. NNPMP = NNPFC + Indirect Taxes Subsidies
= El- M>-M>- Q--l$ l-t MS- g-*-l--MS -S ]l$-$ MS-, -yl-$ -l-
]l^la-.
NNPFC = GNPFC Depreciation GNPFC ]l$_ l$-VS$-l- ---l- ]l$.
NDPFC = GDPFC Depreciation GDPFC ]l$_ l$-VS$-l- -l- ]l$.
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NNPMP = GNPMP Depreciation GNPMP ]l$_

l$-VS$-l- -l- ]l-$.


NDPMP = GDPMP Depreciation GDPMP -]l$-_- l$VS$-l- -l- ]l$.
75. ]lt B-$ (---) ]lMS-VS-l B$ As H$-s? Personal Income As H$-s?
-f. P.I. = N.I C.T UDD SSC + T.P (or)N.I (C.T + UDD+SSC) + T.P
P.I = Personal Income
N.I = National Income

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]l$-$
UDD = Undistributed Dividends _ rt--yl- MS- -$
SSC = Social Security Contributions $-MS -{l- >--$
TP = Transfer Payments - ^l#-$
]lMS/-]l-t B--$ (Personal Income) As H$-s?
JMS ]l-l- M>Z lZ- ]lMS$-MS$ -_-]l B-*- ll.
]lMS/]lt B-$Z MS- E-yl-l?
]l-MS B-$Z 1) Bj-l -l-]l 2) A-j-l -l-]l MS- Er$.
A-j-l -l-]l-Z-MS ]lQV> ]l^lal-? f. -- ^l#-$ (Transfer Payments)
- ^l#-$ As H$-s?
]l*-fZ- -l ]l>Y- S-]l$ M -{-$-l A^l B-MS $.
E: ]l- ]l-]l$, $--VS , P---- ll-O-]l-.
g-*-$ VS-]l-Z-MS $M?
-- ^l#-$ (T.P) - C- ]lMS B$Z-MS ]l*{l-l$ $MS$s$.
$-MS {l- >--$ (Social Security Contributions-S.S.C) As?
]l-MS$-$ --]l*-fZ-- -l ---MS$ C^la >--$.
E-: --*-$, ]l$l -$, -$, --^lel --MS$ C^la >--$.
]l*- B-$ As H$-s? (Disposable Income - DI)
]l-MS B-$ ]l$_ ]lMS ^l^l ]l$$ {l-S ]l$-$ -l$V> $-W--]l B-* ]l*- B--$ As-$.

C.T = Corporation Taxes M>s

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83. Disposable Income =


f. Personal Income Personal Taxes (or) Direct Taxes
84. JMS ]lMS Q$a ^l$-M-]l-y--MS -$ B-*- H]l$s-$? f. ]l-*- B-$
85. Bj-l B-$ ]l*{l-l$ $-Ml? f. -g-*--$
86. Bj-l, A-j-l B-*- MS*y VS-]l-Z-MS $MS$l? f. ]l-t B-$
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87. B-MS ]l]l-Z ]l$-t yl]l*yl-]l$ ~^l B-$? f. ]l-*- B-$


88. -l--- B-$ As H$-s? (Per Capita Income - PCI)
f. g--*--*-, l f-- W ]l^la-.
l-- B--$ (PCI) =
g-*-$ (N.I)
-------------------------

l f- (Population)
89. l-- B-*- ^-s?
f. 1) g--*--*- ^-.
2) l f-]l$ lWY-^-.
90. lZ- { $--MS VS-r$-]l ^l B-$? f. l--- B-$
91. ]lMS VS-r$ B-$ & -l--- B$. l J-MSPs-MS -^l B$
& l-- B-$.
92. ]lMS-MS ^l ll B-$? f. ]l--t B--$
93. {f- i]l-]l {]l*---- l--? f. l--- B-$
94. l B-V> l>]l$ ]lYMS$? f. l--- B-$
95. f (-) -]l l-- B-$ (Real Per Capita Income) =
f. f (--) -]l g-*--$ (Real N.I.) -------------------------------------l f-- (Population)
96. l-- B-*- st l>--]l$ G --M>-$-V> ]lYMS-^-$? A H?
1. A B--$ l>-$ (LIC - Low Income Countries) = $ 0 - $ 935
2. ]l$-l-- B-$ l>-$ (MIC - Middle Income Countries) = $ 936 - 11,455
3. A-MS B-$ l>-$ (HIC - High Income Countries) = $ 11,455 MS GMS$P-]l E]l
97. g-*-$ ]l--r$, f- ]l--r$ ]l*-]lV> E]l-r--l? (GNI > GP)
f. -l--- B--$ ]l---r$ *-]l. GPCI = 0
98. g-*--$ ]l---r$, f- ]l--r$ MSs GMS$P-]l-V> E]l-r--l? (GNI > GP)
f. l--- -B--$ ]l--r$ $VS$l$. GPCI(Increases)
99. g-*--$ -]l---r$, f- ]l-r$ MSs lMS$P-]l-V> E]l-r--l? (GNI < GP)
f. l--- B-$ ]l--r$ -S--$. GPCI(Decreases)

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