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i a) - PROJECT CULTURAL B FINANTAT DE ADMINISTRATIA Iw A FONDULUI CULTURAL NATIONAL a” \"LA DUNARE Ay. DE SANZIENE" wee _& Coktural Co Danarea de Jos" Sublet céitve Suflet! x + Centrul Cultural “Dunarea de Jos” Galati Suflet catre Sublet! www.cedj.r0 Detalii proiect Inscris in programul de activitati al Centrului Cultural ,Dunarea de Jos” Galati, pentru anul 2012, proiectul cultural,La Dunare de Sanziene”- spectacol de interpretare a obiceiurilor de vara pentru invocarea ploii,in urma unei selectii/concurs de proiecte, a obtinut finatare de la Administratia Fondului Cultural National, pentru derularea activitatilor cuprinse in program, Proiect derulat sub egida Consiliului Judetului Galati si in parteneriat cu Directia Judeteana pentru Cultura si Patrimoniul National Galati, a avut ca obiectiv principal, studierea sicercetarea obiceiurilor de vara in judeful Galati si arealul Euroregiunii Dunarea de Jos, mai precis Ucraina si Republica Moldova. Proiectul cultural,La Dunare de Sanziene’ a vizat identificarea, punerea in valoare gi evidentierea scenic a obiceiurilor ritualice traditionale ale perioadelor de primavara—vara reconstituirea, la modul general ao! lor de vara si in mod special, a obiceiurilor de var’ pentruinvocarea ploii. Prin acest proiect s-a realizat promovarea mostenirii culturale traditionale specifice zonei Moldovei de sud si Prutului inferior, prin efectuarea de studii si cercetari in localitati din: > _judegul GALATI (in localitagile Tulucesti, Cuza-Voda, Piscu, Vanatori, Branistea, Cosmesti siLiesti, inscrisein proiect siin plus, lvesti si Movileni-Tecuci); > REPUBLICA MOLDOVA - raionul CAHUL (in localitatile Pelinei, Cucoara, Andrusu de Sus, Valeni) si CHISINAU —Muzeul de Etnografie silstorie Natural; > UCRAINA, — raionul RENI {localitatile Barta, Cartal, Cotlovina, Limanskoe i Satul Nou), raionul IZMAIL (localitatile Ozerne si Udkonosovka), ODESSA (Muzeul de Istorie, Comunitailor Etnice si Muzeul Comunitagii Elene) Tin urma desfasurarii acestor cercetari, in cadrul proiectului a fost prezentat publicului un spectacol de interpretare a obiceiurilor de vara ,Dragaica” si pentru invocarea ploii ,Caloian” si ,Paparuda’, manifestare cu caracter cultural-artistic si instructiv-educativ. Obiectivele specifice ale proiectului cultural ,La Dunare de Sanziene’,finajat de Administrafia Fondului Cultural National au vizat: > punerea in valoare si evidentierea scenicé a obiceiurilor traditionale de vara pentru invocarea ploii, practicate in trecutin cadrul comunitatilor satesti din judetul Galati, precum si ale comunitatilor satesti din cadrul Euroregiunii Dunarea de Jos; > cresterea vizibilitayii patrimoniului cultural traditional material si imaterial specific zoneiPrutuluiinferior; > — descoperirea de noi variante sau similitudini ale acestor obiceiuriintens practicate in trecut, intr-o serie de forme diverse de la sat la sat, judet la judet, regiune la regiune side la o faralaalta; > reconstituirea si promovarea unor obiceiuri si traditii specifice zonei, prin modul clasic, (realizarea unui spectacol), dar si prin mijloace media moderne (realizarea de DVD-uri multimedia sau film documentar); > realizarea unei brosuri cu DVD inclus despre obiceiurile mentionate si studiate in cadrul derularii proiectului, brogura ce vaaparea bilingy romana-engleza. La Dunare de Sanziene |p: LTURAL 3 ' mNSTRAT f , Publicatia de fata este rezultatul etapel finale a proiectului, editarea bilingy a unei brosuri cu DVD inclus, ce cuprinde descrierea, promovarea §i conservarea obiceiurilor de vara pentruinvocarea ploii. Valoarea totala a proiectului derulat de Centrul Cultural,Dunarea de Jos” Galati a fost de 48.523 lei, din care finantare A.FCN. in valoare de 43.506 si contributie proprie Centrul Cultural, Dunarea de Jos"in suma de 5.017 lei Echipa de proiect a fost constituita din : dl. Sergiu Marin Dumitrescu ~ manager de proiect, dna. Laura Elisabeta Panaitescu - coordonator proiect, dna. Mariana Buruiana — DJ.CPNG. - responsabil cultural din partea partenerului de proiect, dna. Camelia Dragulin — responsabil financiar, dl. Valentin Vasilache - responsabil achizitii, dna, Carmen Bojii - responsabil tehnic, dna. Anisoara Stefanuca - responsabil cultural, dl, Paul Buta - resposabil cultural Echipa de cercetare a fost constituita din: dna, Mariana Buruiana, consilier superior Directia Judefeana pentru Cultura si Patrimoniul National Galati - partener in cadrul proiectului, dna. Laura Elisabeta Panaitescu, referent | Sectia Cercetare din cadrul Centrului Cultural ,Dunarea de Jos” Galati, dna. Anisoara Stefanuca, sef Sectia Cercetare din cadrul Centrului Cultural ,Dunarea de Jos’Galati si dl. Paul Buta, referent, Sectia Cercetare, Centrul Cultural,Dunarea de Jos" Galati. Colaboratori externi: dna dr. Varvara Buzila, director stiintific in cadrul Muzeului National de Etnografie si Istorie Naturala din Chisinau, Republica Moldova, doamna, dna. Rodica Panasescu, sef Sectie Cultura Cahul, Republica Moldova, dl. Valentin Stroia, director al Organizatiei Publice de Tineret,Noua Generafie a Europe’ Regiunea Odessa, Ucraina Cercetarea de teren aavut ca scop descoperirea la modul general a obiceiurilorde vara siin mod special a obiceiurilor tradisionale de vara pentru invocarea ploii, practicate in trecut in cadrul comunitatilor satesti din judeyul Galati, precum siale comunitatilor satesti din cadrul Euroregiunii Dunarea de Jos. De asemenea proiectul a vizat descoperirea de noi variante sau similitudini ale acestor obiceiuriintens practicate in trecut, intr-o serie de forme diverse, dela sat la sat, judet la judet, regiune la regiune si de la o fara la alta, cresterea vizibilitatii patrimoniului cultural traditional material si imaterial specific zonei Prutului inferior gi reconstituirea $i promovarea unor obiceiurisitraditii specifice zonelor studiate Descriere obiceiuri Obiceiurile ritualice ale petioadelor de primavara-vara si toamn: importanta lor cisiun rol bine determinat in calendarul agrar. Obiceiurile de vara pentru invocarea ploii sunt inca prezente in unele zone, datorita faptului cd lumea satului le-a acordat importanta cuvenita sile-a adaptat conform situatiilor proprii vietilor lor, a timpului in care traiau si traiesc. In alte zone insa, cu parere de rau, obiceiurile la care facem referire s-au pierdut, ele totusi mai fiind prezente, vag, doar in amintitile batranilor satului care povestesc cu ochii mintii lucruri intamplate in copilaria gi tinerefealor. in forma in care le regasim astazi, majoritatea obiceiurilor sunt doar reminiscente ale obiceiurilor stravechi, obiceiuri care au fost si sunt in continua transformare, fiind adaptate si ma au nu numai 4 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro : wNsTRA M dezvoltate in concordant cu modul si nevoile de viata ale omului, specifice locului si ocupatiei ui, dar sia mentalitafii populare In practica populard, att Soarele cat si Ploaia sunt factori esentiali, vitali chia dezvoltarea naturii si a nevoilor cotidiene in general si, in special in cadrul comunitatilor satesti, unde, acestor elemente ale naturii li se acordi o importanta deosebita datorita faptului cd oamenitisi duceau siisi duc viata de zi cuzi doar din munca campului Insasi existenta umana gi continuitatea vietii este in stransa legatura cu aceste elemente In vremuri de seceta, mintea omului a nascocit practici de invocare a ploii. Cele mai importante, consemnate gi semnalate pentru intaia data la noi de Dimitrie Cantemir, au fost »Paparuda’ si,Caloianul” Astfel,aflam cd atat ,Paparuda” cat i,,Caloianul” se mai practicau, pana in urma cu cevaani, la date fixe: s »Paparuda’”: - —_,Caloianul’: in marfea celei de-atreia sptaméni dela Pasti; in marfea sau joia celei de-acincea saptamani de dupa Pasti In timp insa, taranul, in deznadejdea sau naivitatea sa le-a invocat (le-a chemat in ajutor) ori de cate ori a considerat ca este nevoie, fri a mai tine seama de practica strmoseasca. 1. »Paparuda” este mai mult o incantatie de invocare a ploii, in unele zone fiind o combinatieintre text simelodie, ,Paparuda” fiindimbracata sau nuin diferite tipuri de frunze ce reprezentau vegetatia siimplicit natura, care trebuia udata sau care, la randul ei uda pe cei intalniiin calea sa, in alte zone, ritualul rezumandu-se doar a simpla stropire a participantilor cu apé, fara a avea un text sau melodie anume, prin acest gest invocandu-se dezlegarea norilor $i pornirea ploilor, asa cum aflam dela interlocutoriinostri: Eufrosinia Nicolaevna Berlinskaia, n. 1950, Orlovka (Cartal), Ucraina,, ...cand este dat pe apa,Caloianul”, in aceasta zi este $1,Paparuda’ si nu trebuie sa te superi daca esti udat din cap pana-npicioare...” Maria (50ani) de la $tefan Voda, Reni, Ucraina,,nu este,Caloian’, ci numai udatul de »Poporova", Pana Stepanida Moiseevna Istrati, Satul Nou-Novoselskoe, Reni, Ucraina,, ..fetele umblau prin sat, ma imbracau in frunze de steghie (stevie), din cap pana-n pamant. Femeile rupeau bucafele din frunzele de steghie de la paparuva si dadeau la vaci. Fetele cantau gi paparuva dansa prin sat... Paparuva lei, paparuva lei, /Saiin sus la naurei /lesi cu galeata /De ne udi fata /lesi cu ulcioru / De ne uda piciorul ... Se strangeau oale cu lapte, unsoare (ulei sau untura), gaina, fina iar mamele faceau la o casa mancare, ca pomana pentru Caloian, apoi mamele,guleiau'(.,) pana se intuneca, iar nolieseam in ulita sine dam..." Limanskoe (Frecétei), Ucraina -., ..s-a pastrat partial pana este doarstropitul cu apa. Intr-07i dejoi se uda, se stropesc tofi cuapa... zilele noastre. Ritualic La Dunare de Sanziene | Pro LTURAL 5 ' wNISTRAT f f Andrei Savielevici Teaci - profesor : Se arunca o sita spre cer in timp ce se canta »Paparuda rudit’/Da Doamne ploita,/Ploita curata/Far'de-un pic de piatra /Unde groapa seaca /Umple Doamne groapa /Paparuda ruda/la d’aici de ne uda /Un ...de argint /Varsi-1 pe pamént/Ploaie, Doamne, ploaie/Locul sa se-nmoaie/Ploia curata/De la Domnul dat/Graul sa creasca/Frunza sa lateasca/Paparud3, papruda, paparuda/Ploaie, Doamne, ploaie/Sa curga giroaie/Ploita curata/Din ceruri lasata/Creasca mare spicul/Mandru $i voinicul/Bobul sa rodeasca/ 88 zambeasca/Sa rda copii/$i ochii cémpie’.".. dupa felul cum cade sita se va sti daca va fi seceta sau ploaie: sita cu fata-n sus — ploaie, sita cu fafa-n jos ~ seceta, sita pe cant nici ploaie, nici seceta.,In caz de ploaie rea, se ficea un cerc, in interior se tragea olinie dintr-o partein altaacercului $i seinfingea cutitulin mijloc spunand,opreste Doamne ploaia’, tat... Cretu Grigorievna Liuba, Constantin Cojocaru, Olimpia Purice, Xenia Pamuc Savelevna $i Domnica Torono Dimitrievna, Plavni (Barta), Ucraina — ,,... Paparuva este a treia joi dupa Pasti... Paparuva era inainte de Caloian. Ne imbracam in, steghie’, toate fetele eram imbracate in ,steghie", intram si in curtile oamenilor, ne udam toti si nu ne suparam Paparuva relu/saiin susla ndurelu/lesi cu galeata/De uda fata/esi cu ulcioru’/De uda picioru’ pentru opritul ploii se facea o cruce si se infingeain pamantin mijlocul crucii, casa se opreasca potopul..." Valentina Vescov Chiriac, nascutd in 1944, Ozerne (Babele), Ucraina,,... Paparuda este un obicei legat de chemarea ploii pe timp de seceta. Este marcat a treia joie dupa Pasti.In popor se spune cé atunci cénd va disparea acest obicei, va disparea silumea.Fetele, imbracate in frunze de, steghie’ la brau, in fata iin spate, ieseau in sat si cntau:,... Paparuda, ruda/Sai sus la nourei/Si da drumul portilor/Si didrumul ploilor/Ca si creascé granele/Sa toarne cu galeata/Ca sa-mi creasca fata/Sa toarne cu ulcioru’/Ca sa-micreasca fecirou'’..” Zenovia Zaporojan, Ozerne (Babele), Ucraina, , .. papsruda era cu o zi inainte de Calian, ne imbracam in frunze de steghie (stevie) si umblam prin sat si primeam ba faina, castrova (cartofe) si ce mai primeam pentru mancarea de Calian, pomana lui ... cantam Paparuda lei/Sai in sus la naurei/S8 ne deschele lacatele/Ca sa curga apele/Paparuda lei/Paparudi lei... Cand veneam della ghiol (balt), ne udam toate. Trebuia sa stamla udat casa nutinem ploil Elena Vasilievna-78 ani, Vasilisa Saivanovna-S9ani, Nina Ghiornina, Udkenosovka (Erdek Burnu), Ucraina, , ..pe drumul de intoarcere de la ghiol, de la Calian, spre pomané, ne udam cu toti... paparuda era inainte de Caloian, era imbracata in,steghie" si mergea prin sat si aduna mai mult oua, faina, pentru pomana Caloianului .. Fetele aveau frunze de stevie doar la mijloc/la brau. Cand culegeau mancarea pentru pomana Caluianului nu erau udate. .. Cei care traiau necununati erau udati cu cazanul ... Caloianul se facea care cum voia pe ulite, fiecare sat are obiceiurile lui .. la fulgere puternice se infingea cutitul pamént sau in pragul casei, ca s8 nu fie ploaia rea ... Paparuvu lei, paparuvu lei/Sai in sus la naurei/Taie cu sapa/Aruncalopata...” Toderica Bejenaru (nascut in Slobozia Mare), Valeni, Republica Moldova - , paparuda ruda (solo)/paparuda ruda (cor)/ vino de ne uda / cu galeata plina/ ploil sa vina/ cu galeata rasa/ ploili sd lasa/ pe campia larga/ painile sa aleaga/ sa rodeasca lanul/ pane pe tot anul/la, la, la, la, la, la, laaaa, lala a laaaa ... versurile sunt cantate prima data solo si apoi sunt repetate decor...” 6 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro : wNsTRA M = Umblam cu Paparuda ruda, se imbraca una (n.b. din fete) cu brustur verde si umblau siadunau ous, care avea vaca de lapte dadea cate 0 oala de lapte inchegat, smantana, branza si, faceau ,ghizman’ (mancare din lapte si oua) pentru pomana ,Caloianului".. i dupa ce dadeam drumul pe apa (...Caloianul ..) Paparudele pana-n seara ele se si udau. Se adunau baieti, se adunau fete si care cum trecea zvarl cu apa, se adunau la fantana, dar umblau si pela case .."- Vasilisa Ciobanu, 81 ani, Valeni, Republica Moldova »-»paparuda se faceala un drum, Fetele erau udate de baiefi. Baietii udaucuapa..” -Lidalvanovna Batlan, 80 ani, Valeni, Republica Moldova 1» dupa ce agezam ,Caluianul, organizam ,paparuda’. Se pleca prin sat, noi cu dansa plecam, toate plantele legam de rochia ei (n.b.:a paparudei) §iflori cuseam. Numai o fata se ‘imbraca in paparuda si restul aveau pe cap coronite din flori de romania (musetel) si alte flori sisdreau, se udau, ieseau $i oamenii... de paparuda, lua o fetita o cosnita din papura, cum era nainte, siluau (n.b. :strangeau de la oameni) ous, faina, branza, ce avea ei si duceau la gazda unde era,Céluianul" si gospodina facea de mancare, plasinte .. ghifman, covasa, scrob cinenu facea oua prajite, malai dulce, branza cu ceapa verde din gradina si sfintisori din aluat, hulubasi (porumbei) ... mancarea era pentru pomand dupa ce ingropam ,Caluianul” .. abia dupa aia ne udam $i ne rugam sa vind ploile .. Paparuda, ruda/ Vina de ne uda/ Cu galeata, leata/ Peste toata gloata/ Cu galeata plina/Ploile sa vina/ De joi pana joi/ Sa dea noua ploi/ De marti pana marti/ Sa curga talanti/ Unde-o da cu plugul/ $8 curga ca untul/ Unde-o da cu sapa/ Sa curga ca apa ...", Elena Gofa, 64 ani si Maria Dragomir, 69 ani, Olga Boistean, Cucoara, Republica Moldova 1» este aga C8 cu ,Paparuda” se umbla inainte prin sat si stapanii casei trebuie sa inmaneze ceva, care dadea ous, care faina, ce avea ei si dupa aceia trebuia sa vi aicea la stépana de unde ai pornit s& faci cu oul cela gi cu faina ceva de mancare gi si pui sa faci pomana. O parte dadeau bani, banii care se acumula $i productia, aceia facea mancare,o parte ramanea la ,Caloian’ si o parte dadea la Bisericd, dadeau banii si faina si oloiul sa citeasca parintele slujba de venire a ploii.. faceau turte, placintele, ceva repede sa nu stea lumea sa astepte..."- Maria Loghin, n, 1947, Pelinei, Republica Moldova Mihai Gheorghe, comuna Branistea, Galati, Romania , ... aramid noua/ da Doamne sa ploua/ caramida rea/da Doamne sa stea/ caramida lucitoare/da Doamne sa iasa Soare/ ies Soare din inchisoare /ca te-asteapt-o fata mare/ cu cercei de ghiocei/ cu salba de noua lei/iesi Soare din inchisoare / ca te prind site tai/ cu un pai, cu un mai, cu sabia lui Mihai du-te ploaie calatoare/ cd te-ajunge mandrul Soare/ $i-{itaie picioarele/ cu un pai, cu un mai cusabia lui Mihai... folclorul copiilor Sanda (Lupu) Chiosa, 74 ani, sat Vasile Alecsandri, comuna Branistea, Galafi, Romania, .. papruda nu se facea la noi cufrunze...se stropeau cu apa, cumii veneallafiecare... eunupreaam facut...” Mihai Gheorghe, comuna Branistea, Galati, Romédnia, ..paprudé, udatul, stropitul a fost un obicei la noi, poate adus din Ardeal sau din alta parte, stiu ca in zona aceasta, de lazona de Curbura sunt multe familii venite, familii Mogos, familii venite din zona Bretcului, tocmai bunicii mei erau din Bretcu, La ardeleni am auzit de stropit, stropitul fetelor, la noi de paparuda...” La Dunare de Sanziene |p: LTURAL 7 ' mNSTRAT f , Joana Busuioc, n. 1941, comuna Piscu, Galati, Romania , ...a treia joi de pe Pastine paparudam ... paparuda ruda, vina de ne uda/ cu _galeata plina ... nu mai retin, eram fete si biiefi... baietii scoteau fetele din casa, le duceau la fantand gile turnau apa cu galefile in cap si nu racea nimenea ...se stia c3-i paparuda si iesea oameni... si nu se supara niminea ca-iuda... se facea numaila seceta, iardaca plouane paparuda Dumnezeu..” ‘Mihdita Moscu, n. 1950, nora, comuna Liesti, Galati, Romédnia, ...era a treia joi dupa Pasti si mama imi spunea si nu spal sa am grija la Paparuda... sA nu speli in ziua de paparuda ca te trazneste ... sine udam si ne faceam leoarca ... dacé vedeau o femeie gravida o udau ca sa aiba la copil apte, Cumiesea cineva din ogradail udam ca safie ploaie...” Heana Trandafir, 102 ani, comuna Liesti, Galati, Romania , ... paparuda era ... era inainte uluce la toate fantanile, da toata lumea era cu galeti... siuda, era strada plina de apa...la paparuda trebuie si ne udam, trebuie s ne alergam... cu galetili, cu canili ne udam pi ulifa... nuneimbracamin frunze.... papapruda era casa ploaie,erau si oameni batranila paparuda lordana Boboc, n. 1929, comuna Ivesti, Galati, Romédnia, ...am auzit .. era la 0 joi... joia manioass ...la sarbétoarea asta se udau, cnd vedeam cé nu ploua iegeam, ne udam cu apa, cu caldar..aruncam unul pealtul cu apa... ieseam pe ulita sine udam .” lordana Cristea, n. 1922, comuna Ivesti, Galati, Roménia, ... paparuda di pe Pasti fetele, intr-o joi stiam ca se tine paparuda ..da acolo unde m-am nascut aveam fantana facut si scoteau apa batranii si noi mititeii mergeam cu gilettile si luam apa sine udam ... care cum apucam fete, baiefi... se stangeau peulita sineudam ‘Mihaiga Valcu, n. 1925, satul Furcenii Noi, comuna Cosmesti, Galati, Romania ,... ruda, ruda paparuda ...era 0 7i de joi... parca a patra joi dela Pasti era Paparuda ...era pericol mare ...ne udam cu apa, cu caldari de apa ne udam, unii pe alti... ne urmaream si ne udam, copii, oameni mari...se udau toti ca era Paparuda ... ineam ziua cd asaera ... mai ales cavalerii si fetele se udau uniipe alti. seintamplainzide|ucrunuinzide sarbatoare.." $tefana Calin, n. 1925, satul Furcenii Noi, comuna Cosmesti, Galati, Roménia,...ne udam cu céldarile, cu céni, iegeam pe ulita sine udam, mai ales pe acelea care erau gravide le furau facaleyul cu care mestecauin mamaliga si-ldadeau pe Siret ca si ploaie...” Amelian Chirild-n.1939, Pintilie Severin-n.1938, Vasile Gutu-n. 1940, Tanase Niculai-n.1936, Ana Florea-n.1944, Elena Stoian-n.1944, Frose Floarea-n.1933, Frose Sterea-n.1934, comuna Tulucesti, Galati Roménia, ... paparuda era legata mai mult de cultul mortilor, de cultul Rusaliilor..o ziinsemnata ..e de ploaie ..in perioada aceea incetau ploile... se facea in a patra joi de la Pasti ... mama Ivana statea si facea mancare si poc s-a trezit cu 0 caldare cu apa-n cap ... da taceai din gura ... nu ziceai nimica, te stergeai la musteti si mergeai mai departe ... udam absolut tot, pe toata lumea ... femeile stiau cd daca erau udate era de bine, de spor ... in ziua de Paparuda nimeni nu avea voie si se supere cé-I suparai pe Dumnezeu, suparaiploile ...eracultulapei..." 8 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro : wNsTRA M 2.,Caloianul” era adesea facut in timp de seceta severs, femeile si fetele modelau din luto forma cu trup si chip de om, uneori de marimea unei papusialteori de marimea unuiom, agezat apoi intr-un sicriu—confectionat dintr-o cutie de carton, papura sau lemn, fiind bocit ca un mort adevarat, si menit prin bocet sa aduca ploaie, pentru ca apoi si fie Ingropat pe malul unei ape curgatoare sau langa o fantana, sau, dupa cum am aflat in cursul cercetarilor, ,Caloianul’ se ingropa si in lanul de grau sau pe deal, la rascrucea drumurilor, pentru ca puterea luiritualica sa se raspandeasca in cele 4 (patru) zari (puncte cardinale), dupa cum ne-a mentionat Cretu Grigorievna Liuba, una dintre interlocutoarele noastre (localitatea Barta, Ucraina - obicei prezent pe langa Chisinau de unde era originara, stabilita in Barta prin casatorie si din localitatea Cucoara, Republica Moldova, Ileana Gota si Maria Dragomir), iar dacé ploaia totnu venea Caloianul era dezgropat din semanéturi, dus la ghiol si dat pe apa (localitatea Anadol, Ucraina). Baieti sunt siel prezentila purtatul cruciisaualcoroanei. Demengionat este faptul cd in com. Liesti, judeful Galati, Romania, ,Caloianul" se facea in cear§, iarin localitatea Limanskee, Ucraina, dupa ce,Caloianul" era confectionat din lut, dacd nu ploua, se facea un al doilea caloian din carpe viu colorate $i se repetaintreg ritualul. Casilaom, sila,Caloian’ se pastreaza ritualul ceremoniilor funerare Versurile ,Caloianului” sunt céntate pe melodie de bocet sau linii melodice proprii, adesea create pe moment, in functie de starea in care se afla bocitoarea, uneori chiar si versurile suferind modificari de moment, in funcfie de ce doreau sa transmit bocitoarele si de intensitatea trairilor momentulul la care participau. ‘impreuna, versurile si melodia reprezinta o incantatie arhaica prin excelenta, Obiceiurile nu se schimba, ci doar se mai adauga din timpin timp cate ceva. Orlovka (Cartal), Reni, Ucraina - Eufrosinia Berlinskaia Nikolaevna, n. 1950 , caloianul se ingropa, se dezgropa la o saptmané, la Paparuda, si-| duceau la garla si-l boceau ..Caloianul era infrumusefat cu cojile de la ouale de la Pastele Blajinilor .. era dat pe apa si-n aceasta zi era si Paparuda sinu trebuie sa te superi daca esti udat din cap pana-n picioare de apa.” Ana Gheorgheevna Caraivan si Vera lvanovna Botin, n. 1939, Orlovka (Cartal), Reni, Ucraina aw Caloianul era a doua joi dupa Pastele Blajinilor, strangeam cojile de oua gi faceam tare frumos, cu frati si surorile .. Caloianul se fécea cat un mort de mare (n.b.: un stat de om)... se face si azi ... paringii nostri |-au facut cat erau tineri si apoi copii. Caloianul s-a pastrat ca in copilarie...Inainte era pus pe o scéndur’, acum in,coropca(siciriu / cutie) .. Caloianul se face pe fiecare ulita in parte... .. Caloianul era facut pe seara, impodobit cu flori, cu lumanare si iconifa gi se rugau sé vina ploile — baba lleana se imbraca in popa (preot), ise ducea cantind Hristosa Inviat alaiul purta legaturila maini, cu ce aveai prin casi, acum se pun sicoroanela mort, iar la o saptimana, il dezgropam de ,Poporuva’. | se faceau ,Caloianului Podurile (vamile), era bocit la colturile drumurilor, iar oamenil ies pe la porti .. este dat pe apa si! menesc sa aduca ploaie prin bocetul lor .. se faicea apoi pomana ,Caloianului” sub un nuc batran, cu,gaigana de oua” (scrob/omleta) ... Obiceiul nu s-a schimbat, doar se mai adauga cate ceva in timp ... in copilarie nu erau coroane ci numai floria sicriu, i se punea o panza pe ochi,seinchidea sicriul ,inainte era pus peo scandura cu fatain susimpodobit cuflori..” La Dunare de Sanziene | Pro LTURAL 9 ' wNISTRAT f f Pana Stepanida Moiseevnalstrati, Satul Nou-Novoe, Reni, Ucraina, ..cuoziinainte de a treia joi de dupa Pasti se faicea ,Caloianul, se lasa la uscat, la soare, se decora, jar seara ne adunam toate fetele si-| pazeam ca pe mort (privegheam) si boceam toata noaptea, iar a doua zi il duceam la ghiol. Dupa ce-| duceam la garla, ieseam pe ulita si ne udam, de »Paparuva".” Cretu Grigorievna Liuba, Constantin Cojocaru, Olimpia Purice, Xenia Pamuc Savelevna si Domnica Torono Dimitrievna, Plavni (Barta), Reni, Ucraina.-..inziua de Pasti strangeau toate cojile de oua pentru, Caluian’...,cdluianul” se facea din lut cam cat o papusa si-limbracam, ilimpodobeam cu cojile stranse in cele trei zile de Pasti, se punea in cosciug facut din papura si boceam cand il dadeam pe apa... In unele parti se facea in aceeasizi atat »CAluianul" cat si,Paparuva" in alte parti era facut cuoziinainte »Caluiene, cdluiene / La mama Stoiene/ Caluiene, mama/Te-am catat cu lumanarea/ Siam gasit numai schinarea/Te-am catat cu luminica/ $i nu ti-o mai gasit mama nimica..../Caluiane, Caluiane/Du-te mama pe apa/ Sine satura de ploaie ..” ..Veneau inapoi la pomana, Mincarea era pregatita de mamele copiilor participantila,Caluian’..” Limanskoe (Frecatei), Ucraina -, .. prima dati, ritualic se facea Caloianul din lut gi dacd nu ploua, se facea Caloianul din carpe divers colorate, pastrandu-se acelasi ritual, acelasi obicei... Caloianul din carpe se facea si alt data cand nu ploua, cand este seceta mare... In alte localitati, ,Caloianul” se ingroapa in semanaturi si daca tot nu ploua il scoate din semanatur’ sil ducla ghiol si-Idau pe apa...in localitatea Anadol, Ucraina Valentina Vescov Chiriac, ndscutain 1944, Ozerne (Babele), Ucraina-, ..,caloianul” din lut galben, ca un copchil, impodobit cu cojile de oud de la Pasti, este pus pe o,nasalie” (scAndura) si-| duc la ghiol, cu alai de inmorméntare, si-| bocesc cénd il dau pe apa, Caloiene iene/ La a cerului fortelor/ Se deschide portile/ $i porneste ploile/ Curga ca suvoaiele/ Sa umple fantanele/ Ca sa creasca granele/ lar ploile sa-imple vaile/ Ca sa ne adape vitele ... - cules dela matuga Ecaterinaa lui Sardu, baba Catia, 67 ani, 1989...” Zenovia Zaporojan, Ozerne (Babele), Ucraina —, ... faceai asa un omusor, pe 0 scandura lata, jifaceai cruce, limpodobeai cu cojile de la ouale sfintite... siise facea bradul, ca Ja mort, il imbracam cu rochita sau pantaloni, ... acum se pun si bomboane in pom ..., popa (preotul) inainte, apoi mortul, crucea era legara cu stergare sau batiste ... si preotul canta »Doamne miluieste, / Dé Doamne ploi/ Da Doamne sa hie (nb. :fie)/ Pe vara sanatate/ $i ploaie/ $i horujoi la vara/Doamne miluieste,/ Doamne miluieste/ Sa fie in numele Domnului/ Safie toatein imparatia Cerului../”..e mai canta,Hristos a inviat!",iarlaintoarcere se veneala pomana ,Caluianului” .. Daca dupa ,Calian” nu se porneau ploile, altul nu se mai facea Parintele iesea cu icoanele, steagurile, crucile de la biserica si se ducea toata lumea la deal, unde slujea parintele si numaidecat panain seara bureza..., asa de tare era slujba sicredinta.... jaca” Elena Vasilievna-78 ani, Vasilisa Saivanovna-59ani, Nina Ghiornina, Udkonosovka (Erdek Burnu), Ucraina, , .. ,Calianul se facea din lut dupa chipul omului, se facea de miercuri ca si doarma o ziin ograda. Era impodobit cu flori, coji de oua rosii, stranse de la Pasti, era privegheat $i jot il duceam la ghiol si-| aruncam in apa ... ra bocit,Calieni ieni,/ Te-a fatat mata-n buruieni/ Prin padurea deasa/ Cu inima arsa/ Prin padurea rara/ Cu inima 1 0 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro amara,/leni, leni,/ Dumnezeu sa te ierte/Cu doua poame hierte/ Cu una tare, cu una moale / Pand dimineaya 8 nu tise mai scoale .”...era bocit tot drumul, era dus cu alai, preot, pom cu straiele,Calianulut’ apoi crucea impodobita si mortul, era,glavnai cel care-idadea drumul pe apa...iar pe drumul de intoarcerede la ghiol, de la,Calian’, spre pomana, neudam cutotii..” Vasilisa Ciobanu, 81 ani, Valeni, Republica Moldova -, ..caloianul era la Paparuda, atuncea ... al patrulea joi,Caloianul” si,Paparuda” dupa. .. ne dadea alde mama cate o paine facuta, ne dadea ,bulgur’, ne didea oloi si faceam sarmale, ne adunam acolo unde stiam si faiceam mancarea ... cartoafele fierbeam ... ce era acolo ... dupa vremuri cum era si, mancam acolo ...noi, fetele mari faceam Caloianul, A doua zi de acuma umblam cu paparuda ...faceam caluianul dintr-o bucatica de cls, lut, ca un copchil din lut, $1 bocea si-! duceau la balta s+! dadea peapa,nu-lprivegheam..” Lida lvanovna Batlan, 80 ani, Valeni, Republica Moldova, .. fetele toate puneau de faiceau de mancare ca-\ cartoafe, sarmale si baletii tocmeau muzicantil, el cAntau si plecau si veneau alte cete. ,Caloianul” era facut inspre ziué, si-| duceau gi-| ingropau undeva ... nu-| privegheau noaptea. Unilil ingropau, altii1l dadeau pe apé, fiecare cum gandea ... pe drum il boceau....numaifetele se duceau, baiefii se risicheau ... daca ilingropam nu-t mai scoteau sé-! arunce pe apa ... ja pomand se manca sarmale, scrob, plasinta cu bostan, cartoafe, dac-aga era atunsea nu méncaruri multe caacuma..” Toderica Bejenaru, Valeni, Republica Moldova... cluieni, céluieni/ du-te, du-te- n cer si stele / caluieni, caluieni / du-te, du-te-n cer si stele / si deschida portile/ sa sloboada ploili/ ill $i noptili/ Ca sa creasca granili/ caluieni, céluieni/ cum ne curg lacrimili/ caluieni, CAluieni/cum ne curg lacrimili/ sa curga si ploili/zalili si nopyali/ sa creasca legumili/sa creasca ierburil/ cdluieni, cdluieni /du-te sus la Dumnezeu/ caluieni, caluieni/ sa ne ploua tot mereu/ si dea drumul roadelor/ roadelor, bogatelor/ ca sa hie-mbelsugata/ tara toaté, lumea toaté/ casa hie-mbelsugaté/tara toata, lumea toata...” Elena Gofa, 64 ani si Maria Dragomir, 69 ani, Olga Boistean, Cucoara, Republica Moldova. ..cupurnnul caram apa sifaceam caloian ... se facea cu oziinainte sise lasa la uscat. Ilfaceam acasa si-|imbracam $i+ infrumusetam cu flori de camp si-| puneam intr-o,coropca” (cutie/sicriu), aprindeam lumanari..batranii la noi nu umblé cu caloian, copii imbla, ghior de batrani... caloianul se ducealao rascruce de drum, aicinu se dadea pe apa ..adoua noapte il privegheam gi abia a treiazi se duceala crusile drumului, pe deal, in afara satului departe si- puneam gi cruce ... jaca ne adunam toti $i boseam ... pe tot drumul boceam ,Caluianul” si ne rugam sa vina ploile... a priveghine jucam de-a,cureaua’, biza’...jocuride copii.” Sofia Nucd, Andrusu de Sus, raionu! Cahul, Republica Moldova ..leni,ieni Caloieni (bis)/ la Cerului tortile /Si deschide portile (bis)/ $i porneste ploile/ leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ Curga ca suvoaiele/ Implese fantanile/ leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ Printre toate vaile/ Implese paraiele/leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ Ca sa creasca granele/ Sa imple fantanile/ leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ Sa rasara florile/ Florile, verdetile/ leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ Ca sa creasca granele/ Sa se adape vitele/eni, ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ Ca sa creasca granele/ Sa se faca pitele/ lenis ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ lenis ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ la deschide portile/ $i porneste ploile/leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis)/ $i porneste ploile/ $i porneste ploile...” La Dunare de Sanziene |p: LTURAL 1 1 1 bunicile noastre faceau la o casa, stateau la priveghi. Era facut dintr-o clisa la ocasa —Eufrosinia Bazalic Nicolaevna, Pelinei, RepublicaMoldova + =u fin minte cé bunicile noastre faceau la 0 casa de om, stateau la priveghi ... il faceau dintr-o clisa, ca un chip de om, cu ochi cu tot, sl puneau intr-un sicriu, seara il privegheau, de cu vreme il boceau, dupa 12 noaptea incepeau jocurile de la mort... a doua zi dupa priveghi, dupa doispce ziua ia mortul si! duceau la un copac mai departe... tot il boceau, plangeau, il ingropau in pamant la radacina unui copacin sat sau in afara lui departe, si dupa ce-| ingropau veneau la pomana in locul unde a fost Calianul la 9 zile l dadea pe apa, dupa ce-| dezgropau gropniceii $1 dadeau pe apa fara pomana sau alai..." Ecaterina Vasilievna,n. 1934, Pelinei, Republica Moldova . ~Caloianul se facea mai mult cand era seceta, nu era biserica gi el foloseau obiceiul aista, ,Caloianul” §i ,Paparuda’ .. a aparut biserica, chiar am participat si eu, cu icoanele, cu steagurile, le luam si ne duceam cu parintele pe toate campille, colhozurile satului si dumnealui citea slujba de ploaie ... nu in fiecare an faceam caloian, doar la necesitate MariaLoghin, n. 1947, Pelinei, RepublicaMoldova Mihai Gheorghe, comuna Branistea, Galati, Romédnia , ... ciluieni,ieni/ ienijeni, CAluieni/ la mama Stoieni/ cd mama te-a cautat/ prin padurea rara/ cu inima amara/ prin padurea deasa/ cu inima arsé/céluieni,ieni/ deschide portifele/ sa vind ploitili/ pe toate ulitili/ CAluieni, ieni/céluieni ient...intreg materialul culesin cercetare se aflain arhiva CCDJ Galati” Sanda (Lupu) Chiosa, 74 ani, sat Vasile Alecsandri, comuna Branistea, Galati, Roménia, ... Calianul eu stiu ca se fasea, ca am facut si noi de copchil, eram fete, planjeam primprejurul unui lut, pamant ce era acolo, faceam cu lut de aista, faceam un om aga, boseam, {i puneam flori acolo il faceam cand nu ploua, eram mai multe fete si-| faceam numaidecat, aveam 17~18 ni... ilfceam aproape de Siret,ilficeam, il boceam si-l dédeam pe apa imediat .» rau $i baieti dar nu participau, se uitau numa... nu-l imbracam, il faceam pe jos pe malul Siretului Mariana Ciocan, sat Vasile Alecsandri, comuna Branistea, Galati, Romédnia,, ...0 auzeam pe bunica spunand de Caluian, ca faco papusa din lut $ca-| bocescfetele si pe urma aruncd napa gicé este pentru ploaie, dar nu am facut...” Mihai Gheorghe, comuna Branistea, Galati, Roménia , .. nama mereu imi povestea cand eram copii mici cé faceau Caluianul si-! duceam la garld, c& era aproape la paraul Lozova siera o adevarata distractie, Chiar imi spunea si de pomana ca mancau coliva, oud, oud rosil dupa Pasti...” Joana Busuioc, n. 1941, comuna Piscu, Galafi, Romania , ... iaca sunt 48 de ani de cand am facut primul,caluian’...ilfaceau fetele de la 10 pana la 14-16 ani, dupaaia te rusinai, ieseaiin sat... cele dela 10 ani tiau, participau sifetele mai mici dar nu lucraulael..erau multi copii, fete $i baieti si parinti era ... caloianul se facea repede, dupa aia il privegheam, il modelam din lut dela lutarie si faceam acasa ..facea cine voie .. dupa ce-Imodelamil bagam in poiata, si privegheam, copii tot isi puneau negru pe cap ca la mort, aprindeam lumanéri, avea si toiag caloianul ..ca la mort... s-| bocem, céluieni,ieni / cu sapte dugheni/ ma-ta te-a 1 2 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro fécut/ tat-tu te-a crescut gi te-a prapadit/ prin padurea deasa/ cu inima arsi/ prin padurea rara/ cu inima amara/ caluieni, ieni/ deschide portitele/ sa vie ploitele/ deschide Doamne poarta cea mare/ s8 curga apa siroaie ... si mai era vreo doua versurele, da nu mi le mai aduc aminte... s+ boceam aga pana-1 duceam la garla a priveghi serveam biscuiti si biscuitiirupti in doua, ca atata putere era ...de la 12 noaptea se ducea la culcare ... se aprindea candela, lumanare ca la mort... copii aduceau flor... fAceam targa $l puneam pe ea, impodobit cu flori si-| duceam la garla si-I boceam sila intoarcere se punea si mancau oua prajite, mamaliguta calda cu castraveti, dacé nufaceam salata proaspata din curte cu ofet...” Chirita Moscu, 95 ani, comuna Liesti, Galafi, Roménia , ... Ciluianul il faceam la Barlad sila Siret. Eu faceam din clisi, da se facea si din ceara... dacé-{fceam din cearailfaceam lafelcum vedeamla tofi..l boceam cumne ducea capul.. Mihéita Moscu, n. 1950, nora, comuna Liesti, Galati, Roménia , ... noi faceam caloianul din ceara curata de albine, ne facea tata o cutie din lemn, patrata, stanjem orez, verdeturi, paine, malig, oud stanjeam, de toate si mama ne facea mancarea din urmé, cd mama ne punea si facem Calianul ista ... noi ne duceam la Barlad, aduceam flori si boceam ieni, ieni Caluieni/ deschide portitii/ si curga ploitili/ pe toate ulitil/ ci de cand n-a mai plouat/ tot pamantu's-a uscat... unul mai marigor, un baiet il dusea ...ilfaceam cand nu ploua ne adunam in timpul pranzului si modelam Calianul din ceara curata de la albine ... erau si biieti gi fete, baiesii mai mari care stiau sa inoate il ducea pe mijlocul gérlei, baiefii aruncau cu pietre sa se ducd mai repede ...-i aprindeam si lumanare si spuneam ca daca se stinge pana nu-| mai vedem noi are sa vina ploili, iar daca se stinjea lumanarea nu veneau ploili .. cand terminam il puneam pe prispa casei ... 2-3 ore ..s#-1 boseam tofi, si dupa ce terminam il duceam la garla .. batraniiil privegheu o noapte intreaga ... avea si steag si cruse .. se face mai multi Célieni in sat ... pe prisp unde |-am privegheat ne punea mama si mancam pomana ...” Heana Trandafir, n. 1910, 102 ani, comuna Liesti, Galati, Romania, ... da faceam, faceam dadeam pe apa, pe Barlad, pe Siret, faceam din lut aga cao papusa p-o scandura gi duceam la Barlad, la Siret, ca Barladul era un parau mai saracuf la Siret era mare si-I lua ...ieni, ieni, Caloieni/ Sa vii cu ploaie la noi/ ieni, ieni, Caloieni/ deschide portitil/ s& curga ploitili/ deschide portitil/ sa ploaie ploitil .. noi il faceam din lut, cand era oleaca seceta si nu prea ploua, da nu-| faceam din ceara ca se spune cA nu da ploili, din Jut, lut curat cu floriceli, ne duceam in grup, planjeam chiar, pe urma veneam acasa, faceam masa... mama ne ajuta sa facem oleaca de masa la Calian ... ce aveam ... nu-| privegheam ... in aceeagi zi il faceam pe 0 scandura ii faceam $i cruce gi steag si-| duceam la Siret... il boceam olecutica il dadeam pe apa si pe urma veneamacasa si mancam...nefaceau parintiialeacd de masa...” lordana Boboc, n. 1929, comuna Wvesti, Galati, Romania, ...se aduna doi copii, fat’, baiet, sifasea Caluian.. sl punea pe o scdndura...s-1duceala Barlad, il ficeau din pamant, $+ boceau ...il duceau cu steag... il faceau cum e a2i, seara il privegheau gil duceau a doua zi copii veneau ca la mort, care sttea toati noaptea, care se juca ... in curte se priveghea ...ii faceau si pomana cand veneam de la apa il boseam ieni, ieni, Caloieni/ ia cheitili/ deschide portitili//sa vina ploitili/ pe toate ulitili strddutili...iacaaga, da..." Jordana Cristea, n. 1922, comuna Ivesti, Galati, Romania, ... Caluian este nume de barbat, faceam din Jumanari cu flori si1 duceam pe apa, si-| bocea ca de iertare ... eram pe La Dunare de Sanziene | Pro LTURAL 1 3 acolo, dar nu am facut eu, nu am modelat... era privegheat noaptea, uneori,alteor’ il duceam laapaimediat,jifceam coroniti de lori, cantam, faceam un felde pomanaacolo...” Olga Paraschiv - n. 1952, loana Paraschiv - n. 1939 (parintii din comuna Pechea, casatoritd in Cuza-Voda), lana Alexandru - n. 1927(cdsatorita in Cuza-Vodd), comuna Cuza-Vodé, Galati, Roménia, ...Caluianul se ficea cind nu ploua, pe vreme de secet’, pe o scandura lata face acolo ca un om, capul, corpul, mani, picere, tat in regula, dupa aia pui flori roaté, lumandri aprinse gi canfi Caluieni, ieni gi plangi ...ne adunam 3-4 sau 7-10 fete, fara baieti, de 12-13 ani. Noi stateam spre coasta si aveam o rapa gi era un fel de clisoi..o udam cu apa si modelam si apoi treceam strada sine duceam la garla si pe urma veneam inapoi, furam paine de acasa sai facem pomana ... boseam ... cand nu ploua deloc, se priveghea sio noapte Calianul, se tinea in casa ca $i mortul,alteoriaziilfaceam sitot azi'l dadeam la garla...la privegheat veneau si adulti nu numai copii. daca eu aveam o faté trebuia si ma duc dupe ea ..una venea cu rachiy, alta cu ligheanul de gogosi... noaptea nu trebuia bocit ca se faicea strigoi Calianul ...a doua zi cam pe la 10 ne porneam la garla, cualai, cu steag si dupe aia toata Jumea... cu Calianul .. mai boceam la garla gi-laruncam, apoi veneam acasé si faceam pomana fiecare aducea cate ceva si faceam mancare ... intotdeauna ploua ori pana-n seara ori a doua Zi." ‘Mihaiga Valcu, n. 1925, satul FurceniiNoi, comuna Cosmesti, Galati, Romania,...da faceam cu fetele Caluian, din pamént, muiam pamént il faceam un chip de om... cu fiori impodobit aga si-| oceam, eram copchii i-| duceam pan' la Siret si dideam drumul pe apa si erao cantare ...da nu-mi mai aducaminte. Noi faceam siin camp, este aicea o rapa, un pripor si fantana era de vale gi-| muiem acolo gi acolo faceam Caluianul ... i Siretul era aproape $i duceam sifaceam si 0 baie stot... nu veneam la casa nimanui ..l puneam peo scandura cam cum era un mort gi privegheam, céteodaté mai puneam gi cate olumanare...asa asta faceam {ntre noi copchi, nu se amestecau parintii, tran. traba copilireasca era asta ...nu faceam pomana ..se intampla sa ploua cand faceam Céluianul ..” $tefana Calin, n. 1925, satul Furcenii Noi, comuna Cosmesti, Galati, Romania, muiem lut faceam o forma de copilas, il puneam pe o scandura si-| duce’ de-I dade' pe apa, il bosea, ii punea steaguri, cruce ...il faceam pe seceta ...iI faceam si] dadeam pe apa in aceeasi imbracam in rochita si-i puneam panza pe ochi ca la mort... fetele faceau Calianul, baietii nu se bagau ... fi puneam lumanari $i flori s-| duceam la marginea Siretului sil lua apa, cu lumanareaprinsail dadeam pe apa...” Miron Marica-n.1961, Anica Oancea-n.1940, Maria Tiron-n.1946, Gherghina Barzoi-n.1943, Pachita Rizea-n.1947, Neculina-n.1944, satul Odaia Manolache, comuna Vanétori, Galagi, Romania, .. zori merigoarelor, surioarelor/ ne rugam de-asearai vin Marie afara/ zori zurgalai, zori clopotei/ zori merile, zori perile/ zori merisoarelor, suricarelor/ da’ noua ne place, vin Pachita’ ncoace/ zori zurgalai, zori clopotei/ zori merile, zori perile/ zori merisoarelor, surioarelor/ Caluieni, ieni cu sapte dugheni/ zori zurgalai, zori clopotei/ zori merile,zori perile/ zori merigoarelor, surioarelor/ Deschide portita sa intre ploita/zori zurgaisi, zori clopotei/ zori merile, zori perile/ zori merisoarelor, surioarelor ... ola se facea ... a Izvorul 1 4 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro! LTURAL. v H i Tamaduirii si vinerea se ingropa ...la a patra joi il dezgropau, veneau cu el in sat sila prima fantana ilaruncau acolo ... baiefiil arunca ...era simbolul anului pentru ploaie .. se cerea sa se faca..” Amelian Chirilé-n.1939, Pintilie Severin-n.1938, Vasile Gufu-n. 1940, Tanase Niculai-n.1936, Ana Florea-n.1944, Elena Stoian-n.1944, Frose Floarea-n.1933, Frose Sterea-n.1934, comuna Tulucesti, Galati RomAnia, ...al reilea joi de la Pasti era Caluianul frumos ... puneai cojile de oua de la Pasti si faceai obrajori .. faceam pomana Caluianului, particpau si fete si baieti de la 14 aniin colo pana la 20 de ani. se facea la o casi, in curte sau chiler, puneam scanduri, framantam lut s-|faceam frumos, cu cap, maini, picioare, aproape de statura unui om... illsam ziua afara sa sezvinte, seara scoteam boii gi-| duceamin ieslea boilor siaici il boceam, acolo il privegheam, acolo incepeam pomenirile ... una din fete, niciodata biiat, se imbraca in preot, care este azi aici de fafa ... si duceam si in varf de deal sa fie mai aproape de cer, dar siin balta...in Brates, $iintram in apa sil boceam ... si dupa aceea ieseam plangand si veneam acasa s4 mancam scrobul acela ... pomana ... facuta din apa, faind de porumb, oud gi ce ne mai trecea prin cap sa punem ...la priveghi jucam paputica ... acolo am invatateu sa sarut... frumosamai fost... 3. Ritualuri de stoparea plo Adesea opritul ploii se faicea cu ajutorul unui cutit, rostindu-se cuvinte anume pentru stoparea ploii:,..selua un cutit, sefacea o cruce ise infingeain pamantin mijlocul cruciicasa opreasca potopul...”, Plavni (Barta), Reni, Ucraina Zenovia Zaporojan, Ozerne (Babele), Ucraina, ,.. opritul ploii nu se facea ... doar fulgeratul ... Lenta Maria a lui Mandea ... lua cufitul si! infingea unde curgea streasina de la ploaie..” » pentru opritul ploii infingeam cutitul in curte sau in usa casei... stiu cd fugeau mai mult pentru cand trasnea foarte tare, mai ales pentru primul tunet, macar fugi de unde vrei da loveste cu capul de piatra si ca s4 nu te doara capul, sa fie tare ca piatre, fierul ... cand cu grindina ploua, vrei nu vrei luai sirepede la ochi, sa fie curati sila frunte dadeai cu gheata... "- ‘Maria Loghin, n. 1947, Pelinei, Republica Moldova lordana Cristea, n. 1922, comunalvesti, Galati, Romdnia, ...cand ploua prea multnu faceam lanoi prea multe ...da stiu cé la noi se spunea ca atunci cdnd nu ploua fac, ma iertafi, tiganii caramida sitin ploili..” Olga Paraschiv - n. 1952, loana Paraschiv - n. 1939 (parintii din comuna Pechea, cGsatorita in Cuza-Voda), lana Alexandru - n. 1927(casatorita in Cuza-Vodd), comuna Cuza-Voda, Galati, Romania , ... cand ploua prea mult infingeam in pamént un topor, un cutit ceva, ca sa opreasca ploile .. ci daca ploua cate o saptamana ce faseam ... da sila noi se mai spunea ca atuncea cand nu ploua, de era seceta, ca fac tiganii caramida si au legat ploili prin vraja...ceva...deeraseceta.” 4, ,Dragaica”, odinioara, sarbatoarea populara a coacerii, a maturizarii holdelor era deosebit de spectaculoasa. Tn studiul realizat in cadrul pr .ctului am constatat ca ,Dragaica” / "Sanziana” ca La Dunare de Sanziene |p: LTURAL 1 5 obicei nu este cunoscutin forma mulfumirii pentru bogaia semanaturilor decat pe alocuri ci, se facadesea referiri doar|a ructe, in special la merisoare, denumite ,Dragaicute” sila loarea de scai pentruaflarea ursitului In Republica Moldova, Ucraina $i judeful Galati doar pe alocuri se mai aminteste despre realizarea, in ziua de, Dragaica" /,Sanziene’, a unel lai din 12 snopi (Piscu) pusiin forma de cruce, dupa care gospodarul pleca acasa sinu mailucrain aceazi. Elena Gofa, 64 ani si Maria Dragomir, 69 ani, Olga Boigtean, Cucoara, Republica Moldova -, ... de Sanziene se facea hora ... fetele imp&cau muzica, nu baiefii pentru ,Hora fetelor’, fetele nu plateau hora, baietii plateau .. tocmeau tiganii din satul vecin Zarnesti... se faceau coronite cu ceva flori tamaduitoare, boroscaiul il tSiau de cu seara si-| puneau in streagina, si pe urma a doua zi daca el era viu, spuneau ca se maritd fata degraba, daca era vested nu se mai marita anul aista. .. Boroscaiul tuns daca inflorea pané a doua zi, fata era norocoasa, daca nu fata mai astepta... Sofia Nucé, Andrusu de Sus, raionul Cahul, Republica Moldova -. .. fetele tocmeau lautari gi i se zice ,Hora fetelor’, frumos ritual, floare de ,Dragaica” se gaseste pe deal si are culoarea violet, iar snziana-i galbena. La,Dragaicaise maizice si,scai”.. Lida Ivanovna Batlan, 80 ani, Valeni, Republica Moldova - , .. eu ce-am apucat. Cosasii coseau inainte, daca erau 3~4 cosagi luau brazde gi o persoana ramanea din urma de ‘ngrebla din urma toata postata aceea, cu picioarele goale, de erau de sange pana la genunchi »adunau nasada din urma sa nu ramaie vreun, schic” (spic) sa se piarda. Un snop se aduceain casa ...da, un manunchi... a inceputul ocolului... unii pastrau snopul la icoana, ca se impletea din el, care stia, un fel de coronita, care se puneain parete la icoana sau la oglinda Todericé Bejenaru, Valeni, Republica Moldova ,..stapanul lotului de pamant cosea un snop gi-|lega cu grau si-| ducea la vecini, care avea orz, care secara si-| didea de pomana Zicand,mulumesccd am ajuns|a secerat”..” Vasilisa Ciobanu - n. 1931, Alexandru Ciobanu - n. 1928, Valeni, Republica Moldova -,,.. se duceau si secerau cate un snop de grau, orz ce aveai, se duceau in camp $i facea snopul intai, un maldar si apoi incepea lucrul (seceratul) .. Dar in ziua de ,Dragaica” se facea snopul si lasa acolo pe brazda, Se facea coroana de grau siflori,din acelea, albastrele, si sipuneau coronitele pe cap si veneau apoi cu ele in sat ...purtau coronifele pe cap pana seara Dimineata se duceauin lan sa secere, nu era bine sa te prinda, Dragaica" pe deal. Te duceaiii faceai treaba gi te intorceai in sat ca si nu deie un ceas rau ... este si floare care se cheam’ »Dragaica" mirosea ghine, este si de leac, galbend aga cam cum era liliacul .. miroase a miere de albine ... cu secera taie snopul la cmp i acolo si faceau coroniele si le puneau pe cap si veneau in sat inapoi si mergeau impreuna la masa, apoi faceau si o hord a fetelor inaintea casei... Panala,Dragaica” femeia care a avut copii mortinuavea voie sa manance mere panala aceasta zi, cand mergea la biserica sa sfinteasca merele preotul. Dar nici batranii nu mancau panaatunci...” Valentina Vescov Chiriac, ndscuta in 1944, Ozerne (Babele), Ucraina — , .. obicei vechi legat de coacerea granelor, nu are data concreta, este in postul Sfantului Petru si Pavel... In aceasta zi se imparte cu castraveti, mere, dragaicute (mere varatice mici). Fetele LTURAL. v H i 1 6 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro! ‘impodobite cu cununi de spice $i flori, cu basmale in diferite culori, numite,Dragaice” umbla prin sat din ograda-n ograda gi cnt : Hai Drigaica si lucram/ Holdele si seceram/ Roada mare s-adunam/C-a venit vara bogata/Cu cémpilimbelsugata/ Au sosit Dragaicele/ Sa secere spicele/ Toate fetele harnicele/ Gingase si frumusele ... - cules de Valentina Vescov de la matuga Malanaa lui Mandea Bibiu, 79 ani, in 1987...” Zenovia Zaporojan, Ozerne (Babele), Ucraina - , .. se spunea la merele aiste, Dragaicufele,... se facea curat si lucrurile se puneaulla soare sa nu fac moli..in lan incepea gi facea ctuce, la razor lasa ,Barba" care ramanea pe cmp pentru pasar... era dus si acasa un smoc de grau, se duceaula biserica 5i-sfingeau si-1 puneaulaicoana..” = @f@ spin asa ... o punea la stresina casei si pana dimineata crestea .. parintii fageau pentru membrii familiei de-a casei pentru a avea noroc in viata..." - Eufrosina Bazalic Nicolaevna, Pelinei, RepublicaMoldova ~-flumai stiam ci domnisoarele atunci trebuiau sa se duca sa ie florsica aceasta din camp de unde este, o tundea si 0 punea la creasta casei, maiales a casele cu stuf sia douazinu avea rabdare sa se scoale ca sa vada. Daca a crescut, inseamna ca o sa aib’ noroc, da dacd nua crescut, mai stai fata s8 creasca salcia .. loarea este violet si are fepi, ise spune scai ..coronite noi faceam la,Ziua Recolte’’, cand s-a terminat apoi facem o coronita mare si o puneam la tractorist ... este o sdrbatoare populara cand incepe primul seceris sau culesul poamei ... se face coroana sie pune in podul casei..."- Maria Loghin, n. 1947, Pelinei, RepublicaMoldova Mihai Gheorghe, Branistea, Galati, Romania ,, ... de Dragaica se faceau grupuri de copii sise alegeauintreei pe cea mai frumoasa, care cdnta frumos .. Joana Busuioc, n. 1941, comuna Piscu, Galati, Romania , ... dragaica ... scai de sanziene ... sambata seara, aduni trei scai sii pul cdte o doringa la fiecare ... se pune si este adevarat ... unele femei pun la streasina altele sus pe casa, daca creste pana dimineata se indeplineste dorinta pusa ... De secerat ... am auzit ... tot in ziua de Dragaicé se incepea seceratul la oz, se facea 0 jumatate, nu o claie, cam 12 snochi, o jumate si cu 12 se facea 24 ca sd ajunga la ziua aceasta de 24, de Dragaica ...4 se numea o claie gi 12.0 jumatate giinziua de Dragaica se incepea seceratul la orz nu la grau $10 lasau acolo si o dadeau ori prima ori ultima la batoza ...in aceastd zi se muncea ... se ducea lumea la prasit, iar dac& voiai s8 o pastrezi cu sfingenie te duceal in floarea soarelui site plimbai prin ea dintr-un capat in altul si te duceai acasa, aista era,Rodul Floarei"..." Mihaifa Moscu,n. 1950, nora, comuna Liesti, Galati, Roménia, ..drigaica/sanzienili cum povestea mama, se faceau cununi, se duceau pe cmp fete si baieti de se intaleau, ca floarea sanzienilor era pe vale $i faceau cununiti, cAntau, petreceau ...plecau dupa masa fetela 14-15 ani, Sanzienili erau pentru fete mai mari... era ca o petrecere campeneasca... era pentru maritat...esteo floare movieda gi galbena ...siveneau de la cmp cucoronitele pe cap...” lordana Boboc, n. 1929, comuna Ivesti, Galati, Romania, ... dragaica ...sanzieni... nu aveai voie sa te duci la camp, era 0 joie primejdioasa ... stiu ... eram casatorita si am mers la camp §i cand ne-am intors acasa a inceput boul sa zgaltaie gi... de atunci n-am mai mers la muncainziua iasta...in rest puteai sa faci prin curte ..dar sé nuspeli sau munca la camp...” La Dunare de Sanziene| ' IN poses 17 lordana Cristea, n. 1922, comuna|vesti, Galati, Roménia, ...se sarbatoreste ..se fine nunii de, Dragostina’ si se sarbatoreste la Dragaica ... eranume lanoiin sat ..amavutomatusa care era sora cu mama cu numele Dragostina ...ce se intampla nu stiu prea bine... da‘ eu asta stiu..” Olga Paraschiv - n. 1952, lana Paraschiv - n. 1939 (parintii din comuna Pechea, cdsdtoritd in Cuza-Veda), lana Alexandru - n. 1927(cdsatorita in Cuza-Vodé), comuna Cuza-Vodé, Galati, Romania ,... sanzieni/dragaica, la noi nu se fac obiceiuri de aistea Snzienile sunt insernnate, inainte te duceai a biserica, chemai 2-3 femei gi le puneai la masa cazice, sunt Sanzienile $ile dailor de mancare, dacd nuledadeainuieseaanul bun...” Chiar daca in mare parte, versificatia si linia melodica s-a pastrat aseménatoare, in majoritatea localitatilor studiate in cadrul proiectului, cu diferenfele inerente de text si particularitatile melodice, in functie de locul de pornire al ,Caloianului" sau ,Paparude’’ judetul Galati insa, aceste obiceiuri nu se mai practica ca rituri de invocare a ploii pentru a asigura rodnicia pamantului, ci, mai mult cuprinse in ariile extracuriculare despre traditi si obiceiuriin cadrul optionalelor scolare siin activitatile realizate in parteneriat cu institute de profil ce au ca obiect de activitate cercetarea, pastrarea, conservarea, promovarea $i valorificarea traditiile si creatiile populare. Nuacelasilucru putem spuneinsa despre localitatile studiate din Republica Moldova $i Ucraina, unde obiceiurile care au facut obiectul proiectului se pastreaza inca neintinate de modernism §i, chiar se practica cu sfinfenie Atat,Caloianul’ cat si,Paparuda’ sunt pornite dupa datul strmosesc, la data fixa, in unele localitafi, dupa care nu se mai practica pana anul urmator, iar dacd seceta persist’, invocarea ploii se face prin slujbe religioase de catre preotul satului care iese cu icoan camp i tine slujbe speciale, in alte localitati ins aceste obiceiuri se practica ori de cate ori considera comunitatea ca este necesara practicarea ritualurilor amintite pentru ca pamantul slegerod bogat. Materialul cules in timpul cercetarii se regaseste in arhiva Centrului Cultural,Dunarea de Jos’ Galati sipoate i consultat. Multumim domnilor: - Mihai Gheorghe - director Camin Cultural, comuna Branistea;- George Grigorica - director Camin Cultural, comuna Cosmest 1, comuna Tulucest viceprimar Ciot loan, comuna Cosmesti;- parinte protopop de Tecuci - preot Gheorghe Jogiu;- preot lonel Vasile, comuna Movileni;- preot Titi Gabor, comuna leni, Tecuci si doamnelor - Mari wafator scoala I, sat V. Alecsandri;- Ecaterina Hulea - educator, sat Odaia Manolache, comuna Vanatori;- Sicufa Murgu, primar, comuna Vanatori;- Tudorita Oprea, comuna Cuza - Voda sidoamneidirector al Caminului Cultural din comunaPiscu 1 8 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro! Project details Registered in the program of activities of the Cultural Center “Dunarea de Jos" Galati, for 2012, the cultural project ‘At the Danube for the Fairies’ Day" - show of interpretation of patterns of summer to invoke rain, following a selection / design contest, won funding from the Administration of the National Cultural Fund, for the activities under the program, This project coordinated by the County Council in partnership with Galati County Culture and National Heritage Galati, aimed mainly to study and research the summer customs and habits inthe county of Galati, Dunarea de Jos Euroregion, namely Ukraine and Republic of Moldova, The cultural project "At the Danube for the Fairies’ Day" aimed at identifying, highlighting scenic value and ritual customs of traditional spring-summer periods of reconstruction, the general habits and especially during summer, the summer habits forinvoking rain. The project was done to promote traditional cultural heritage specificto the south and lowerPrut, in Moldova, by conducting studies and research in the following localities: > County of GALATI (in the localities Tulucesti, Cuza-Voda Cosmestiand Liesti, registered in the project, and also lvestiand Movileni-Tecuci); > REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA - region CAHUL (localities Pelinei, Cucoara, Andrusu de Sus, Valeni) and CHISINAU- the Museum of Ethnography and Natural History; > UKRAINE, region RENI (localities Barta, Cartal, Cotlovina, Limanskoe and Novoselskoe), raionul IZMAIL (localities Ozerne si Udkonosovka), ODESSA (the History Museom, section of Ethnic Communities and the Museum of Helenic Community). In the course of this research, within the project it was unveiled a performance for the interpretation of patterns of summer ,Dragaica” and to invoke rain ,Caloian” si /Paparuda’, event with cultural character, artisticand educational. The specific objectives of the cultural project " At the Danube for the Fairies’ Day’, funded by the Administration of the National Cultural Fund focused on: > Enhancement of traditional customs and scenic highlight of summer for invoking rain, practiced in the past in the rural communities of Galati and rural communities of the Dunarea de Jos Euroregion; > Increasing the visibility of tangible and intangible heritage traditional Lower Prut specificarea; > Discovery of new variants or similarities of these habits practiced extensively in the past, a number of different forms from village to village, county to county, region to region and from country to country; > Reconstruction and promotion of habits and customs area, through the classic, (making a show), butalso by modern media (DVDs making multimedia documentary); > Producing a DVD booklet included those habits and studied in the project, a booklet thatwill appear Romanian-English bilingual This publication is the result of the final stage of the project, publishing bilingual DVD included a booklet that includes description, promotion and conservation habits summer for invoking rain. La Dunare de Sanziene| LTURAL 1 9 The total project value run by the Cultural Center "Dunarea de Jos" Galati was 48,523 lei, of which funding AFCN 43,506 lei and the contribution of the Cultural Center "Dunarea de Jos" inthe amount of 5.017 lei The project team was made of: Mr. Sergiu Marin Dumitrescu — project manager, Mrs. Laura Elisabeta Panaitescu — project coordinator, Mrs. Mariana Buruiana - DJ.C.PN.C. - weed - cultural responsible from the project partner, Mrs. Camelia Dragulin - head of finance, Mr. Valentin Vasilache - acquirement responsible, Mrs. Carmen Bojii ~ technical responsible, Mrs. Anisoara Stefanuca — cultural responsible, Mr. Paul Buta ~ cultural responsible. The research team was formed by: Mrs. Mariana Burana, senior counsellor at the Regional Office for Culture and the National Patrimony Galati - partner within the project, Mrs. Laura Elisabeta Panaitescu, refferent | Research Section within the Cultural Center »Dunarea de Jos” Galafi, Mrs. Anisoara $tefanuca, chief of the Research Section within the Cultural Center ,Dunérea de Jos’Galafi and Mr. Paul Bufa, refferent, Research Section within the Cultural Center, Dunarea de Jos’ Galati External collaborators: Mrs dr. Varvara Buzila, scientific manager at the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History in Chisinau, Moldova, Mrs. Rodica Panagescu, Head, Department of Culture Cahul, Moldova, Mr. Valentin Stroia, director of Public Youth Organization "New Generation Europe’, Odessa region, Ukraine The fieldwork research aimed at, studying generally and specifically, the traditional summer patterns for invoking rain, practiced in the past in the rural communities of Galati and rural communities of the Dunarea de Jos Euroregion. The project aimed at discovering new variations or similarities of these habits practiced extensively in the past, a number of forms, from village to village, county to county, region to region and from one country to another, more visible tangible and intangible heritage traditional lower Prut specific area and the reconstruction and promotion of habits and customsareas studied, Description of the habits The ritual habits of periods of spring-summer and autumn-winter have not only their importance butalso play role in the agricultural calendar. Summer rain invocation habits are still present in some areas because the village has given due importance and has adapted as their own life situations, the time they lived and live. Elsewhere, however, unfortunately, that we refer habits were lost, yet they still being present, vague, only memories of the village elders tell your mind's eye things that happened in their childhood and youth. The form in which we find today, most habits are only remnants of old habits, habits that have been changing and are being adapted and developed according to how the needs of human life, and occupation of site-specific, and popular mentality, In popular practice, both sun and rain are crucial, even vital in the development of nature and everyday needs in general and particularly in rural communities, where these 20 La Dunare de Sanziene | prolec LTURAL 1 WN , elements of nature are given special importance due to the fact that people led and lead their daily lives only in field work. Human existence and continuity oflife itselfis closely related to these items. In times of drought, the human mind devised practices to invoke the rain. Most important, recorded and reported for the first time by DimitrieCantemir were "Paparuda’ and"Caloianul: Thus, we find that the "Paparuda’ and "Caloianul" are still practiced until some years ago, on fixed dates: - Paparuda”: Tuesday of the third week of Easter; - __,€aloianul”: on Tuesday or Thursday of the fifth week after Easter. In time, the peasant, in desperation or naivety of them claimed (he called for help) whenever considered itnecessary, withouthaving to take into account the ancient practice 1. ,Paparuda” is more than an incantation to invoke rain in some areas is a combination of text and melody, "Paparuda" being dressed or not different types of vegetation and therefore leaves representing nature, which had watered or to turn water those encountered on his way elsewhere, the ritual is only just resumed spraying water to participants, without text or song that is, by this gesture invoking start unraveling clouds and rain, as welearn from our interlocutors: Eufrosinia Nicolaevna Berlinskaia, born in 1950, Orlovka (Cartal), Ukraine,,..when given to water "Caloianul in this day is also "Paparuda’ and must not mind if you are wet from headtotoe..” Maria (50 years old) from $tefan Voda, Reni, Ukraine, ,not “Caloian" but only watering of "Poporova’” Pana Stepanida Moiseevna Istrati, Novoselskoe, Reni, Ukraine, , .. gicls walked through the village, | dressed in leaf or bag “steghie" (Loboda), from head to earth. Women tore pieces of leaves from “paparuva “steghie"and gave to cows. Girls singing and dancing through the village paparuva ... Paparuva lei, paparuva lei, / Jump up to clouds / Get the bucket / For us to wet / Get the jar / For our feet wet ... Gathered pots of milk, grease (lard oil), chicken, flour and food mothers were at home, as alms for Caloian, then mothers’ Gulea "(..) until dark, and we walked outinto the street and we sprinkled with water...”. Limanskoe (Frecatei), Ukraine -,has been partially preserved until today. The ritual is just wetting, InaThursday theyall wet, sprinkle water...” Andrei Savielevici Tcaci - teacher : Throw a sieve into the sky and sings:,Paparuda relative, / Give God the rain / Rain clean / Without a bit of rock /Where dry pit /Fillthe hole O / Paparuda relative /Take it of us wet / An ... Silver / pour it on the ground / Rain Lord, rain / place to soak / clean rain / For the Lord once / grow wheat /leaf to make wide / Paparuda, papruda, Paparuda Jain, Lord, rain / to flush / clean rain / from heaven left / grow big ear / Proud and pea / bean bear fruit/... smiling / laughing children / And eyes the plain ...".. by the way he falls sieve will know if itis drought or rain: mesh face up - rain, mesh face down - drought, mesh edge - no rain, or drought. "In case of rain bad, it was a circle, inside draw a line from side to side of the ircleand poked the knife in the middle saying" God stop the rain" only that.” La Dunare de Sanziene| LTURAL 2) Cretu Grigorievna Liuba, Constantin Cojocaru, Olimpia Purice, Xenia Pamuc Savelevna si Domnica Torono Dimitrievna, Plavni (Barta), Ukraine — , ...Paparuva is the third Thursday of Easter .. Paparuva Caloian was before. We dressed in "steghie" all the girls were dressed in "steghie", go to the courts and people, sprinkled us all and not get mad Paparuva resume /her up at the clouds / Get the bucket /The wet front / Get the jar /The wet foot .. for the rain to stop it was put a cross and then poked into the ground in the middle of the cross, to stop theflood...” Valentina Vescov Chiriac, born in 1944, Ozerne (Babele), Ukraine, ,..Paparuda is usually related to call rain in times of drought. It marked the third joie after Easter. The people are said to disappear when this usually disappears and the world. The girls, dressed in leaves "steghie’, the waist, front and back, went to the village and sang: ".. Paparuda, relative / Jump up the clouds / And drop the gates / And drop the rain /To increase grain /To pour the bucket / To rise before me/To pour the pot/To raise myson'.” Zenovia Zaporojan, Ozerne (Babele), Ukraine, , ... Paparuda was the day before Calian, we dressed in leaves “steghie" (Loboda) and walk through the village and got flour, castrova (potatoes) and more getting to of Calian food, alms for him ... sing ... Paparuda lei / Jump up to the skies / Let unbuttoning locks /To run water / Paparuda lei / Paparuda lei... When we arrived at the lake (pond), sprinkled usall. Ihad to stay on watering as to notkeep the rain.” Elena Vasilievna-78 years old, Vasilisa Saivanovna-59 years old, Nina Ghiornina, Udkenosovka (Erdek Burnu), Ukraine, .. on the way back from lake, from Calian, to charity, sprinkled us all .."Paparuda’ was before "Caloian’, was dressed in "steghie” and went through the village and add more eggs, flour, for alms Caloian ... Girls had “stevia" leaves only the middle / at the waist. When picking food for charity Caluian were not watered. .. Those who lived necununati were wet with the boiler ..Caloianul will it made to such streets, every village has its habits... the powerful lightning knife poked into the ground or in the doorway, that is not bad rain... Paparuvu lei lei paparuvu/Jump up the clouds / Cut to dig / Drop the shovel . Todericaé Bejenaru (born in Slobozia Mare), Valeni, Rpublic of Moldova - , ... Paparuda relative (solo) / Paparuda relative (chorus) /We come to wet / with bucket full / rain tocome//with bucket race /rain to let / the range plain / bread to choose / to bear fruit chain / bread all year / to, to, to, laaaa, la, la, from laaaa .. - The lyrics are sung first solo and then repeated by chorus...” Walk with relative Paparuda is take one (nb of girls) and green bur walked and gathered eggs, which have one cow gave curdled milk pot, cream, cheese and were "ghizman' (milk food with eggs ) for charity "Caloian’ ... and let them go after the water (...Caloianul ..) Paparudele far into the evening and wet with them. Gathered boys and girls gathered as water spout passed, gathered at the well, but walked also to houses ..”- Vasilisa Ciobanu, 81 years old, Valeni, Republic of Moldova « «- Paparuda is made from a way. Girls boys were drenched. Boys wet with water..”- Lida Ivanovna Batlan, 80 years old, Valeni, Republicof Moldova 22 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro having sat“Caluian" organize "Paparuda’. They leave the village, we go with her, her dress all plants bind (nb: the Paparuda) and flowers Cuse. Only one girl and the rest were put on Paparuda head wreaths of flowers camomile (chamomile) and other lowers... and salt, wet with, came out and people .. by Paparuda, take a girl a basket of rushes, as it was before, and took (nb: the people gathered) eggs, flour, cheese, that was her home and went to where he was "Caluian’, and housewife was by food, pies ..’ghit man’, “covas’, who was not scrambled e995 fried eggs, sweet com, cheese and onions in the garden “sfintisor'” (saints of dough) of dough, “hulubasi" (pigeon) .. food was for charity after burying "Caluian’ ... only after that we udam and pray rains come ... Paparuda, relative / non Come wet / With bucket, lath / Over all mob / The bucket full / rains come / From Thursday to Thursday / Let the nine rain / From Tuesday to Tuesday /talents to flow /Where it gives the plow /to flow like butter /Where to dig ayes /to flow like water..." Elena Gofa, 64 years old and Maria Dragomir, 69 years old, Olga Boistean, Cucoara, RepublicofMoldova $0 that the "Paparuda’ it go before the village and house owners must provide something that gave eggs, the flour that had them and after that from mistress had to aicea you to where you started to do the egg and whoever something to eat flour and chicken todo charity. Some gave money, accumulate money and production, those made food, some remained from "Caloian” and gave some to church, gave money and flour and father read oloiul job of coming rain ... made cakes, pies, a fast world does not stand to wait..."- Maria Loghin, bornin 1947, Pelinei, Republic of Moldova Mihai Gheorghe, common Branistea, Galati, Roménia, ..bricknew / give God to rain bad brick / God gives to stand / brick shiny / God gives out Sun / Sun out of jal / that you expecta big girl/with ghiiocei earrings /necklaces nine lei / Sun out of jail /that catch youand cut you /with a straw, with a stick, Michael's sword go traveling rain / proud that you get sun / and cutyour feet /witha straw, with astick, with Michael's sword ..children's folklore...” Sanda (Lupu) Chiosa, 74 years old, village Vasile Alecsandri, common Branistea, Galati, Romania, .. Paparuda is not from new leaves ... Sprinkle with water, as it came from cation....|have not really done..." Mihai Gheorghe, common Branistea, Galati, Romdnia , ... Paparuda, watering, spraying was usually we can Ardealsau brought from elsewhere, | know in this area, the area by curvature are many families coming, Mogos families, families coming from the Bratca, just my grandparents were from Bretcu. When | heard Transylvanian spraying, spraying girls in new Paparuda...” loana Busuioc, born in 1941, common Piscu, Galati, Romania”...the third day after the Easter we rainmake ourselves - rainmaker maker, come to damp us/with the buckettul..| don't remember, we were girls and boys...the boys cleared out the girls from home, brought them to the well and poured water on them with the buckets on their heads and nobody got any flue.... twas known that itwas the rainmaker and the people got out...and nobody upset thatthey got wet... itwas made only at dryness, andifit was raining God rainmadeus. La Dunare de Sanziene| LTURAL 23 Mihaita Moscu, born in 1950, daughter in law, Galafi, Romania , ... was the third Thursday after Easter and Mother told me to take care not to wash from Paparuda ... do not wash these days it's bad Paparuda ... and we wetting us and makes us soaking... Ifthey sawa pregnant woman to have from child wet with milk. Emerged as one of the yard is to be sprinkled rain...” Meana Trandafir, 102 years old, village Liesti, Galai, Romania, .. Paparuda was ... groove was before from fountains, so everyone was with buckets... and wet street was full of water... from Paparuda we must wet, we must run ...with buckets, with us cups we wetting in the street ... we dressed in leaves ... “papapruda’ was to rain, there were old people from Paparuda..” lordana Boboc, bornin 1929, common Ivesti, Galati, Romania, .. heard... was from a Thursday ... Thursday angry ... from wet with this feast, when I saw that rain we went, we udam water with buckets....throw water each other... took tothe streets, and we sprinkled.” lordana Cristea, born 1922, village Ivesti, Galafi, Romania’.."Paparuda’ after Easter _ girls participated, on a Thursday ... | knew that it takes Paparuda so where | was born | had done well old people drew water, and we children went with buckets of water and we wet... to grasp how girls, boys...it eft on the street and we sprinkle..." Mihaiga Valcu, born 1925, village Furcenii Noi Cosmesti, Galati, Romania’...relative, relative Paparuda ... was a Thursday .. if the fourth Thursday of Easter was Paparuda ... was great danger ... with water would wet us, with buckets of water we wetting us, each other We watched and we wetting us, children, older people ... wet with all that was“Paparuda’ | held the day that they were ... Knights and girls especially wet with each other... going on a working daynotaholiday..." $tefana Calin, born 1925, village Furcenii Noi Cosmesti, Galati, Romania"... sprinkle us with buckets, with cups, | took to the streets, and we wet, especially those who were pregnant that they stole paddle chewed in the polenta and it gave the Siret torain..." Amelian Chirilé-born in 1939, Pintilie Severin-born in 1938, Vasile Gufu-born in 1940, Tanase Niculai-born in 1936, Ana Florea-born in 1944, Elena Stoian-born in 1944, Frose Floarea-bornin 1933, Frose Sterea-bornin 1934, village Tulucesti, Galati Romania,, Paparuda was geared more to the cult of the dead, the cult of Pentecost... significant one day is by rain... at that time the rains stopped ...it made on the fourth Thursday of Easter... Ivana mother sat and did eat and bang woke up with a bucket of water on his head ..so keep quiet... not say anything, you wipe from musteti and move on ... udam everything, everybody women knew that they were wet was well, by increase ... the day by Paparuda no one was allowed to be angry thathe cursed God, angry rain... was the cult of water...” 2. "Caloianul” was often made for drought, women and girls form clay model by human body and face, sometimes the size of a doll, sometimes the size of a man, then placed ina coffin - made of a carton, reed or wood, the mourner as truly dead and the mourning meant to bring rain, then to be buried on the banks of rivers or near a well, or, as we learned during the research, "Caloianul “it buried in wheat or chain hill, at the crossroads, that the 24 La Dunare de Sanziene | prolec LTURAL 1 WN , power of ritual to spread in the 4 (four) corners (cardinal points), as we said Cretu Grigorievna Liuba, one interlocutoarele our (city Barta, Ukraine - usually present in addition to Chisinau where it was originally established in the marriage and the city Barta, and in place Cucoara at the Republic of Moldova, lleana Gota and Maria Dragomir), and if rain does not come all Caloianul was unearthedin crops, ed from lake and water gave (city Anadol, Ukraine). Boys are also present from wearing the cross or the crown. Itis worth mentioning that in the Liesti, Galati, Romania, "Caloianul’ it made and wax, and the town Limanskoe, Ukraine, after "Caloianul" was made of mud ifitrains, it wasa second Caloian of colorful cloth and repeat the wholeritual. Asinhumans, and from "Caloian’ to store funeral ritual. Lyrics "Caloian" are sung in song of mourning or own melodies, often created on time, according to the state in which the mourner, sometimes even changed the lyrics by time, depending on what they wanted to send lamenter and intensity feelings when from attending. Together, thelyrics and melody isan archaic incantation par excellence. Habits do not change, butare added from timeto time something. Orlovka (Cartal), Reni, Ukraine - Eufrosinia Berlinskaia Nikolaevna, born in 1950, ... Caloianul delve, it dig in a week, Paparuda, and it went into the pond and it Bocca ... Caloianul was embellished with shells of Easter eggs at Memorial .. was given to the water-n this day was and Paparuda and should not mind if you are watering from head to toewater..” Ana Gheorgheevna Caraivan and Vera Ivanovna Botin, born in 1939, Orlovka (Cartal), Reni, Ukraine ,...Caloianul was the second Thursday after Easter Memorial, amassed egg shells and it did very well, brothers and sisters ..Caloianul it made as a dead sea (NB: tall man)... today is made ... Ourparents made him both were young and then children. Caloianul and kept as a child ... Before he was put on board, now in "coropca' (coffin/ box)... caloianul is done individually on each street ..""..."Caloianul” evening was made, adorned with flowers, candles and icons and prayed to the rains come - Ileana old woman dressed in priest (priest), and went singing "Christ is risen!" Pageant wear ties the hands, with the you had the house now and crowns put the dead, and one week, we dug by "Poporuva'. | shall be "Caloian Bridges (customs), from mourner was over roads, and people come to the gates....it gave him water and bring rain menesc through their mourning ... it was then alms "Caloian’ as an old walnut, with "Egg gaigana’ (scrambled eggs / omelette) ... he custom has not changed, just add a little while... in childhood were not only flower wreaths from the coffin and puta cloth overhis eyes, shut the coffin before it was placed on a board face up adorned with flowers.” Pana Stepanida Moiseevnalstrati, Novoselskoe, Reni, Ukraine, ..the day before the third Thursday after Easter was "Caloianul, let them dry in the sun decorate the evening we gathered all the girls and guarding him as dead (watch) and Bocca itall night, the next day we went to thelake, After you went to pond, Itookto the street and we udam, by"Paparuva’...” Crefu Grigorievna Liuba, Constantin Cojocaru, Olimpia Purice, Xenia Pamuc Savelevna si Domnica Torono Dimitrievna, Plavni (Barta), Reni, Ukraine -, .. All gathered on Easter eggs shells "Caluian’ ..."Caluian” it made of clay about as a doll and dressed it, is adorned with shells collected in the three days of Easter, was placed in a coffin made of rushes and Bocca it when | gave him water. .. In some parts it was the same day as "Caluian" and wn | 25 La Dunare de Sanziene |p: ' wNISTRAT "Paparuva’ elsewhere was made the day before ..."Caluiene, cdluiene / The mother Stoiene / Caluiene, mother /I've Collected with candle / And found only schinarea /I've Collected light / And not your mother could not find anything a... / Caluian, Caluian / mother Go on water / And we get enough rain ...".. Came back to charity. The food was prepared by mothers of children participating in "Caluian’..” Limanskoe (Frecétei), Ukraine - .. first ime the ritual was performed Caloianul clay and if it rains, it was Caloianul of colored cloth, keeping the same ritual, the same habit. .. Caloianul of rags and other time it was not raining, when great drought ...In other localities, Caloianul" buried in the crop and ifit still does not rain out of the crop and take him tothe lake and give itwater... in village Anadol, Ukraine...” Valentina Vescov Chiriac, born in 1944, Ozerne (Babele), Ukraine - ,, ..."Caloianul” yellow clay, as a copchil, adorned with shells by eggs at Easter, is on a "nasélie" (board) and take him from lake, with by funeral procession, and crying him to when you give to water "Caloiene yen / In the air force / It opens the door / And the rain starts / flow like streams / fill Fantanele /to increase grain / And the rain to implement valleys / as we drink cows ...- Picking hisaunt Catherine Sardu, baba Catia, 67 years, 1989..." ZenoviaZaporojan, Ozerne (Babele), Ukraine -...do sucha dwarf on awide board, it crosses, is adorned with shells from eggs blessed ... and i was tree, as dead, they dress up or dress pants, .. Now put the tree .. and candy, priest (priest) before, then dead, the cross was binding towels or handkerchiefs .. The priest sang "Lord have mercy, / Give God rain / Give God to Hie (NB: be) / In summer health / and rain / And horujoi from summer / Lord have mercy, /Lord have mercy /Isin the Lord /Beall the kingdom of Heaven... /’.. they sang "Christ is risen!” and from come back it from charity "Caluian’ ... If by "Calian" not proceeded rains, another no longer made. Father came out with icons, flags, crosses from the church and everyone went to the hill, where ministering the father (the priest) and immediately to rain dripping in the evening..., So much was the service and faith... here” Elena Vasilievna-78 years old, Vasilisa Saivanovna-59 years old, Nina Ghiornina, Udkonosovka (Erdek Burnu), Ukraine,, .."Calian it made of clay in the image man was made Wednesday to sleep one day in the yard. Itwas adorned with flowers, shells by eggs, collected from Easter Thursday it was watch and went to lake and throw him in water... Was the howler "Calieni ieni, / Did your mother-n calved weed /The dense forest /The heart burn / With rare woods / With bitter heart, / leni, leni, / God to forgive you / Two berries Hiert / With a strong, with a soft / until morning and still not get up ...".. howler was all the way, was taken by train, priest, clothes tree "Calian’, then cross adorned and dead, was "glavnai" who gave him water the way....and on the way back from the lake, from "Calian’ for charity, we sprinkledall..” Vasilisa Ciobanu, 81 years, Valeni, Republic of Moldova - “... Caloianul was the Paparuda, then ... fourth Thursday "Caloianul" and "Paparuda' after. .. Mom gave us bread made one, gave us "bulgur" gave us oil and cabbage did, | knew where we gathered and made food...| boiled potatoes... Why was there .. after time as it was, we ate there ...us girls did great Caloianul. The next day | went with Paparuda now ... Caluian doing a bit of slime, mud, clayasa child, and it Bocca andit went to lake and gave him water, donot guarded..." 26 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro Lida Ivanovna Batlan, 80 years, Valeni, Republic of Moldova-"..girls were all putthe food that he potatoes, cabbage and boys just musicians, they sing and went and came other bands. "Caloianul" was made towards the dawn, and he went and buried it somewhere ...do not watch at night. Some buried him, gave him some water, each as thought ... Bocca is the way.... only girls went, boys risicheau... ifyou bury him not to throw it drew water ..thealms to *Caloian’ we eat cabbage, scrambled eggs, pies with pumpkin, potatoes, what if it was then, not many foods that now..." Toderica Bejenaru, Valeni, Republic of Moldova -".../ caluieni, cluieni / go, go, sky and stars / cAluieni, cdluieni / go, go, sky and stars / open doors / to looses rain / days and nights / to grow the grains / céluieni, cdluieni / how we run the tears / cAluieni, céluieni / how we run the tears / to flow the rain / days and nights / the vegetables grow / grow the grass / caluieni, caluieni / go up to God / cdluieni, cdluieni / rain us again and again / let go of fruits / fruit, rich /to the crops /countryall the worldall /to the crops /countryall the whole world...” Gota Elena, 64 years and Maria Dragomir, 69 years, Olga Boistean, Cucoara, Republic of Moldova -"..to carry the water and made Caloian fist... it was the day before and leave to dry. | did it at home and dress up and beautify it with wild flowers and laid it ina “coropca' (box / coffin), light candles ... old to walk with us Caloian, children flail, poke the old Caloianul went to a parting of the way, here gave no water... he second night we wake and only the third day he went to crus road on the hillside outside the village and laid them on and cross .. Here we gatheralll and Bose... | cried all the way "Caluian’ and pray the rains come... to wake usplay the "belt", "base" .. games for children..." Sofia Nucd, Andrusu de Sus, Cahul, Republic of Moldova -"...leni, ieni Caloieni (bis) / Take the keys of Heaven / And open the gates (bis) / And the rain starts /Ieni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) /flow like streams /fill the wells /leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) / include all valleys /implese streams / leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) / to increase grain / Involve wells / leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) / Let spring flowers / flowers, Verdet /leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) / As to increase grain / livestock to drink/leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) / to increase grain / to make breads / Ieni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) / leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) / He opens doors / The rain starts / leni, ieni, Caloieni (bis) / and the rain starts / and therain starts..." ".. Our grandmothers were at the house, stood in vigil. It was made from a mire ina house..."- Eufrosinia Bazalic Nicolaevna, Pelinei, Republicof Moldova "., remember my grandmother's house were a man, stood in vigil .. made hima slime asa human face, eyes and all, and laid itin a coffin, watch it tonight, for the time it Bocca, after midnight, starting from the dead games. the day after the vigil, the day after twelve dead and led him toa tree on..allit Bocca, weeping, burying itin the ground root ofa tree in the village or outside it on, and after burying it came to charity in place of the Calian ..to 9 days gave him water, after it unearthed gave him water, without charity or suite ... ” Vasilievna Ecaterina, born 1934, Pelinei, Republicof Moldova “..Caloianul to do more when it was drought, and they used the church was not habit can learn, "Caloianul" and "Paparuda" .. church appeared even | participated, with icons, with the flags, we make and we went with Father toall fields, village kolkhozes and gentleman read we |27 La Dunare de Sanziene| ' wNISTRAT the service of rain... Caloian did not every year, just need .. Pelinei, Republicof Moldova Maria Loghin, born 1947, Mihai Gheorghe, common Branistea, Galati, Romania “.. caluieni, ieni / ieni, ieni, caluieni / Stoieni mother /his mother sought you / the rare forest /bitter heart / through thick forest / heart burn /caluieni, ieni / open the doors / the rains come/ all streets / caluieni, ieni / Aluieni,ieni.~ Allthe research material collected in the archive CCDJ Galati” Sanda (Lupu) Chios, 74 years, V. Alecsandri village, common Branistea, Galati, Romania’...Calian FASE | know that, that | made new kids, were girls, crying a clay soil that was there, doing the clay can learn, a man doing so, build, puts flowers there when it did not rain, more girls and | did it immediately, | was 17-18 years... Siret did it close, it did, it Bocca and | gave him the water immediately .. and boys but were not participating, just watching ... do not dress up, you did down the bank iret..." Mariana Ciocan, V. Alecsandri village, common Branistea, Galati, Romania *... | heard my grandmother saying the Caluian, that make a doll of clay and it crying girls and then throwsitinwaterand thatisforrain, but did..." Mihai Gheorghe, common Branistea, Galati, Romania“. mother always told me when we were young children that were Caluian and it went to pond that was near the brook Lozova and was a real fun. Even told me that eating alms and charity, eggs, red eggs after Easter..." Joana Busuioc, born in 1941, village Piscu, Galafi, Romania"... Here are the 48 years since made the first “Caluian’ .. hey were girls from 10 to 14 to 16 years afterwards ashamed, stands the village .. those of 10 years know, and girls attended small but working on it...were children, girls and boys and parents were ...’Caloianul” be made quickly, that you watch, you clay model from home and didit .. Who was allowed ... modeling itafter we putitin the stable, and watch it, children all put their heads like the black and dead, get candles, and have toiat Caloianul.. that the dead .. and it cried "caluieni, ieni / seven booths / mather made you /dad you grew / and you was destroyed / by thick forest / heart burn / through rare forest / bitter heart/caluieni,ieni/ open the doors /to come the rain/Lord open the big gate/ water streams to flow ... and was about two lyrics, so | no longer remember ... and it cried as it went to the pond... the vigil served the biscuits, and biscuits broken in two, that as power was... from 12at night he went to bed ... candle lights, candle the dead ... children brought flowers .. was a stretcher and laid it on it, decorated with flowers and it went to pond and cried and it was put back and ate fried eggs, hot polenta with cucumber, fresh salad does not make the yard with vinegar..." Chirita Moscu, 95 years, common Liesti, Galati, Romania"... Caluian it did in Barlad and Siren. did the mire, soit was and ask... fit did wax it did just as we saw at all...I cried as we went head..." Mihaita Moscu, born 1950, daughter in law, Galafi, Romania’. we made Caloianul pure bee wax, our father was a wooden box, square, quench rice, vegetables, bread, polenta, eggs quench, all food and my mother was the latter, the mother put us to do Calian .. we went 28 La Dunare de Sanziene | prolec LTURAL 1 WN , to Barlad, bring flowers and Bocca....ieni,ieniCaluieni / open doors /to run rain all roads /that ithas notrained / the earth was dry ...one more small plant, a boy | went... it did not rain when » We gather at lunchtime and Calian wax mold bee clean ... were boys and girls, older boys who knew it was going to swim in the middle brook, the boys threw stones to go faster ..and | would light and candle and say that if off until we see him is coming rains, and if not fading candle rains came ... when you finish the porch house puts... 2-3 hours... and he cried all, and after we finish | fell in pond... old men guarding him all night ... also have flag and cross... Calieni's more in the village ... on the porch where we kept putting our mother and eat alms .." Heana Trandafir, born 1910, 102 years, common Liesti, Galati, Romania’...so doing, did | gave the water, Barlad, Siret, did so as a doll of clay on a board and it went to Barlad, Siret, that was stream Barlad, lower Siret was great and take it... eni, ieni, Caloieni /Let the rain to cometo us /ieni, ieni, Caloieni / open doors / rain to run / open doors /to rain rain ... we just did clay, when he was a little drought and not much rain, but it didn’t wax that says it not a rains, the clay, clay with fresh flowers, we wentin groups, even crying, then come home, doing mass mother help us makea meal at Calian ..| had ...do not watch... the same day it made a board and | did and it cross flag and went to Siret .. | cried a little | gave him water and then come home and eat... ourfathers did something to thetable..." lordana Boboc, born 1929, village Ivesti, Galati, Romania’. gather two children, girl, boy, and made Caluian ... and putiton a board ...andit led to Barlad, it made the earth, and hecried...| wentwith the flag... they were like today, guarding itnightand itwentthenext day .» children came to the dead, who stood all night, who played ... the courtyard is guarded ...| did and when | came from charity water ... He crying him ieni, ieni, Caloieni / take the keys/ open doors /comerain /onallroads (streets)... like this, so..." Jordana Cristea, born 1922, village Ivesti, Galati, Romania"... Caluian is the name of man, makes candles, flowers and water it went, and he complained that forgiveness ..| was there, but | did not have fashioned ... was guarded at night, sometimes, sometimes | fell into the water immediately, makes wreaths of lowers, singing, doing akind of charity there..." also have flag and cross .. Calieni's more in the village ... on the porch where we kept putting ourmotherand eatalms ..." Olga Paraschiv- born in 1952, loanaParaschiv-bornin. 1939 (parents from village Pechea, married in Cuza-Vodé), lana Alexandru - born in 1927(married in Cuza-Voda), village Cuza-Voda, Galati, Romania ,Caluian it was not raining when, in times of drought, there was a wide board as aman, head, body, hands, picere, shown right after that wheel put flowers, lighted candles and to sing Caluieni, ieni and cry ..we gather 3-4 or 7-10 girls without boys, 12-13 years. We were standing to the coast and hada ravine and was a kind of clay .. we wetting us water and mold and then crossing a street and we went to the pond and then | came back home to steal bread and do charity .. crying ...itdoes not rain atall, anight watch and Calian, is as dead in his house, sometimes today it did and still today I gave him the pond... privegheat came from children and adults not only... if wasa girl she had to go dupe... one came with brandy, one with basin of donuts... howler that night had not made undead Calian ... the next day at around 10 we hit the pond, with pomp, with banner and dupe that wn |29 La Dunare de Sanziene| ' wNISTRAT everybody ... with Calian ... May Bocca at the pond and throw him, then coming home and doing charity each brought something and did eat ...always raining or far into the night or the nextday.” ‘Mihaiga Valu, n. 1925, village FurceniiNoi, common Cosmesti, Galafi, Romania”... so did the girls Caluian of earth, earth soften it a human face ... adorned with flowers so he .d, we were kids and it went up to Siret and gave him water and the road was a song ...so! do not remember. We made in the field, is there a ravine, a valley slope and well and it was there and there did soften Caluian ...and Siret was close and wentand made him a bath andall Not anyone coming to the house | putit ona board about how dead itwas a shepherdess, sometimes more and | put one candle....as it did among us children, not mixed parents, elders This workwas childish... did not alms... when | was going to rain Caluian ..” $tefana Calin, n. 1925, village Furcenii Noi, common Cosmesti, Galati, Romania, soften the clay doing a form of child, put him on a board and get him the water | gave him, he cried, he put flags, cross... |did the drought ...| did and I gave him water the same day, he dressed in cloth dress and laid them on the eyes as the dead ... Calian were girls, boys did not participate ..| would put candles and flowers and it went to the edge of the Siret and take him water, | gave him water candle...” Miron Marica-born in 1961, Anica Oancea- born in.1940, Maria Tiron- born in.1946, Gherghina Bérzoi- born in.1943, Pachita Rizea- born in.1947, Neculina- born in.1944, village Odaia Manolache, common Vandtori, Galagi, Romania"... dawn of small apples, of the little sisters/ we pray this evening come Maria outside/ dawn sleigh bells, dawn bells/ dawn apples/ dawn peaches/ dawn small apples, litte sisters/ but we like it, come here Pachita/dawn sleigh bells bells/ dawn apples/ dawn peaches/ dawn of small apples, of the little sisters/ Caluieni, ieni with seven booths/ dawn sleigh bells, dawn bells/ dawn apples, dawn peaches/ dawn small apples, little sisters/ Open the small gate to enter the rain/ dawn sleigh bells, dawn bells/ dawn apples, dawn peaches/ dawn small apples, little sisters ... on Thursday it was made...at “Izvorul Tamaduirii” and on Friday it was buried.on the forth Thursday they unburied him, they came with him in the village and at the first well they threw itin. the boys threw itin...itwas the year symbol for the rain. ..itwas required to be made Amelian Chirild-n.1939, Pintilie Severin-n.1938, Vasile Gufu-n. 1940, Tanase Niculai-n.1936, Ana Florea-n.1944, Elena Stoian-n.1944, Frose Floarea-n.1933, Frose Sterea-n.1934, common Tulucesti, Galati Romania... third Thursday of Easter was Caluian nice .. turned the shells of eggs at Easter and cheeks were you doing ...Caluian doing charity, participate and girls and boys from 14 years to 20 years there .. be made toa house in the yard or chiler, | put the boards mixed clay and it makes beautiful head, hands, feet, close to the stature of a man... Leave it outside to dry on, evening and it went we took oxen in the stable the horse and here it Bocca, there you have watched, there was starting memory ...one side, never boy, dressed in a priest who is presenthere today ... and it went and the top of the hill to be closer to heaven, but also in the lake .. in Brates, and enter the water and it Bocca .. and then walked out crying and come home to eat one scrambled egg ... charity ... made from water, corn flour, eggs and what we went through the head to put... the wake play mat... there Hearnedto kiss ..was beautiful... 30 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro 3.Rituals for stopping ther Often the rain stopped it was with a knife, saying the specific words to stop the rain". take a knife, it was a cross and poked into the ground in the middle of the cross to stop the flood.” Plavni (Barta), Reni, Ukraine ZenoviaZaporojan, Ozerne (Babele), Ukraine, "..ain did notstop .. only lightning... Lenta’s Mandea....Contact knife and poked him in the eaves where rain flowed..." "..the rain stopped the knife poked in the yard or house door .. knowl ran over to the very loud roar, especially for the first thunder run even where you hit your head against stone soas to not hurt the head is hard as stone, iron ... when hail raining, you do not want you took and soon the eye, leading to clean and wore ice ... "- Maria Loghin, born 1947, Pelinei, Republicof Moldova lordana Cristea, born 1922, village appears, Galati, Romania”. it did not rain too much from us.... es | know they told us that when the rains do not, forgive me, Gypsies brick andhaverain Olga Paraschiv - born 1952, loana Paraschiv - born 1939 (parents from common Pechea, married in Cuza Voda), lana Alexandru - born 1927 (married in Cuza Voda), Cuza- Vodavillage, Galasi, Romania," when it rains too much poked into the ground an ax, aknife, tostop therain... thatifitrains one week did ..give us and told me that when itdoes notrain, the drought was that Gypsies are brick and spell bound by rain ... something ... The drought was..." 4, ,Dragaica”, formerly popular holiday of baking, of the mature crops was particularly spectacular. In the study conducted in the project we have found that "DRAGAICA’/"SANZIANA" that is not usually known as thanksgiving for rich crops than some places but are often just references for fruits, particularly cranberry called "Dragaicute" and velcro for finding the flower of Fates. In Moldova, Ukraine and Galati only sometimes remembers the timing, the day of "DRAGAICA" / “SANZIENE" a heap of 12 sheaves (Piscu) put in a cross, then go home and not the householder still working on thatday. Elena Gofa, 64 yeras and Maria Dragomir, 69 years, Olga Boistean, Cucoara, Republic of Moldova - .. The dance was performed Sanziene ... reconciled music girls not boys for "Hora girls’, girls paid no dance, boys were paying ... Gypsies in the neighboring village just Zarnesti .. Flower wreaths were made with a healing, boroscaiul tau it in the evening and put it into the gutter, and then the next day if he was alive, said that to marry rather, that was no longer married faded year can learn. .. Thistle/Velcro lawn that flourished until thenext day, the girl was lucky, fot to wait..” Sofia Nucé, Andrusu de Sus, Cahul, Republic of Moldova - ".. girls are just musicians and says "Hora girls" beautiful ritual flower "DRAGAICA’ is on the hill and has purple and yellow is Sanziana. In "DRAGAICA" is also called the ‘Velcro’ La Dunare de Sanziene| LTURAL 3 1 Lida Ivanovna Batlan, 80 years, Valeni, Republic of Moldova - .. | what | got. scytheman sewed before, if they werw taking 3-4 haymaker furrows, a persons remains after the entire piece rake with barefoot, the blood was knee ... gathered stubble last which must not stay any "schic’ (ear) to be lost. A bundle is brought into the house... yes,a bunch... district at the beginning ... some sheaf kept the icon that is interwoven in it, who knew, a kind of crown, which seem to put the icon or the mirror..." Todericé Bejenaru, Valeni, Republic of Moldova -.. master batch of land sewed a bunch and tie him with grain and it went to the neighbor, who was barley, rye and who gave him alms saying "Thanks! got the harvest"..." Vasilisa Ciobanu - born in. 1931, Alexandru Ciobanu - born in. 1928, Valeni, Republic of Moldova -,... went and sickle one sheaf of wheat, barley you had, they went first sheaf in the field and made a bundle and then begin work (harvest) ... But the day of "DRAGAICA’ is the sheaf and let him trace there. The crown made of wheat and flowers, of those, blues, and put their coronets on their heads and then they came to the village .. evening wore coronets on the heads up ... Morning went to reap the chain was not good to catch "DRAGAICA’ the hill. You went you were doing your job and go backto the village as not to watch bad .. flower is called "DRAGAICA’ smelled good, and the cure is, yellow bat was so much like .. smellslike honey .. cut with a sickle and sheafin the field and there were coronets and putthem in the village head and came backand went to dinner together, then doa dance before the girlshouse....ByDRAGAICA" dead woman who had children was notallowed to eat apples until this day, he went to church to sanctify priest apples. But neither the elders did not eat until then..." Valentina Vescov Chiriac, born in 1944, Ozerne (Babele}, Ukraine —,... old usually related to grain ripening, no specific figure is the position of St. Peter and Paul ... This day is divided with cucumbers, apples, dragaicute (small summer apples). The girls adorned with wreaths and flowers, handkerchiefs of various colors, called "DRAGAICA’ walk through the village of yard-n yard and sing: Let DRAGAICA to work / crops to reap / road-assemble large and /As summer came rich / with abundant plains / Dragaicele arrived / to reap ears /All girls industrious / gum and artsy ..- picked up from Vescov Valentina's aunt Mandea Bibiu Malan, 79yearsin 1987..." Zenovia Zaporojan, Ozerne (Babele), Ukraine — ,. they are said to apples, Dragaicufele,... be cleaned and put thingsin the sun do not moths... the chain began and was cross to balk leave a "beard" which remained on the field for the birds .. was led homea bunch of wheat, they went to church and consecrated itand laiditattheicon... ".. was spin it... eaves of the house and make it grew up in the morning... were parents for the family members of the house for good luck in life .."- Eufrosina Bazalic Nicolaevna, Pelinei, Republicof Moldova “only know that when ladies had to go to the field ie it flower where a haircut and put the house ridge, especially in houses with thatch and thenext day have the patience to get up to see.Ifincreased, it means he'll be lucky, so if not increased, stay gir! to grow willow... lower is purple and has spikes and Velcro ... they say we made wreaths to "Harvest Day’, when he 32 La Dunare de Sanziene | prolec LTURAL 1 , finished then make a large wreath and puts the tractor ..is a popular celebration begins when the first harvest or harvest grapes ... crown is made and placed in the attic ..’- Maria Loghin, bornin, 1947, Pelinei, RepublicofMoldova Mihai Gheorghe, Branistea, Galati, Roménia,... The groups were made DRAGAICA, children and chose the most beautiful among them, who sang beautifully..." Joana Busuioc, born 1941, village Piscu, Galati, Romania “.. DRAGAICA ... Velcro the sanziene .. Saturday night, added three velcro and put your one wish to each ..put and true... some women put others above the eaves on the house if it meets the growing desire to put the morning ... Harvester .. heard ... throughout the day DRAGAICA start reaping the barley, the half was not a bush, about 12 bundles and 12 half 24 is made to reach this day of 24, DRAGAICA ... 24 is called a half stack and 12 and the day of the barley harvest began DRAGAICA is nota left wheat there and gave the first or last time the thrasher ..on this day we worked ... world was going to weed, and if you wanted to you went enshrined in sunflower andwalk through itfrom one endto another and youwent home, itwas fruitflower"..." Mihaita Moscu, born 1950, daughter, Galati, Romania". DRAGAICA / sanzienili as mother story, crowns were made, they went on girls and boys field is encountered, the flower was the valley and were sanziene wedding, singing, spent ... afternoon went to girls 14-15 years, girls were higher Sanziene... it was ike a popular party ..was to marry ..isa purple and yellow flowers... and came from the field with coronets on the head” lordanaBoboc, born 1929, village Ivesti, Galati, Romania’. DRAGAICA....sanziene... He was not allowed to go to the field Thursday was a dangerous... | know ... was married and went to the field and when we returned home ox began to shake and... since then! neverwent toworkonit...otherwise you could make the yard ...ut do not wash or workin thefield..." lordana Cristea, born 1922, village Ivesti, Galati, Romania “.. is celebrated godparents are held by "Dragostina” and celebrates the DRAGAICA ... was named the new village ..| had an aunt who was sister of the mother Dragostina name... what happens do not really know...yes know this..." Olga Paraschiv- born 1952, lon Paraschiv - born 1939 (parents of common Pechea, married in Cuza Voda), lana Alexandru - born 1927 (married in Cuza Voda), Cuza-Voda village, Galati, Romania.”". sanziene / DRAGAICA, new habits are not they ... Sanziene are important, before you went to church, called 2-3 women and put them on the table that says, they are Sanziene and give them food, if you hadn't given them food the year were not to be good..." Although largely versification and melody was kept similar in most localities studied in the project, with the differences inherent in the text and melodic features, depending on the starting point of "Caloian’ or "Paparuda’, but Galati County these habits no longer practice the rites to invoke rain to ensure fertility of the earth, but more extracurricular areas included in the customs and traditions about the optionals school and work in partnership with specialized institutions that have as main active research, preservation, conservation, promotion and enhancementandfolk traditions. La Dunare de Sanziene| LTURAL 33 Not the same but we can say about the places studied in Moldova and Ukraine, where the habits that have been the project of modernity is still preserved unsullied and even practiced religiously. The "Caloianul" and "Paparuda" are started by shaking ancestral to the time fixed in some localities, which is still practiced until next year, and if the drought persists, invoke rain is through religious services by the village priest who out with the icon in the field and hold special services in other localities but these habits are practiced whenever community considers it necessary to practice ritual lawis not that the earth rich fruit. All the material collected during the research can be found in the archives of the Cultural Center "Dunarea de Jos" Galati, and can be consulted 34 La Dunare de Sanziene | pro CULTURAL 1 Ns , cu Caloian (cu) 35 La Dunare de Sanziene | prolec LTURAL ' mNSTRAT f , Caloian Peete 38 La Dunare de Sanziene |p cere) asic n-octanol ts Toate dreptuie rezervae. Textul poate freprodus, patil sau integral, doar cu acordul Centrulu Cultural "Dunarea de Jos" Alright reserved, The text may be reproduced, n partor in fl only with the agreement of Cultura Center "unarea de Jos" Gal eee Romania Romania CENTRUL CULTURAL “DUNAREA DE JOS" - “DUNAREA DE JOS” CULTURAL CENTRE Cala, Strada Domneasci nr 61, cod 800008, ROMANIA, Tel: 40 236 418400, Fax: 40 236 415590, E-mail office@eedro ww wicedr0

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