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Are there any consequences that countries have to face as a result or the traffic of drugs?

What are the main causes of drug trafficking?

Asfura-Heim, P., & Espach, R. (2013). The rise of Mexico's self-defense

forces. Foreign Affairs, 92(4), 143-150.
The article analyzes the local self-defense forces in Mexico in 2013. It also says that the
Mexican government's campaign against drug cartels operating in the country has
generated extremely high rates of violence and crime, and it describes the growth of selfdefense groups as a response to the problem in many communities around Mexico. This
particular article would help me because it describes abusive actions taken by some selfdefense groups, including beatings and kidnapping individuals for long periods of time.
The content of the article discuss how such self-defense groups could be integrated into
the government's domestic security and anti-crime strategies.
Bonneau, A. B. (2013). Offensive drug offenses: Applying procedural justice theory to
drug sentencing in the United States and United Kingdom. Boston University Law
Review, 93(4), 1485-1521.
This article deliberates the legal features of drug offenses as of two years ago in summer
of 2013, concentrating on the presentation of the procedural justice system that has to do
with drug punishing in the United States and also in Great Britain. The theory of
retribution is addressed in relation to criminal performances. As well, the article examines
the cocaine and crack crimes and the United States Sentencing Commissions. It also
includes a brief explanation of the history of American drug sentencing, so this article
will help me to have a better understanding of the American and British calls for

implementation of punishments related to drugs and how do they work because I am

more familiar with the drug sentencing reforms in Mexico.
Esquivel, J. (2013). La DEA en Mexico. Mexico D.F: Grijalbo.
La DEA stands for the United States Drug enforcement Agency and it has been a
component very present in Mexico as the war against drug cartels has strengthened. The
author of this book is J. Jesus Esquivel and he process correspondent in Washington, in
the volume La DEA in Mexico. In this book, some of the agents of La DEA confessed
that they very often carry weapons in Mexico and they also said that in many occasions
they informed the location of El Chapo Guzman to the Mexican government but they did
not respond and nothing happened. These and other stories are the ones that the author
reveals in this book that would help me to have a more clear idea of how La DEA works
inside Mexico and if they contribute negatively or positively to the country.
Pontn C., D. (2013). La economa del narcotrfico y su dinmica en Amrica latina.
(Spanish). conos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, (47), 135-153.
The content of this article, basically analyzes the criminal markets, the organized crime
and the money laundering in Latin America. It also analyzes how has been the economy
in Latin America in the last twelve years and how it is involved the traffic of drugs in
those countries. The article investigates the demand and supply of the drugs and their
impact on the delinquency in Latin America. This will help me to have a better
understanding in how deeply are related the traffic of drugs and the organized crime. It
will also help me to learn about money laundering, that is one of the things that people
who traffic drugs do to hide the actual entry of the money that they make.

Rivas, S. (2013). Armed forces in drug interdiction - The latin American

experience. Military Technology, 37(4), 46-47.
First, this article starts explaining why Latin American countries have played an
important role in the production of drugs since the very beginning of organized drug
crime on a major export scale. After that, the author of the article starts to talk about how
those Latin American countries have used the armed forces in drug prohibition. The
article does not only talk about hand guns, but it also explains how sea warfare and air
space control have been used against the traffic of drugs via air and sea. This article
helped me to understand how Latin American countries fight not only the drugs inside
their countries but also the ones that travel outside Latin American countries via sea and
Salama, P. (2013). Homicidios, Es ineluctable la violencia en Amrica latina?
(Spanish). Frontera Norte, 25(49), 7-27.
This article explains that the homicide rate is much higher in Latin American countries
than in more developed countries such as the United States. In some of those countries,
the homicide rate increases but decrease significantly in others since the beginning of the
years 2000. The article talks about the special role that play drug traffickers and criminal
organization in how the violence increase in those Latin American countries such as
Mexico. This article will help me to understand how much damage the criminal
organizations and the drug traffickers can cause to a country and all the negative
consequences the illegal trade of drugs could bring to several countries.

Santos, J. (2013). Answers to war. New Statesman, 142(5161), 17.

The author of this periodical article is Juan Manuel Santos, whom is the current president
of the Republic of Colombia. On his article, he explains how they have been fighting
against drugs but without total success and argues that countries should join with
Colombia to create a comprehensive strategy to fight against the traffic of drugs. He
explains with details the stories of the lost lives in Colombia's, the efforts to destroy drug
cartels and decrease drug cultivation in the country, the need to determine the principal
causes of drug consumption, and the way the problem has been addressed at the Summit
of the Americas and the Organization of American States. This article could help me to
understand what actions are still missing other countries, like Mexico and the United
States, to fight successfully the traffic of drugs and how is Columbia answering to the
war against drugs.
Venumadhava, G. S., & Alur, S. N. (2013). Drug abuse and the role of law
enforcement. Indian Streams Research Journal, 3(4), 1-4.
This particular article caught my attention because it explains in detail the psychological
and sociological definition of drugs and all the effects that they can cause to our mind,
bodily function, and mood, perception of things or consciousness. This can help me to
have a better understanding of the reasons why drugs are so popular in the market and
why so many people are interested in use them. If drugs were not so popular in the
market, the cartels would not fight to control the drugs that are distributed in a country
and that could change the high violence and homicides rates.