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Elevation Design Lecture No.4

Course Director: Ahmed Elastal Instructors: Mozer El-Materbeai Reem Abu El-Khair Saturday 4-10-2008

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ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﻟﺍ

ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻪﺒ ﻊﺘﻤﺘﻴ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻠﺴﻟﺍ ﺭﻜﻔﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺱﻨﺎﺠﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻕﻓﺍﻭﺘﻟﺍ ﺭﻅﺎﻨﻠﻟ ﺱﻜﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ ﻩﺁﺭﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﻫ ﻼﻴﻔﻟﺍ ﻭﺃ لﺯﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ

ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘ لﺎﻤﻋﺃ ﻥﻤ ﻡﺎﻫ لﻤﻋ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ ،ﺎﻬﻤﻴﻤﺼﺘﺒ ﻡﺎﻗ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ

.لﺸﻔﻟﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺡﺎﺠﻨﻟﺎﺒ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻡﻜﺤﻠﻟ لﻭﻷﺍ لﻤﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻨﺈﻓ ﻑﺭﺎﺨﺯ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻋﺩﺎﺨ ﻥﺍﻭﻟﺄﺒ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﻟﺍ ﺏﻭﻴﻋ ﺔﻴﻁﻐﺘ لﻭﺎﺤﺘ ﻭﺃ لﻌﺘﻔﻤﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﺠﻟﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﺒﻌﺘ ﻥﺃ لﺍﻭﺤﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ لﺎﺤ ﻱﺄﺒ ﺢﺼﻴ ﻻ .ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ لﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻋ ﺭﺒﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻁﻴﺴﺒﻟﺍ ﻕﺩﺎﺼﻟﺍ لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﻕﻘﺤﺘﻟ ﺔﻠﺨﺍﺩ ﻥﻋ ﹰﺎﺤﻴﺭﺼ ﹰﺍﺭﻴﺒﻌﺘ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﺭﺒﻌﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ لﺒ .ﺔﻔﺌﺍﺯ ﻙﺴﻤﺘﻴ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ لﻴﻤﺠﻟﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ لﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺯﺌﺎﻜﺭ ﻲﻫ ﺀﺍﺩﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻁﺎﺴﺒﻟﺍﻭ ،ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻠﻟ ﻲﻔﻴﻅﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﻴﺒﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻕﺩﺼﻟﺍ ﺩﺠﻨ ﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﻤﻭ

.ﻪﺘﻨﻬﻤﻟ ﺹﻠﺨﻤ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤ لﻜ ﺎﻬﺒ

ﻙﻟﺫﻟﻭ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ لﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻲﺌﺭﻤﻟﺍ ﺀﺯﺠﻟﺍ ﻲﻬﻓ

ﻲﻨﺎﺒﻤﻟﺍ

ﺀﺯﺠﻟﺍ ﻲﻬﻓ ﻲﻨﺎﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻊﺠﺭﻴ ﻥﺍﺯﺘﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ

ﻊﺠﺭﻴ ﻥﺍﺯﺘﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺔﻴﻤﺎﻤﻷﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ

ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘ لﺎﻤﻋﺃ ﻥﻤ ﻡﺎﻫ لﻤﻋ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ (1) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ ﺙﻴﺤ ،ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺕﻔﻴﻀﺃ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺍﻭﻟﻷﺍﻭ ﺎﻬﺌﺎﻨﺒ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻥﺍﺯﺘﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ ﹰﻼﺼﺃ

.ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻲﻓ لﻤﺎﻜﻟﺍ ﺭﻅﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ

ﻲﻨﺎﺒﻤﻟﺍ

ﻥﻤﻓ .ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻟﺍ ﺱﻔﻨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻓﺭﺼﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻬﻅﺘ ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨ ﺩﻘﻌﻟ ﺕﺎﺴﺎﻜﻌﻨﺍ ﻻﺇ ﻲﻫ ﺎﻤﻓ ﻥﻴﻴﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﺽﻌﺒ ﺎﻬﻴﻟﺇ لﻴﻤﻴ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺍﺩﻴﻘﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ﺉﺩﺎﻬﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﺠﻟﺎﺒ ﻕﺩﺎﺼﻟﺍ ﺱﺎﺴﺤﻹﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺕﺎﺴﻤﻟ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﺱﻜﻌﻨﺘ ﺔﺤﻴﺭﺼﻭ ﺔﻴﻘﻨ ﻪﻟﺎﻤﻋﺃ ﺕﺭﻬﻅ ﺩﻘﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺨﻭ ﺔﻨﺌﻤﻁﻤ ﻪﺴﻔﻨ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ .ﺎﻨﻟﻭﺤ ﻩﺍﺭﻨ ﺀﻲﺸ لﻜ ﻲﻓ لﺠﻭ ﺯﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻪﻘﻠﺨ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ

ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨ ﺕﺎﺴﺎﻜﻌﻨﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﺘﻭ لﺎﻤﺠ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻟﻭﺤﺎﻤ لﻜ ﻥﻋ ﻪﻴﻤﻌﺘﻭ ﻪﻟﺎﻤﻋﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺱﻜﻌﻨﺘ ﺔﻴﺴﻔﻨﻟﺍ ﺩﻘﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺈﻓ ،ﺓﺩﻘﻌﻤ ﻪﺴﻔﻨ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺍﺫﺇ ﺎﻤﺃ

.ﺱﻭﻔﻨﻟﺍ لﺨﺍﻭﺩ ﻑﺸﻴ ﺱﺎﻜﻌﻨﺍ ﻪﻴﻓ ﻲﻨﻔﻟﺍ لﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﻻ ﺔﻴﻨﻔﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﻋﻷﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﺼﺎﺨﻭ ﻪﻤﺴﺭﻴ ﻁﺨ لﻜ

ﻲﻓ ﺔﺼﺎﺨﻭ ﻪﻤﺴﺭﻴ ﻁﺨ لﻜ ﻲﻤﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﺭﻜﻔﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺱﻨﺎﺠﺘﻟﺍ

ﻲﻤﻼﺴﻹﺍ ﺭﻜﻔﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺱﻨﺎﺠﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻕﻓﺍﻭﺘﻟﺍ ﺭﻅﺎﻨﻠﻟ ﺱﻜﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ ﻩﺁﺭﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﺨﺼﻟﺍ ﺔﺒﻗ ﺩﺠﺴﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (2) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﺎﻬﻤﻴﻤﺼﺘﺒ ﻡﺎﻗ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻪﺒ ﻊﺘﻤﺘﻴ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻠﺴﻟﺍ

An elevation is a view you get if you look in a horizontal direction at the vertical side,

or face, of a building or object.

When drawing an elevation you need to take horizontal dimensions from the plans and vertical dimensions from the section.

The purpose of a location elevation is:

I.

To show the external face of the building;

II.

To locate the door and window openings and other features of the building.

III.

If a drawing sheet contains more than one elevation a sub-title is required to every elevation to show which side of the building it refers to. Occasionally the terms front elevation. back elevation, and side elevationare used.

IV.

Normally there will be less lettering on elevations than on plans and sections.

Variation of line thicknesses are often used on elevations of buildings in order to make them look as attractive as possible. Shading is often introduced to indicate shadow lines.

of buildings in order to make them look as attractive as possible. Shading is often introduced

ﻥﻤ ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﺔﻜﺎﻤﺴﺒ ﺔﻴﻤﺎﻤﻷﺍ لﺘﻜﻟﺍ ﺢﻴﻀﻭﺘ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ ﺎﻨﻫﻭ ﺎﻬﻟ ﺔﻨﻭﻜﻤﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻜﺎﻤﺴ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ لﺘﻜ ﺝﺭﺩﺘ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (3) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﺔﻴﻌﻗﺍﻭ ﺎﻫﺎﻁﻋﺄﻓ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻼﻅﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻬﻅﺇ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺔﻓﺎﻀﻹﺎﺒ ،ﺩﻴﻌﺒﻟﺍ لﺘﻜﻟﺍ

ﻲﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﻁﻘﺴﻤﻟﺎﺒ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ .١

ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﺒ ﹰﻻﻭﺃ ﺩﺩﺤﺘ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ لﺨﺍﻭﺩ ﻱﺃ ،ﺝﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ لﺨﺍﺩﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﻟﺎﻓ ﻙﻟﺫﻟ ،ﺔﻔﻴﻅﻭﻟﺍ ﻊﻤ ﻰﺸﻤﺘﻴ ﺏﻭﻠﺴﺄﺒ ﻲﻨﺎﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻤﺼﺘ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻙﻟﺫﻟﻭ .ﺔﻴﺠﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ لﻜﺸ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻰﻨﺒﻴ ﻡﺘ ،ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻁﻘﺴﻤ ﺎﻬﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﺩﺤﻴ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﻁﻘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ لﻤﺎﻜﺘﻤﻟﺍ لﻤﻌﻟﺍ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻨﻋ ﺭﺒﻌﻴ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ ﻲﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﻁﻘﺴﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻤ ﺕﺎﻗﻼﻋ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺝﺎﺘﺤﺘ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘ .ﻁﻴﺤﻤﻟﺍ ﻭﺠﻟﺍ ﻊﻤ ﻙﻟﺫﻜ ﻰﺸﻤﺘﻴ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ .ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺀﺎﻤﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺒ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻗﻼﻋﻭ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺏﺠﻴ ﻙﻟﺫﻟﻭ ، ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﻨﻭﺭﻤ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺝﺎﺘﺤﻴ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘ ﻥﺇ ﻲﻫ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﺩﺎﻌﺒﻷﺍ ﻥﺃ ﹰﺎﻤﺌﺍﺩ ﺭﻜﺫﺘﻴ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ ﻡﻤﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﺍﻭ .ﺎﻴﻜﻴﺘﺎﻤﻭﺘﺃ ﹰﻼﻤﻋ ﺱﻴﻟﻭ ﹰﺎﻴﻨﻓ ﹰﺎﺜﺤﺒ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘ لﻌﺠﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ .ﻲﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻬﻅﺘﻓ ﺏﺍﻭﺒﻷﺍﻭ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﺭﺎﻜ ﺔﻴﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﻌﺒﻷﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ،ﻁﻘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﹰﺎﻤﺌﺍﺩ ﺭﻬﻅﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺱﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻫﺩﺎﻌﺒﺃ ﺩﺩﺤﻨ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ ﻡﺎﻌﻁﻟﺍ ﺔﻓﺭﻏ ﻙﺎﺒﺸ ﺔﺤﺘﻓ ﹰﻼﺜﻤﻓ ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻅﻭﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺤﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻰﻋﺍﺭﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻔﺘﺭﻻﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﺩﻨﻋﻭ ﺏﺠﻴﻓ ﻲﻤﻭﻴﻟﺍ ﺱﻭﻠﺠﻟﺍ ﺔﻓﺭﻏ ﻙﺎﺒﺸ ﺔﺤﺘﻓ ﺎﻤﺃ .ﻪﻤﺎﻌﻁ لﻭﺎﻨﺘﻴ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺔﻟﻭﺎﻁﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻤﺃ ﻲﺴﺭﻜ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺱﻟﺎﺠﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻺﻟ ﻲﻠﺨﺍﺩﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﻻﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻌﻴﺒﻁﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﺠﺒ ﻊﺘﻤﺘﺴﻴ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺢﻴﺭﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﺴﺭﻜﻟﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺏﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺱﻟﺎﺠﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﺴﻨﻹﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﺱﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﺎﻌﺒﻷﺍ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﻰﻋﺍﺭﺘ ﻥﺃ .ﺔﺤﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ لﻼﺨ

ﻥﺃ . ﺔﺤﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ لﻼﺨ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻰﻠﻋﻭ ،ﺝﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ

ﺍﺫﻫ ﻰﻠﻋﻭ ،ﺝﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ لﺨﺍﺩﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﻟﺎﻓ ﻙﻟﺫﻟ ،ﺔﻔﻴﻅﻭﻟﺍ ﻊﻤ ﻰﺸﻤﺘﻴ ﺏﻭﻠﺴﺄﺒ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻤﺼﺘ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ (4) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ ﺔﻴﺠﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ لﻜﺸ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﻡﺘﻴ

ﻲﻔﻴﻅﻭﻟﺍ ﺏﻭﻠﺴﻷﺍ ﺱﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻓ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ

ﻲﻔﻴﻅﻭﻟﺍ ﺏﻭﻠﺴﻷﺍ ﺱﺎﺴﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻓ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ( 5 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻍﺍﺭﻔﻟﺍﻭ ﻡﺠﺤﻟﺍ .٢

،ﺏﺍﻭﺒﻷﺍﻭ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻓﻭ ﻁﺌﺍﻭﺤﻟﺍ ﺢﻁﺴﺄﻜ ،ﺔﻏﺭﻔﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﺘﻤﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﺌﺍﺯﺠﺃ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤ ﺔﻗﻼﻋ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﻤﺘﻌﻴ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺕﻔﻴﻀﺃ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺍﻭﻟﻷﺍﻭ ﺎﻬﺌﺎﻨﺒ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻥﺍﺯﺘﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ ﹰﻼﺼﺃ ﻊﺠﺭﻴ لﻤﺍﻭﻌﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﺍﺯﺘﺍ ﻥﺍﻭ ﻪﻠﺘﻜﻜ ﻪﻠﻜ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻤﻭ لﺒ ،ﺎﻬﻟﺎﻤﺠﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻪﻟ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺔﻌﻗﺍﻭﻟﺍ لﻼﻅﻟﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻭ ، ﺎﻬﺘﺀﺎﻀﺃ ﺏﻭﻠﺴﺃﻭ .ﻍﺍﺭﻔﻟﺍ ﻁﺴﻭ

ﺏﻭﻠﺴﺃﻭ . ﻍﺍﺭﻔﻟﺍ ﻁﺴﻭ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺒ

ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺒ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻗﻼﻋﻭ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺏﺠﻴ ﻙﻟﺫﻟﻭ ، ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﻨﻭﺭﻤ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺝﺎﺘﺤﻴ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘ ﻥﺇ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ (6 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺀﺎﻤﺼﻟﺍ

ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﹰﺎﻨﻴﺒﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻤﻟﺍ ﺽﺭﻌﻴ ( 7 )

ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﹰﺎﻨﻴﺒﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻤﻟﺍ ﺽﺭﻌﻴ (7) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻔﻜ ﺔﻏﺭﻔﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﻁﺌﺍﻭﺤﻟﺍ ﺢﻁﺴﺄﻜ ﺔﺘﻤﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻥﺍﺯﺘﺍ ﻙﺎﻨﻫﻭ ،ﺏﺍﻭﺒﻷﺍﻭ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ .ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺕﻔﻴﻀﺃ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺍﻭﻟﻷﺍﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺒ

ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻟﺍ .٣

ﺕﺴﻴﻟﻭ ،ﺽﻌﺒﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒﺒ ﺔﻁﻭﺒﺭﻤﻭ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻤ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤ ﻲﻬﻓ ، لﻤﺎﻜﺘﻤ ﻲﻔﻴﻅﻭ لﻜﺸ ﻲﻓ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻨﻴﻭﻜﺘ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ .ﺏﺍﻭﺒﺃﻭ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻓ ﺓﺩﻋ ﺎﻬﺒ ﺔﺤﺎﺴﻤ ﺩﺭﺠﻤ

ﺓﺩﻋ ﺎﻬﺒ ﺔﺤﺎﺴﻤ ﺩﺭﺠﻤ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻓ ﻁﺒﺭ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒ

ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻓ ﻁﺒﺭ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒ ﻊﻤ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (8) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘ لﺎﻤﺠ ﻥﻤ ﺩﻴﺯﻴ ﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺱﻭﻘﺒ ﺕﺎﻨﻭﻜﻠﺒﻟﺍ ﻙﻟﺫﻜﻭ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ

ﺏﺍﻭﺒﻷﺍﻭ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻔﻟﺍ .٤

ﺔﻁﺒﺘﺭﻤ ﺢﺒﺼﺘ ﺔﻴﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﺩﺘﻤﺘ ﺎﻤﺩﻨﻌﻓ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺩﺌﺎﺴ ﺔﻴﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨﻟﺍ لﻌﺠﻴ ﻥﺃ ﻥﻜﻤﻴ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺇ .ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺎﺒ

ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺇ . ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺎﺒ لﺼﺍﻭﻓﻭ ﺱﻤﺸ ﺕﺍﺭﺴﻜ

لﺼﺍﻭﻓﻭ ﺱﻤﺸ ﺕﺍﺭﺴﻜ ﺔﻴﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨﻟﺍ ﻙﻟﺫﻜﻭ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺎﺒ ﺔﻁﺒﺘﺭﻤ ﺔﻴﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻓ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (9) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﺓﺭﺭﻜﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﻕﺒﺍﻭﻁﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘ .٥

ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻟ ﻲﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﺱﻜﻌﻴ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻙﻟﺫﻜﻭ ﺽﻌﺒﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒ ﻊﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﺏﺴﺎﻨﺘﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ ﻥﺇ .لﺸﻔﻟﺎﺒ ﺔﻠﻤﻋ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻡﻜﺤﻴ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻻﺁﻭ ﺔﺤﻴﺭﺼ ﺭﻴﻏ ﺕﺎﻜﺭﺤ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ لﻜﺸ ﻲﻔﺤﺘ ﻥﺃ لﻭﺎﺤﺘ ﻼﻓ .ﻲﻔﻴﻅﻭﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﻨﺯﺍﻭﺘﻤ ﻥﻭﻜﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﺇ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍﻭ .ﻥﺍﺯﺘﻻﺍﻭ ﺕﺎﺒﺜﻟﺎﺒ ﻱﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﺭﻌﺸﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻕﺴﺎﻨﺘﻭ لﺜﺎﻤﺘ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻕﻠﻁﻴ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘ .(ﺔﻴﺭﺘﻤﻴﺴﻟﺍ) ﺭﻅﺎﻨﺘﻠﻟ ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻨ ﺓﺩﺎﻋ ﻥﻭﻜﻴ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ ﻲﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺇ .ﻲﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺭﻴﻏ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻟﺍ ﺍﺫﻫ ﻥﻭﻜﻴ ﻭﺃ ﺎﺴﺎﺴﺃ

ﺍﺫﻫ ﻥﻭﻜﻴ ﻭﺃ ﺎﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﻲﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺭﻴﻐﻟﺍﻭ ﻲﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ

ﻲﺴﺎﺴﺃ ﺭﻴﻐﻟﺍﻭ ﻲﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ ( 10 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﺱﻜﻌﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺽﻌﺒﻟﺍ

لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﺱﻜﻌﻴﻭ ،ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺽﻌﺒﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻀﻌﺒ ﻊﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﺏﺴﺎﻨﺘﺘ ﺽﺭﻌﻴ (11) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﺕﺎﺒﺜﻟﺎﺒ ﻱﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﺭﻌﺸﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻨﻭﻜﻤ ﻕﺴﺎﻨﺘﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘ .ﺭﻅﺎﻨﺘﻠﻟ ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻨ ﺓﺩﺎﻋ ﻥﻭﻜﻴ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ ﻲﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻟﺍ

ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻕﻠﻁﻴ ﻊﻴﺯﻭﺘﻟﺍ ﺍﺫﻫﻭ

ﻥﺍﺯﺘﻻﺍﻭ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺩﻴﻜﺄﺘﻟﺍ .٦

ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺓﺭﻫﺎﻅ ﺓﺩﺎﻤ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻴﻨﻭﻟ ﺔﻌﻘﺒ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻠﺘﻜﻜ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻴﻭﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻅﻨﻠﻟ ﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘ ﺔﻁﻘﻨ ﺩﺎﺠﻴﺇ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺩﻴﻜﺄﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺇ .ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﺩﻜﺅﻴ ﻭﻬﻓ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻪﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻪﻟ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ

ﻪﻟ ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘﻟﺍ

ﻥﻤ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﺩﻜﺅﻴ ﻭﻬﻓ ،ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻪﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﻴﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (12) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﻁﻴﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﺒﻘﻟﺍ ﺭﺼﻨﻋ لﻼﺨ

. ﻱﺭﺎﺠﺘﻟﺍ ﻊﻤﺠﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻁﻴﺴﻤ ﺭﺼﻨﻌﻜ لﺨﺩﻤﻟﺍ

.ﻱﺭﺎﺠﺘﻟﺍ ﻊﻤﺠﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﻲﻓ ﺭﻁﻴﺴﻤ ﺭﺼﻨﻌﻜ لﺨﺩﻤﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﻜﺅﻴ (13) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺒ ﻥﻭﻠﻟﺍﻭ ﺀﻭﻀﻟﺍ .٧

ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﻭﻠﻓ .ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻟﺍ ﻩﺫﻫ ﻥﻤ ﻙﻟﺫﻜ ﻅﺤ ﺎﻬﻟ ﻥﻭﻜﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ ﺔﻴﺠﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ لﺒ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ لﺨﺍﺩ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺀﻭﻀﻟﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺭﺼﺘﻘﺘ ﻻ .ﺭﻅﻨﻠﻟ ﺢﻴﺭﻤ ﺭﻴﻏﻭ ﹰﺎﻴﺒﻠﺴ ﺭﻅﻨﻤ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﻔﻀﻷ ﺔﻠﻴﻠﻅ ﺎﻬﻠﻜ ﻭﺃ ﺓﺀﺎﻀﻤ ﺎﻬﻠﻜ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺩﻌﺒﺘﻭ ﺎﻬﻟﺎﻤﺠ ﺭﻬﻅﺘﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺯﺍﺭﺒﺇ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻤﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻤﺎﻬﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻴﺸﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻥﻭﻠﻟﺍﻭ لﻼﻅﻟﺍﻭ ﺀﻭﻀﻟﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﻥﺎﻓ ﻙﻟﺫﻟ ﺭﻭﻨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤ ﺩﻜﺅﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺕﻼﺨﺩﻭ ﺕﺍﺯﻭﺭﺒ لﻤﻋ ﻕﻴﺭﻁ ﻥﻋ ﻙﻟﺫ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ ﻥﻜﻤﻴﻭ .ﻥﻴﺭﻅﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻥﻋ لﻠﻤﻟﺎﺒ ﺱﺎﺴﺤﻹﺍ .ﺔﻠﻴﻠﻅﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻟﺍﻭ

. ﺔﻠﻴﻠﻅﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﻲﻁﻌﻴ ﻻﻭ ﺎﻬﻟﺎﻤﺠ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ

ﻲﻁﻌﻴ ﻻﻭ ﺎﻬﻟﺎﻤﺠ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ ﻱﺫﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘ لﻼﻅﻟﺍ ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻯﺩﻤ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (14) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ لﺘﻜ ﺽﻌﺒ ﺯﺍﺭﺒﺇ ﻕﻴﺭﻁ ﻥﻋ لﻠﻤﻟﺎﺒ ﺱﺎﺴﺤﺇ

لﻼﻅﻟﺍﻭ ﺀﻭﻀﻟﺎﻓ . ﺔﻴﺠﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺀﻭﻀﻟﺍ

لﻼﻅﻟﺍﻭ ﺀﻭﻀﻟﺎﻓ .ﺔﻴﺠﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺀﻭﻀﻟﺍ ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩ ﺓﺭﻭﺭﻀ ﻯﺩﻤ ﺩﻜﺅﻴ (15) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ ﺍﺫﻫﻭ . ﺎﻬﻟﺎﻤﺠ ﺭﻬﻅﺘﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺯﺍﺭﺒﺇ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻤﻌﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻤﺎﻬﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﻴﺸﻷﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻥﻭﻠﻟﺍﻭ .ﺔﻠﻴﻠﻅﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﺭﻭﻨﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺎﺴﻤ لﻤﻋ ﻕﻴﺭﻁ ﻥﻋ ﻙﻟﺫ ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻫﺎﻅﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ ﺱﻤﻠﻤ .٨

ﺎﻤﺌﺍﺩ ﻡﺯﻠﻴﻭ .ﻡﻭﻴﻨﻤﻭﻟﻷﺍﻭ ﺏﺎﺸﺨﻷﺍﻭ ﺭﺎﺠﺤﻷﺍﻭ ﺭﻤﺤﻷﺍ ﺏﻭﻁﻟﺎﺒ ﻲﻨﺎﺒﻤﻟ ﺀﺎﺸﻨﻹﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺍﺭﻴﺜﻜ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻡﻀﺘ ﻲﻓ ﹰﺍﺩﺠ ﺔﻠﻴﻠﻗ ﺩﺍﻭﻤ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﻥﺃ ﻅﺤﻼﻴ ﻥﺃ ﺏﺠﻴ .ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻥﻴﻭﻜﺘ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺉﺩﺎﻬﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﺠﻟﺍﻭ ﻥﺯﺍﻭﺘﻟﺍ ﻲﻔﻀﻴ ﺎﻤﻤ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻡﺎﺠﺴﻨﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺎﺒ لﻴﻤﻴﻭ ﹰﺍﺭﻔﻨﻤ ﻥﻭﻜﻴ ﺩﻗ ﺓﺭﻴﺒﻜ ﺔﺠﺭﺩﺒ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻁﺍﺭﻓﻹ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﻜ ﺔﻴﺒﻠﺴ ﺎﻬﻠﻌﺠﻴﻭ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ ﻥﻤ لﻠﻘﻴ ﺩﻗ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ .لﺍﺫﺘﺒﻻﺍ

ﺩﻗ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ . لﺍﺫﺘﺒﻻﺍ ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﻭ ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺼﻟﺍ

ﻡﻴﻤﺼﺘﻭ ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟﺍ

ﺓﺭﻭﺼﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺎﺒ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻠﻟ ﻥﺯﺘﻤ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﻻ ﺩﻴﺠ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ ( 16 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ ﻰﻠﻔﺴﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﻭﺼﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺭﺎﺜﻜﻺﻟ ﺀﻱﺩﺭ

ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻕﺴﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍﻭ ﻥﺍﺯﺘﻹﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﺤ

ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤ ﻡﺍﺩﺨﺘﺴﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻕﺴﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍﻭ ﻥﺍﺯﺘﻹﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﺤ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (17) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻁﻭﻁﺨﻟﺍ .٩

ﻩﺎﺠﺘﻻﺍ ﺩﻜﺅﺘ ﺎﻬﻨﺈﻓ ﺓﺭﻤﺘﺴﻤ ﺔﻴﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨﻟﺍ ﻊﻴﻤﺠ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺍﺫﺈﻓ .ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺩﻭﺩﺤ ﺕﻼﻅﻤﻟﺍﻭ ﻑﻘﺴﻠﻟ ﻱﻭﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﻁﺨﻟﺍﻭ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻁﺨ ﺩﺩﺤﻴ ﻉﺎﻔﺘﺭﻻﺍ ﺔﻠﻴﻠﻗ ﻲﻨﺎﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻪﻨﺍ ﻅﺤﻼﻨ .ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻲﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﻩﺎﺠﺘﻻﺍ ﺩﻜﺅﺘ ﺎﻬﻨﺈﻓ ﺓﺭﻤﺘﺴﻤ ﺔﻴﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨﻟﺍ ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺍﺫﺇ ﻙﻟﺫﻜﻭ ﻲﻘﻓﻷﺍ .ﻲﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﻩﺎﺠﺘﻻﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘﻟﺍ لﻀﻔﻴﻓ ﺔﻌﻔﺘﺭﻤﻟﺍ ﻲﻨﺎﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﺎﻤﺃ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻁﻟﺍ لﻜﺸﻟﺍ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻲﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﻩﺎﺠﺘﻻﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺴﺤﺘﺴﻴ

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺴﺤﺘﺴﻴ ﺔﻴﺴﺃﺭ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﻙﻟﺫﻜﻭ

ﺔﻴﺴﺃﺭ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﻙﻟﺫﻜﻭ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﻲﻓ ﺓﺭﻁﻴﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﺤﺘﻔﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺎﺤ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (18) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ (ﺝﺭﺩﻟﺍ) ﺔﻴﺴﺃﺭﻟﺍ ﺔﻜﺭﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺼﺎﻨﻋ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺔﻴﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﻁﻭﻁﺨﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ لﻠﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﺴﻜﺘ

How to draw an elevation

How to draw an elevation ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﻁﻴﺴﻤ ﺔﻴﻘﻓﺃ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﺽﺭﻌﻴ (

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺭﻁﻴﺴﻤ ﺔﻴﻘﻓﺃ ﻁﻭﻁﺨ ﺽﺭﻌﻴ (19) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

تﺎﮭﺟاﻮﻟا طﺎﻘﺳإ ﻢﺳر

I.

Draw the base line.

II.

Draw the two vertical lines defining the corners of the building.

III.

Draw the soffi (ceiling) line of the roof eaves.

IV.

Draw the external shape of the roof by referring to sections.

V.

Draw the windows and doors by transferring the measurements from the floor plan.

VI.

Draw the fascia, gutter, rainwater pipe and ridge.

VII.

Draw the lines to indicate the brickwork courses and roof tile course.

VIII.

Draw the guide lines for the lettering.

ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﺎﻘﺴﺇ ﻡﺴﺭ١٠

ﺩﻤﺎﻌﺘﻤ ﻊﻀﻭ ﻲﻓ ﻁﻘﺴﺘ ﺔﻴﺒﻨﺎﺠﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻙﻟﺫﻜ.ﺭﺍﻭﺩﻸﻟ ﺔﻴﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﻁﻗﺎﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻁﺎﻘﺴﻹﺎﺒ ﺓﺩﺎﻋ ﺔﻴﻤﺎﻤﻷﺍ ﻪﻬﺤﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻡﺴﺭﺘ

ﻰﻠﻋ ﻑﺭﻌﺘﺘ ﻥﺇ ﻙﻟﺫ ﺩﻌﺒ ﺏﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻨﺎﻓ ﻲﻘﻓﻷﺍ ﻁﻘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﻪﻴﺠﻭﺘ ﻥﻴﺒﻴ ﺔﻴﻠﺼﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﺠﺘﻻﺍ ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﺒ .ﺔﻴﻤﺎﻤﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ

.ﺎﻬﻬﻴﺠﻭﺘ ﺏﺴﺤ ﻰﻤﺴﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﻪﻬﺠﺍﻭ لﻜ ﻩﺎﺠﺘﺍ

ﻥﻤ ﻪﻬﺠﺍﻭ لﻜ ﻩﺎﺠﺘﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﺼﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﺠﺘﻹﺍ ﺏﺴﺤ

ﺔﻴﻠﺼﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻫﺎﺠﺘﻹﺍ ﺏﺴﺤ ﺔﻌﺒﺭﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﺎﻘﺴﺍ ﺔﻘﻴﺭﻁ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (20) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﺔﻌﺒﺭﻷﺍ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﺎﻘﺴﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﻁﺨ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ ( 21 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺎﺒ

ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻁﺎﻘﺴﺍ ﺕﺍﻭﻁﺨ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (21) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺎﺒ ﺔﻴﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﺯﻭﻤﺭﻟﺍ

.١١

ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ ﺭﻫﺎﻅﻤﻟﺍ ﻑﺼﻭ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﻋﺎﺴﺘ ﻲﻬﻓ ﻪﺌﺍﺯﺠﺃ ﻡﻬﻔﺘﻭ ﻡﺴﺭﻟﺍ ﻁﻴﺴﺒﺘﻭ ﺢﻴﻀﻭﺘﻟ ﺕﺎﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﺯﻭﻤﺭﻟﺍ لﻤﻌﺘﺴﺘ لﻜﺸﺒ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺭﺎﻬﻅﺇ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﻋﺎﺴﺘ ﺎﻤﻜ ﻙﻴﺒﺎﺒﺸﻟﺍﻭ ﺏﺍﻭﺒﻷﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﻤﻭ لﻜﺸ لﺜﻤ ﺀﺎﺸﻨﻹﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ ﺢﻴﻀﻭﺘﺒ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻠﻟ .ﺀﺎﻨﺒﻟﺍ ﺩﻌﺒ ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻁﻟﺍ ﺭﻅﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻫﺭﻅﻨﻤ ﺏﺭﻘﻴ ﻲﻌﻗﺍﻭ

ﻥﻤ ﺎﻫﺭﻅﻨﻤ ﺏﺭﻘﻴ ﻲﻌﻗﺍﻭ ﺎﻬﻟﺎﻜﺸﺃﻭ ﺔﻴﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ

ﺎﻬﻟﺎﻜﺸﺃﻭ ﺔﻴﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﺯﻭﻤﺭﻟﺍﻭ لﺎﻜﺸﻷﺍ ﻥﻴﺒ ﺔﻗﻼﻌﻟﺍ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (22 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﺩﺨﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﺸﻨﻻﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻘﺤﻟﺍ

ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﻭﺩﺒﺘ ﻪﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ لﻌﺠ ﻲﻓ ﺩﻋﺎﺴﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﺸﻨﻻﺍ ﻲﻓ

ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﻭﺩﺒﺘ ﻪﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ لﻌﺠ ﻲﻓ ﺩﻋﺎﺴﺘ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﺸﻨﻻﺍ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺩﺍﻭﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺭﺎﻤﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﺯﻭﻤﺭﻟﺍ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ (22 ) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ ﺔﻴﻌﻗﺍﻭ

Sections: تﺎﻋﺎﻄﻘﻟا

A section is a view of a building or object obtained by making an imaginary cut through it.

A vertical section through a building will show details of the construction of the foundations, walls, floors, roof and other parts.

The number of sections required of a building will depend on its size and complexity. Generally there will be at least two sections. One of these will be a cross section, across the width of the building. The other will be a longitudinal section, along the length of the building.

Sections are intended to help the builder construct the building, so the exact position of the section should be chosen to show as much construction as possible.

should be chosen to show as much construction as possible. ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺎﺒ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋﻭ

ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺎﺒ ﺔﻬﺠﺍﻭﻟﺍ ﺔﻗﻼﻋﻭ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻔﺘﺭﻻﺍ ﺭﺎﻬﻅﻹ ﻲﻓ ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ (23) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﻲﻓ ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﺭﻭﺭﻤ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻫﺍﺭﻨ ﺀﺍﺯﺠﺃ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ ﺙﻴﺤ

ﻲﻓ ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﺭﻭﺭﻤ لﻼﺨ ﻥﻤ ﺎﻫﺍﺭﻨ ﺀﺍﺯﺠﺃ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ ﺙﻴﺤ ﻲﺌﺎﻬﻨﻟﺍ ﻪﻠﻜﺸﺒ ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﺽﺭﻌﻴ (24) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﺭﺜﻜﺃ ﻥﻭﻜﻴ ﻰﺘﺤ ﺎﻫﺭﻬﻅﻨ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ

ﺔﻴﻌﻗﺍﻭ

The purpose of a section is:

1. To give a vertical view of the building.

2. To provide overall vertical dimensions and levels.

The number of dimensions provided will depend on the scale used. The

minimum requirement will be floor to floor, or floor to ceiling dimensions. Thick lines should be used to define the inside and outside faces of external

walls, and both faces of the internal partitions. Hatching is often used, particularly on the larger scale sections. Thick lines should be used to define both faces of concrete floor and roof slabs.

used to define both faces of concrete floor and roof slabs. ، ﻰﺒﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻀﺃﻭ ﻑﻘﺴﻟﺍ

، ﻰﺒﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻀﺃﻭ ﻑﻘﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻜﺎﻤﺴ ﺢﻀﻭﻴ ﻙﻟﺫﻜ ﻲﻠﺨﺍﺩﻟﺍ ﺵﺭﻔﻟﺍ ﹰﺍﺭﻬﻅﻤ لﻤﺎﻜ لﻜﺸﺒ ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺍ ﺽﺭﻌﻴ (25) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ .ﻥﻴﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤ ﻥﻴﻴﻭﺘﺴﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻱﻭﺘﺤﻴ ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ ﹰﺎﻨﻴﺒﻤ

ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ لﺨﺍﺩ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻘﺘﺭﻻﺍ ﹰﺎﺤﻀﻭﻤ ﺀﺎﺸﻨﻻﺍ

ﻰﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ لﺨﺍﺩ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻘﺘﺭﻻﺍ ﹰﺎﺤﻀﻭﻤ ﺀﺎﺸﻨﻻﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻲﻓ ﻪﺘﻴﻤﻫﻻ ﻙﻟﺫﻭ ﺝﺭﺩﻟﺎﺒ ﺭﻤﻴ ﻉﺎﻁﻗ ﺭﻬﻅﻴ (26) ﻡﻗﺭ لﻜﺸ

ﻢﯿﻤﺼ ﺘﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺮﯿﺒﻌﺘﻟا قﺮﻃ ﺰﻛﺮﻣ Institute of Design Graphics

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