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I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

PHA CH HA CH T
I. Cc cng th c v n ng
1. N ng
-

mol ( mol/l, M):

L s mol ch t tan c trong m t


thay

i theo nhi t

n v th tch dung d ch. N ng

mol

.
s mol ch t tan (n)

CM =

2.

N ng
-

(
th tch dung d ch (v)

n v mol/l, mmol/l )

molan (m):

L s mol ch t tan c trong 1 kg dung mi, khng thay


s mol ch t tan (g)
Cm =

s kg dung mi (kg)

i theo nhi t

I H C CNG NGH

3. N ng

ph n tr m:

a. N ng
-

NG NAI

ph n tr m v kh i l

L kh i l

ng:

ng ch t tan (g) c trong 100g dung d ch


s g ch t tan (m)
C% =

100
s gam dung d ch (m)

b. N ng
-

ph n tr m v th tch:

L th tch ch t tan (ml, l) c trong 100 (ml, l) dung d ch.


s (ml,l)ch t tan
C% =

100%

s (ml,l ) dung d ch
c. N ng

ppm, ppt:

N ng

ppm (ph n tri u kh i l

ng ):

Dung d ch: 1ppm = 1 g/ml = mg/ l (cho dung d ch long D 1)

Ch t r n: 1ppm = 1 g/g = mg/kg


M nhnchai

m = C

ppm

x
M ch txc nh

N ng

ppb (ph n t kh i l

ppb = 10-3 ppm = 1 g/l

ppb = 10-3 ppm = 1 g/kg

100
.Vml .10 6 ( g )
P

ng):

Lu : 1kg = 103 g = 109 g = 106 mg


N ng
4. N ng

ppt (ph n ngn t kh i l

ng )

1 ppt = 10-3 ppb = 10-6 ppm = 10-6 mg/l

ph n mol:

H n h p hai c u t A v B , ph n mol XA l s mol c a A (nA) trn t ng s


mol c a h n h p.

XA =

s mol ch t A (nA)
t ng s mol ch t (n)
2

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

5. N ng

ng l

ng gam hay n ng

N ng

ng l

ng s

ng l
s

ng:

ng gam ch t tan c trong 1 lt dung d ch.


ng l

CN =

ng l

ng gam ch t tan (n)

s (l) dung d ch (v)

Trong :
M

- n =

,v

: L s

- Z: S electron trao

ng l

ng gam v

M
Z

i trong 1 mol, s H (OH ) hay ion tham gia ph n

ng trung ho.
6. M i lin h :
C M = C%

II.

10d
M

C N = C%

10d

CN = CM / Z

Cch pha ha ch t.

1. Pha dung d ch n ng
a.

mol/l ( CM):

i v i ch t r n: L
n ng

ng cn ch t r n c n l y

CM
m=

V i:

b.

C M .M .V .100
1000 .p

: kh i l

ng cn ch t r n (g)

CM

: n ng

mol/l (M)

: Kh i l

ng phn t

: th tch c n pha (ml)

tinh khi t c a ho ch t

i v i ch t l ng: Th tch l ng
c n ng

c c n dng

CM.
V =
m=

V i:

pha Vml dung d ch c

C M .M.V.100
1000.d.C%

C M .M .V .100
1000.C %

V : th tch dung d ch
m: kh i l

c (ml)

ng cn (g)

V : th tch dung d ch c n pha (ml)


3

pha (ml) dung d ch

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

: t! tr"ng (g/ml)

C% : n ng

ph n tr m c a dung d ch

2. Pha dung d ch c n ng
a.

ng l

i v i ch t r n: L
n ng

ng (CN)

ng cn ch t r n c n l y

pha Vml dung d ch c

CN
m cn =

V i:

m : kh i l

C N ..V.100
1000.p

ng cn ch t r n (g)

CN : n ng

ng l

ng dung d ch c n pha

V : th tch c n pha (ml)


p :
b.

tinh khi t ch t r n

i v i ch t l ng: th tch ch t l ng
dung d ch c n ng

c c n dng

pha V(ml)

CN
Vdam dac =

V i:

: th tch dung d ch

C N . .V.100
1000.d.C%

c (ml)

V : th tch dung d ch c n pha (ml)


d : kh i l

ng ring (t! tr"ng) c a dung d ch (g/ml)

C% : n ng
3. N ng

ph n tr m c a dung d ch

ph n tr m kh i l

c: L

ng cn (g)

mdd : kh i l

ng dung d ch c n pha (g)

c:

ng ch t r n c n l y

pha mdd (g) c n ng


mct =

V i:
4. N ng

C %.mdd
100. p

m : kh i l

b. Ch t r n ng m n
L

ng ch t r n c n l y

C%
mct =

V i:

C%.

C %.mdd M 1
x
100. p
M2

M1 : kh i l

ng phn t ng m n

M2 : Kh i l

ng phn t khng ng m n

ph n tr m kh i l

ng:

a. Ch t r n khng ng m n
d ch c n ng

ng - th tch:
4

c
c

pha mdd (g) dung

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

Cn s g ch t r n b#ng C% mu n pha

pha thnh 100ml dd.

5. Ph n tr m th tch - th tch:
C1 %.V1 = C2 %.V2

V i:

III.

V1

: th tch dung d ch c n l y

V2

: th tch dung d ch c n pha

pha

C1% : n ng

ph n tr m dung d ch l y

C2% : n ng

ph n tr m dung d ch c n pha

Pha dung d ch c n ng

pha

nh s n

Cch 1: Pha 1 th tch V1 dung d ch c n ng

C1% t$ 1 dung d ch c n ng

C2% v i C2% > C1% c dung d ch 1 v dung d ch 2 tra b ng.


C1.V1.d1 = C2.V2.d2
th tch dung d ch C2% c n l y l:
V2 =

Cch 2: Quy t c
-

N ng

Dung d ch

C1 .V1 .d 1
hay
C 2 .d 2

C1 d 2 .V2
=
C 2 d 1 .V1

%ng cho.

C%:
u
C2 %

C1 %

C1%
0

H2O

N ng

Dung d ch

mol hay

H2O0

=
2

C2 C1

ng l

ng:

u
C2

C1

C1

=
20

I H C CNG NGH

H2O
IV.

NG NAI

C2 C1

Cch pha m t s ch th thng d ng.

1. Ch! th h tinh b t : Starch Soluble (C6H10O5)n


-

Pha ch! th h tinh b t 1%: Ha tan 5 g trong 100 ml n


vo becher c ch a 400ml n
tr& l'i,

c c t ang si.

ngu i nh vi gi"t HCHO 40%

c c t , khu y

un ti p

u,

n khi dung d ch si

b o qu n h tin b t

c lu h n.

2. Ch! th Phenoltalein ( C20H14O4)n


-

pha ch! th pp 0,1% : Ha tan 0,1 g ch! th pp b#ng 100ml etanol 96%

3. Ch! th Methyl orange ( C14H14N3NaO3S)


-

Pha ch! th MO 0,04% : Ha tan 0,04g ch! th MO b#ng 100 ml Etanol 20%
ho c 100ml n

c c t.

4. Ch! th Methyl red ( C15H15N3O2)


-

Pha ch! th MR 0,1% : Ha tan 0,1g ch! th MR trong 100ml ethanol 96%

5. Ch! th Murexide ( C8H8N6O6)


-

Pha ch! th Murexide c th b#ng n


Nh ng

c c t, Nacl ho c

%ng Saccharose.

b o qu n ch! th trong th%i gian lu h n ta dng Nacl.

Nghi n 1g ch! th Murexide v i 100 g Nacl

c s y kh

ngu i.

6. Ch! th Xylenol Orange (C31H28N2Na4O13S)


-

Pha ch! th XO c th b#ng etanol 50% (0,1%) ho c b#ng KNO3.

b o qu n

ch! th trong th%i gian lu h n ta dng KNO3.


-

Nghi n k( 1 g ch! th XO v i 100g KNO3 tinh khi t.

7. Ch! th Erochrome black. T ( C20H12N3NaO7S)


-

Pha ch! th ETOO c th b#ng etanol 96% ( 0,05% 0,5%) , KCl ho c b#ng
saccharose.

Ta ch"n KCl

pha ch! th ETOO v n b o qu n

ch! th ETOO v i 100g KCl tinh khi t s y kh

c lu h n. Nghi n k( 1 g
ngu i.

8. Ch! th IndigoCarmine ( C16H8N2Na2O8S2)


-

Pha ch! th Indigocarmine 0,25% : Ha tan 0,25g Indigocarmine trong 100ml


Etanol 50%

9. Ch! th Alizarin yellow ( C13H8N3NaO5)


6

I H C CNG NGH

Pha ch! th Alizarin yellow 0,1% : Ha tan 0,1g ch! th Alizarin vng trong 100
ml n

NG NAI

cc t.

Kho ng

i mu c a ch! th : pH = 10,2 pH 12,1

10. Bromthymol blue ( C27H28Br2O5S)


-

Pha ch! th Bromthymol xanh 0,1% : Ho tan 0,1g ch! th Bromthymol xanh
trong 100ml etanol 20%

Kho ng

i mu c a ch! th : pH 5,8 pH 7,6

11. Hydroxylammonium Chloride ( NH2OH.HCl)


Tan trong n

c c t.

12. Hydroxylammonium Sulfate ( NH2OH)2.H2SO4


Tan trong n

cc t

13. Ch! th 1 -10 Phenanthroline ( C12H8N2.H2O )


-

Pha ch! th 1-10 phenanthroline 0,1%: Cn 0,1 g ch! th ,ha tan trong 100ml
n

c c t, khu y v gia nhi t t i 800C. Khng

khng gia nhi t th thm 2 gi"t HCl


( 1- 10 phenanthrolin

c un si, trong tr %ng h p


c khu y

n khi tan h t

tan c a n rt th p 3,3g/l).

14. Acid Fusinsulforo: Pha ch! th acid Fusinsulfuro 1%: Cn 1g ch! th cho vo
c c ch a 100ml ethanol, khu y

u cho tan hon ton .

15. Fluorescein (C20H12O5): Pha ch! th Fluorescein 0,5%: Cn 0,5g ch! th cho
vo c c ch a 100ml ethanol, khu y

u cho tan hon ton.

16. Dimetylglyoxin (C4H8N2O2)


Pha ch! th 1% tr m trong 100ml c n.
17. Ch! th Ferroin
Ha tan 1,485g 1-10phenaltrolin v 0,695g FeSO4. 7H2O trong n
n

c, thm

c c t thnh 100 ml

18. Ch! th Diphenylamin ( C12H11N)


Pha ch! th C12H11N 1%, cn 1 g ch! th + 100 ml H2SO4

19. Ch! th Tashiro.


-

Dung d ch A: Ha tan 0,1g MR trong 100m ethanol tinh khi t trn n i cch
thu

Dung d ch B: Ho tan 0,5 g Metylen xanh trong 100ml Ethanol 50%


Khi dng pha dung d ch A v i dung d ch B theo t! l 1:1
7

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

THU C TH

C BI T DNG TRONG PTN

1. Aluminon : 1g 1l H20 c t l c m'nh tan h t .


2. Thu c th Schiff : 2 g NaHSO3 + 0,2g fucsin Clohidrat v 2ml HCl
100ml n

c c t. B o qu n trong trai mu c nt

c vo

y kn.

3. Thu c th Lucas: Ha tan 136g ZnCl2 khan trong 90ml dung d ch HCl

c c n thi t ph i lm l'nh bn ngoi bnh khi pha.


4. Thu c th Nessler : Ha tan 50g KI trong 1 l

ng n

c l'nh t

n m c c th

(kho ng 50ml). Thm vo dung d ch HgCl bo ha (kho ng 22g HgCl2


trong 350ml H20) cho
hi n. Sau
ph n n

n khi d , i u ny

c nh n bi t do c k t t a xu t

thm 200m NaOH 5N v pha long

n 1l .

yn ch! dng

c l"c trong.

5. Montequi A

((

)[ (

4 2

)4 ])

Ho tan 20g NH4SCN trong 200ml n

c c t. Tr n c)n th n dung d ch ny v i

200ml dung d ch ch a 27g HgCl2 r i pha long


2 ngy m r i l"c, b o qu n trong chai mu,

n 1l.

yn dung d ch ny

y kn.

6. Axit Cromic : 20g K2Cr2O7 + 100 ml H2SO4

c + 400 ml H2O

7. Thu c th -Napthylamin ( C10H9N)


Cn 0,5 g C10H9N + 1ml HCl
(pha dng ngay ho c gi* & nhi t

c, sau

nh m c

n 100 ml n

cc t

nh p.

8. Thu c th Orcinal : Ho tan 2g orcinal trong 100ml H2SO4 30%


9. Thu c th Kaufman
Cho 0,5l metanol v 75 g NaBr vo becher l n khu y

n khi bo ha. L"c,

thm vo 2,75ml brom l ng. B o qu n trong chai mu t i.

CCH PHA DUNG D CH


1. Pha dung d ch

B OV

I NC C

m pH = 7

Dung d ch 1: Na2HPO4 cn 11,866g sau

c C = 1/15M
9

nh m c thnh 1lt.

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

Dung d ch 2 : KH2PO4 cn 9,073g sau

nh m c thnh 1 lt

c C = 1/15M
L y 61,2 ml dung d ch 1

nh m c thnh 100ml b#ng dung d ch 2

100ml dung d ch b o qu n i n c+c pH= 7


2. Pha dung d ch

m pH = 4

Cch 1:
-

Dung d ch 1: dung d ch HCl 0,1N

Dung d ch 2: cn 21,014g H3C6H5O7.H2O + 200 ml NaOH 1N, sau


nh m c b#ng n

cc t

n 1lt.

(dng H3C6H5O7.H2O ho c NaH2C6H5O7 )


Ht 56 ml dung d ch 2 r i
1

nh m c thnh 100ml dung d ch b#ng dung d ch

c 100 ml dung d ch b o qu n i n c+c pH = 4


Cch 2:
-

Dung d ch 1: Dung d ch NaOH 0,1N

Dung d ch 2: 40,846 g KHC8H4O4. Sau

nh m c thnh 1 lt

Ht 0,8 ml dung d ch 1 + 50 ml dung d ch 2. Sau


b#ng n

c c t. Ta

nh m c thnh 200ml

c 100ml dung d ch b o qu n i n c+c pH = 4

M TS

DUNG D CH

C BI T

1. Dung d ch Amonicitrat 50%:Ho tan 500g acid citric trong 600ml NH4OH
25% thm n c c t n 1l, sau 24h l"c.
2. H n h p c %ng thu : T! l 1/3, tr n 1 th tch HNO3 v i 3 th tch HCl.
3. H2SO4 tc nhn: Ho tan 5,5g Ag2SO4 trong 1kg H2SO4
1-2 ngy cho ho tan hon ton Ag2SO4.

c(1l=1,84kg),

4. H n h p xc tc CuSO4+K2SO4: Theo t l 1:10, cn 10g CuSO4+ 100g


K2SO4. Cho vo c i s tr n u, cho vo chai thu tinh s d,ng d n.
5. Dung d ch ki m Azua:
-

Ho tan 160g NaOH trong 150ml n

Ho tan 5g NaN3 trong 50ml n

c c t, lm l'nh.

c c t.
10

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

Ho tan 300g NaI (ho c KI) trong 200ml n

Tr n 3 dung d ch ny v thm n
l"c b .

cc t

c c t t i 500ml. N u c k t t a nu th ph i

6. Dung d ch Kaliantimon tartrat: Ho tan 1,3715g K(SbO)C4H6O.1/2 H2O


trong 400ml n c c t, nh m c 500ml, b o qu n trong chai nu.
7. Dung d ch Garola A:B
-

Dung d ch Garola A: 28.5g Co(NO)2+ CH3COOH


m c 500ml

Dung d ch Garola B: 180g NaNO2 + n


chai mu t i, khi dng tr n theo t! l 1:1.

c c t thnh 500ml.

c c t,

nh

+ng trong

8.

m pH=5: Cn 68g CH3COONa ho tan trong 500ml n


CH3COOH 99,5%. nh m c 1lt b#ng n c c t.

c c t v ht 72ml

9.

m pH=10: Cn 9,14g NH4Cl ho tan trong 500ml n


NH4OH 25%, nh m c b#ng n c c t n 1l.

c c t v ht 80ml

M TS

+ n

HO CH T KHI PHA C N T M ACID

T t c cc mu i Fe khi pha l u c n ph i t)m ACID, tu- thu c vo g c Clhay g c SO42tu- thu c l

ta l+a ch"n ACID t)m cho ng v s ml ACID c n cho vo

ng cn nhi u hay t.

CuSO4, MnSO4, Bi(NO3)3, K2Cr2O7: T)m H2SO4 96%.

SnCl2 t)m HCl 36%, un cch thu .

Hydroquinon (C6H6O2), tan trong HCl 35%.

I t tan trong KI.

11

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

T TR NG CC DUNG D CH AXT TRONG N C

T
tr!ng

HCl
%

T
C2H4O2 T
tr!ng
%
tr!ng

1,050

10,5

1.0125

10

1,075

15,5

1,0195

1,085

17,5

1,005

200C

H2SO4
%

T
tr!ng

HNO3
%

T
tr!ng

H3PO4
%

1,035

1,055

10

1,055

10,32

15

1,070

10

1,115

20

1,115

20,25

1,0263

20

1,105

15

1,180

30

1,150

25,57

19,4

1,0326

25

1,140

20

1,310

50

1,185

30,65

1,100

20,4

1,0384

30

1,180

25

1,370

60

1,335

50,07

1,175

35,2

1,0438

35

1,395

50

1,395

65,8

1,425

60,29

1,180

36,2

1,0575

50

1,5

60

1,405

68,1

1,685

85,11

1.185

37,2

1,0524

99

1,8355

96

1,485

91,1

1,745

90,13

1,190

38,3

1,0498

100

1,8342

99

1,413

100

1,870

100,0

12

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

KH I L"NG C#A M T S

HO CH T THNG D$NG

TRONG PTN

H2SO4

CH3COOH

HCl

HNO3

H2 O2

NH4OH

M = 98.08

M= 60.05

M= 36.46

M= 63.01

M = 34.01

M= 17.03

C% = 96

C% = 99.5

C%= 36

C% = 68

C% = 30

C% = 25

d = 1.84

d = 1.05

d= 1.18

d = 1.4

d = 1.11

d= 0.88

EDTA.2H2O

CaCl2.2H2O

FeCl3.6H2O

SnCl2

NH4Cl

NaOH

M = 372.24

M= 147.02

M=270.3

M=225.63

M = 53.49

M= 40

P = 98%

P= 98%

P=99%

P = 98%

P = 99.5%

P = 96%

Pb(NO3)2

Na2SiO3

K2CrO4

K2Cr2O7

Ba(NO3)2

NaNO2

M=331.21

M=284.20

M=194.19

M=294.18

M=261.34

M=69.00

P=99%

P=20%

P=95.5%

P=99.8%

P=99.5%

P=99%

CdCl2.H2O

CoCl2.6H2O

NiCl2.6H2O

MnSO4.H2O

FeSO4.7H2O

Na2SO4

M= 228.35

M=237.93

M=237.70

M=169.02

M=278.02

M=142.4

P= 99%

P=99%

P=98%

P=99%

P=99%

P=99%

KCl

KMnO4

CuSO4.5H2O

MgCl2.6H2O

BaCl2

NaBr

M=74.55

M= 158.03

M=249.68

M=203.3

M=244.28

M=102.9

P=99.5%

P=99.5%

P=99%

P=98%

P=99%

P=99%

13

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

Iod

HgCl2

Na2CO3

CH3COONa

ZnCl2

KI

M=253.81

M=271.5

M=105.99

M = 16.08

M=163.3

M = 166

P=99.5%

P=99.5%

p=99%

p =99%

p=98%

p = 99%

KSCN

NH4SCN

Na2HPO4

(NH4)2C2O4

K4[Fe(CN)6] K3[Fe(CN)6]

M = 97.18

M = 76.12

M= 358.14

M= 142.11

M = 422.59

M=383.49

p = 98.5%

P = 98.5%

p = 99%

p = 99.8%

p = 99%

p = 99%

NH4SCN

AgNO3

MgSO4.7H2O

KH2PO4

NH4NO3

FeCl2.4H2O

M = 76.12

M=169.87

M= 246.47

M=136.09

M=80.04

M= 198.81

P = 98.5%

P = 99.8%

P=99%

P=99.5%

P= 99%

P= 99.5%

KNO3 (M = 101,1, p = 98,5)


C6H8O7.H2O

KOH

NaCl

KCN

M= 210.14

M=56.11

M=58.44

M = 65.15

M=126.07

M= 241.43

P= 99.5%

P=82%

P=99.5%

p = 96%

P= 99.5

P= 97%

Na2B4O7.

NH4Fe(SO4)2. (NH4)6Mo7O24.

H3PO4

10H2O

12H2O

H2 O

M=97.994

M= 381.37

M= 482.2

M=1235.86

C% = 85

P=99.5

P= 99%

p = 99%

d=1.69

Ca(NO3)2.

K2HPO4.

Cu(NO3)2.

4H2O

3H2O

3H2O

M= 236.15

M= 228.22

M= 241.60

P= 99%

P= 99%

P= 99.5%

H2C2O4. 2H2O AlCl3.6H2O

Na2S2O3. 5H2O
M=248.18
P=99%

Al(NO3)3.

14

9H2O

Ca(OH)2

M= 375.13

M= 74.09

P= 99%

P= 90%

Cr2(SO4)3.
6H2O
M= 500.26
P=50%
Mu i
Morh.6H2O
M=392.14
P=99.5%

I H C CNG NGH

M TS
-

NG NAI

I%U C N LU KHI PHA CH HO CH T

i v i acid Nitric: Acid nitric gy ph ng n ng. Kh nu NO2 thot ra t$


acid lm t n th

ng

%ng h h p v m t. Acid ny cn c th gy n khi

ti p xc v i cc ch t kh nh

H2S, r

u. Khi ti p xc v i nh*ng chy

th c th b c chy sinh ra kh NO2. V v y khi ch*a chy ph i c n eo m t


n' ch ng

c. trong tr %ng h p b ng

c khi ht ph i kh NO2 th ta ph i

cho n'n nhn th& b#ng kh oxy v n#m yn.


-

i v i acid H2SO4: Gy ph ng n ng khi ti p xc v i da. Trong tr %ng h p


acid r i vo ng %i th ta ph i nhanh chng r a b#ng dung d ch ki m nh. nh
NaHCO3 2%...sau r a l'i b#ng n

i v i acid HF: Acid v h i

c.

u v cng

c, lm t n th

ng da, m t v

%ng h h p. Acid ny c th ph hu thu tinh v nhi u ch t khc. N u


trong tr %ng h p b chy ta c th dng n
kh c HF th ta ph i eo m t n' ch ng
-

c
c

d p t t. N u trong khng
cch ly.

i v i acid Acetic: lm ph ng n ng da, h i acid lm t n th

ng n ng nim

m'c. Nguy hi m khi ti p xc v i Ahydric cromic, Natri peroxyt v acid


nitric v c th b c chy. D p t t b#ng n
-

c.

i v i acid HCl: Lm ph ng da. H i acid lm t n th

ng m'nh

n mng

nim m'c m t v m/i. Khi ti p xc v i nhi u kim lo'i lm thot kh H2 t'o


nn h n h p n v i khng kh. Trong tr %ng h p b chy th ph i d p t t
b#ng n

c, Na2CO3, vi. Khi lm vi c, chng ta ph i mang kh)u trang ho't

tnh , vi c pha ch ph i tuy t

c ti n hnh trong t ht.

15

I H C CNG NGH

NG NAI

CCH PHA M T S

CH T C N&NG

BO HA

NaOH bo ha 1090g/l

KMnO4 bo ho 64g/l

NaCl bo ha 358g/l

Ag2SO4 bo ho 8g/l

Ca(OH)2 bo ha 1.7g/l

AgNO3 bo ho 2160g/l

Na2SO4 bo ha 160g/l

CH3COONa. 3H2O bo ho
613g/l

I2 bo ha 0.29g/l
NaHSO3 bo ha

NaBr bo ho 905g/l

Na2CO3 bo ha 220g/l

EDTA bo ho 100g/l

Ca(NO3)2. 4H2O bo ho

NaF bo ho 42g/l

1470g/l

Na2SO3 bo ho 220g/l

CaO bo ho 1.65g/l

Na2B4O7 bo ho 25.6g/l

CaSO4. 4H2O bo ho 2g/l

(NH4)Fe(SO4)2.12H2O bo
ho 1240g/l

K2CO3 bo ho 1120g/l

(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2.6H2O bo

KCl bo ho 330g/l

ho 269g/l

K2HPO4 bo ho 1600g/l
KOH bo ho 1130g/l

NH4NO3 bo ho 1920g/l

KIO3 bo ho 47g/l

NH4NO3 bo ho 1920g/l

KI bo ho 1430g/l

(NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O bo
ha 400g/l

KIO4 bo ho 7g/l

16