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9) THE ARTESIAN WELLS OF THE HUNGARIAN BASIN a.sUsieony ‘The water of the by ground-water supplied wells — in the Hungarian basis: systems for drinking'not recommendable. In mest villages and other loceltes {lores ne sewernges “hws ail dirtywater of the lavatories easily percolate. trou the very thin, very ite filering nl thus. very litte clettng covering Strata in te ground water, th level of hich in the great plas i very hy and thefe mation andselcleaning very bitte. "The quantity of impurities in these sou ‘eaters extremly hihthelt WO, content-erpatamceic often bout 300.1300 sg fe “These cumstances forced the people of the Hunganian Tsin Wo bore artesian sous ths tated csc Spt tothe number no aaa 1.00 Gc. “soe of tem aren the deep, pi farts the basis sna ony a hese On the marginal temtoriew “Thee convenient terstony slowly ecnetses. Ia the $y abut 1960, for minnie, the wnt ofthe ~~ movt general “150-200 mr deep Sells ree higher than 10-10. meters over sea Towel Hutenowe they on” tse > ibs mes ih fact meas, that they aw emi om thes, om deep lying tereto- Fes posiig."The wells of 20-100'm. depth became soy all negaties “ene rally With the increase of the nuinber of the well tsr dept “in te same proportion "alse ineretsd, because always deeper ind deeper Water containing Rintia must have been reached to get positiv. wells: his fact hae any canmen, one’ “for tatance — the hydrostaticl press une-decrease, an conseqtence of untational water economy there are many. Gers ‘xpuleato care tum sont ey by stady ig the geologic stretaee ise Til give a brit sammnary. about ft sme print il the Insernent < ate ‘known by” exploratory drilings, set up during’ the’ lest years." Acconing tw these veaults, the Hungarian hasinerystem “between the Cagpations and Dinas rides — fas becn formed of several ersaline and tesosole mountalneranges, id St more litle intriving banned ud covered catiely or neat ently ih ‘Tertiny’ and Quaternary sediments, The seovosieal evolution and structure of the sinate geologtal units m independent snd diferent. Generally However the woke besrsystery, Iving. between the Carpathians, Alpe nd Dinaridesy isa “ect tacit, fete xen) th ea fete af cmtogen tecloniams “Tne mat smpontant poant ts the wnathrestn corn. of {he Hangin Basi, beeatne this i the separating point of the Carpathians and Dinan thon hi fave the several above, mentioned = moundain rang 1 Initio rtewestere, west ane amthonesternditections. ine meat Haportane partly wiibl, vty” wlergneund sunien-tanges, hang pavallel strike with the Carpathians, ae the Lajta mts “Niskanpatok anes sepa Ring’ the" Vienna-Basin tom the’ West-Hungatian ‘one; the “Srombathily els “Rizeg mtn Italia mts. ange, separating the Bay of Gab rom the Went-Hlunge Fan iisin, anid the Bacher mts the samken erstalin ween a Alo "Phe Raba ~~ Vag Noite ditch, and the row of the Tureo, Lipto and Raiee bast are aluo parail with the gencral strike of the Carpathians: “AM these abe rrontioned fovutations are on the anginal territories of the Mungarian-iasin “The following formations =~ on the other hand —- are rather inside the fun avian Centratsnas with varius strikeainetions «the Vote =~ Natwel “= Weats Emerton range, Jomting. with, the hide sone othe Compathianes he Nnaykiniasa — Dice Nusypersita Zeus —~ "Tia diteh; the Orica — Sleme Rninik mts in eunucetion with the underground. stricture neae Tike, and with ‘other munken cristalin and mewanie anges of Temasivania andl the aenthern part ‘of tho Alfa (Loeat Hungrion Pian sn Gureher in eonmcetion wt the Tada ‘ns, ond the esstallin zone of the Hasteraspathans: the kx ores ~~ Mecsee ditch: the palwole range iyetween the Sleme and Gariey nits: the « instlateds Baranya mies: several erytain and msonoe underground sage nto the cette fof the Alla; and finally the ranges of the Hegyes and Bikar ht 7 ava and Sava ormation of, parallel trike, with the Ditarfen, ar: the Drava ‘and mesorole ditetes, the Hilo, Papute and Proska-Gora mts, ad several cx¥stal anges oa and rider the southers part of the AI ‘This whote nystem, consisting of the above mentioned erystallin and mesosoie ranges and interiving ditches snd basins surrounded with the young Carpathian and Dinavide mountsin ranges. These twa ranges are waiting Themselves in the Balkan mts." Here the Alpine-type folding fs aly’ not intensv at all and there fore this region rather ca be tare as the foot-region of the crogeninm. Most"of the above mentioned ranges afer the Cretaceous perfgd aubmenzed, making thereby” place (room) for the single parts of the fungartan Basitenystem the West-tispasin vith the Basins of Graz nd Vienna, the AlOK, and the en Ssteantan-Basin, But several blocks remained on the surface, between which, 0 ‘Shorted wih theses Isng he Ii ae tertiary SMM Quaternary sediments." Amoung these sediments ate the eorene and afigocene farbotnceous thats, Tiyscs, Iimestones aad cays very estrcted. yet. They can fe" found only on the sides othe Westenn-CentraleSts. kn the ‘ransyivantan Basi fnd.in the Sava dite in sweater quantities, ‘The Tate-Teetlany Tyswsndstone Appearing near Debrecen, is suppesed te be the: prolongation of the fiyss of the Headna mots. (0) ‘incene sediments are nut, so rare already, beenuse the mioeene transgression ‘onda nent territories inthe Ih /tmngaian iat Merseks northern part of the west-H-Basin,, Transgtvanian Hgsin vete-/. These sedimenis are mostly marl, lay, fiyases sometimes limestones an niher sandy” loose sediments "hut the tinal formation of the H.-basinsystem took place uniy in the plicene, In this period i the above mentioned several ervstllin and mesonoe ranges ently stipmerger and in tix period recelved the basins theie fal form. Characteristic Sediments are-marls hiterbedded with stndstones and clays. "On_severa places ise ple penn) rata fae subminged (sex-ems, nore nang of the AITO tind Sava ditches, southern parts of the TransgWvanian Bn ty an rae hye Cah ke deepen nd deprnn {The uppersiliocene ‘Clevanthnian). strata. which ave Hing up. tese:deepenines ttre mottly of foes, sandy character nee Tn the Qusteraary, the sedimentation was of smaller seal, but the sinking of the basiny contin ue thieknens of the Tertiary and Quatemary sede differen,” "The tate-Tertiary sediments aegenrally on the tha Sounger-rertany and uatemnary nes onthe Hasin-centtes the sit igeneral == fs about 1342.30 en, Dub hth the thickness of even 4000 tm. In this Hasincsgntem the ‘Tertiary onogenismn caused fractures and faults of sin the basins is very tee while the iekest. Their “deep ditches reat scale, here are focay ~~ especially in the inarginal, itensly Fitted rapes “= fonts folding tbe fond ton, but generally hovever. ont inwuleted sand "Central mountains, -—expectally: there, where the ‘Fertiary formations take purt in. the forming of even the bavetnent itself — have the typieal featanes of feaetied nd faulted teetontsn ‘By the sinking i the basins, the mplilling steata became fractured and fuulted hese faults and fractures ext. the greatest part et the Quaternary sediments [= Roth Kiroly 1 the Geology of Hungary» Pees., 1020, ny ihe above mentioned evolution such @ hydrogeological busin (« vessel) ‘been formed, in whiel several basins (water containing vessels) of differ ‘ent aight ane i connection ‘with cael an other. nth nin eaten the weston (ay of Gout and Vienna) and cater (a ayleanian) hacine ate higher than the sentra Iying + AMald amd «eae Qin ‘The cystallin ranges, Separating’ these basins are, very deeply sunken and. thus they don't hinder the free water pereolation from the higher basing into te lower fonea: the mesosoie ranges Wont hinder the pereolation at all,” ‘Thus the moving oF the grountewater from the higher lying basins —-and other similar formations = into the ventral, lower Tying basins © entirely” fee, Without any hindrance, ‘The Baton of ts wt water containing: Yeae-system' Is the surface ofthe xt, "The watersthering territories of this system are the Himestones, dolomite loose sandstones, pabbles, sands, esses and loose volcan tus of the most differ sxQhi SE LAER gH imei in te Boi se Ai. PAB Ky. 178 28h: Iel total testy i about 80.000 kn’, RH of the whole Basmsysteme "The water gathering territories are divided inta two great groups. Tn the first group there are the limestones and dolomite. ‘Phere rocks are permeable sind thos fhe water descends in them, till it reaches an impermeable steaturn This fact means, that tse earbonatie rocks consist — vertiealy--— of tao main zones : the lupper, in which the water slowly” descends (descending zone). and {Guching peneath the impermeable stratum “in which the descending ‘water bathered (water containing zone “The greatest water quantities of the Alun: arian Basin system are in these mesosnie iestones and. dolanites conta Gn the surface of the Inpermeabie basement the water can move ia the ditecti the greatest slope te hydrogeological Impertance of these cahonatic water Containers is very neat (R, Horusitaky £A viz a fold belejében, ‘The water within the earth, Hidro- logia!Kgelongey vol. NHL p. 133-145." Budapest. 1812, In the second groip there are all ather permeable formations and sed ‘which’ are in communication with the sediments bains. “These formations. have heir connection ‘with the above mentioned carbonic Klock mostly long, great fault and race since hot i" “rhinlimportance of the first group is grenter. Althongh these curbonatic blocks ave separated by erystalin anges and ths their water can't communicate Into each an other, but — and therefore sve they important — they widely penetra: ‘ng all neighbouring strata thes can supply them sith water, mostly of high pressure: fn the second yeoup there ave all other permeable. sediments of the basins But mest of them ave oul of westvictedestense and thns they are im water containing ‘and transporting only of loeal Importan painonian (pllocene) strate fre extending to the whole tertory of the HL, basin system. This pannon formation it 500 moe tick.” lower hal, the lower pannontan te monty iper meal, and t0 only its upper half is of importance, ‘This loose, sandy upper paso ‘an is Several hundred ie thick. an sof great importance as supply ibe fh mort artesian wells. Wirstiy thevefone, because thelr water fe under bydrostatical pressure, already, and secondly, because they ate oh qrest surfaces in connection ‘ith the water containing limestones and dolomite fro where theit water quan: {Hy ean be teremer. ‘The hnse ofthe upper-pannonian strata, and the impermeable "hse of the mesesoi, etsbonatie blocks are about inthe same teve. tn the deepess about 100 mx "Thip evel fs also the lowest lnnit of the artesian ‘wells, boeause, per wells une supplied mostly hy the along teetonteal surfaces — ascending hot Guvenite) waters Mend Hut in the Hungarian Basin we find sch places too, where the origin of water ao by the classical artesian well theory eam be explained, “There are such points Senate te "wl ee Hen fn he ne at gathering tevetorien acl ths they ascend catine of thelr hydeostatical pressure {Sn the bese of the + eommunication- vessel » principle. 2 ‘Suet pices are further the sunken, and wit upperpliocene (levantinign), and lester seinen ped te oa banat and ther oc aun ike depressions. "Such ‘formations «an be found interbedded into. the panuonian sevies ef strata i the West Hungarian Ragin, in the Drava and Sava diteles, om the northern margin of the AId, in Zagy'a“Tista enenen, on the central and southern pais of the Alt, and on Se sathens pants ofthe rans ean basi. hese Kral depressions sie with wich river and lake sediments filed up, which consist ‘mostly af loose sands and pabbles, and thus thele water containing capacity ie very {hey can eat the thickness of 1000 is. too. TThewe depressions ave the Nehest Inswater, boeause in their sediments mostiy several detritus and talus seeumulations take part tho, With their greatest dip always towards the depressions center. Most all surrounding not suaken, and thus higher remained formations around ‘hese depressions ate dipping also towards the depressions centre, andl thus they tise inewease the tater gathering territory. ‘This is the explication of the fuets that there ane such points, ehere in little opti nearly sll sandy strata contain water in geeat quantities, whilst on other points artesian wells can ot be set up at all. th the Hungarian Basin system the water containing. formttions te. tie local pleistocene depressions, filled "The Various ‘water coutaining basins, depressions, astapares, ealrons te, ‘rein many respects Independent, but there sof course a general connection between them by the —along fracture lines moving waters. Therefore our ertestan waters fre mixed: that supposition it very problematical, acoanding to which our artesian Waters, deriving ftom mostly entirely’ separcted ‘water containing «vessel =» (2), In their chemical composition {salts salted trou the containing tacks, vanious Inydratation products, ete.) Indicate, and characterise’ the rocks of those, yessely in whieh they aze contained. (Seidecky'— Rardoss Ey A nagyalfaartent eek fotipusal, és azok suintjelas drake. — Ihinydsratt és Kokiseatl Lapok. vols LNW Too ne adgeons. Budapest 144) "The NaCl containing seater of the central basins contain more agressiv COs ‘han usual — especially in the pabble strita — and also mone Fe in solutions, The ‘water of the most usta "ya Iso rnc Fe nso on, and their other sale content js nla sometites ve Exceptions ae the Waters nf the loloeeue depression along the « Kéroalioz they’ eontaintmuch organte impurities, because tele + oxygensneed » (for oxvdsing them) fewery gneaty Pueher exeeptions| are the Waters of the ‘depression Gybr, because. they contain neither fugeiv’ COg, note Fesalts in greater quantity. “The waters ef the plestocene ‘upperpannonian strate contain tess salts than the water: of the lower pannonlan iar the basement these lover: pannonian waters approaels the composition. of he salt waters of che mi-tilas. P(sumoey Ges A tweyaitoldt bb nclyfurisoe Hameln? eredminjes — Mitolgial Rinkinys oir. tt, pe 17-20. Bu pat, ia he depth of the wells depends from the yevlogieal formation. ‘he wells supplied bs" the annionian strata are poor fy water, an of short uation: thelt ‘water quantity: ahont 30-300 Its jsede But the wells af the fevantinian (plete. ene) strata are tilt in water (150-%00 litsjsee) anul of Tong tations Most ‘ich in water of them are the waters of the ‘Tisea-Aiatom canner, ‘The Za artesian tells of the town Szeged supply 7.000 Tits, see! The: 030 well of Honea Vasivhely’ sypply a.000 Itonce. ‘Many: of the wells has 10W0lts: fees CAI the vvelly of the bhinle Hungarian Basin system! touheter supply 1000400 hs se. hetr Temperature ty generally high. ‘Nhe water ‘of the. Taito mes deep swells fs about 48-20" €-. Int of the BOl50 ma deep ones about 35-20" CTI ‘duse of ths Tact Is, that the geothermeal gradient of the central basins is stialer Geis) than general, (Shiveghy + Die genthermischen Gradienten es AiG. AM hie, Polatant Tatézet Lvkongve. vol. NNN LL. pe 273-34 Budapest, 1020) Aeconding to V. Horisiesks the condensation of tie water-vapouns ea supply xt for this heating of the basin wediniuts. ecordie to bum, the 18 tructure lines —- nscenliny vapeur heated the sedimenting and therefore fy ‘the’ eothermical gradient 0 smally "Tis supposition iy problematie however, ‘he artesian wells of the Hungzrian Basin ayers ean bel evited inte 3 vous acorting to depth. Ta the fist grou ave the 23-100 tno deep Welle Tele umber at the bexinniny ofthis cenfury tas very yaeat, but sce that. tele umber eereases. Its cause Was the tmmational water-ceononys because aften one Water containing stratum had to supply several hundred well In Verse for ingtanice every’ house hed its oxen, About 27 mes deep antesian well "These wells ae ‘supplied mostly by the Water of the surfnce-near detritus and talus. aecutmlations Most artesian wells et their water from sandy steata in the leepness. of abut 150-250 miss, ‘These ave the wells of the above nieationed plelstocene (levantivan) depressions.” Aithougl they are derely seb up, thelr water quantity doesnot Tn the third group are the 30-130 mo deep well. ‘These wet thelr wat smutly from the upper-pannonian strat, These wcll ane of sales uration, ‘Tie inereasing’ of thelr humnber causes the decreasing of their watersquantity and presre There are also some 500-650 mis deep wells, but thelt nunnber is very small. the last years some deep-drilings had been set up, for peteolewms yrs carbon, salt ete. searching, thelr depth was several thotwand. meters, bit their ‘water Was not artesian one already, Mut hot (juvenile) waters. ‘Their temperature was even 117 C. near the basement. 180