Sei sulla pagina 1di 49

Unit D

MERCHANDISE
INFORMATION
4.01 Identify basic textile
fibers, fabrics, and their
characteristics.

Textile Industry Terms


Fiber: The smallest unit in a textile fabric.
Yarn: A group of fibers twisted together to form a
continuous strand.
Fabric: Any material that is made by weaving, knitting,
braiding, knotting, laminating, felting, or chemical
bonding.
Hand: The way a fabric feels to the touch.
Denier: Thickness or diameter of a fiber.
Microfibers: Ultra fine, soft, luxurious fibers
possessing the same desirable qualities as expensive
natural fibers but costing less and requiring less special
care.
CAD (Computer Aided Design): Computer system
software used for designing textiles, fashion, apparel,
and other products.

Natural fibers
Fibers from plants or animal sources.
Staple fibers:
Lower quality,
short fibers.
Filament fibers:
Long, continuous
fibers of higher
quality.

Cellulosic fibers:
Fibers from plants.
Protein fibers: Fibers
derived from animals or
insects.

Manufactured fibers
Fibers that are man-made (synthetic) and
are created by combining various
substances with chemicals.
Solid raw materials and chemicals are melted
or dissolved to form a thick liquid.
The liquid is forced through the tiny holes
of a mechanical device known as a spinnerette
to form filaments. (Similar to pushing dough
through a pasta machine to make spaghetti.)
The filaments are then stretched, hardened,
and crimped and/or cut into lengths.

Manufactured fibers

(cont.)

Cellulosic manufactured fibers are made


from cellulose from plants such as soft
wood pulp and are changed into usable
fibers by applying chemicals.
Noncellulosic manufactured fibers are
made from various petrochemical mixtures
of crude oil, natural gas, air, and water.

Blend: A combination of two or


more fibers that maximizes the
best features of each fiber.
Example: Combining cotton with
polyester

Natural fibers
Cotton

Flax (linen)

Wool

Silk

Cotton
The soft, white, downy fiber (boll)
attached to the seed of a cotton plant.
Most widely used of all natural
fibers
Grown in the southern U.S. and
other warm climates
Characteristics:
Strong and durable
Absorbent
Cool to wear
Shrinks in hot water
Wrinkles easily

Cotton

Proper care

Machine wash
Tumble dry at moderate
temperatures
Press with warm to hot iron

Common uses:
Underwear
Socks
Shirts, blouses
Jeans
Towels, sheets

Wool

The fiber that forms the coat (fleece) of


sheep.

Primary sources are Australia, South


America, New Zealand, and United Kingdom
Characteristics:
Natural insulator; warmest of
all natural
fibers
Soft and resilient
Naturally flame retardant
Absorbs moisture more slowly
than cotton
Shrinks if machine washed
or dried unless
chemically
treated
Affected by moths

Wool

Common uses:
Sweaters
Tailored suits
Coats
Blankets
Upholstery
Rugs, carpets

Proper care for


untreated wool:
Dry clean or hand
wash in cool water
and a mild detergent
(according to
garment label)
Do not place in dryer
Press with cool iron

Flax
The fiber that comes
from the stem of a
flax plant.
Grown and harvested
primarily in Eastern
Europe
Linen is made by
weaving or knitting flax
fiber into fabric.

Common uses:
Pants
Blazers
Table linens
Upholstery

Flax

Characteristics
Durable and strong
Lustrous and smooth
Comfortable and cool to wear
Wrinkles easily
Creases difficult to remove
Can be expensive
Proper Care:
Hand wash or dry clean
(according to garment label)
Iron while damp

Silk

The fine, lustrous fiber that


comes from a cocoon spun by a
silkworm.
The silkworm forces
two fine streams of a
thick liquid out of tiny
openings in its head.
These streams harden
into filaments or fibers
upon contact with the
air.
Primarily produced in
Asia (Thailand, China,
India), and Madagascar

Characteristics:
Luxurious appearance
and feel
Strongest of all
natural fibers
Drapes nicely
Expensive
Easily spots if fabric
becomes wet
Weakens with
exposure to sun and
perspiration

Silk

Silk

Proper Care:
Dry clean or hand
wash (according to
garment directions)
Press on wrong side
with warm iron

Common uses:
Wedding gowns
Lingerie
Mens ties

Leather and Fur


Leather and fur are from the hides or skins
of animals.
Leather: A tough, flexible material made by
preserving animal hides through a process
called tanning.

Tanning converts hides into finished


usable leather.

Leather

Leather is used for:


Handbags
Shoes
Belts
Jackets
Primary sources:
Cattle
Goatskins
Sheepskins
Reptiles

Suede: Leather with a napped


surface on the flesh side.

Fur
Fur is used for:
Coats
Outerwear
Trimmings
Common Sources
Mink
Chinchilla
Fox
Rabbit

The soft, hairy


coat of an animal.

Manufactured fibers
Polyester

Rayon

Nylon

Acetate

Acrylic

Spandex

Polyester

Made from coal or petroleum


Strong and often blended with other fibers
Resistant to wrinkling
Shrink and stretch resistant
Easy to care for
Great washability
Pills easily
Static buildup

Common uses:
Childrens wear, shirts, suits

Nylon

First fiber to be manufactured totally from chemicals


Strong, durable, elastic
Dries quickly
Resists wrinkles and soil
Washes easily
Heat sensitive
Clings to the wearer

Common uses:
Hosiery, swimwear, windbreakers

Acrylic
Resembles wool
Soft and warm
Bulky, yet
lightweight
Quick drying
Strong
Wrinkle
resistant
Static buildup
Pills easily

Common uses:
Terrycloth
Bathrobes
Knitted

Rayon

Soft, absorbent, and comfortable


Inexpensive
Stretches and is weak when wet
Mildews and wrinkles easily

Common uses:
Linings
Sports shirts
Jackets

Acetate

Very versatile
Inexpensive and easy to dye
Silky, luxurious
Deep luster, soft
Wrinkles easily
Special care needed in cleaning

Common uses:

Neckties
Lingerie
Blouses
Linings

Spandex
Known for its ability to stretch
Resistant to lotions, oils, sun, and
perspiration
Easily damaged by chlorine bleach
Soft, lightweight
Durable
Nonabsorbent
Common uses:
Swimwear
Dancewear
Exercise wear

Steps involved in
fabric production
1. Fibers are usually twisted together and spun
into yarns.
2. Yarns are either woven or knitted to form
fabric.
3. Color is added by dyeing or printing to
enhance the fabrics appeal.
4. A finish is applied to make the fabric suitable
for its end use and to improve its appearance.

Turning Yarn into Fabric


Weaving: The process of interlacing one or more
sets of yarns at right angles on a loom.
Warp yarns: Yarns that
run lengthwise in woven
fabric.
Weft yarns: Yarns that
run crosswise in woven
fabric.

Turning Yarn into Fabric


Grain: The direction of
the lengthwise and
crosswise yarns or threads
in a woven fabric.
Bias: The diagonal grain
of a fabric. The bias
provides the greatest
give or stretch in the
fabric.

(cont.)

Weaving

Plain weave

Plain weave: The simplest


weave in which the weft
(crosswise) yarn is passed
over then under each warp
(lengthwise) yarn.
A basket weave is one
variation, with the weft
yarn passing over two and
under two warp yarns each
pass.
Examples: Chiffon,
seersucker, taffeta

Weaving

Twill weave

Twill weave: A weave in


which the weft yarn is
passed over and under
one, two, or three warp
yarns beginning one warp
yarn back on each new
row.
Used for durability, this
weave produces a diagonal
design on the surface.
Examples: denim,
gabardine

Weaving

Satin weave: A weave


that produces a
smooth, shinysurfaced fabric
resulting from passing
the weft yarn over
and under numerous
warp yarns to create
long floats.
Examples: sateen,
satin

Satin weave

Weaving

Other weaves
Pile weavecorduroy,
velvet
Dobbydotted swiss,
pique
Jacquardbrocade,
damask
Lenofabrics with an
open, lacy appearance

Knitting
Constructing fabric by looping yarns
together.
Weft knits: Knits made with
only one yarn that runs
crosswise forming a horizontal
row of interlocking loops.
Cut edges will curl.
Weft knits run if snagged.
Examples: jersey, ribbed knits,
sweater knits

Knitting (cont.)
Warp knits: Knits made with
several yarns creating loops that
interlock in the lengthwise
direction.
Do not ravel
Have selvage edges
Examples: tricot, raschel knits

Gauge: The number of stitches,


or loops, per inch in a knitted
fabric.

Additional ways to construct


fabric
Nonwoven. Fibers are compacted together using moisture,
heat, chemicals, friction, or pressure. Examples: quilt
batting, garment interfacings, felt, artificial suede
Laces and nets. Made by knotting, twisting, or looping
yarns. Example: lace
Braided fabrics. Created by interlacing three or more
yarns to form a regular diagonal pattern down the length
of the resulting cord. Examples: decorative trims,
shoelaces
Bonded fabric. Made by permanently fastening together
two layers of fabric by lamination. Examples: two fabrics
bonded so that one serves as a self-lining as in skiwear or
winter coats

Additional ways to construct


fabric (cont.)
Quilted fabric. A layer of padding or batting is
sandwiched between two layers of fabric and held in
place by stitching. Examples of use: bedspreads,
placemats, and outerwear

Fabric finishing
Applying colors, designs or surface treatments
that change the look, feel, or performance of
fabrics.
Bleaching: Chemical processes that remove
color, impurities, or spots from fibers.
Dyeing: A method of giving color to a fiber,
yarn, fabric, or garment.
Printing: The process of adding color, pattern,
or design to the surface of fabrics.

Finish categories
Mechanical: Finishes that
are applied mechanically
rather than chemically.
Affect size and
appearance
Examples: glazing,
embossing,
brushing/napping/cutting
(corduroy)

Chemical: Finishes that


become part of the
fabric through chemical
reactions with the
fibers.
Affect performance
Examples: flame
retardant, stain
resistant (Scotchgard),
waterproof, permanent
press, preshrunk
(Sanforized)

Trends
and
Technology

Equipment and machinery


More automated weaving and knitting
machines
Color management tools that can
synchronize a colored design on a
computer screen, a paper printout, and
the actual fabric color
Sophisticated CAD tools with 3D
capabilities
Processes constantly monitored by
computer systems

Microfibers
Enhanced characteristics for high
performance fabrics resulting in
production of intelligent garments
- wicking (a fibers ability to draw
moisture away from the body so it
evaporate)
- coolness
- warmth
- protection

can

Development of new
recycling processes
Plastic soda bottles converted into
polyester fiber
used to make fabric for t-shirts and
filling for pillows
can be recycled numerous times
without losing its performance
attributes

Nonwoven fabrics
Finding increasing use in reusable
apparel and other products

replacing traditional knits and wovens


widely used as interlinings in blouses, jackets,
shirts, and waistbands
introduced for fishing and hunting apparel
used for medical textiles with special barrier
materials to protect those in the operating
room
printed nonwovens used for tops and blouses
also found in the SPF garments (garments that
allow you to tan through the fabric at a
controlled rate)

Individuality
More choices in clothing for consumers
Demand for mass-customization in clothing.
In any mall, customers can find a store that will
print a custom design on a t-shirt or embroider a
customized design on a cap.
Lands End will monogram initials on a garment.
Brooks Brothers handles orders for custom-made
shirts or suits.
Mass customization is prevalent in the uniform
sector where logos and names are embroidered or
printed on garments. Examples: Federal Express,
Postal Service, and football teams

New and improved textiles


Required to protect those who face hazardous
environments
Lighter and stronger textiles required for sports
Absorbable, antibiotic, antimicrobial, durable, selfdecontaminating, and comfortable textiles required
for medical applications
Better filters, road-building fabrics, geotextiles, and
textiles for spaceships and communication systems
required for industrial use
Demand for textiles that can be reused and/or
recycled

Smart fibers
Smart

fibers of the future


will inform or assist the
wearer. Potential applications
include clothes that monitor
the medical condition of the
wearer, that warn of the
presence of toxic chemicals,
or that adjust to suit the
wearers environment.

Dr. Niall Finn, CSIRO Textile and Fiber Technology

Mirrors
High-performance mirrors have been
formed into hair-thin fibers and woven
into fabrics and paper.

Could create clothing and documents with


advanced capabilities
Clothes that reflect and protect against
invisible microwaves and radiation
Clothes that can change colors like a
chameleon
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Government regulations
The Wool Products Labeling Act (1939) provides that all
garments made of wool have a label indicating the
percentage and kind of wool used.
The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (1958)
requires that all clothing have a label listing the generic
fiber content by percentage.
The Flammable Fabrics Act (1953) regulates the sale of
highly flammable fabrics used in apparel and prohibits the
sale of extremely flammable fabrics.
The Permanent Care Labeling Act (1972) requires that all
clothing offered for sale in retail stores have a label
indicating specific care instructions. New symbols for use
in this labeling were introduced in 1997.