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The Chimes

As the metal mallet


hits a chime, the chime vibrates
at its natural frequency, which
creates a longitudinal wave that
we hear as sound. Every
different kind of material
vibrates at a different natural
frequency, which is why a
copper pipe will not sound the
same as a lead pipe dropped
on the floor, assuming the only difference is the type of material. The longer the
chime there is, the more time the wave has to escape either side, which is heard
as a deeper note, or frequency. The smaller the chime, the less amount of time
the waves have to escape, creating a higher frequency. Our scale is B 7, C#8, D#8,
E8, F#8, G#8, A#8, B8.
Heres a table that tells what ratio and frequency we used for each note.

Note

Ratio (Multiply B7
by)

Frequency (Hz)

Actual Length of
Chimes (cm)

B7

1.0000

3951.07

37.4

C#8

0.9428

4434.92

35.25

D#8

0.8944

4978.03

33.1

E8

0.8660

5274.04

32.7

F#8

0.7906

5919.91

29.8

G#8

0.7746

6644.88

29.0

A#8

0.7303

7458.62

27.5

B8

0.7071

7902.13

26.5

The Clarinet
The clarinet works by focusing air down the mouthpiece through a reed, which
then vibrates, creating
sound. The sound can be
changed by covering
different holes on the
clarinet, because it changes
the wavelength through the
instrument. Our clarinet
plays an A major scale.
This scale goes A3, B3, C4#,
D4, E4, F4#, G4#, A4. To build
our clarinet we had to cut
the wavelength the size
from 156.82 centimeters, which plays an A3 on the clarinet. The ratio is the size of the
wavelength because as air is blown into the clarinet, the air starts in an area of high
pressure, then it moves to the end of the clarinet and when it comes out it is in an area
of atmospheric pressure or neutral pressure. The entire clarinet creates one quarter of
the total wavelength so that is why we cut the pipe one quarter of the wavelength.
Note

Frequency (Hz)

Wavelength of
our Clarinet (cm)

Original wavelength
(cm)

A3

220.00

39.21

156.82

B3

246.94

34.93

139.71

C#4

277.18

31.12

124.47

D4

293.66

29.37

117.48

E4

329.63

26.17

104.66

F#4

369.99

23.31

93.24

G#4

415.30

20.77

83.07

A4

440.00

19.60

78.41

The Guitar
A stringed instrument works by having
strings vibrate at a certain frequency, which
creates sound waves. We made the main
string seventy-three centimeters, half the
wavelength of an A3
to create a standing wave. The string is half
the ideal wave length because as the string is
plucked, it creates only half of one wave. To
compensate, we just simply cut the strings
ideal wavelength, from the chart, in half. We then marked where we should hold the
string to create different notes. Again, to find where to put the frets, we looked up a
note on the chart and cut that wavelength in half, then tuned it just right. Holding the
string in different places allows you to create smaller wavelengths, making higher notes.
It can play an A3, B3, C4#, D4, E4, F4#, G4#, and an A4 to finish the A major scale. The bottle
serves three purposes. First, it raises the strings, allowing for easier note-changing.
Second, it adds tension to the strings. Finally, it increases the amount of sound that
comes out of the guitar.
Note

Frequency (Hz)

Wavelength of
our Guitar (cm)

Original wavelength
(cm)

A3

220.00

78.41

156.82

B3

246.94

69.86

139.71

C#4

277.18

62.24

124.47

D4

293.66

58.74

117.48

E4

329.63

52.33

104.66

F#4

369.99

46.62

93.24

G#4

415.30

41.54

83.07

A4

440.00

39.21

78.41