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Heather Pantea SVSU MSOT Level I Student

Title: Medication Management Kit

Description of Activity

This kit can be used with populations that have medications to be taken on a

regular basis. Users of this kit should use the materials provided to properly choose and

sort medications needed. The number of medications and days needed to be sorted and

prepared may depend on each individual user’s needs. Through this occupation-based

activity, users of this kit are addressing issues that may occur with medication

management. This may include areas such as being able to pick up various small pills,

opening different medication containers, organizing medications into the proper areas,

taking medication dosages at appropriate times, and being able to safely self-administer

medication taken each day.

Materials, Tools, and Cost

Materials in the kit include seven labeled medication containers that vary in shape

and size, different colored beads for each container (beads representing ‘pills’), one pill

box (labeled with all seven days of the week and separated into AM and PM), a reusable

one-week schedule, three dry erase markers, an eraser, and reusable level cards for

grading the activity to be more simple or difficult depending on the individual. The total

cost of the kit was around $20, with some materials being gathered from home such as

the medication containers and beads.

Instructions for Implementation

To use this kit, users will be instructed to read the labels on the medication

bottles, open the containers, and sort the necessary medications into the pill box. Proper

dosage for each medication should be followed when sorting takes place. The dosages for

each medication can be found directly on the containers. To simulate taking medications

Heather Pantea SVSU MSOT Level I Student for each day, the user should check off the correct box on the reusable schedule when

‘pills’ are taken out of a day in the pill box. Pills should be returned to their respective

containers once taken out of the pill box.

Activity Modification

To grade this activity up or down based on the user’s needs; there are a number of

options to choose from. The specific level cards, numbered 1 through 7 (1 being the

easiest, 7 the most difficult), may be used to increase or decrease the number of

medications sorted. Another option is to use the labels on the medication containers

themselves, some having more difficult dosage instructions than others to help offer the

user a ‘just-right’ challenge. This is also true of the different opening lids on the

containers, some offering more of a challenge to open for the user. The pill box has been

adapted by the manufacturer for simple opening, with each day having a push-tab to

open. If these options do not suffice for an individual user of the kit, the implementer

could choose to grade the activity by number of pills to be sorted, number of days, how

many times sorting needs to be conducted, etc. Additionally, the use of the reusable

schedule could be removed if the activity needs to be graded down for the user.

Performance Issues Addressed

There are a number of performance areas that are addressed with the medication

management kit. One of the largest areas this kit incorporates is that of cognition. Users

of this kit work on aspects of cognition such as proper sequencing, planning, organizing,

and selection. Motor skills are also addressed with this kit, including areas such as fine

motor/manipulation, praxis, grasp, and coordination. A user’s own personal performance

Heather Pantea SVSU MSOT Level I Student patterns may also be influenced or improved upon by this kit, such as daily habits and

routines.

Contraindications

Although this occupation-based kit is generally safe to use with most individuals,

there are some contraindications. While this kit is meant to help improve or sustain an

individual’s cognitive ability when managing medication, it should not be used with those

who do not demonstrate adequate comprehension of what the kit is used for. Because

there are small objects involved in this kit (the beads representing pills), if individuals do

not understand these are objects not to be taken orally and are simply to be used for

simulation, this may create a dangerous situation for that individual. Also, if users of the

kit have movement restrictions (such as having recent surgical repairs in the hand), the

implementer should ensure that individuals are at a safe and secure status so as not to

cause unnecessary pain or damage.

Heather Pantea SVSU MSOT Level I Student patterns may also be influenced or improved upon by

Heather Pantea SVSU MSOT Level I Student

Resources

American Occupational Therapy Association. (2008). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process, 2 nd edition. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62, 625-683.

Cole J. (2011). Extending the role of the occupational therapist in the promotion of collaborative medication management to facilitate occupation. British Journal Of Occupational Therapy, 74(11):540-542

Marian Arbesman and Letha J. Mosley. (May 2012). Systematic Review of Occupation- and Activity-Based Health Management and Maintenance Interventions for Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Am J Occup Ther, 66:277-28.

Try These Medication Management Strategies. (May 2012) Physical Medicine & Rehab Coding Alert, 13(5):37-8.