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A Partnership in Leadership Styles

IDSL 825 New Leader Foundations * Ferris State University

Transformational Theory
Contingency Theory
Trait Theories
Team Leadership Theory

Felice Kelley
Veronica Wilkerson Johnson

September 23, 2012


The study of leadership theories goes back many decades. Mankind has
always grappled with the fact that while the possession of certain leadership
styles and abilities likely guarantees success; effective leaders are very different
from each other. What, then, are the attributes of an effective leader, and how do
we determine these characteristics?
To approach this analysis - Felice Kelley will focus on the ways in which
leadership is described and exhibited in the Transformational Theory and the
Contingency Theory. Veronica Wilkerson Johnson will focus on the Trait Theory
and the Team Leadership Theory
These four theories and styles each have their place in scholarly literature
about organizational leadership, and they each inevitably impact the
development, outcomes and future realizations of organizational culture. We
hope to provide the distinctions of the four theories, their potential impacts on
organizational culture, and annotated bibliographies that will help in the
research and review of each of these leadership styles.

Contingency Theory Leadership

Felice Kelley

The Contingency Theory is a theory that allows leaders to make decisions based
on the occasion or situation. There are leaders in every organization and university or
college that a faced with making decisions. The way in which they make the decisions
both large and small is to be determined and they must learn to choose wisely. The
contingency theory does not put you in a box when following a process for making a
decision. It allows for the leader to take different circumstances under consideration
when making the decisions. Not all decisions are black and white, this theory allows for
leaders to consider the who, what, when and how of each decision before they make.
The leadership styles vary and allow for each individual leader to incorporate their own
personality and individuality in every situation but still staying within the
organizations guidelines and mission. Many leaders and managers use this theory
without being aware that they have used it.
Annotated Bibliography

Fiedler, E. (1964): A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness; Journal for

Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press 1, 12, 149-190.
This article takes a birds eye view of contingency theory. It makes a very good
observation about how leaders can be great leaders if they are in a situation where their
individual style is complementary to making the type of decisions needed. Some
leaders are more micro managers while others are macro managers and different
situations are better suitable for one or the other. The contingency theory as stated by
Fiedler does not take into consideration all types of situations but gives a framework for
a few of the ones that he felt was most important. There is task structure, position
power, leader to member relationships.
Ketokivi, M. (2006). Elaborating the contingency theory of organizations: The case of
manufacturing flexibility strategies. 16(2), 215-229.
This article further explores contingency theory. There are two major questions that the
article focuses on they are 1. What kinds of organizational responses and strategies can
be used in a given task environment? And 2. Which aspects of the task environment
shape and constrain the availability of these strategic responses? In manufacturing
environments there are many processes and problems that arise and can be handled
using the contingency theory. This is not a set theory but one that allows people to make
decisions based on the circumstances. There is quite a bit of variety in manufacturing
productions that vary month to month. Managers have to make decisions depending on

the productions for each particular month. Contingency theory allows for the manager
to make a decision and take into consideration each factor.
Welker, D. (2010). Police programs, canines, and contingency theory: An explanation of canine
numbers among large police departments. New York, NY:
This article describes how the contingency theory is used in selecting and training
police dogs. It also considers other contingencies that must be well thought-out in the
entire process. There are many decisions that managers and leaders in the department
are concerned in making. The article looks at and measures how well the process
works. There are different circumstances which makes the contingency theory very
useful and easily adaptable to be used within the confines of the police department. It
allows for various criteria and circumstances to be evaluated and the best decision to be
made based upon the various data and support that has been revealed during the
decision making process.

Relationship (Transformational) Theory

Felice Kelley
Transformational leadership theory calls for leaders and employees to strive for
higher levels of moral and motivation. It is concerned with creating and enhancing
relationships. It focuses on values and meaning of all stakeholders. In transformational
leadership trust is a key component. When leaders make decisions they not only focus

on the problem and solution but they consider their employees well being. Leaders
who use transformational leadership style are considered great motivators and are able
to move their employees in the direction that the organization is going toward.
Transformational leadership theory is growing among leaders. Transformation
leadership theory is concerned with the big picture and also the needs of the employees
are greatly considered in the process. Transformational leaders are known by the way
they are able to get their employees to follow. They are well trusted, respected and also
admired by their employees. Some television evangelist, like Joel Osteen and T.D. Jakes,
could be considered transformational leaders. They has a way of speaking and
motivating his congregation and the television viewers to follow his lead.
Annotated Bibliography
Jayakody, J., & Abeysekera , N. (2010). Relationship marketing perspective on
salespersons' transformational leadership behavior effect. Contemporary
Management Research, 7(2), 143- 152.
This article looks at the relationship theory and how it is utilized in by sales
people. Salespeople when using the transformational theory motivate their customer to
purchase more than what they had initially intended to do. They use charisma and
inspiration to motivate their customers. The objective of this article is to show the
positive impacts of salespeople using transformational theory effects customers. They
salespersons utilize it. Salespersons use the relationship theory to

Warrilow , S. (2009). Transformational leadership theory - the 4 key components in

leading change & managing change. Contemporary Management Research,
Retrieved from Leading-Change-and-ManagingChange&id=2755277
This is an article that describes four components of transformational leadership
theory. It explains how this type of leadership theory creates positive change in the
followers. The leaders helps to create a positive moral. The transformational leadership
theory is a relationship theory that seeks to foster positive relationships between all
parties involved. It is different from other theories because it is not focused on short
term needs but looks at long term affects and is more customer or employee centered.
The leader makes decisions that look out for the well being of their employees that is
why it is also called the relationship leadership theory.

Trait Theories
Veronica Wilkerson Johnson

The qualities and traits of leaders are as varied as are the leaders around
the world, and they span the description of the entire human experience. Some

may have zeal and zest for their organizations, others may have charisma, and
still others may be known as the quiet, steady forces of constancy, adaptability
and dependability that unflappably get the job done every time. Any, and all of
these traits are important attributes that have their place in organizational culture
depending on the particular environments in which the leaders serve. The study
of leader traits goes back many decades. Mankind has always grappled with the
fact that the possession of certain traits does not guarantee success, yet everyone
agrees that effective leaders invariably have a certain something that makes them
different from other people in particular aspects. As noted by the Leadership
Academy of Management (1991), Key leader traits include: drive (a broad term
which includes achievement, motivation, ambition, energy, tenacity, and
initiative): leadership motivation (the desire to lead but not to seek power as an
end in itself): honesty and integrity: self-confidence (which is associated with
emotional stability): cognitive ability: and knowledge of the business.
While some argue that the traits of charisma, creativity and flexibility
might not lend as much stability to the organization as these key leader traits,
these attributes nevertheless have their place in establishing appeal and vibrancy
within the organization. Furthermore, the key leader traits help the leader
acquire skills that will aid the organizational culture and the effective planning,
pursuit and implementation of a vision for the organization.

Yet, we ponder the question of why some people who have the key leader
traits are not leaders. This is one of the difficulties of using trait theories to
explain leadership. (Cherry, K. 2012).
The organizational cultures that might emerge from this style are many,
since the traits of the leaders would apply to their variety of organizations where
they best fit. In other words, all leaders have traits, and to the extent that they
hone their skills effectively, they each will impact their organizations and, in the
best of circumstances, impact its culture and the future of its cultural framework.
General Motors, Sears and others have leaders who fit the analytical and
managerial trait descriptions we have reviewed, while Disney World leaders
might reflect the more charismatic and creative traits. All are important, and all
are meaningful within a compatible organizational setting and culture.
Annotated Bibliography

Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Shelley A.

Kirkpatrick and Edwin A. Locke In The Executive, 5, 4860.
Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 5 No. 2, , University o
ship%20-%20Do%20Traits%20Matgter.pdf. Last retrieved: September 23,


Kirkpatrick and Locke examine leadership traits from an historical perspective

and from a practical approach to how particular traits impact organizational
culture, and they make recommendations on which traits would be best applied
in various settings.

Northouse, Peter G. (2010). Trait approach. Peter G. Northouse , In Leadership:

Theory and Practice. pgs. 15-30. Thousand Oaks, California, Sage
Last retrieved: September 23, 2012.
This guide examines the literature on leadership traits and draws particular
conclusions about how personality and leadership effect the organization and the
staff. It also provides reflection on trait assessment, and how using assessment
tools can help managers determine whether they have the qualities and the fit
to move up in the organization.
Cherry, K. (2012). Leadership theories - 8 major leadership theories. Kendra Cherry
In Guide. Last
retrieved: September 23, 2012.


Interest in leadership has increased over the last century. The first leadership
theories examined qualities that distinguish leaders, while the later theories
examine more deeply the situational factors and abilities. Over the years eight
major theory types have developed, and this primer examines each of the eight
Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1989). What makes for magic leadership? In W.
E. Rosenbach & R. L. Taylor (Eds.), Contemporary issues in leadership
Boulder, CO: Westview. (pp. 135139).
While it takes a hero to turn a company around that is in trouble, the great
man leader cannot do the job alone. This article provides particular examples of
corporations that have survived crises, as well as those that have needed gradual
and effective change in their organizations, and for each it examines the
leadership traits traits that helped to bring successful outcomes.
Stogdill, R.M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of the literature, New York:
Free Press, McCall, M.W. Jr. and Lombardo, M.M. (1983). Off the track:
Why and how successful executives get derailed. Greenboro, NC: Centre for
Creative Leadership.


Stogdill presents a useful survey of published research findings on leadership

theory, personality and behavior. The topics include emergence of the leadership
role, leader-follower interactions, and leadership and group performance.

Team Leadership
Veronica Wilkerson Johnson
The theory of Team Leadership was well researched by Meredith Belbin in the
late 1970's, and she concluded from her studies that balanced teams, comprised
of individuals with varying strengths and backgrounds, performed better than
unbalanced teams. She further surmised that a good team leader builds on the
resulting diversity of talent. A team leader welcomes talented team members in
their organizations, and those who are able to work in an environment where the
vision and the tasks are shared. Team Leadership has similar attributes to
Servant Leadership in that the goal of each is to create a congenial, supportive
environment in which everyone is nurtured and encouraged to thrive. This work
in tandem aids the accomplishment of the over-arching organizational mission
and goals. Similarly, servant leadership encourages collaboration, trust, and
ethical use of power, and team leadership seeks to create empowered and fully
engaged members who then collaboratively work for the betterment of the


The organizational culture that might emerge from strong team leadership
would be one of highly motivated workers with high team morale and
impressive outcomes for the organization as a result. Such a setting would also
likely be effective in overcoming obstacles, and in shifting organizational
paradigms and symbols more easily. It would also likely be successful at
remaining current with the trends and goals of its industry.

Annotated Bibliography
Team leadership and development: Theory, principles, and guidelines for
training leaders and teams. Kozlowski, Steve W. J.; Gully, Stanley M.;
Salas, Eduardo; Cannon-Bowers, Janis A. Beyerlein, Michael M. (Ed);
Johnson, Douglas A. (Ed); Beyerlein, Susan T. (Ed), (1996). Advances in
interdisciplinary studies of work teams: Team leadership, Vol. 3., (pp. 253291). US: Elsevier Science/JAI Press, xix, 293 pp.

There is more focus today on how work teams aid benefit organizations, and the
ways in which team leaders create developmental progress. The authors of this
practical guide use variations of work settings to describe how team leaders
enhance team coherence and staff capabilities. These guidelines would be helpful


in staff training models, and in helping to guide organizational culture toward a

team-oriented approach.

Leadership in Teams: A Functional Approach to Understanding Leadership

Structures and Processes (2010). Frederick P. Morgeson,1 D. Scott
DeRue,2 and Elizabeth P. Karam1 In Journal of Management
OnlineFirst, September 23, 2009. Southern Management Association. Last retrieved: September 23, 2012.
Organizations are increasing the use of teams in their work, and more research
now focuses on the role of leadership in developing team success. This review
provides a summary of literature and research on leadership processes within a
team, and describes 15 team leadership functions that help teams satisfy their
collective needs as a group that aid the goals of the organization.
The Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Getting the Best From all Team Members (2012) Last retrieved: September 23, 2012.
The Leader-Member Exchange Theory first appeared in the 1970s and it analyzes
the relationships that develop between managers and staff. It concludes that
team members react in three phases in their relationship with their


administrators: Role-Taking, Role-Making, and Routinization. It goes on to

explain that during the Role-Making phase group members become a part of the
In-Group or the Out-Group. The In-Group team members often receive more
attention and support, and therefore better opportunities from their
administrators than do the Out-Group members. This is an interesting analysis
for helping to identify the ways in which organizations and staff ultimately
benefit from a team leader-member approach, and it enlightens about the
potential unintentional outcomes as well.

Bolden, R. (2003). A review of leadership theory and competency frameworks. Bolden,

R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A., and Dennison, P. in Centre for Leadership
Studies. University of Exeter, United Kingdom. June, 2003. pp. 13-14.
This report provides a review of leadership over the past 70 years from the great
man notion of heroic leaders, through trait theories, behaviorist theories,
situational leadership, contingency theory, and transactional and
transformational leadership. Each of these offers some insights into the qualities
of successful leaders. It also describes leadership models and frameworks in the
context of public and private sector organizations.

Franklin, C. (2012) Team Leaders. Chelsea Franklin: In Team Leader Training.


February 5, 2012. Last Retrieved: September 23,

This article shares the advantages of team leadership. The author mentions years
of observations gathered from advising, training and therefore recognizing the
elements of productive team leadership she has observed in various settings. It
also concludes that leaders who serve their staff are more happy individuals than
some other leadership style.


In conclusion, we agree that all the leadership theories and traits are very important
components in helping to develop and advance the process of leaders becoming successful and
making the best decisions. The four that we have chosen to discuss we feel are very important,
and they

allow for more variation. We also believe that different circumstances call for

different theories to be used to complete the mission of the company, college or university.