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# 2/11/2010

## Review of Basic Concepts

Pekik Argo Dahono
School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics
Institute of Technology Bandung

## Average and RMS Concepts

Periodic signals x(t ) = x (t + T )
Average value
1 t o +T
x=
x(t ) dt
T to
RMS value
1 t o +T 2
X =
x (t ) dt
T to

2/11/2010

## Single-Phase Power Concept

Sinusoidal voltage and current

v = 2V cos(t )
i = 2 I cos(t )
Instantaneous power
[12
( 3
( 3t )
p = vi = VI
cos44
+ cos
t )] + VI
sin4
2
sin
14
4424
14
424
resistive part

reactive part

## Single-Phase Power Concept

Active or Average Power

1 t o +T
P=
p dt =VI cos
t
T o
Reactive Power

Q = VI sin

Apparent Power

S = VI
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

2/11/2010

## Single-Phase Power Concept

Power triangle

S 2 = P2 + Q2
Power factor

PF =

P
= cos
S
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

## Single-Phase Power Concept

P + jQ

I
R

jX

E 2 = (V + V )2 + V 2

V
V

V 2 << (V + V )2
Thus
V E-V = RI cos + XI sin
RP + XQ XQ
=

V
V
Losses = RI 2 = R (S / V )2

= R (P / V )2 + (Q / V )2
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

2/11/2010

## Balanced Three-Phase Power

Sinusoidal voltage and current:
va = 2V cos(t )

(
)
2V cos(t + 23 )

vb = 2V cos t 23
vc =

ia = 2 I cos(t )

ib = 2 I cos t 23

ic = 2 I cos t +

2
3

## Balanced Three-Phase Power

Instantaneous power

p = va ia + vb ib + vc ic
p = 3VI cos
Instantaneous power is a constant that is
equal to average power
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

2/11/2010

## Balanced Three-Phase Power

Reactive power is defined as

Q = 3VI sin
Apparent power is defined as

S = 3VI
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

Rs

Rs

Rs

Rs

Rs

Rs

Ro

Ro

3I

Ro

Rs

Ro / 3
Rs

Losses = 3RI 2

Losses = 18RI 2

PF = 1.0

PF = ?

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2/11/2010

## Three-Phase Power System

Rs

Rs

Rs

j1

j1

Rs

PF = ?
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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## Three-Phase Four-Wire Systems

Three - Phase Three - Wire System

## Series Losses Consideration :

P
P

= rs I a2 + I b2
= 3rs I e2

+ I c2

+ I n2

(unbalanced)

Ie =

(balanced)

Ve =

I a2 + I b2 + I c2 + I n2
3
Shunt Losses Consideration :
Thus, I e =

P =

2
2
2
2
Vao
+ Vbo
+ Vco
+ Vno
Rsh

P = 3

Ve2
Rsh

(V

2
a

+ I b2 + I c2 / 3

)
)/ 9

2
an

2
2
+ Vbn
+ Vcn
/3

2
ab

2
2
+ Vbc
+ Vca

(unbalanced)
(balanced)

Thus, Ve =
or Ve =

(I
(V
(V

2
an

2
2
2
2
Vao
+ Vbo
+ Vco
+ Vno
3

2
2
2
2
2
+ Vbn
+ Vcn
+ Vab
+ Vbc
+ Vca
/ 12

## Apparent Power S e = 3Ve I e

Power Factor = P / S e

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2/11/2010

## Fourier Series Representation

Fourier series

x(t ) = co + 2
Average value
RMS Value

sin (nt + n )

n =1

x = co

X = co2 +

2
n

n =1
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Fourier Series

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2/11/2010

Voltage signal

v= 2

sin (nt + n )

n =1

1/ 2

2
Vn
THD = n = 2
V1

## The same definition applicable to current

Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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## Power concept under nonsinusoidal waveforms

Voltage

v = Vo + 2

cos(nt + n )

cos(nt + n )

n =1

Current

i = Io + 2

I
n =1

Instantaneous power

p = vi
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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2/11/2010

Average power

P = Vo I o +

V I

n n

cos( n n )

n =1

Apparent power

S = Vrms I rms

Power factor

P
PF = =
S

Vo I o +

V I

n n

cos( n n )

n =1

Vrms I rms

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Example
Voltage
v = 1 + 210 cos(100t ) + 2 2 cos(300t )

Current
i = 2 5 cos 100t 60 o 2 cos(300t )
Average power
P = 50 cos 60 o + 2 cos( ) = 25
RMS Voltage and Current

( )

V = 12 + 10 2 + 2 2 = 105

Power factor

PF =

I = 5 2 + 12 = 26

P
25
=
= 0,478
S
105 26

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2/11/2010

## Sinusoidal voltage case

Average power :
Power factor :

P = V1 I1 cos(1 1 )

I
I1
P
cos 1
= 1 cos(1 1 ) =
1/ 2
S I rms
2 2
In
I1 +
n=2

1 = 1 1
PF =

where :

PF =

cos 1
1 + THD 2

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## Transformer and inductor

Inductor is used to store temporary energy and
also used to smoothing the current
Transformer is used for voltage conversion,
galvanic isolation, and also used to store
temporary energy.
Transformer and inductor are the heaviest
component in power electronics system.
In power electronics applications, transformer
sometimes has to operate with both dc and ac
voltages or currents.
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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2/11/2010

Electromagnetism
Hukum Ampere :

H.dl = = NI

At

Hlc = NI

NI
At/m
lc

H=

B = H =

N lilit

= BA =

= N =

L=

NI
lc

A
lc

Wb/m 2

NI Wb

AN 2
lc

AN 2
lc

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Airgap Influence
= NI = H c lc + H g g
NI =

Bc

lc +

Bg

l
g
g = c +
Ac o Ag

Ac Ag = A

N lilit

= r o

NI
lc

r o A

o A
N 2I

= N =

lc

r o A
L=

N2
lc

r o A
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

o A

o AN 2 / g

o A
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2/11/2010

Transformer
i1

i2
N1

v1

N2

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

v2

23

Ideal Transformer
i1

i2

v1 N1

N 2 v2

v1 N1
i
=
= 2
v2 N 2
i1
Ideal transformer neither
dissipates nor stores energy

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Practical Transformer
i1

i2

Ll1

v1

Lm

Ll 2

N2

N1

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

v2

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Symmetrical Components
Any unbalanced three-phase quantities can be
composed into three symmetrical components:
- Positive sequence components
- Negative sequence components
- Zero sequence components
I b2

I c1

I ao = I bo = I co
Ia2

I a1
I b1

I c2
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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2/11/2010

Symmetrical Components
Vao
1 1
V = 1 1 a
a1 3
Va 2
1 a 2

a=e

2
3

Va 1
V = a 2
b
Vc a

1 Va
a 2 Vb
a Vc

I co

1
a
a2

1 Va1
1 Va 2
1 Vao

I c1
I c2

Ia

Ic

I ao

Ib
I bo

I a1

I a2

I b1
I b2

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Symmetrical Components
In three-phase three-wire systems we have
no neutral current and, therefore, we have
no zero sequence current.
The neutral current is three times the zero
sequence current.

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2/11/2010

## Balanced nonsinusoidal quantities

Let assume:
va =

cos[n(t )]

n =1

For n=1:
va1 = V1 cos(t )
For n=2:
va 2 = V2 cos(2t )

vb =

[(

Vn cos n t 23

n =1

2
3

vb1 = V1 cos t 23
vb 2 = V2 cos 2t +

Vn cos[n(t + 23 )]
)] vc =
n =1

vc1 = V1 cos t + 23

vc 2 = V2 cos 2t 23

For n=3:
va 3 = V3 cos(3t )

vb3 = V3 cos(3t )

vc 3 = V3 cos(3t )

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## Balanced nonsinusoidal quantities

For n=3k-2, The harmonics are similar to
positive sequence quantities.
For n=3k-1, the harmonics are similar to
negative sequence quantities.
For n=3k, the harmonics are similar to zero
quantities.
Inilah alasan mengapa pada sistem tiga-fasa tiga-kawat yang
seimbang, kita tidak menemui harmonisa kelipatan tiga.
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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2/11/2010

Symmetrical components
Symmetrical components theory can be
quantities and instantaneous quantities.
Symmetrical components theory can be
derived also by using linear algebra and
treated as variable transformation

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## Voltage and Current across the inductor

vL = L

diL
dt

iL (t ) = iL (t + T )

Thus

t +T

iL =

1 to + t
vL dt + iL (to )
L to

vL (t ) = vL (t + T )
vL dt = 0

## Average voltage across the inductor under

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2/11/2010

## Voltage and current across the capacitor

iC = C

dvC
dt

vC =

1 to + t
iC dt + vC (to )
C to

iC (t ) = iC (t + T )

Thus

t +T

vC (t ) = vC (t + T )
iC dt = 0

## Average current through the capacitor under

Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Batasan Topologi
Sumber tegangan hanya boleh diparalel jika sama
besar
Sumber arus hanya boleh diseri jika sama besar
Sumber tegangan tidak boleh dihubungsingkat
Sumber arus tidak boleh dibuka
Sumber tegangan bisa berupa kapasitor
Sumber arus bisa berupa induktor

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+

35

Dualitas
Sumber tegangan

Sumber arus

Hubungan paralel

Hubungan seri

Induktor

Kapasitor

Resistor

Konduktor

## Reverse blocking switch

Variabel tegangan

Variabel arus

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Contoh Dualitas
R

Vs

Vs = Ris + L

is

dis 1 t
+
is dt + vC (0)
dt C 0

Ip

vp

I p = Gv p + C

dv p
dt

1 t
v p dt + iL (0)
L 0

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Contoh Dualitas
+

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Penggunaan Komputer
PSIM, MATLAB, EMTP, PSPICE, etc.
Switching Concept
Averaging Concept

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Switching Concept
ii

io

S1
R

Ed

S2

vo
L

vo=SwEd
Vo()=Sw()Ed
Io()=Vo()/Z()
Ii()=Sw()Io()

## Sw=1 IF S1 ON and S2 OFF

Sw=0 IF S1 OFF and S2 ON

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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2/11/2010

Switching Concept
S1

ii

io

## IF vref > car THEN S w = 1 ELSE S w = 0

S 2 vo

Ed

dio
= (S w Ed Rio ) / L
dt
ii = S wio

vref
+

car

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Averaging Concept
S1

ii

## 0 < t < TON

io

dio
= Ed
dt
< t < Ts

Rio + L

R
S 2 vo

Ed

TON

dio
=0
dt
Averaging
Rio + L

dio
(TON + TOFF ) = Ed TON
dt
Divided by Ts results in
Rio (TON + TOFF ) + L

vref
car

Rio + L

dio
T
= E d ON = vo
dt
Ts

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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2/11/2010

D-Q Transform
f qdo = Kf abc

(f qdo )T = [ f q

fd

fo

(f abc )T = [ f a

fb

fc ]

cos
2
K = sin
3 1
2

cos - 23
sin - 23

(
(

)
)

1
2

(
(

)
)

cos + 23

sin + 23
1

cos

K = cos 23
cos + 2
3

(
(

-1

)
)

sin
sin 23

( )
sin ( + 23 )

1
1

= ( )d + o
0

## f bisa dipakai untuk tegangan, arus, maupun fluksi.

Bentuk gelombang f bebas, tidak harus sinusoidal.
menyatakan kecepatan putar kerangka referensi.
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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D-Q Transform
fb

fq

fa

fc

fd

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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2/11/2010

Example
ia = 2 I cos s t

( 23 )
2 I cos( s t 23 )

ib = 2 I cos s t +
ic =
iq =

2 2I
cos s t cos t + cos s t +
3

2
3

## )cos(t + 23 ) + cos( s t 23 )cos(t 23 )]

iq = 2 I cos( s )t
id =

2 2I
sin s t sin t + sin s t +
3

2
3

## )sin(t + 23 ) + sin ( st 23 )sin(t 23 )]

id = 2 I sin ( s )t
io = 0
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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D-Q Transform
Power Invariance
Pabc = va ia + vb ib + vc ic
3
v q i q + v d i d + 2 v o io
2
Instantaneous Reactive Power :
3
q = v q i d v d iq
2
Pabc = Pqdo =

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2/11/2010

v abc = pabc

[ ]

v abc = ri abc

[ ]

pK

-1

-1

sin

= sin 23
sin + 2
3

(
(

)
)

cos
cos 23

(
(

cos +

2
3

)
)

0
0

Thus

-1

KrK = r

0 1 0
Kp K -1 = 1 0 0
0 0 0

[ ]

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## DQ Transform of Stationary Elements

v qdo = dq + pqdo

(dq )T = [d

vq = d + pq
vd = q + pd
vo = po
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2/11/2010

iq

L
+

ia

vq

id

Lid
R

ib
n

b
ic

Liq

vd

io

c
vo

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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DQ Transform
If the speed of reference frame is equal to
the supply frequency, it is called
synchronous reference frame.
If the speed of reference frame is zero, it is
called stationary reference frame.
If the speed of reference frame is not equal
to the supply frequency, it is called
asynchronous reference frame.
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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2/11/2010

Space Vector
na =

N
N e j + e j
cos =
2
2
2

nb =

N
N e
cos 23 =
2
2

N
N e
nc = cos + 23 =
2
2
Fa = na ia + nb ib + nc ic

) + e j ( 23 )

) + e j ( + 23 )

j 23

2
j + 23

N j
N
j 2
j 2
j 2
j 2
e ia + ib e 3 + ic e 3 + e j ia + ib e 3 + ic e 3

4
3 N j r 3 N j r *
=
e i+
e i
8
8
r 2
j 2
j 2
i = ia + ib e 3 + ic e 3

3
is called space vector of current.
The same definition s apply to voltage and current.
=

51

## Example of Space Vector

ia = 2 I cos s t =

ib = 2 I cos s t +

2
I e j s t + e j s t
2
2
3

2
3

) + e j (s t + 23 )

)=

2
2

2 j (s t 23 ) j (s t 23 )
I e
+e

ic = 2 I cos s t 23 =
r
i =

I e

j s t + 23

j ( t + 2 )
j ( s t + 23 ) j 23
j ( t 2 )
j ( s t 23 ) j 23
I e js t + e js t + e s 3 + e
e
+ e s 3 + e
e

r
i = 2 Ie js t

## Besaran sinusoidal seimbang akan nampak sebagai suatu vektor

yang bergerak melingkar pada kecepatan tetap.
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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## Example of Space Vector

Stationary elements :
di
di
di
va = Ria + L a vb = Rib + L b vc = Ric + L c
dt
dt
dt
In space vector form :
r
r
r 2
v = va + a 2 vb + avc
3
r
r
r
r
d 2
2
= R ia + a 2ib + aic + L
ia + a 2ib + aic
dt 3
3
r
r
di
= Ri + L
dt

53

## Transformation of Space Vector

r
r
x = x e jt
Previous example
r
i = 2 Ie j ( s )t
It should be noted :
r
r j 2
xa = Re[x ] xb = Re x e 3

[ ]

r j 2
xc = Re xe 3

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2/11/2010

## Numerical Methods To Solve Differential Equations

Let
f ' ( x, t ); x (t o ) = xo ; h
Euler Method :
x(t o + h ) = x(t o ) + hf ' ( xo , t o )
Fourth - Order Runge - Kutta Method :
k1 = f (xo , t o )
k
h

k 2 = f xo + 1 , t o +
2
2

k
h

k 3 = f xo + 2 , t o +
2
2

k 4 = f ( xo + k 3 , t o + h )
x(t o + h ) = x(t o ) +

h
(k1 + 2k 2 + 2k3 + k 4 )
6

## Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Example
di
= 10 5i
dt
i0 = 0
h = 0.1
i (0.1) = 0 + 0.1 (10 5 0 ) = 1
i (0.2 ) = 1 + 0.1 (10 5 1) = 1.5
i (0.3) = 1.5 + 0.1 (10 5 1.5) = 1.75
i (0.4 ) = 1.75 + 0.1 (10 5 1.75) = 1.875
Pekik A. Dahono : Elektronika Daya

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Numerical Integration
We have N data for the function y in the interval from a to b :
ba
Let h =
N
b

N 1

ydt = h

yi

## (the simplest rule)

n =0

N 1
h
ydt = y0 + y N + 2 yi
a
2

n =1

57

Example
T
i

0
1

0.1
2

0.2
3

0.3
1

0.4
2

0.5
3

0.6
1

0.7
2

0.8
3

0.9
1

h = 0.1
N = 10
N 1

0.9

idt = h

0.9 2

i = 1.9
N 1

i dt = h

i 2 = 4.3
0

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The End

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