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2/11/2010

Review of Basic Concepts


Pekik Argo Dahono
School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics
Institute of Technology Bandung

Average and RMS Concepts


Periodic signals x(t ) = x (t + T )
Average value
1 t o +T
x=
x(t ) dt
T to
RMS value
1 t o +T 2
X =
x (t ) dt
T to

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2/11/2010

Single-Phase Power Concept


Sinusoidal voltage and current

v = 2V cos(t )
i = 2 I cos(t )
Instantaneous power
[12
( 3
( 3t )
p = vi = VI
cos44
+ cos
t )] + VI
sin4
2
sin
14
4424
14
424
resistive part

reactive part

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Single-Phase Power Concept


Active or Average Power

1 t o +T
P=
p dt =VI cos
t
T o
Reactive Power

Q = VI sin

Apparent Power

S = VI
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2/11/2010

Single-Phase Power Concept


Power triangle

S 2 = P2 + Q2
Power factor

PF =

P
= cos
S
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Single-Phase Power Concept


P + jQ

I
R

jX

Load

E 2 = (V + V )2 + V 2

V
V

V 2 << (V + V )2
Thus
V E-V = RI cos + XI sin
RP + XQ XQ
=

V
V
Losses = RI 2 = R (S / V )2

= R (P / V )2 + (Q / V )2
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2/11/2010

Balanced Three-Phase Power


Sinusoidal voltage and current:
va = 2V cos(t )

(
)
2V cos(t + 23 )

vb = 2V cos t 23
vc =

ia = 2 I cos(t )

ib = 2 I cos t 23

ic = 2 I cos t +

2
3

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Balanced Three-Phase Power


Instantaneous power

p = va ia + vb ib + vc ic
p = 3VI cos
Instantaneous power is a constant that is
equal to average power
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2/11/2010

Balanced Three-Phase Power


Reactive power is defined as

Q = 3VI sin
Apparent power is defined as

S = 3VI
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Three-Phase Power System


Rs

Rs

Rs

Rs

Rs

Rs

Ro

Ro

3I

Ro

Rs

Ro / 3
Rs

Losses = 3RI 2

Losses = 18RI 2

PF = 1.0

PF = ?

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2/11/2010

Three-Phase Power System


Rs

Rs

Rs

j1

j1

Rs

PF = ?
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Three-Phase Four-Wire Systems


Three - Phase Three - Wire System

Series Losses Consideration :


P
P

= rs I a2 + I b2
= 3rs I e2

+ I c2

+ I n2

(unbalanced)

Ie =

(balanced)

Ve =

I a2 + I b2 + I c2 + I n2
3
Shunt Losses Consideration :
Thus, I e =

P =

2
2
2
2
Vao
+ Vbo
+ Vco
+ Vno
Rsh

P = 3

Ve2
Rsh

(V

2
a

+ I b2 + I c2 / 3

)
)/ 9

2
an

2
2
+ Vbn
+ Vcn
/3

2
ab

2
2
+ Vbc
+ Vca

(unbalanced)
(balanced)

Thus, Ve =
or Ve =

(I
(V
(V

2
an

2
2
2
2
Vao
+ Vbo
+ Vco
+ Vno
3

2
2
2
2
2
+ Vbn
+ Vcn
+ Vab
+ Vbc
+ Vca
/ 12

Apparent Power S e = 3Ve I e


Power Factor = P / S e

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2/11/2010

Fourier Series Representation


Fourier series

x(t ) = co + 2
Average value
RMS Value

sin (nt + n )

n =1

x = co

X = co2 +

2
n

n =1
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Fourier Series

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2/11/2010

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)


Voltage signal

v= 2

sin (nt + n )

n =1

Total Harmonic Distortion


1/ 2

2
Vn
THD = n = 2
V1

The same definition applicable to current


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Power concept under nonsinusoidal waveforms

Voltage

v = Vo + 2

cos(nt + n )

cos(nt + n )

n =1

Current

i = Io + 2

I
n =1

Instantaneous power

p = vi
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2/11/2010

Power concept under nonsinusoidal waveforms

Average power

P = Vo I o +

V I

n n

cos( n n )

n =1

Apparent power

S = Vrms I rms

Power factor

P
PF = =
S

Vo I o +

V I

n n

cos( n n )

n =1

Vrms I rms

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Example
Voltage
v = 1 + 210 cos(100t ) + 2 2 cos(300t )

Current
i = 2 5 cos 100t 60 o 2 cos(300t )
Average power
P = 50 cos 60 o + 2 cos( ) = 25
RMS Voltage and Current

( )

V = 12 + 10 2 + 2 2 = 105

Power factor

PF =

I = 5 2 + 12 = 26

P
25
=
= 0,478
S
105 26

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2/11/2010

Sinusoidal voltage case


Average power :
Power factor :

P = V1 I1 cos(1 1 )

I
I1
P
cos 1
= 1 cos(1 1 ) =
1/ 2
S I rms
2 2
In
I1 +
n=2

1 = 1 1
PF =

where :

Relationship between power factor and THD:

PF =

cos 1
1 + THD 2

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Transformer and inductor


Inductor is used to store temporary energy and
also used to smoothing the current
Transformer is used for voltage conversion,
galvanic isolation, and also used to store
temporary energy.
Transformer and inductor are the heaviest
component in power electronics system.
In power electronics applications, transformer
sometimes has to operate with both dc and ac
voltages or currents.
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2/11/2010

Electromagnetism
Hukum Ampere :

H.dl = = NI

At

Hlc = NI

NI
At/m
lc

H=

B = H =

N lilit

= BA =

= N =

L=

NI
lc

A
lc

Wb/m 2

NI Wb

AN 2
lc

AN 2
lc

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Airgap Influence
= NI = H c lc + H g g
NI =

Bc

lc +

Bg

l
g
g = c +
Ac o Ag

Ac Ag = A

N lilit

= r o

NI
lc

r o A

o A
N 2I

= N =

lc

r o A
L=

N2
lc

r o A
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o A

o AN 2 / g

o A
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2/11/2010

Transformer
i1

i2
N1

v1

N2

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v2

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Ideal Transformer
i1

i2

v1 N1

N 2 v2

v1 N1
i
=
= 2
v2 N 2
i1
Ideal transformer neither
dissipates nor stores energy

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2/11/2010

Practical Transformer
i1

i2

Ll1

v1

Lm

Ll 2

N2

N1

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v2

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Symmetrical Components
Any unbalanced three-phase quantities can be
composed into three symmetrical components:
- Positive sequence components
- Negative sequence components
- Zero sequence components
I b2

I c1

I ao = I bo = I co
Ia2

I a1
I b1

I c2
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2/11/2010

Symmetrical Components
Vao
1 1
V = 1 1 a
a1 3
Va 2
1 a 2

a=e

2
3

Va 1
V = a 2
b
Vc a

1 Va
a 2 Vb
a Vc

I co

1
a
a2

1 Va1
1 Va 2
1 Vao

I c1
I c2

Ia

Ic

I ao

Ib
I bo

I a1

I a2

I b1
I b2

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Symmetrical Components
In three-phase three-wire systems we have
no neutral current and, therefore, we have
no zero sequence current.
The neutral current is three times the zero
sequence current.

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2/11/2010

Balanced nonsinusoidal quantities


Let assume:
va =

cos[n(t )]

n =1

For n=1:
va1 = V1 cos(t )
For n=2:
va 2 = V2 cos(2t )

vb =

[(

Vn cos n t 23

n =1

2
3

vb1 = V1 cos t 23
vb 2 = V2 cos 2t +

Vn cos[n(t + 23 )]
)] vc =
n =1

vc1 = V1 cos t + 23

vc 2 = V2 cos 2t 23

For n=3:
va 3 = V3 cos(3t )

vb3 = V3 cos(3t )

vc 3 = V3 cos(3t )

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Balanced nonsinusoidal quantities


For n=3k-2, The harmonics are similar to
positive sequence quantities.
For n=3k-1, the harmonics are similar to
negative sequence quantities.
For n=3k, the harmonics are similar to zero
quantities.
Inilah alasan mengapa pada sistem tiga-fasa tiga-kawat yang
seimbang, kita tidak menemui harmonisa kelipatan tiga.
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2/11/2010

Symmetrical components
Symmetrical components theory can be
applied to both steady-state phasor
quantities and instantaneous quantities.
Symmetrical components theory can be
derived also by using linear algebra and
treated as variable transformation

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Voltage and Current across the inductor


vL = L

diL
dt

Steady-state:
iL (t ) = iL (t + T )

Thus

t +T

iL =

1 to + t
vL dt + iL (to )
L to

vL (t ) = vL (t + T )
vL dt = 0

Average voltage across the inductor under


steady-state condition is zero.
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2/11/2010

Voltage and current across the capacitor


iC = C

dvC
dt

vC =

1 to + t
iC dt + vC (to )
C to

Steady-state:
iC (t ) = iC (t + T )

Thus

t +T

vC (t ) = vC (t + T )
iC dt = 0

Average current through the capacitor under


steady-state conditions is zero.
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Batasan Topologi
Sumber tegangan hanya boleh diparalel jika sama
besar
Sumber arus hanya boleh diseri jika sama besar
Sumber tegangan tidak boleh dihubungsingkat
Sumber arus tidak boleh dibuka
Sumber tegangan bisa berupa kapasitor
Sumber arus bisa berupa induktor

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Hubungan Berikut Harus Dihindari


+

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Dualitas
Sumber tegangan

Sumber arus

Hubungan paralel

Hubungan seri

Induktor

Kapasitor

Resistor

Konduktor

Reverse conducting switch

Reverse blocking switch

Variabel tegangan

Variabel arus

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Contoh Dualitas
R

Vs

Vs = Ris + L

is

dis 1 t
+
is dt + vC (0)
dt C 0

Ip

vp

I p = Gv p + C

dv p
dt

1 t
v p dt + iL (0)
L 0

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Contoh Dualitas
+

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2/11/2010

Penggunaan Komputer
PSIM, MATLAB, EMTP, PSPICE, etc.
Switching Concept
Averaging Concept

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Switching Concept
ii

io

S1
R

Ed

S2

vo
L

vo=SwEd
Vo()=Sw()Ed
Io()=Vo()/Z()
Ii()=Sw()Io()

Sw=1 IF S1 ON and S2 OFF


Sw=0 IF S1 OFF and S2 ON

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2/11/2010

Switching Concept
S1

ii

io

IF vref > car THEN S w = 1 ELSE S w = 0

S 2 vo

Ed

dio
= (S w Ed Rio ) / L
dt
ii = S wio

vref
+

car

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Averaging Concept
S1

ii

0 < t < TON

io

dio
= Ed
dt
< t < Ts

Rio + L

R
S 2 vo

Ed

TON

dio
=0
dt
Averaging
Rio + L

dio
(TON + TOFF ) = Ed TON
dt
Divided by Ts results in
Rio (TON + TOFF ) + L

vref
car

Rio + L

dio
T
= E d ON = vo
dt
Ts

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2/11/2010

D-Q Transform
f qdo = Kf abc

(f qdo )T = [ f q

fd

fo

(f abc )T = [ f a

fb

fc ]

cos
2
K = sin
3 1
2

cos - 23
sin - 23

f abc = K -1f qdo

(
(

)
)

1
2

(
(

)
)

cos + 23

sin + 23
1

cos

K = cos 23
cos + 2
3

(
(

-1

)
)

sin
sin 23

( )
sin ( + 23 )

1
1

= ( )d + o
0

f bisa dipakai untuk tegangan, arus, maupun fluksi.


Bentuk gelombang f bebas, tidak harus sinusoidal.
menyatakan kecepatan putar kerangka referensi.
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D-Q Transform
fb

fq

fa

fc

fd

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Example
ia = 2 I cos s t

( 23 )
2 I cos( s t 23 )

ib = 2 I cos s t +
ic =
iq =

2 2I
cos s t cos t + cos s t +
3

2
3

)cos(t + 23 ) + cos( s t 23 )cos(t 23 )]

iq = 2 I cos( s )t
id =

2 2I
sin s t sin t + sin s t +
3

2
3

)sin(t + 23 ) + sin ( st 23 )sin(t 23 )]

id = 2 I sin ( s )t
io = 0
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D-Q Transform
Power Invariance
Pabc = va ia + vb ib + vc ic
3
v q i q + v d i d + 2 v o io
2
Instantaneous Reactive Power :
3
q = v q i d v d iq
2
Pabc = Pqdo =

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DQ Transform of Stationary Elements


v abc = pabc

[ ]

v qdo = Kp K -1abc = Kp K -1 qdo + KK -1 pqdo

v abc = ri abc

[ ]

pK

-1

-1

v qdo = KrK i qdo

sin

= sin 23
sin + 2
3

(
(

)
)

cos
cos 23

(
(

cos +

2
3

)
)

0
0

Thus

-1

KrK = r

0 1 0
Kp K -1 = 1 0 0
0 0 0

[ ]

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DQ Transform of Stationary Elements


v qdo = dq + pqdo

(dq )T = [d

vq = d + pq
vd = q + pd
vo = po
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DQ Transform of Stationary Elements


iq

L
+

ia

vq

id

Lid
R

ib
n

b
ic

Liq

vd

io

c
vo

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DQ Transform
If the speed of reference frame is equal to
the supply frequency, it is called
synchronous reference frame.
If the speed of reference frame is zero, it is
called stationary reference frame.
If the speed of reference frame is not equal
to the supply frequency, it is called
asynchronous reference frame.
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Space Vector
na =

N
N e j + e j
cos =
2
2
2

nb =

N
N e
cos 23 =
2
2

N
N e
nc = cos + 23 =
2
2
Fa = na ia + nb ib + nc ic

) + e j ( 23 )

) + e j ( + 23 )

j 23

2
j + 23

N j
N
j 2
j 2
j 2
j 2
e ia + ib e 3 + ic e 3 + e j ia + ib e 3 + ic e 3

4
3 N j r 3 N j r *
=
e i+
e i
8
8
r 2
j 2
j 2
i = ia + ib e 3 + ic e 3

3
is called space vector of current.
The same definition s apply to voltage and current.
=

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Example of Space Vector


ia = 2 I cos s t =

ib = 2 I cos s t +

2
I e j s t + e j s t
2
2
3

2
3

) + e j (s t + 23 )

)=

2
2

2 j (s t 23 ) j (s t 23 )
I e
+e

ic = 2 I cos s t 23 =
r
i =

I e

j s t + 23

j ( t + 2 )
j ( s t + 23 ) j 23
j ( t 2 )
j ( s t 23 ) j 23
I e js t + e js t + e s 3 + e
e
+ e s 3 + e
e

r
i = 2 Ie js t

Besaran sinusoidal seimbang akan nampak sebagai suatu vektor


yang bergerak melingkar pada kecepatan tetap.
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Example of Space Vector


Stationary elements :
di
di
di
va = Ria + L a vb = Rib + L b vc = Ric + L c
dt
dt
dt
In space vector form :
r
r
r 2
v = va + a 2 vb + avc
3
r
r
r
r
d 2
2
= R ia + a 2ib + aic + L
ia + a 2ib + aic
dt 3
3
r
r
di
= Ri + L
dt

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Transformation of Space Vector


r
r
x = x e jt
Previous example
r
i = 2 Ie j ( s )t
It should be noted :
r
r j 2
xa = Re[x ] xb = Re x e 3

[ ]

r j 2
xc = Re xe 3

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Numerical Methods To Solve Differential Equations


Let
f ' ( x, t ); x (t o ) = xo ; h
Euler Method :
x(t o + h ) = x(t o ) + hf ' ( xo , t o )
Fourth - Order Runge - Kutta Method :
k1 = f (xo , t o )
k
h

k 2 = f xo + 1 , t o +
2
2

k
h

k 3 = f xo + 2 , t o +
2
2

k 4 = f ( xo + k 3 , t o + h )
x(t o + h ) = x(t o ) +

h
(k1 + 2k 2 + 2k3 + k 4 )
6

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Example
di
= 10 5i
dt
i0 = 0
h = 0.1
i (0.1) = 0 + 0.1 (10 5 0 ) = 1
i (0.2 ) = 1 + 0.1 (10 5 1) = 1.5
i (0.3) = 1.5 + 0.1 (10 5 1.5) = 1.75
i (0.4 ) = 1.75 + 0.1 (10 5 1.75) = 1.875
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Numerical Integration
We have N data for the function y in the interval from a to b :
ba
Let h =
N
b

N 1

ydt = h

yi

(the simplest rule)

n =0

N 1
h
ydt = y0 + y N + 2 yi
a
2

n =1

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Example
T
i

0
1

0.1
2

0.2
3

0.3
1

0.4
2

0.5
3

0.6
1

0.7
2

0.8
3

0.9
1

h = 0.1
N = 10
N 1

0.9

idt = h

0.9 2

i = 1.9
N 1

i dt = h

i 2 = 4.3
0

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The End

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