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Chapter 8 Bipolar Junction Transistors

Since 1970, the high density and low-power advantage of


the MOS technology steadily eroded the BJTs early dominance.
BJTs are still preferred in some high-frequency and analog
applications because of their high speed and high power output.

Question: What is the meaning of bipolar ?

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-1

Ec

E fn

8.1 Introduction
to the EBJT
(b)
v

Efp

VB E

VCB

NPN BJT:
B
E

Emitter

VBE

P
Base

VB E

IC

Collector

(c)

VCB

VCB

IC is an exponential
function of forward
VBE and independent of
reverse VCB.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-2

Common-Emitter Configuration

Question: Why is IB often preferred as a parameter over VBE?


Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-3

8.2 Collector Current

depletion layers

N+

emitter

d 2 n n
2
2
dx
LB

base

collector

WB

B : base recombination lifetime


DB : base minority carrier (electron)
LB B DB
diffusion constant
Boundary conditions :

n(0) nB 0 (e qVBE / kT 1)
qVBC / kT

n (WB ) nB 0 (e
1) nB 0 0
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-4

n( x ) nB 0 (e qVBE / kT
n

n( x )n / n0 (0) 2

WB x

sinh
L
B

1)
sinh WB / LB

ni qVBE kTn 2

iB
e
1( e qVBE / kT

(
x
)

Nn
B

NB

8.2 Collector Current


dn
I C AE qDB
dx
DB niB2 qVBE / kT
AE q
(e
1)
WB N B

1)

I C I S (e qVBE / kT 1)
It can be shown
0

x/x/
WB

n( x ) n(0)(1 x / WB )

qni2 qVBE / kT
I C AE
(e
1)
GB
WB

ni2 p
GB 2
dx
n DB
0 iB

niB2 qVBE / kT

(e
1)(1 x / WB )
NB
GB (scm4) is the base Gummel number
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-5

8.2.1 High Level Injection Effect

At large VBE, n p N B
n p n p
2 q ( E Fn E Fp ) / kT

np ni e

10-2

IkF
10-4

IC (A)

At low-level injection,
inverse slope is 60 mV/decade
High-level injection effect :

10-6

60 mV/decade

10-8
10-10

ni e qVBE / kT

10-12
0

0.2

0.4

n p ni e qVBE / 2 kT
GB p ni e qVBE / 2 kT

0.6

0.8

1.0

VBE

I C ni e

qVBE / 2 kT

When p > NB , inverse slope is 120mV/decade.


Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-6

8.3 Base Current


Some holes are injected from the P-type base into the N+ emitter.
The holes are provided by the base current, IB .
contact emitter

(a)

base
electron flow

collector contact

hole flow
I

IC

pE' nB'

(b)

WE

WB

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-7

8.3 Base Current


contact emitter

(a)

collector contact

base
electron flow

hole flow

IC

qni2 qVBE / kT
I B AE
(e
1)
GE
WE

2
i
2
iE

n n
GE
dx
n DE
0

For a uniform emitter,


DE niE2 qVBE / kT
I B AE q
(e
1)
WE N E

Is a large IB desirable? Why?


Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-8

8.4 Current Gain


Common-emitter current gain, F :
Common-base current gain:
IC F I E

IC
F
IB

IC
IC
IC / I B
F
F

I E I B IC 1 IC / I B 1 F

It can be shown that F

GE DBWE N E niB2
F

GB DEWB N B niE2

F
1F

How can F be maximized?

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-9

EXAMPLE: Current Gain


A BJT has IC = 1 mA and IB = 10 A. What are IE, F and F?
Solution:
I E I C I B 1 mA 10 A 1.01 mA

F I C / I B 1 mA / 10 A 100
F I C / I E 1 mA / 1.01 mA 0.9901
We can confirm

F
F
F
and F
1 F
1F

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-10

8.4.1 Emitter Bandgap Narrowing


To raise F, NE is typically very large.
2
2
n

n
Unfortunately, large NE makes iE
i
(heavy doping effect).

N E niB2

N B niE2
ni2 N C NV e

niE2 ni2 e

E g / kT

E gE / kT

Since ni is related to Eg , this effect is


also known as band-gap
narrowing.
EgE is negligible for NE < 1018 cm-3,
is 50 meV at 1019cm-3, 95 meV at 1020cm-3,
and 140 meV at 1021 cm-3.

Emitter bandgap narrowing makes it difficult to raise F by


doping the emitter very heavily.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-11

8.4.2 Narrow-Bandgap Base and Heterojuncion BJT

N E niB2

N B niE2

To further elevate F, we can raise niB by


using an epitaxial Si1-Ge base.

With = 0.2, EgB is reduced by 0.1eV and niE2 by 30x.

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-12

EXAMPLE: Emitter Bandgap Narrowing and SiGe Base


Assume DB = 3DE , WE = 3WB , NB = 1018 cm-3, and niB2 = ni2. What is
F for (a) NE = 1019 cm-3, (b) NE = 1020 cm-3, and (c) NE = 1020 cm-3 and
a SiGe base with EgB = 60 meV ?
(a) At NE = 1019 cm-3, EgE 50 meV,
E / kT
niE2 ni2 e
ni2 e 50 meV / 26 meV ni2 e1.92 6.8ni2
gE

DBWE N E ni2 9 1019 ni2


F

18
13
2
2
DEWB N B niE 10 6.8ni

(b) At NE2 = 10202cm-3, EgE 95 meV


F 24
niE 38ni
(c)

niB2 ni2e

E gB / kT

ni2 e 60 meV / 26 meV 10ni2

F 237

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-13

8.4.3 Poly-Silicon Emitter


A high-performance BJT typically has a layer of As-doped N+
poly-silicon film in the emitter.

F is larger due to the large WE , mostly made of the N+ polysilicon. (A deep diffused emitter junction tends to cause emittercollector shorts.)
N+-poly-Si
emitter
SiO2
P-base
N-collector

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-14

SCR BE current

8.4.4 Gummel Plot and F Fall-off at High and Low Ic

From top to bottom:


VBC = 2V, 1V, 0V

Why does one want to operate BJTs at low IC and high IC?
Why is F a function of VBC in the right figure?
Hint: See Sec. 8.5 and Sec. 8.9.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-15

8.5 Base-Width Modulation by Collector Voltage


Output resistance :
I C
r0
VCE

VA
IC

IB3

IC

IB2

VA : Early Voltage

VA

IB1

Large VA (large ro )
is desirable for a
large voltage gain

VCE

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-16

8.5 Base-Width Modulation by Collector Voltage


V BE

N+

emitter

base
WB3
WB2
WB1

collector

VCE

VCE 1 < VCE 2<VCE 3

n'

How can we reduce the base-width modulation effect?


Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-17

8.5 Base-Width Modulation by Collector Voltage


VBE

The base-width modulation


effect is reduced if we
(A) Increase the base width,
(B) Increase the base doping
concentration, NB , or
(C) Decrease the collector doping
concentration, NC .

N+
emitter

base

collector

WB3
WB2
WB1

n'

VCE

VCE1< VCE2<VCE3

Which of the above is the most acceptable action?


Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-18

8.6 Ebers-Moll Model

saturation
region

IC

active region

IB

VCE

The Ebers-Moll model describes both the active


and the saturation regions of BJT operation.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-19

8.6 Ebers-Moll Model


IC is driven by two two forces, VBE and VBC .
When only VBE is present :

VB E

VB C
IB

I C I S (e qVBE / kT 1)
I S qVBE / kT
IB
(e
1)
F

C
IC

Now reverse the roles of emitter and collector.


When only VBC is present :
I E I S (e qVBC / kT 1)
IB

I S qVBC / kT
(e
1)
R

R : reverse current gain


F : forward current gain

1
I C I E I B I S (1
)(e qVBC / kT 1)
R
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-20

8.6 Ebers-Moll Model


In general, both VBE and VBC are present :
I C I S (e

qVBE / kT

1
1) I S (1
)(e qVBC / kT 1)
R

I S qVBE / kT
I S qVBC / kT
IB
(e
1)
(e
1)
F
F

In saturation, the BC junction becomes forward-biased, too.


VBC causes a lot of holes to be injected
into the collector. This uses up much
of IB. As a result, IC drops.

VCE (V)
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-21

8.7 Transit Time and Charge Storage


When the BE junction is forward-biased, excess holes are stored
in the emitter, the base, and even in the depletion layers.
QF is all the stored excess hole charge

QF
F
IC
F is difficult to be predicted accurately but can be measured.
F determines the high-frequency limit of BJT operation.

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-22

8.7.1 Base Charge Storage and Base Transit Time


Lets analyze the excess hole charge and transit time in
the base only.

QFB qAE n(0)WB / 2

np' = n'p

QFB
WB2
FB
IC
2 DB
2

niB2iB qV
kT
qVBEBE/ kT

n
(
0
)

(
e
1)1

n 0 = e
N
NBB

WB

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-23

EXAMPLE: Base Transit Time


What is FB if WB = 70 nm and DB = 10 cm2/s?
Answer:
FB

WB2 (7 10 6 cm) 2
12

2
.
5

10
s 2.5 ps
2
2 DB
2 10 cm /s

2.5 ps is a very short time. Since light speed is


3108 m/s, light travels only 1.5 mm in 5 ps.

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-24

8.7.2 Drift TransistorBuilt-in Base Field


The base transit time can be reduced by building into the base
a drift field that aids the flow of electrons. Two methods:
Fixed EgB , NB decreases from emitter end to collector end.
E

Ec

Ef

Ev

Fixed NB , EgB decreases from emitter end to collector end.


E
Ec

C
Ef

1 dEc
E
q dx

Ev
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-25

8.7.3 Emitter-to-Collector Transit Time and Kirk Effect


To reduce the total transit time, emitter and depletion layers must be thin, too.

Kirk effect or base widening: At high IC the base widens into the collector. Wider
base means larger F .

Top to bottom :
VCE = 0.5V, 0.8V,
1.5V, 3V.

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-26

Base Widening at Large Ic


E

I C AE qnvsat

qN C qn
I
qN C C
AE vsat
dE
/s
dx

base

N
collector

N+
collector

x
base depletion
width layer
E
N

base collector

N+
collector

base
depletion
width
layer
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-27

8.8 Small-Signal Model


B

I C I S e qVBE / kT

C
+
C

Transconductance:

vbe

gm vbe

gm

dI C
d

( I S e qVBE / kT )
dVBE dVBE
q
I S e qVBE / kT I C /( kT / q)
kT

g m I C /(kT / q )

At 300 K, for example, gm=IC /26mV.

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-28

8.8 Small-Signal Model


B

1
dI B
1 dI C
g

m
r dVBE F dVBE F

r F / g m

C
+
C

vbe

gm vbe

dQF
d
C

F IC F gm
dVBE dVBE

This is the charge-storage capacitance, better known as the


diffusion capacitance.
Add the depletion-layer capacitance, CdBE :

C F g m CdBE
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-29

EXAMPLE: Small-Signal Model Parameters


A BJT is biased at IC = 1 mA and VCE = 3 V. F=90, F=5 ps,
and T = 300 K. Find (a) gm , (b) r, (c) C.
Solution:
(a)

g m I C /(kT / q)

1 mA
mA
39
39 mS (milli siemens)
26 mV
V

90
(b) r F / g m 39 mS 2.3 k
12
14
C

10

0
.
039

1
.
9

10
F 19 fF (femto farad)
F m
(c)

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-30

Once the model parameters are determined, one can analyze


circuits with arbitrary source and load impedances.
The parameters are routinely
determined through comprehensive
measurement of the BJT AC
and DC characteristics.

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-31

8.9 Cutoff Frequency


B

C
+

Signal C
source

vbe

gm vbe

Load

1 at fT

1
2 ( F CdBE kT / qI C )

The load is a short circuit. The signal source is a current source,


ib , at frequency, f. At what frequency does the current gain
( ic / ib ) fall to unity?
ib
ib
vbe

input admittance 1 / r jC

C F g m CdBE

ic g m vbe
ic
gm
1
( )

ib 1 / r jC
1 / F j F jCdBE kT / qI C
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-32

8.9 Cutoff Frequency

fT = 1/2(F + CdBEkT/qIC)
fT is commonly used to compare the speed of transistors.
Why does fT increase with increasing IC?
Why does fT fall at high IC?
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-33

BJT Structure for Minimum Parasitics and High


Speed

Poly-Si

emitter
Thin base
Self-aligned poly-Si base contact
Narrow emitter opening
Lightly-doped collector
Heavily-doped epitaxial subcollector
Shallow trench and deep trench for electrical isolation
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-34

8.10 Charge Control Model


For the DC condition, IC(t) = QF(t)/F

QF
I B IC / F
F F

In order to sustain an excess hole charge in the transistor,


holes must be supplied through IB to susbtain recombination at
the above rate.
What if IB is larger than QF / F F ?

dQF
QF
I B (t )
dt
F F
Step 1: Solve it for any given IB(t) to find QF(t).
Step 2: Can then find IC(t) through IC(t) = QF(t)/F .
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-35

Visualization of QF(t)

II B( t)(t )
B

dQF
QF
I B (t )
dt
F F
Q F (t)

QF
F F

Q F / F F

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-36

EXAMPLE : Find IC(t) for a Step IB(t)


IB
IC (t)

I B0
t

IB(t)
IC (t)

dQF
QF
The solution of dt I B (t )
F F

is

QF F F I B 0 (1 e t / F F )

I C (t ) QF (t ) / F F I B 0 (1 e

t / F F

n
E

What is I B () ? QF (0)? QF () ?
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

QF
Slide 8-37

8.11 Model for Large-Signal Circuit Simulation


Compact (SPICE) model contains dozens of parameters,
mostly determined from measured BJT data.
Circuits containing tens of thousands of transistors can
be simulated.
Compact model is a contract between
device/manufacturing engineers and
circuit designers.
QR
B

rB

CCS

rC

CB C

QF

I C I S (e qVBE / kT

IC

CB E

VCB
I S qVBC / kT
qVBC / kT

e
) 1

(e
1)

VA F

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

rE

Slide 8-38

8.11 Model for Large-Signal Circuit Simulation


A commonly used BJT compact model is the Gummel-Poon
model, consisting of
Ebers-Moll model
Current-dependent beta
Early effect
Transit times
Kirk effect
Voltage-dependent capacitances
Parasitic resistances
Other effects
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-39

8.12 Chapter Summary


The base-emitter junction is usually forward-biased while
the base-collector is reverse-biased. VBE determines the
collector current, IC .
qni2 qVBE / kT
I C AE
(e
1)
GB
WB

ni2 p
GB 2
dx
n DB
0 iB
GB is the base Gummel number, which represents all the
subtleties of BJT design that affect IC.

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-40

8.12 Chapter Summary


The base (input) current, IB , is related to IC by the
common-emitter current gain, F . This can be related to
the common-base current gain, F .
I C GE
F

I B GB

IC
F
F

IE 1 F

The Gummel plot shows that F falls off in the high IC


region due to high-level injection in the base. It also falls
off in the low IC region due to excess base current.
Base-width modulation by VCB results in a significant slope
of the IC vs. VCE curve in the active region (known as the
Early effect).
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-41

8.12 Chapter Summary


Due to the forward bias VBE , a BJT stores a certain amount
of excess carrier charge QF which is proportional to IC.
QF I C F

F is the forward transit time. If no excess carriers are stored


outside the base, then
WB2
F FB
, the base transit time.
2 DB

The charge-control model first calculates QF(t) from IB(t)


and then calculates IC(t).
dQF
Q
I B (t ) F
dt
F F

I C (t ) QF (t ) / F
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-42

8.12 Chapter Summary


The small-signal models employ parameters such as
transconductance,
dI C
kT
gm
IC /
dVBE
q
input capacitance,

dQF
C
F gm
dVBE

and input resistance.


dVBE
r
F / gm
dI B

Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)

Slide 8-43