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‘The Magna Carta is, perhaps, the best known document in English history and, thought pedantic ima pop myt has proves k ws faa alae dele ace had he sovniase st agna Carta complexity with the result tha reading and discussing the magnitude of its reforms. Sealed by King John at Runnymeade on 15th June, 1218, and confirmed by later Monarchs, the Charter has stood the test of time and provides the basic fundamental principle of human 121 5 rights. The translation hereunder isnot, in itsell,a word by word translation but more of a generalisation of the contents In presenting an attractive facsimile of the original document the publishers have introduced number of Goats of Ams of the Earls and Barons who were prominent before and after the Charter was signed John, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord ofl uke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou: To his Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Ea sa Barons, Teleco Gretig Know hatin he sane of Go oot tho usu nde of the Holy Church, and amendments of Our kingdom, by the al of the Holy Roman Church, Henry. Archbishop 6 Bub Wy Worse? Wittam of Covent aig Benet Rove! spd he noble rons Wills Marsal arto Pembroke, Wil al of Arndt Aland Gaionay Consul of Sot, Warn s-ceral, Peer ie Heber Hubertce Burg Seneca ber, Thomas Basset Alan Baset, Philp Daubeny. Robert de Roppcy ohn Marsha Jobn Fax Hh, anothers, Our toy the frat pace, grareio od andy hs Our present Chart coninoed fog Us and ur Hei orever — Tate Engch Church tC uadniaced i ineteestapated And tat We meh ts oe stree appen fee etc a We oournen fe wil ee te utente {ween Us and Our baron, granted and confmed, by Charter ihe eedon of sens hich scented mow iparant ard ezeeay foie Engh Church else sts granted tale ee meno ou rg fr Us nd Our er forever ai bers underwrite, io have anda holds them an te hes of Us and Our tens Biles 7-9)\tany of Ou eas barons, or thers who ol and atthe ime ofhis death his ec shale of ye hs ahestance, on pment of ance veel Sines) fy uch sehtibe unde ge aod vac, be shal, when he comes of age, have his inheritance without reef ox Fe 1 fines 10°13) To eurdlan ofthe land of tay such he shall tke tettfos oly seanable evens, gimme ang series, int dest boreal Weave commited th vaahipt an suas sae andne Commis est Weta amen fom, nd ea foro last an'cnret men of sues Us ieop up and mainiain he houses, pats vie whole tothe ber hehe comes of ae sacked wit ploughs tn Stephen, Archbishop of Cant Winchester, Jocelin of Bath and incon, Wi lands of Us by knight’s service shal S lines 12 13) The guardian, so long ashes thereto, out of the issues of the same, and sh land can reasonably bear as the season Fequires and the issues ofthe bbe marred without loss of station, and the marriage shall be ‘(lines 14- 15) A widow, on the death of her husband, sh house for forty days ater her husband's death, within w! Belin 1318) No wow sabe compelled 6 macy 50 (lines 16 17) Neither We nor Our baiffs shall seize an debtor's sureties be distrained 10 lines 17-18) Itanyone’ ude known to the heirs next of kin before it be contracted mediately and without difficulty have hes marrage portion and inheritance. She may remain in her husband's ther dower shall be assigned to het nas she wishes to lve without Husband, provided, however, 1 she give security that she will not marry without land or rent for payment of debt so long as the debtor's chattels 1 pay the debt. I the debtor fails to pay. not having the means to dies before the debt hasbeen paid, the Retr shall pay np interest on the debt so longs hes 12 ines 19-20) No scutage nor ad s ‘counsel except to ransom Our person, make our eldest son a knight, and once to ‘marry Our eldest daughter, and for these i be with regard to lds from the Cit) of London. 13 (lines 20-21) The Cit of London sh erties and free customs, both by land and water, Moreover, We decree and grant that boroughs, owas, and ports shall have 18'(lines 21 - 23) For obtaining the cor y by Our letters, the archbishops, bishops, abbot, iy of Us, to meet on axe thereotThe summons being thus made, the business shal ‘summoned have come. 1Slines23-24) We will notin the futur ‘upon his Fee men, except to ansom his person, make hs eldest son ak ’be levied the assessment of aids (other than in the three cases aforesaid) or of scutage, We will cause to be ‘nd great barons, We will also cauze to be summoned, generally, by Our shenis and bai, al ‘bit with atleast forty days’ notice, and at afixed ‘Weill ex oveed on the day appointed, according tothe counsel of those who shall be present, although not daughter, 16 (lines 24-25) No man s (line 25) Common Pleas 18 lines 23-26) Recognizance if "and “darrein presenter the realm, Our Chief Justiciary shall send two justiiaries through each county four times a year, who w! id the said assizes in the cour, on the day and in the place where that court meets, 19 lines 26-27) the sa sizes cannot beheld on he day appointed many ofthe knights andfecoldes as ion of justice not be fined fora small offence only according to the me rohan savinghis merchandise and a husbandm: ave been present on th fay shall remain as hereof, and fr a grave crime according to is magnitude, saving his means of lage. None ofthese fines shall beimposed exceptby the Gath of honest men of the neighbourhood IF fines 2899) 1 only in proportion tothe measure ofthe offence. ter the marine of he ober perons aforesaid, and without considering his escesasca benefice vet ivers excep thone bound by ancient cbstom and law to do is shall hold peas of Our Crown, Ouedemesne manor) Shall remain a he old rent, without any increase 436 lines 30-92) anyone ho the sheor ou Bali enh ou summons fo the debt dueto Us rom the deceased itshallbe for such shen or bal to fogue te chattels of the deceased to the assessed by worth) men 27 lines 32-33) any fee man sal cic intestate, is chatels are tobe tuted by hs nearet nok and hends, under supervision a ie Church savingteach creditor dhe debts owed him by the deveasee 48 line33) No constable or oter of our fines 93-39) rt ines 33-34) No constable shall compel any Sollines 34 98) No sherf or other of © 3ilne 38) Nester We 22 fline: 38 30) We 34 (line 36) The writ 25 (line 30) All counties, hundreds, ke com oF other provisions from any man without immediate payment, unless the ler voluntarily consents to post igh to pay money in lieu of castle-guard when the knight is willing to perform iti person or has some other fit man to doit, fs, or any other man, shall take the horses or cars of any free man for anspor without the owner's consent. take another man's wood for Our c Tor any other work without the owner's cons in the lands of persons convicted of felony for only 2 y be retured to the lords of the fees. ‘be entirely removed from the Thames and Medway, and throughout England, except upon the seashore i'not in the future be issued to anyone fegarding any tenement if thereby a free man may Not be ried in his lord's cour, 35 lines 36-37) There shal be one measure of wine throughout Our realm, and one of ale, nd one measure of com, namely the London quarter, and one width of dyed cloth, falso be with weights or limbs, but it shall be Tussets, and haberets, namely two 536 (line 37) In future nothing shal be piven or taken for'a wrt of ina fons own unpported acs " 3 place any man upon ial without producing credible witnesses tothe truth ofthe ‘outlawed, ori 1y Way destroyed, or will We proceed againstor prosecute him, €Xc 40 (line 40) To.n0 ino one deny or del a1 ‘safe conduct o go and come ‘outlawed according tothe law of 483 lines 43-45) f anyone die holding of some escheat such a the honour of Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster, or other escheats which are in Our hands and are baronies, his heir shal not give any reliet or pert Us other than he would owe to the baron utside the forest aged notin the future appear before Qur justiciaries of the forest in answer to a general summons 45 (lines 45 - 46) We will appoint as justiciares, constables, sheriffs, or balifs only such men as know the law ofthe realm and will observe it wel 46 (line 46) All barons who have founded abbeys, evidenced by charters of Engl 47 (lines 46- 47) All forests which have been made in Our time shal forthwith be ds 48 (lines 47-48) Allevil customs connected with forests and warrens, foresters and warreners, sherifs a sach county by twelve swom knights of such county, chosen by honest men ofthat count shed, 9) We wil immediately etre D or riverbanks and their wardens shall beim within forty days after the inquest be comple iy 49 (lines 48. hostages and charters delivered to Us by Englishmen as security for the peace of forthe performance of loyal service, 450 (lines 49 - 50) We will entirely remove from their balliwicks the kinsmen of Gerard de Athyes, so that henceforth they shall Rold no offies in England 51 (line 0) As soon as peace is restored, We will banish rom Our kingdom ll foreign knights, crossbowmen, attendants, and mercenaries, who have come with horses and ‘arms, to the harm of the kingdom. 52 (lines 50-53) Ifanyone has been them to him, and if aay dispute shall 153 (lines $3 55) Likewise, We s Richard Our Brother affor ise thereupon, the matter sh have similar respite in rendering js ied, and to Wardships o ly remitted or the mater settled by ns, together wi Stephen, Archbishop of Canterbury, i he himself can be present 59) If We have dispossessed or deprived the Welsh of lands, liberties, or other things, without legal judgment oftheir peers, in Eng immediately be restored to them. The same shall the Welsh do to Us and Ours, 57 (lines 59-61) But with gard to all those things of which any Welshman was dispossessed or deprived, without (Our Brother King Richard. and which We hold in Our hands or others hold under Our warranty. Immedi snd or Wi hey s judgment of his peers, by King Heary Our Father or y after Ourretur from our erusade. or iby chance We should of his equals and by the 40 (ine 40) Tovno one wi We deny or delay, right or j tnd come out of and Bupa a ol (lines 42-43) water, except those who have been imprisoned or ‘be dealt with as aforesaic Lancaster or other escheats which are in Our hands and (line 45) Men dv! need notin the future appear before Our justciares ofthe forest in answer to # gene 45 (lines 45 - 46) We will appoint as justciaries, constables, sherifs, or balifs only such men as know the 46 (line 46) All barons who have founded abbeys, evidenced by charters of English kings or ancient enue, shall, have the wardship of them when v 47 (lines 46-47) All forests which have been made in Our time shall forthwith be disafforested. So shal ite done with regard to river banks which have been enclosed in Our 448 (lines 47-48) Al investigated in es irrevocably abolished, 49 (lines 48-49) We eo Us by Englishmen a secu forthe peas ofr the performance of loyal service. ‘of Gerard de Athyes, s0 that henceforth they shall hold no ofices in Engla anis fom Our Kingdom al foreign knights, rossbowmen, attendants and mercenaries, who have come thhorses and les liberties, o rights, We will immediately tore ent ofthe twenty-five barons. 3m of fetenon of those forests which Henry Our Father or abbeys founded in another's fee than Our own, wheretothe lord ofthat fee asserts tice to the complainants in these matters inher husband! ines 80-33) Ir anyone has been dispossessed or deprived by Us, without the legal judgment of his poor, of lands, them to him, and sf any desputes i be decided by judgment ofthe SS (liner 53-58) Likewise, We Tendering justice with respect Richard Our Brother alforested, and to wardships of lands belonging osnother fee, and bis jake, When We retum trom Our craades” orf We remain Behind from i, We w 534 (ine $8) No one shal be arrested or mypisoned upon a woman's appeal foc the d her pers 55/lines 58-57) Alfines unjustly and unlawfully given to Us, and all fines levied unjustly and agains the law ofthe land, shall be entirely remitted or the mater seed by Judgement ofthe twenty-five barons, together with the aforesaid Stephen, Archbishop of Canterbury the himself can be presen 56 (lines 97-59) If We have dispossessed or deprived the Welsh of and iberies, or oter things, without lepaludgrnen of thee peers, in England or Wales, they shal eof them The sae - s hn Kina Hean 0 1) But wth regard o al those thins of which any Welshman wat dispossessed or deprived, without legal judgment of his peers, by King Henry Our Father or um fom oureruside, ori by chance We should (ur Brother King Richard, and which We hold in Our hands or others hold under Our warranty. Immedi in behind from it, We will do fll justice according tothe laws of the Welsh and the aforesaid regions tore the son of Liywelyn, all the Welsh hostages, and the charters which were delivered to Us as security for peace 61 - 62) With regard tothe return ofthe sisters and hostages of Alexander, King ofthe Scots, and ofhi to Our other barons of England. ines 62-63) All he customs and liberties aforesaid, which We have granted tobe enjoyed, by Our people throughout Our kingdom, et all Our subjects, whether clerks or en, observe, toward their dependents 61 (lines 63-72} Whereas We. for tne honour of God and the amendment of Our kingdom, and inorder the better to allay the discord arisen between Us and Our barons, have ‘ranted all these concessions aforesaid, We, willing that they be forever enjoyed. ect any twenty-hve barons ofthe realm, who shall, wih their utmost power, obs land cause tobe observed the peace a or any of our ministers offend in ay respect against any mal, oF jenty-five barons, those four barons shall come before Us, or Out jemand speedy amends forthe same. zt and malice wich as arsenervee Us and ur subjects othe andy, Moreover We hall clergy and ‘tespasses made in consequence of the said disputes from Paster ithe jn of peace, Over and above this, We have caused fo be made in their behalf letters patent the Bishops above-mentioned, and Master Pandulf, or the security and concession ly command tha the English Church shale fre have granted unto them and by ts Ou presen Charter have confined so hat f We, Ou Justi fransgres an ofthese articles of peace or Secunty, and the offence be brought Jusucary We are out ofthe Kingdom, declaring the offence, and {52 (line 72-74) We ave aso wholly have filly remiled and as far as n U Binet ea of Our i Canterbury, Hens, Archbishop of Du {lines 4-75) Wherefore We Tights, and concessions, well and mitted and pardoned a {estimony of Stephen, Archbishop of foresaid ave and keep all the aforesaid liberties, things and places forever. Given by Our hand in the meadow whichis called Runnymede, between ee ‘Staines, on the fifteenth day of June in the seventeenth year of Our reign, ‘OWESTAIR REPRODUCTIONS LTD. 0121-6033430