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WhichistheBestLotion?

By:JohanaGuatemala,MikaelaKonrad,KatherineCarlson,andElenaCohen

INTRODUCTION
OurgoalwastowearetryingtounderstandthehazardousandFDAprohibited
ingredientsinournamebrandlotionsand,studythepreferedqualitiesofourlotioncreate
ourownlotionthatisexemptfromthethingswedeemunhealthytothehumanbody.In
ordertodothis,weselectedfourbrands,St.Ives,Dove,Philosophy,andAveeno.They
allhavedifferentpurposesbesidehydratingyourskinandwearetryingtofindeach
lotionscomponentsthataredangeroustoourhealth.Wehavedecidedtotestthe
effectiveness,spreadability,moisturization,absorption,anddurabilityofeachname
brandlotionweareusinginordertodeterminewhichcharacteristicslotionwewantto
keepinthelotionwedesignandwhichwewanttostrayawayfrom.

MATERIALS&METHODS

Effectiveness(HealthySkin)2days:
Inoureffectivenesstesting,weusedthebasicmaterialslikepinkpaper,
measuringspoons,andbutterknife.Withthesematerials,wefirstneeded4pinkpaperandadd
ofateaspoonoflotiononhalfofthepaper.Wedidntwantedinoneplace,soweusedthebutter
knifetospreadthelotiononthehalfofthepaperthenweputthepinkpaperinlight.Wechecked

theresultseveryhourfor2days.Attheendofthe2days,wedecidethatDovewasthebest
opinionifyouwantyourlotiontobereallyaffected.

Smooth(Spreadability)1ClassPeriod:
When,weweredoingthesmoothtest,weusedonlytwomaterialswhichwas
aluminumfoilandcoffeefilterpaper.Wehadtostartedwithputtingaflatpieceofthe
foilonthetablethenwehavetoweighthefilterpaperasaccuratelyaspossible(itwas
W1).Then,wemeasuredandrecordthetotalareaofthefilterpaper(recorded
measurementA1).After,wefoundthetotalareaofthefilterpaper,wehavetomakethe
aluminumfoilasflataspossiblethenput20dropsoflotioninthesamearea(onevery
coffeefilterpaper)thenletitsitfor10minutesandtheliquidspreadduringthetime.
Afterthetime,weremovethepaperfromthefoilbase,usingscissorsandcutthe
saturatedportionofthefilterpaperawayfromthedryselection.Thenweweightthedry
partofthefilterpaper(labelitasM2)thenmeasurethediameterofthelotionpartofthe
filterpaper(labelitasM2).Afterallofthat,wecalculatingtheweightorthe
measurementwillgivetheresultsofthelotionandtheresultsare:Weight:%Spreadby
Weight=[(W1W2)/W1]100
Measurement:%SpreadbyArea=(A2/A1)100.

Moisturizing1ClassPeriod:
Forthemoisturizingtest,weusedwater,4graduatedcylinders,4clearbeakers,
coffeefilterpaper,measuringspoonsandrubberbands.Webeginthetest,bypouringten

millilitersofwaterintoeachofthefourgraduatedcylinders.Wehavetopourwaterintothefour
clearbeakers,measureofateaspoonofeachlotionsthenspreaditovereachfilters.After,that
weputthefilteroverthejarandtightenaroundthejar.Weplacedeachbeakersoncounterinour
chemistryroom,whichhasroomtemperature,andletthemsitforaclassperiod.Wecheckedthe
jarseverytenminutestomeasurehowmuchwaterhasevaporated.
Tightenrubberbandoverjarholdingonfilter.Attheend,weremovethefilterandpourthe
remainingliquidbackintothegraduatedcylindertomeasuretheliquidremaining.

LongLasting1wholeday:
Ourmaterialsconsistedofmeasuringspoons,saranwrap,rubberbands,andeach
ofourownlotions.Wedesignateaspotofourwritswhereallfourofuswillputateaspoonof
eachlotionon.Onceapplied,wewrappedthesaranwraparoundourwristcoveringthelotion
entirelytokeepdebrisanddirtaway.Thenusingtherubberbandstowraparoundourwrists,we
securedthewarpinplace.Everyhourafterthat,wewrotedownourobservationsonhowlong
eachlotionwaslasting.

RubsIn(Absorption)510days:
Ourmaterialsconsistedof4smallpotatoes,saranwrap,andmeasuringspoons.
Firstweweightedeachpotatowrappedwithenoughsaranwraptowraparoundthepotatoin
grams.Thenweapply1tablespoonofevenlyaroundthepotatowithinthesaranwrap.Oncewe
labeleachofthemwiththeircorrespondinglotion,weletthemsitandeachdayforfivedayswe
wrotedownourobservationsoneach..


RESULTS
Effectiveness

Forthistestweappliedonehalfofateaspoonoflotiontohalfofapink
coloredpaper.Weleftallthepapersinanareaoflight.Afteranhourwewouldcheckthepapers
torecorddataonhowwellthedifferentlotionsabsorbed.
(DoveandSt.Iveshadlesslotionwhen
comparedtotheamountPhilosophyandAveenohad.)

12:00p.m
(Wednesday)

Dove

Philosophy

Aveeno

Lighter

Darker

Alittlebit

Drysoapy

smoother

darker

St.Ives
Samecolor

thick
2:00p.m.

Light

Darker

Dark

(Wednesday)

White

thicker

10:30a.m.

Smooth

Dark

Apparentlygone Paperisclear

(Thursday)

White

Thick

Smooth

Soft

12:30a.m.

Almostgone

Alotoflotion

Outlinevisible

Absorbedinto

(Thursday)

Lightpink

2:30p.m.
(Thursday)
3:00p.m

Samecolor

paper

Outlinevisible

VeryDark

butfaint

Greasy

Notvisible

VeryDark

Gone

Outlinefaint

Alittlebitgone Light

(Thursday)

Smooth

VeryGreasy

Greasy

Smooth

Thetestresultswereveryinterestingwhenwecheckedourpapers.Theresultsshowed
thatPhilosophytobeverygreasyanddark.Aveenofeltverythickandalittlebiggreasy.Even
thoughtheamountoflotionthatwasputonthepaperwasdifferentforDoveandSt.Ives,
DovesresultcolorwasverysimilartothepinkpaperleavingDoveasthebestchoice.

Smooth(Spreadable)

Forthistestweapplied20dropsoflotioninthemiddleofthe
filterpaper.Afterwaitingtenminuteswecutouttheaffectedpartofthefilterpaperand
measuredandweighedit.

Dove

WeightofFilter 0

Philosophy

Aveeno

St.Ives

50.24in^2

50.24in^2

50.24in^2

50.24in^2

Paper(W1)
TotalAreaof
FilterPaper
(A1)
DryPartof
FilterPaper
(M2)(afterthe
lotionisplaced)

Diameterof

1in

1in

2in

1in

Lotionpartof
FilterPaper
(A2)

Thetestresultsshowedthateventhoughtheweightstayedzero,Aveenospreadtwo
inchesmakingitthemostspreadableproduct.Philosophyendedupbeingtheproductthatdidnt
spreadatallfromwhereitwasput.

Moisturizing
Forthistestwepouredtenmillilitersofwaterintogars.Thenweput
coffeefiltersatthetopofthejar.Weaddedonehalfofateaspoonoflotionontothecoffeefilter.
Thistestwastoseehowmuchofthelotionwentthroughthefilterthefastestintothewater.

Dove

Philosophy

Amt.ofStarting 10ml

Aveeno

St.Ives

10ml

10ml

10ml

Water
10:20

10ml

10ml

10ml

10ml

10:40

Lesslotionon

Murky

Lesslotionon

Alittlemurky

top
11:00

top

Littleclean

Nochange

Absorbedmore

Littlebitmore
absorbed

Littleclear

Murky

Littleclear

Murky

12:00

Whitetop

Alotstillontop

Mediumamount Wellabsorbed

Dusty
12:10

12:20

Whitetop

Fingeramount

mediumamount

verygreasy

Almostgone

AlmostGone

Murky

Murky
Moisturized

Didnotabsorb

Didnotabsorb

LittleGreasy

white

Greasy

moisturized

Thetestresultscameasasurprise.Philosophyscoffeefilterwasverygreasystill.
Aveenowastookalongtimetoabsorbintothewaterbelowthefilter.Dovesfilterwasvery
whitewithallofthelotionstillonit.St.Ivesfilterwasntgreasyorwhite.Italsoshowedupinto
thewatermuchmorethantheothers.St.Ivesturnedoutthebethebestfitforthistest.

LongLasting

Forthistestweputonehalfateaspoonoflotiononourwristandwrapped
itwithsaranwrapforthewholedaytoseewhichonewouldlastthelongestonourskin.

9:00a.m.

Dove

Philosophy

Moremoistthan Ichy

Aveeno
Ichy

St.Ives
Drying

10:00a.m.

11:00a.m.

others

Moist

Thickandmoist

Moist

Ichy

Thick

Moist

Moist

Moist

Thick

Almostabsorbed

Thick

Absorbing

Moist

Dryingslowly

Abitgreasy
12:00p.m.

Moist

Greasy

1:00p.m.

Stilleverymoist Almostabsorbed Alittlebitless

Absorbed

thick
2:00p.m.

Moist

Gone

Alittlebitless

Gone

thick
3:00p.m.

Moist

Gone

Didntdryuntil
5pm

ThefeelingofthelotionsPhilosophyandSt.Ivesbothwentawayaround2p.m.By3
p.m.thethicknessfeelingofAveenowentaway.WithDovestillmoistallthewayto5p.m.it
passesthetestforlonglasting.

RubsIn
Forthisexperimentwecalculatedtheweightoffoursmallpotatoes.Thenwe
addedonetablespoonoflotionontothepotatoandwrappeditinsaranwrap.Recordweight
change.

Dove

Day1

Day2

Philosophy

Aveeno

St.Ives

37g(Potato)

39g(Potato)

42g(Potato)

42g(Potato)

39g(w/saran)

40g(w/saran)

43g(w/saran)

43g(w/saran)

50g(w/lotion)

43g(w/lotion)

51g(w/lotion)

54g(w/lotion)

43total

43gtotal

49total

54total

Fromthisexperimentwehavecalculatedverydifferentresults.Aveenolosttwograms
whichmeantthatitlostmoisture.Dovelostsevengramswhichmeantitlostalotofmoisture.
St.IvesandPhilosophysweightdidntchangeleavingthenwillnotabsorbinganything.Since
Doveabsorbedthemostwewouldpickitasthebestforthistest.

DISCUSSION
Afterallthistestingandresearching,wehavebeenabletodeterminespecific
ingredientswedonotwanttoincludeinournewlotion.Wedeterminedwedidnotwant
TitaniumDioxide,Urea,Triethanolamine,andallthreekindofParabensbecauseoftheir
uselessness,chancesofgivingcancer,anddisruptionofhormones.Qualitiesthatwedo
notwantinourlotionareexcessiveoilinessaswenotedinoureffectivenesstestfrom
whatPhilosophydemonstrated.Aswell,wedonotcareforDovesexcessiveamountof

timetomoisturizecomfortablyasitdemonstratedinourmoisturetest.Wehavebeen
abletopickspecificlotions,fromthenamebrandswehavedecidedtotest,tomodel
certainaspectsofournewlydevelopedlotion.WedowanttokeepDovesabilitytogive
ahealthyappearanceaswewereabletodetermineinoureffectivenesstest.Another
qualitywewanttokeepfromDoveaswellisitsdurabilityduringalongdaywhichcan
bereferredbacktooureffectivenesstables.Wehavealsoalreadyfoundgreat
substitutionsfortheingredientswedonotwantlikericestarch,cherryblossomextract,
yuccaextract,andgrapefoodseedextract.Wearereadytomoveontothinkingaboutall
theactiveandinactiveingredientswewouldneedtocreateourownlotionwhichwewill
modelmainlyafterSt.Ives,aswellaslookingforthebestwayofsynthesizingofown
healthylotion.

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