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CENTRE FOR GEOTECHNICAL RESEARCH THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY ELASTIC SOLUTIONS FOR SOIL AND ROCK MECHANICS by H.G. Poulos and EH. Davis ‘The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Ausiralic. Telephone: (02) 692 2109 Telex: AA 26169 ELASTIC SOLUTIONS FOR SOIL AND ROCK MECHANICS SERIES IN SOIL ENGINEERING Eeited by T.William Lambe Robert V. Whitman Professors of Civil Engineering Massachusetts institute of Technology Books in Series: Soil Testing for Engineers by T. William Lambe. 1951 ‘Soil Mechanics by T. William Lambe and Robert V. Whitman, 1968 Elastic Solutions for Rock and Soil Mechanics by Harry G. Poulos and E.Davis, 1974 ‘Soil Dynamics by Robert V. Whitman (in progress) Fundamentals of Soil Behavior by James K. Mitchell (in progress) ‘The aim of this series is to present the modern concepts of soll engineering, which is the science and technology of soils and their application to problems in civil engineering. The word “soil” is interpreted broadly to include all earth materials whose properties and behavior influence civil engineering construction. Soll engineering is founded upon many basic disciplines: mechanics ‘and dynamics: physical geology and engineering geology: clay minerelogy and colloidal chemistry: and mechenics of granular systems end fluid ‘mechanics. Principles from these basic disciplines are backed by ‘experimental evidence from laboratory and field investigations and from observations on actual structures. Judgment derived from experience and engineering economics are central to soil engineering. “The books inthis series are intended primarily for use in university ‘courses, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The editors also ‘expect that al of the books will serve as valuable reference material for practicing engineers. T. William Lambe Robert V, Whitman ELASTIC SOLUTIONS FOR SOIL AND ROCK MECHANICS H G Poulos Reader in Civil Engineering University of Sydney EH Davis Professor of Civil Engineering (Soil Mechanics) University of Sydney Originally Published in 1974 by: JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. NEW YORK - LONDON - SYDNEY - TORONTO Reprinted in 1991 by: CENTRE FOR GEOTECHNICAL RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY Details of original publication: ‘Copyright © 1874, by Jotn Wiley & Sons, ne. ‘All ght resered, Published simultaneousy in Canad. ‘No ar of thia book may be reproduced by any means, ‘ot tranamited, nor tarulated ito a mechie language without tne writen permission ofthe publisher. Umar of Congres Cataloging In Pubication Outa: Poulos G84 ‘testi solution for aol and rk mechanics, Bibiograpty: 1. Soil mechaniea Problems, exercises le. 2. Roce mechanies—Probieme,execies, = a fmm exercises, oc. ais, ELM, jos qtr. Tle. vanoper — eessia ATT ISBN O47 -8se5 Printed in the United States of Ameria wosressazy PREFACE TO REPRINTED EDITION The original edition of this book has been out of print for several years, but there have been many requests for it to be reprinted. The original publishers, John Wiley and Son Inc, New York, have been gracious in re-assigning copyright to the surviving author, and hence, the book is now being reprinted through the Centre for Geotechnical Research at the University of Sydney. This reprinted edition contains a significant number of corrections which were brought to the author's attention by a number of users, in particular, Dr John T Christian, Dr Peter T Brown, Professor M R Madhav, Mr J M Shen, Sir Alan Muir Wood, Dr K J Cheverton, Professor Michael J Pender, Dr | D Moore, Associate Professor J C Small and Mr M A Adler. | am very grateful to these persons for their interest in bringing the errors to my attention. | am also grateful for the encouragement of my colleagues within the Centre for Geotechnical Research at the University of Sydney to prepare the corrected edition, and to Ms Monica Martin, who undertook the typing of the corrections and Miss Kim Pham for correcting the figures. Harry G Poulos August, 1991 PREFACE ‘The authors have attempted to assexble as comprehensive a collection as possible of graphs, tables and explicit solution of problems in elasticity relevant to soil and rock mechanics. Many of these solutions are well known and“widely used in geotechnical practice, and are available in standard references. However, new solutions of relevance appear at frequent intervals and in diverse publications, and it is~ difficult for the practising engineer to locate, or even to Jmow of the existence of, a solution which may be of interest. The large najority of solutions are for an isotropic horo- geneous mass, but soze inportant solutions are also included for cross-anisotropic and non-hopogencous elastic materials. Because of the vast literature in the theory of elasticity and the need to keep the book to a reasonable size, coverage of solutions in this book is by no means exhaustive, and solutions which nay be considered of relevance by sone people will doubt- Jess have been omitted. In a number of instances, a reference is given even though no solution is reproduced in the book. Tt has not been found practicable to maintain a unifora notation throughout the book; where there appeared to be valid reasons for doing so, the original author's notation has been adhered to, but particularly in the more basic material, a commen notation has been used. However, 2 uniform sign con- vention has been used in that the following are considered a5, positive: compressive stress, reduction in length or volume, and displacenent in the positive co-ordinate direction. The authors have not attempted the imense task of a full cheek of all the solutions they have reproduced, but a nore Limited check has been carried out by testing solutions for selg- consistency and consistency with other solutions and this has umecvered a mmber of errors in the original solutions which have been corrected. However, it is probable that some further errors wAL1 have escaped the authors’ notice and any information on such errors vill be gratefully received by then. The book is divided into essentially four parts: (@)__an introductory sumary of tho basic equations and relationships in elastic theory (Chapter 1) and then basic solutions for problens involving concentrated loads on elastic media (Chapter 2); (©) __ solutions for loading of simple geometrical areas, both uniformly loaded and rigid (Chapters 3 to 9); (©). solutions of a nore complicated nature having relevance to practical soil mechanics, rock mechanics and foundation roblens (Chapters 10 to 15) ()__ appendices containing complete solutions for various cases of surgace loading on an anisotropic or isotropic elastic half space, As a reference for students, research workers and practising engineers, this book may be used in a number of ways: (2) as an imediate source of solutions for use in solving geotechnical problems; (®)__a5 2 source of basic solutions from which nore complicated solutions may be evaluated by the user; ()___as a source of reference solutions against which ‘mmumerical computer solutions (c.g. from the finite eleaent method) my be checked. Grateful achnowledgenent is given to the great number of persons and institutions, too numerous to list individually, who have given permission for their solutions to be reproduced. Special thanks are due to Dr. T. Willian Lambe; Edmund K. ‘Tumer Professor of Civil Engineering at ¥.1.T., for his original encouragenent of the preparation of the books Or. J.P. Giroud of the University of Grenoble, France, for his generous permission to reproduce many of his results, both published and unpublished; Drs. J.R. Booker and P.T. Brown of the University of Sydney for theix coments and advice, and Dr. C. M, Gerrard and Mrs. W.J. Harrison for permission to reproduce their papers in full as Appendices A and 8. Finally, the authors are greatly indebted to Mrs. M. Brown, who cheerfully and patiently carried out the major task of typing the mnu- seript, and to Mr. R. Brev, Mrs. H. Papallo and Miss A. Chittendon, who undertook the onerous task of preparing the diagrans. H. G. Poulos E.H. Davis June 1873 CHAPTER 1 1a 12 13 14 1s 1.6 17 18 1.9 GUAPTER 2 21 2.2 2.3 GUAPTER 3 3a 3.2 33 34 35 3.6 CHAPTER 4 42. 42 43 CONTENTS FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS snalysis of stress Analysis of strain Equilibrium equations Strain-displacenent and compatability equations Stress-strain relationships Digferential equations of isotropic elasticity Convenient nethods of considering loaded areas Superpssition of solutions for various loadings Equations of simple bending theory BASIC SOLUTIONS FOR CONCENTRATED LOADING Point loading Line loading Line loading-axial symmetry DISTRIBUTED LOADS ON THE SURFACE OF A SEMI= INFINITE YASS Loading on an infinite strip Loading over half the infinite surface Loading on a circular area Uoading on a rectangular area Loading on an elliptical area Loading over any area - DISTRIBUTED LOADING BENEATH THE SURFACE OF A ‘SEMI-INFINITE YASS Vertical Loading on a horizental area Horizontal leading on a vertical rectangle Rectangles subjected to shear loading 10 2 1s 16 28 2 36 aL 43 54 ” 7 92 7 99 S. 5.2 8.3 5.4 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 CHAPTER 7 7 12 7.3 74 1S 7.6 17 78 79 CHAPTER 8 8.1 8.2 83 84 8.5 9.1 9.2 CONTENTS: SURFACE LOADING OF A FINITE LAYER UNDERLATN BY A RIGID BASE Loading on an infinite strip Loading on a circulsr area Loading on a rectangular area Vertical loading over any area SURFACE LOADING OF MULTI-LAYER SYSTEMS ‘Tworlayer systems ‘Three-layer systens Four-layer systems Approximate solutions for multi-layer systens RIGID LOADED AREAS Infinite strip on a semi-infinite mass Circle on semi-infinite sass Circular ring on semi-infinite mass Rectangle on semi-infinite mass Ellipse on semi-infinite mass Infinite strip on finite layer Circle on finite layer Rectangle on finite layer Rigid areas enbedded within a seni-infinite mass STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS TN CROSS- ANISOTROPIC MEDIA Concentrated loading on a seni-infinite mass Strip on seni-infinite mass Cirele on semi-infinite mass Loading on multi-layer systems Particular cases of anisotropy ‘STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN A NON-HOMOGENEOUS ELASTIC MASS Seni-infinite mass with linear variation of aodulus Generalized Boussinesq theory for non- homogeneous semi-infinite mass Finite layer with linear variation of modulus 103 un us 152 138 4s 162 162 165 166 167 168 169 im 178 180 180 183 184 185 187 ist 193 195 198 CHAPTER 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 CHAPTER 11 WL 1.2 (CHAPTER 12 121 12.2 12.5 CHAPTER 15 13.1 15.2 13.35 13.4 13.5 13.6 CHAPTER 14 ML 14.2 14.3 CHAPTER 15 Bal 15.2 15.3 1544 15.5 15.6 CONTENTS STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN EVSANENTS AND SLOPES. Enbankrent on rigid base Enbanksent on elastic foundation In€inite slope ‘STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS AROUND UNDERGROUND OPENINGS Unlined openings Lined openings RAFT FOUNDATIONS Strip foundations on a semi-infinite mass Cireular rafts Rectangular rafts AXIALLY LOADED PILES Single intoupressible floating pile Single compressible floating pile Single compressible end-bearing pile Negative friction in a single end-bearing pile Floating pile groups End-bearing pile groups PILES SUBJECTED TO LATERAL LOAD AND MOMENT Single floating pile ‘Tip-restrained piles Pile groups MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS Thick-wall cylinder in triaxial stress field Cylinder with rough rigid end plates Inclusion in an infinite region se plate subjected to moment and horizontal Stresses in a layer with a yielding base Stresses behind retaining walls 199 226 229 265 249 255 260 269 an 278 278 279 281 283 287 291 297 297 304 305 APPENDIX A STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN A LOADED ORTHORHOMBIC HALF SPACE APPENDIX B CIRCULAR LOADS APPLIED TO A CROSS- ANISOTROPIC HALF SPACE AUTHOR INDEX INDEX adi 509 337 399 405 407 Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 1.1 Analysis of Stress 4.1.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS AND SIGN CONVENTION Since it is often convenient in soi] mechanics to consider compressive stresses as positive, this conventional vill be adopted here, The normal and shear stresses acting on an elesent are shown in Fig.1.1, the stresses ali being of positive sim. The normal stresses Gz, dy, dz are positive shen directed into the surface. The notation for the shear stress tzj is as follows: ‘Teg is the shear stress acting in the jf dixection on g plane normal to the ¢ axis. ‘The sign convention for shear stress is as follows: ‘The shear stress is positive when directed ina negativs Cartesian direction while acting on a plane whose cutward nomal points in a positive direction, or, when directed in @ positive Cartesian direction while acting on @ plane whose outward normal points in a*hegative Cartesian direction, ‘Equilibrium requires that w= ay Te by, =F ye Uy te 7 le For the definition of stresses in other coondin- ate systens, see Section 1.5. 1.1.2. STRESS COMPONENTS OW ANY PLANE Referring to Fig.i.2, the stress components Pre» Pays Pra on any plane with a directed normal n can be expressed in terms of the stresses in the =, y md = coordinates as oe P26.2.2 2 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS Pra coe(ny) Pay | = | Tey %y Tay | fereme? Joe GD Pra Tee Tye %p | | cosine? where cos(n,z) is the cosine of the angle between the 1 and 2 directions, and similarly for eos(ny) and cos(n,a). y vm FIG.1.2 1.1.3. TRANSFORMATION OF AXES If a new set of orthogonal axes =’, y’, 2! are chosen, the stress components in this coordinate system are related to the stress components in the original =, y, 2 system as follows: 5 =A SAT see 0.2) where S; is the stress matrix with respect to the z'y'z' axes, Sis the stress matrix with respect the zyx axes, to A is the direction cosine matrix, ine, 4 = | cos(s',z) cos(s',y) gos(s',2) eoa(y',z) costy'sy) cos(y'sz) costa!) cos(s',y) cos(a',s) AB is the transpose of A. 1.1.4 PRINCIPAL STRESSES It is possible to show that there is one set of axes with respect to which all shear stresses are zero and the normal stresses have their extreme values. The three mutually perpendicular planes where this condition exists are called the principal planes, and the normal stresses acting on these planes are the principal stresses. ‘The principal stresses, 01, 02 and os (the maximum, intermediate and minimum stresses respect ively) may be found as the roots of the equation id; #528, - Ty = 0 se G3) where Jy = 0,40,40, = (bulk strese) ie + (Leda) 5 at tet 2at,? Ta 2 0,0 y'0, 010,05 Ta Tys “Tae see Gab) Jy = 0,9,0,-0,1, 2-07, 2-0,7,2 Ley gOhyd “yas “Tyg + yytyatee 1+ 140) di (or 0), J2, Js are often known as the first, second and third stress invariants, as they remain constant, independent of the coordinate system. In terms of the principal stresses, NO antares + @.5a) Ja = 102 + 0203 + 0301 +++ (2.56) Js = 10203 see G.5¢) The directions of the normals to the principal planes are given by ses (62) +++ (1.60) % os ses Q.60) pepe? (9y-9,) rth Tytes 7 Tey ar? Neylys eal and 6, are the principal stresses 7 i = 1,2,3). « 1.1.5 MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS ‘The maximm shear stress occurs on a plane whose normal makes an angle of 45° with the o; and oy directions. ‘The maximm shear stress, Tar at a point is given by ANBLESIS OF STRESS 3 = Haro) ‘nae 27 T.1.6 OGTAMEDRAL STRESSES The octahedral norsal stress pgp and the octahedral shear stress togt at 2 point are the stresses acting on the eight planes of an imaginary ‘octahedron surrounding the point, the normals to the faces of the octahedron having direction cosines of 21/43 with the direction of the principal stresses. The magnitudes of the octahedral stresses are = Titers 9 eye ves 8) oot 5 3 3 Tyo 7 F {Cor-e2)*#02-o9F #1oy-0n)*}¥ 1 2, 2 = 2 ((0,-6,)?#16,-9,)?40,-0,) Leg ter 2 leg ae Hyg IE 1.9) 1.1.7 TWO-DIMENSIONAL STRESS SYSTEMS Many situations in soil uechanics con be treated 38 two-dimensional problems in which only the stresses Jn 3 single plane noed be considered. The most important case is that of plave otnain, in which the strain (see Section 1.2) in one of the coordinate @irections (usually the y direction here) is zero. Another class of problems are those involving plate stress conditions, in which the stress in one of the coordinate directions {usually y here) is zero. In tto~dimensional stress situations, the stress relationships ate considerably simplified’ in relation to the general threo-dimensional case. Referring to Fig.1.3, the stresses on a plane making an angle 6 with the 2 direction are 0g = H0,t0_J#(c,-0,Joas20+1,otnB8 ... (1.10) Ty = Tyq00828K(a, -0,)sin20 ve QT) ‘The principal stresses are given by Rb= soso) woos ye... aa The principal planes are inclined at an angle 8, 8 = dart wee (1.13) ey and 8,490" to the # axis. FIG.L.3 The maximum shear stress occurs on planes inclin- ed at 48° to the principal planes and is of magnitude ses G14) Syme Me ae? (loo) 40,,3)% (It should be noted that the sign of this maxima shear stress 1s opposite on the two planes, in order ‘to conform to the Sign convention given in Section haa). 1.1.8 MOHR'S CIRCLE OF STRESS A geonetrical solution for stresses in any dir ection is provided by Mohr's circle, shown in Fig.1.4 for a twe-dimensional stress system, The circle is drawn in relation to a set of orthogonal axes, one for normal stress (0) and the other for shear stress (tJ. The scale of these two axes mst be equal. If the principal stresses oi, 3 are known, the cirele can be dram with the centre at o=h(01403) and of radius (0;-03)/2. If the noraal and shear stresses are know, the cirele can be dravn with the centre at o=k(oxtdy) and passing through the points (o_, ,_) and (¢,5-t,) ‘The radius of the circle thus constructed is equal to the maximum shear stress tg (see Equation 114). ‘The angle 28: is twice the angle between the s-8 coordinate axes and the axes corresponding to the directions of principal stress (the i-3 axes in Fig.1.4). The direction of rotation of the radius fron its original constructed position to where the circle intersects the normal stress axis is in the same angular sense a5 the direction of rotation of the ‘axes for the a-z axes to become the principal 1 axes: ‘The stresses in eny other directions =’, a! may sinilarly be determined by draving diameter, through the contre of the circle, at an mgle 28’ to the Aianeter deseribing the stress conditions on the « ‘FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS 2 axes, where 0/ is the angle between the == axes and the z’-s' axes (see Pig.t.4). Tt should be noted that shear stresses are ¢on- sidered positive if they tend to produce a clockvise rotation about a point, outside the elenent, at the plane on which they act (Fig.1.5). This convention is consistent with that previously developed for FIG.1,5 1.1.9 POLE CONSTRUCTION Tae pole construction is a useful way-of Linking ‘the stresses at 4 point in the physical plane (Pig. 1.6b) to the Mohr circle disgram for the stresses (Fig-1.6a). The pole, P, is the point on the circle such thet the normal and shear stresses on any plane & (perpendicular to the physical plane) aze given by ‘the intersection with the Mohr circle of a line through P parallel with the plane a. For example the stresses on vertical and horizontal planes are, as Andicated in Fig.J.6a and the najor principal plane is inclined at the angle @ above the horizontal, 1.2 Analysis of Strain 1.2.3. BASIC DEFINITIONS Considering first the case of two-dimensional strain (Fig.1.7), the normal strains ez and e are defined as vey (18a) ANALYSIS OF STRAIN ei 20, -3 se CLo150) where 2, Pg are the displacements in the 2 and 2 directions. A positive normal strain corresponds ‘to a decrease in length. The shear strain gz is the angular change in a right angle in a material and is related to the dis- placenents pe and pz as 2°, = -3i- ses (2.16) A positive shear strain represents an increase in the right angle and a negative shear strain represents a decrease in the right angle. ~ Considering the 2y and ys planes similarly, the six strain Components are related to the displace- ments Pz» Pys Pz inthe =, y and 2 directions as ae, 2, 2, TE ey TE GT) a, 20, = og ae y ve ee e Yee 2 Eee ute) a = ae te “Ne G6! s te thot postion (na enntiguration of the eriginc! right ngs AOR ‘Shear StrOM Yqx=-Oy~ 62 ¥IG.1.7 1.2.2 STRAIN IN A PLANE Considering again a two-dimensional strain situ- ation, the normal strain eg in a plane inclined at @ tothe 2 axis is and the shear strain is Yo = Yes 820 - (e,r€,) singe see (L189) (Note that the above expressions correspond to those for the normal and shear stresses (Section 1,1), except for a factor of in the last term). 1.2.5 TRANSFORMATION OF AXES If a new set of orthogonal axes =', y!, 2’ are chosen, the strain components in this coordinate system are related to the strain components in the original <, y, 2 system as Dy, = Adal see (1.20) where D is the strain matrix in the 2% 2 systea, he, ey Fey May pe |My Y My Hen May 5, se G21) Dy is the strain matrix in the a', y's a! system, A is the direction cosine matrix defined in Section 1.1.3. AT is the transpose of A, In matrix operations, it is convenient to use the double suffix notation and to define 4vzz as ey The strain matrix is then fsx Say See D= leye Sy Sys Fas “ya Sas] see (2.22) 1.2.4 PRINCIPAL STRAINS ‘Analogous to the principal planes of stress, there ‘axe three principal planes of strain. The shear strains in these planes are zero and the normal strains ‘are the principal strains, The najor and minor prin- cipal strains are respectively, the greatest and least normal strains at the point, For an isotropic elastic material, the principal planes of strain can be shown to coincide with the principal planes of stress. 6 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS ‘The principal strains are deternitied, in a sinil- ar manner to principal stresses, as the roots of the equation ef - het +ne,-t=0 e+ 28) where Thee, tey te, +. (24a) wt The te 4 see (1,24b) €, ze 2 Theeee, - eve. ee ays a en? ey Ves Y; eer eed see G-240) Ih, Iz, Is are the strain invariants, analogous to the stress invariants. In two-dimensional systems, the principal strains €1, €3 are as follows: 8) a pe Sale tee 7 ses 1.25) and the principal planes are inclined at an angle 6; to the = and 2 axes, where 6 cr es pom ear? ses 1.26) 1.2.5 MAXIMUM SHEAR STRAIN. Yar 7 81> es ses 1.27) where €, = maximum principal normal strain, €5 = minimm principal noraal strain, ‘maz occurs on a plane whose normal makes an angle of 45° with the €, and €3 directions. 1.2.6 MOHR'S CIRCLE OF STRAIN A geometrical solution for strains in any direct- ion is provided by Mohr's circle of strain (Fig.1.8). ‘The only difference between the circle of strain and the cizcle of stress is that, in the circle of strain, ‘the ordinate represents only one-half the shear strain (i.e. the ordinate axis is 7/2). As in Fig.1.4, the axes’ 1-3 represent the principal axes, 2-2 the horizontal and vertical space axes and ‘x'-2! the axes in direction at an angle @/ to the =z axes. The dianeter of the circle is equal to the maximm shear strain Veet Yume 7 Marg) + Yay ‘The pole construction as described for the Mohr circle of stress may be adapted for the Mohr circle of strain. wk FIG.1.8 Mobr circle of strain. 1.3 Equilibrium Equations 41.3.1 CARTESIAN COORDINATES By considering the equilibrium of the elenent shown in Fig.1.1 in the Cartesian coordinate system, the following equilibriun equations are obtained: Bo, Bye HF, ae, Tere we Ge wet He ore 2.282) see (1.280) QOILIBRIUM EQUATIONS x, tye MF Elam, ye etre te te? where % ¥, % are the body. forces, per With axial symetry, these become ES ‘an unit volume, in the =, y’ and 20, a0, = directions, ny ca wer aa? With an ordinary gravity field and the 2 dir- gevton vertically dowvaris,” and) 2” are zero and et Bote the unit weight, y, of the material. ar Me Ten unit ight, Y¥, “we tat oO 1.3.2. CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES 1.3.5. SPHERICAL COORDINATES (Fig.2.10) 16,1,20 +290 * ree 3p FIG.1.9 x, 26, ro “Blatt meat Considering the equilibrium of the elezent in the cylindrical (x,2, 0) coordinate syste shovn in Fig. + yy 2 Map 1.3, Be equilibrium equations are (neglecting body et 0 * Feind 39 forces: 4, 20,79 . By Moprtyh oe F a @.28¢) see 308) ee (.30b) x, IMyy Fr Tghh gore? 19,4 Poaceae) see (Sta) a, 1 May, Bratlagaylert® wee (LA31B) doy FyytPT—gorte och Me, Stee @.sie) For complete spherical symnetry these becone see Q.32) 4 ‘FUNDAMENTAL DSFIWITIONS AND RELATIOUSATPS 1.4 Strain-Displacement and Compatibility Equations 1.4.1 CARTESIAN COORDINATES ‘The strain ~ displacement relationships are given in equation (1.17). "Since six strain components are Serived from only thres displacements, the strains are not independent of each other. Six further relation- ships, Kuown as the compatibiiicy equations, can be derived. These ore 95 follows: ses (380) ve, ve, WY, ‘yy ote ys ae Wye ve G35) ae, * Nex aetae * ne ss G.386) Be a, My Mee, (= ep Mee GRR CEB - ox ae, Mee |, 34 wes (1-330) ny, wy, 19-2 Zee SE-B). 35h 1.4.2 CYLINDRICAL CooRDINATES ‘The strain ~ displacement cquations are, ap, 0 e- ~-2 50 9,8 ar Yeo Te te see (34a) Pn 1 2 20, 2 ®, oR ae Tos" "ie Fao ee (548) ap, ap, 2p 5 “re vee (1-34e) ‘The corresponding compatability equations arc quoted by L'ure (1964). 1.4.3, SPHERICAL COORDINATES: ‘The strain - disptacosent equations are: 2, 1 Bn 0 Po fo ac Yo "re see (35a) wee G58) ‘The compatibility equations, for the case of axial symmetry, are quoted by Lure (1964). 1.5 Stress-Strain Relationships 1.5.1 LINEAR HOMOGENEOUS ISOTROPIC MATERIAL Strains in texm: of stress: ey 2 Eley va, +a) oe 369) ey = Zt, - vo, +6) 360) «, = bi- ve, +o see G.360) ty By ses 1.368) (2.366) 1.368), where B = Young's modulus v= Poisson's ratio @ = shear modulus —_, ee 1.357) afte) Also, volume strain e, = Ge 2% “BD where 6, = Gxttyten © = o,0ye0, = bulk stress STRESS~STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 3 K = balk modulus. Stresses in terms of strains: a, = de, + 206, s+ (1.388) oy = de, + 205, se (1.388) Go, = de, # 266, or (E380) Tyg = Mpg ete se (1.382) vhere A,G are Lame's parameters ae d= —2_ (sv) (1-20) see (1.398) Ge —2—s shear modulus 2080) see (1.386) (G 4s also often denoted as u). Fot the special case of plane stress e.g. in the az plane, oy=0 in the above equations. . For the special case off plane strain in the sz plane, ey=0 and hence 9, = Wo, #64) y vee (1.403 Equations (1.36) then reduce to (lev) e,2 OO) to,(2-0) - wa) ses G48) aro ses G.42b) 0, (2-v) ~ vo} ses Geto) ter Ft, ses (dla) Solutions for a plane strain problem can be usod for the corresponding plane stress problem provided that the following equivalent values of E and v are used in the plane strain problem: {eB ——_— eee (42a), e aw)? 8 wes 1.420) Conversely, to use solutions for a plane stress problen for the corresponding plane strain probles,_ he equivalent modeli are see (2.438) see 43) re Plane stress solutions which do not involve the elastic parameters are therefore identical with the corresponding plane strain solutions e.g. stresses within a semi-infinite plate and stresses due to line loading on a seni-infinite mss, Sumary of Relationships Betweon Elastic Paraiieters z Gforp) = wre (1.44) BC1e0) ye — Fv aes (1.45) (99) (1-89) . g- —57.atewe wae (1-46) S(i-tv) 51-40) B= 36 wee (47) see -. vy = Lk) ver (248) 20340) 2» ay i a2 see (1-49) Ny : Constrained odulus (1/my in Soil Mechanics) = WE eee (2.50) (ev) (1-20) . 1.5.2. CROSS ANISOTROPIC MATERIAL Stresses in terms of strains: Cartesian codrdinates: o, "at, # be, + 06, vee G.5la) wee (1.518) aoe GS1e) see G.518) ere C510) we G51) Oy =, Bey tae, + 05, ©, = et, tot, +c, vee G.528) see 1.52b) see (2.520) see C526) see (520) ae C528) lo FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS FT Mon! (Thy) (IV, 72, V4) ses (1530) Ex on (Fy) ‘i @.53b) Fy, Yoh Iron ses (1.85e) BCI) ass) Toon se (83a) = modulus of elasticity in the horizontal direction = modulus of elasticity in the vertical direction Vy = Poisson's ratio for effect of horizontal stress on com- plementary horizontal strain Vjy = Poisson's ratio for effect of horizontal stress on vertical strain = Poisson's ratio for effect of vertical stress on horizontal strain. It can be shown that Fa iw S ze le ve G54) 5, Mn The elastic constant f is a shear modulus and cannot be expressed in terms of the Young's modulf or Poisson's ratios. f is often denoted as Gy. Strains in terns of stresse: see G.558) c++ @-55b) see (2.55e) vee 554) see .5Se) 4 = Ge 558) In sone works (0.g. Urena et al, 1966) Viy is denoted merely a5 Vy and the use of vy is avoid- ed by using equation (1.54). ‘The fact that the strain energy mist be positive imposes restrictions on the values of the elastic parameters. For a cross-anisotropic naterial with.2 vertical axis of elastic symmetry, Hearmon (1961) gives these restrictions as aro sss 56a) a>0 ses 1.566) fro ses (1.560) at> Be ses (1.568) (atb)d > 208 se+ (1.560) ad > o® - ses @.56E) In terns of the Poisson's ratios, these restrictions impose the limits TY > My yy? OF ses (1.578) s+ (1.876) -¥,>0 Tey >0 + @.57e) ferential Equations of Isotropic Elasticity 1.6.1 EQUATIONS IN TERMS OF STRESSES Cartesian Coordinates vo, + ax, yy ge bd a ty ae ae + (1.584) vo +b Bel Beak Yay? ive wy a y see (1580) vio + POL Heh dy a2 i-v dey On os see (1.58e) vie, ¢ 280 or, eee (1.588) YF nav yas sy 2 vi +b 222k a oF = se (1.586) ay ae EQUATIONS OF ISOTROPIC BLASTICITY n ses 585) For constant or zero body forces, the first three equations of (1.58) reduce to the Laplace equation ve =o see G59) For the special case of plane stress, the equat- ions are the equilibrium equations c++ (2-608) see (2.606) eee (1.800) For plane strain, the first to of the above thee equations are again applicable, The third equation ts a 4 fo, +0,) = Le ‘at a? dev ae” 2 ave (61) 1€ body Forces are constant, the equations for plane stress and plane strain conditions are identical, Qytininteal Coordinates With zero or constant body forces: vo 2 20 Fee y cos (1.628) de ant 29 + 8 49 0, + Boga) wes (1.62) yoy) +E, L EB 12G., Figg tw ‘ras ant vee (1,626) - t+ 22D oo a iar r 36 » (2.628) ee 1 #0 woe, 2 7, 30” v0 tras see (1.62e) at, ao f09,2 Te,212° _, tn 00 Teun O08 see G.626) For the general case of non-constant body forces, the corresponding equations, in tentor form, are given dy Lure (1964), 1.6.2 EQUATIONS IN TERMS OF STRESS FUNCTION ¢ Cartesian Coordinates We = 0 = VR ses (1.63) where eof ay ae For plane stress or plane strain, ate, 236 6 248g see 1.66 be* ae78z? an* oes and the stresses are related to 6 as follows: see (1.658) ses (1.650) (1.686) Cylindrical Coordinates For axial symmetry, Ve = 0 = VN ves (2.66) where xz a pe hath + or zi The stresses are related to ¢ as = 2 ontg - BH ses (1.678) co ar® o, = zee Ley aes (1676) rie o, = 2 yew vy -B2) ess (676) az at 22 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS = 2pm y-F8] a8 or ast 1.6.5 EQUATIONS IN TERNS OF DISPLACEMENTS Carterian Ccondinates a, on) 24 ovo, - xX = 0 s+ (688) a ae, s+ (2,686) O+G) 2+ ap - 1 = 0 wy y 26, (ee) 24 avtp- 2 = 0 see (2.68) a were 2,6 are Lane's paraweters volume strain vet yrs, ts Cylindrical Coordinates For axial symerry, a ao, Grn (Ee Be 2p Es roy —2 art oan aa? ares = Rw. 69a) Ho, a, 8, 2, ove —2+22 @ +22 gy word ar ar ae tA ew) = 2... C69 Pas ar where R,2 are the body forces in the y amd z directions. Qa the 2 axis (m0) the relevant equation is Fe, ap, ap, 420) Be 2g 2 2096) Pet a? at aaa s++ (2.69¢) 1.7 Convenient Methods of Considering Loaded Areas 1.7.1 SUPERPOSITION OF RECTANGLES T€ the loaded area can be approximated by a rec- tangle, or by a series of rectangles, and appropriate influence factors for stress or displacement beneath ‘the corner of a rectangle are available, the stress or displacement at ony point my be determined by ‘superposition .of rectangles. For the simple case of a single rectangle, the stress beneath a interior point Oy (see Fig.1.11) nay Simply be calculated as Oo = pik + Xe + Ky t Xe) s+ 2,70) where Hay Hay Kay Hs are the approp- viate influence factors for areas 1,2,3 and 4, for the appropriate geometry of each receangle. FIG.2.12, For an exterior point Op (Fig. 1,11) O = Pikisataty ~Kate ~Kate +Ky) vee QD For couputer calculations, the superposition principle can be stated as (see Fig.1.11): OF = SCHL) = FOHAU,XD ~ IW EV) # SHOU, I-T) 72) where Jinn) = sign (not ml, [n]) sign fxm) dT owhen m>o a mcd a(|n|,[n[2 = stress beneath comer of a rectangle m * 1. Displacements axe calculated similarly. For horizontal and shear stresses, care wust be taken to take account of the sign of K for each xectangle, 1.7.2 REMWARK'S METHOD ‘This method was developed by Newmark (1935) and is a graphical method involving the use of an influence chart, examples of which are shown in Figs.3.68-3.78, A drawing is made of the loaded area to a scale which is warked on the chart, and this drawing is so placed on the chart that the origin of the chart coincides with the point at or beneath which the stress or dis- placement is required. ‘The mmber of blocks covered by the loaded axea is then counted and multiplied by"an appropriate factor (shown on the chart} and the applied loading to. give the required stress or displacenent. METHODS FOR LOADED AREAS ay When the area is not uniforsly toaded, the charts can still be used by considering the non-uniforn lesd- ing to be made up of several sets of uniformly loaded In using the charts, parts of blocks may be est- imated with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. Im general, the loaded area will be drawn on tracing Paper and Laid upon the chart. Several "Newmark Charts!” for stresses and dis- placemonts in a semi-infinite mass are given in Section 5.6. for a finite layer, Burmister (1956) has prepazed charts, but the use of these cherts is, more complicated a5"they mist be used in conjunction With a table of influence values (see Section $.4.1). 1.7.3. SECTOR METHOD This method has been described by Poulos (19672). For uy particular problea, a set of curves relating the stress.or displacenent influence factor beneath the apex of a uniformly loaded sector to the sector radius nay be obtained by integration of the approp- viate point load influence factors over a sector. Such sets of curves are referred to as "scctor curves", ind ‘typical examples are given in Sections 3.6.2 and 5.4.2. In onder to use the sector curves for calculation of the required influence factors for a loaded area of any shape, a scale diagram of the area is dram, and a nouber of relatively suall-angled sectors are dram to cut the loaded area, each sector emanating from an apex which Lies on the size vertical line as the point at - which the influence factor is required. The point om the surface of the elastic solid through which this vertical line passes will be termed the "surface origin". In Fig.1.12, typical sectors Og #2B2_ and 07 4:8," are shown in ptan for surface origins Oz eutside and Or inside the loaded area. For invariant stresses such as the bulk stress ©, and for the stress 0, and the displacement pz, the influence af the typical sector Op Aa: for the oxter- nal surface origin Og is I, - 1,4) 66 where J, 4s the sector influence value at 2 the required depth for 2 mean sector radius 7m, and sintlar~ ly for Ip, ‘The influence factor at Og for the whole loaded area is roe Ey, - 14, 68 ves O73) For the surface origin Oy within the loaded area, the influence factor for the whole losded area is re W,,.6 ves 1-78) then evalue ing the influence factor for a stress or displacenent ~'ich is in a dizection other thon the 2 direction, the summetion of sector influence factors must be vectorial. To calailate the horizon: tal stress cz in the direction at Op, both the tangential and radial stress influence factors for each sector are requixed, the influence value for the whole loaded area being given by fa, + Hoste = gyg,)-88-008%8 + +(oo%g,-~ o9%,,}58-sin79}..@..75) where Io, is the influence factor for due to the loaded area, Les al, opie: ople, 2 the Sector influence fact~ ors for the radial stress, for sector radii of 7; and rz respectively. o> gale ople;? agle, 280 the sector influence fect- ors for the tangential stress, for sector radii of mi, ra. ‘The influence factors for horizontal stress Cy im the y direction my be obtained similarly, = - ant Fu, 7 WG for “alos -se-eente + Gy In the same manner, it may be shown that the influence factors for the three shear stresses in the Cartesian coordinate system are a5 follows: oe7az)8®- 008°} ses (1.76) Taye” Tagg 7 Wleglos ~ gen ~ ogfan testes) .68.8in 8.008 6} ses Q.778} 1s FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS = TG Fes" take e088. 8 ses 77) = Weproa” tpgZea) + Sint 88 vee (770) where cpploys tyglay aFe the sector influence factors for radial shesr stress, for sector radii of ri, me For the displacements 9, and py in the = trid_y directions for the surface origin Op, the influence factors are I, = UG Fes ~ 9,Zoq): 6.2008 ae (1-788) Toy Lazo, ~ pjZeg) S858 «+ (2.786) where Ip, and Ipy are influence fact> ors for’ the displacements in the = and y directions due to the whole loaded area, fare the sector influence fact~ ors for radial displacement, for sector rai of 71,r2- alos? ates Waving found the infiuence factor f for the whole azes, the stresses and displacenents for Og and 0 dae to uniform loading are given in ali cases by oe fr sez (679) a ad,p = or see G80) aE ‘The accuracy of the influence fectors calculated by the sector method increases with the number of sec tors used, and the more irregular the shape of the loaded arca, the greater is the desirable mumber of sectors. For the calculation of influence fectors for stresses and displacenents which ace neither in- variant nor in the a direction, the sector angle $9. mist be small in order to proserve the accuracy of Yoth the magnitude and direction of the calculated influence factor. Stresses aid Displacements Beneath the Centre of @ Uniformly Otrele Beneath the centre of a uniformly loaded circle, ‘the expressions for stresses and displacenents reduce to very simple forms. For oz, 03 and the invariant stresses, Ios tit,, s+ @.81) where Zgq is the sector influence factor for a sector radius equal -to the radius of the circle. For the horisontal stresses cand 9, = 4, ‘6, oy wher? gyteas oplea xe settor influence factors fer 09 and Gp for a sector radies equat 20 the radius of the circle. = gy Tee * glad! oplea* ogfea ore (2.82) ‘The influence factors for all shear stresses and for the horizontal displacenents 2 and fy are zero in this case. 1,8 Superposition of Solutions for Various Loadings Solutions aze usually only available for relativ~ ely simple types of loading. If the loading pattern is complicated, superposition of solutions for simple loadings may frequently be employed. Examples of the decomposition of complicated loadings into simpler Joads have been given by Giroud (1968) in terns of four simple loading types, uniform vertical load, Linearly varying vertical 1oad, uniform horizontal toad and linearly varying horizontal load. Fig.1.15 shows the examples given by Giroud, the sigs in each case referring to the signs of the four simple loading types. ‘The foregoing is exact for generalized linear loading. The approach can be extended approximately ‘to completely general non-linear loading by division of this loading into a series of general linear ‘loadings. © ® © Wn [Ds [xa GEG) || GRE a) o Ly) Wzr| cn GIFTS) || GT) o| © ® WA ket ua (GE) || Gere) || STeTeTS) od ® oO al, | ax. GET) | GETS || Ee noe wan oo come, 0 w wa ww FIG.1.13 Decomposition of loadings (Gireud,1968). SIMPLE BENDING THBORY 25 1.9 Equations of Simple Bending Theory ‘1.9.1 HORIZONTAL BEAM arf. a where EI = flexural rigidity se G83) p = deflection (positive downwards) 2 distance along beam M = bending monent ("sagging" moments positive, "hogging" moments negative) & sige o= 2 see (88) “7 a Shear force vy =: ~ % see (1.858) & - are (for constant FI) ... (1.856) Load per uit length p= -Se s+ (1.862) - a fe (for constant EY)... (1.866) 1.9.2 CIRCULAR PIATE For axially-symetrical loading, s+ (2.87) shere p = deflection (positive down- wards) y= radial distance fron centre load intensity q = load intensity D = flexural rigidity of plate » ae 28(I-v?) E = Young’ modaus of plate v= Poisson's ratio of plate = plate thickness and My per unit length in ‘The bending nonents ‘the ‘directions are given by radial and tangent wu, = -fFt42 vee (1.888) * Gi ar and My = 0% +y 2) ses (2.888) * a ae . 1.9.5 RECTANGULAR PLATE Be, eRo Mela vee (1-898) ast tata? ay oD Le, Me= g/d see (1.898) where q = intensity of load D-= flentral rigidity of plate as before. Tho moments per mit length, i and My, in the = md y directions sre 2, 2, 4 > eee wes @.90a) 2, o wo= -D Bea yt ave (2.900) yo wee vED a.) ay Chapter 2 BASIC SOLUTIONS FOR CONCENTRATED LOADING 2.1 Point Loading 2.1.2 BOUSSINESQ ProBLEM - Point load acting on the surface of a semi- infinite mass (Fig.2.2)} 2.2.1 KELVIN PROBLEM Point load acting within an infinite elastic sass (Fig.2-1). Pp ° FIG.2.1 : re ' z R Fe h, FIG.2.2 oo RIT (AR Beppe ors Qala) o, = see (22a) 6, * pty & OSE ay]. ay oy = ge [2882 5 Geta) vee (2.20) 4 ee see (Bude) og <-SEBUE (2 Ey ses (2.20) oe gghgy Male vgn o = Ha a 38 Set Ros BB+ ee). ate) i,- Be se (2.2e) o, = PAM [s-w+Z] an 9, = PH) teri + By os G28 0, + ~ PAS vee QB) o, = Sieh ae . Genie) ve 2.20 a6 POT? LOADING 2.2.3 CERUTTI'S PROBLEM Horizontal point toad acting along the surface of a semi-infinite mass (Fig.2.3). x BGR At 1S aint (ays? ee eee (2.38) 8. * RIE + abe BO see (2.36) Pe pot, ate amaty Oy = Fea ARE + Trait GH ~*~ Fo (2.3e) - oe ass (2,58) = BG Spe ae fea Gate ote BB w+ G30) y, - Be ves GSO) tae BE a 0.80 °, = vee QSH) Poe) 2 (2. at og = pan (44 Ret Ge Tara) voy (259) 1 _ ft 2.1.4 MINDLIN'S PROBLEM NO,1 Vertical point load P acting beneath the surface of a semi-infinite mass. (Hindlin, 1936). (Fig.2.4). (i-2v) fara) _ 3s*(z-o) aE RE 4 {=B0) [Bf ara) AV 260) R 7 _ Mdtv)s* (z-0)-66 (ato) ((A-2v)z-2vel aE _ Sueatelate) | 41-v)(1-20) 2 A, (R, tate) at «0 -gamer Bl vee eda) FIG. 2.4 (tyee) _ 582-2) z 8 ae Qead) ane) R _ Slzce)?_ Sf5-40)(ate?* ~Sel ate) (Se-2) R ee - sees(ete? | vee Qede) % ae CONCENTRATED LOADING Te > OW 1 z (a0)? ain [- ap ape ep 2 - Meg __ Ma-dy)alate)~3el Sete) _ Ident ate)* a 1 RE a see (248) _ Sdetv)z(ato)~So(32r0) _ 30ex(z40)*) 6 ae R 2 4 vee (2.A8) aoe , (SHV) (a0) oe = wai |p Oye A(2w) 1-20), 85nCate) 5 aa + |... ean _ USav)elzta)-SelSzto) _ 30e2t ata)? | Re By see (2,80) 2 4 Sv)? 5-40) erates | By : ey? 2 2 _e Maes _ wo.ete ote (atu) tata)* ton , Bengt ay BE OE A " Peco) vita) | ot 2 sags Bae) Gio d Influence factors for dz, and dy and 6g on the axis have been tabulated by Geddes’ (1966). - Soeatsre) woe QA) a 2.4.5 MINDLIW'S PROBLEM NO.2. Worizontal point lead @ acting beneath the surface of a senicinfinite mses, (lindlia, 1936). wOT 0-5 oman te ae 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 os 0.2 9 2634 5.789 2566 5.567 2.569 5.508 2.706 5.611 2.986 5.902 4.292 S.4i9 9.085 10.92 $.923 7.739 5.419 6.933 $.145 6.433 5.120 6.217 5,522 6.295 6.846 7.709 13.02 14.12 oi 2575 HT07 292 5.a99 512 Sad] 2.057 5.850 2.867 5.780 5.978 5.002 6.687 8.250 ** 8.766 7.524 $.294 6.761 $.012 6.291 4.997 6.075 5.162 6.121 6.390 7.217 9.880 10.76 0.2 2400 5.436 2.538 5.267 2.352 2.444 3.272 2,620 5.445 5.253 4,165 3.753 4.764 ** $.M6 6.936 4.960 6.318 4,726 4.673 S.683 4.755 §.651 $.371 6.116 5,848 6.452 0.3 2143 5.063 2.107 2.947 2.118 2.166 2.920 2.256 2.997 2.458 5.206 1.961 2.605 “° 4,716 6.068 4.447 5.632 4.216 4,188 5.106 4.176 4.997 4.226 4.875 35,326 3.737 og EMO 2.559 1.029 2.558 1.052 1847 2.492 1,862 2.490 1,770 2.563 0,970 1.415 -* S902 5.068 $1847 sea Sole 31638 41434 31553 41272 3259 51803 Il9sa 2.275 ous 1525 25142 1.536 2.129 1.536 1,824 2.075 1.489 2.021 2.239 1.716 0.423 0.754 “9 3.240 4.080 3.206 3.992 3.112 3,057 3.759 2,937 3.565 2.452 2.947 1.183 1.476 9.6 b23 1.685 1,249 1309 1.209 1.221 1.662 1.187 1.883 0.844 1.220 0.107 0.570 "2,548 3.117, 2.599 3.203 2.568 2.817 3,079 2,590 2.919 1.868 2.308 0.754 1,045 0.7 0-954 1,302 0.989 1,349 0.989 1,352 0.955 1.513 0.879 1.228 0.559 0.867 -0.070 0.153 “" 1,937 2.314 2.045 2.484 2,037 2.533 2,026 2.486 1,910 2.562 1.423 2.820 0.499 0,808 9.8 0-721 0.99 0.759 1.008 0.760 1.019 0.724 0.987 0.647 0.909 0.350 0.590 -0.175 0.020 °Y 1.436 2.662 1.575 1.890 1.632 1.979 1,608 1,975 1.516 1.887 1.100 1.462 9.360 0,679 9.9 557 0.696 0.57% 0.756 0.575 0.775 0.541 0.767 0.470 0.679 0.207 0.409 -9.228 0.044 "1.044 2.172 1.195 1.409 1.230 1.533 4.263 1.560 1.194 1.514 0.858 1.191 0.279 0,610 yo 0-587 0.394 0,390 0.451 0,392 0.472 0.362 0.487 0.500 0.409 0.080 0.215 0.258 -0.098 0.686 0.724 0.837 0.972 0,902 1,105 0.936 1,160 0.895 1-150 0.651 0.956 0.236 0.565 qq 0-2 0.079 0,142 0,122 0.142 0.128 0.122 0.127 0.082 0.109 0.052 0.029 -0.242 -0.090 **°0,258 0.238 0.373 0.417 0.21 0.547 0.484 0.619 0.483 0.666 0,389 0.634 0.212 0.514 Lg 0-010 -0.014 9.029 0.002 0.038 0,011 0.008 0.013 -0,020 0.009 -0.097 -0.017 -0.200 ~0.056 "0,201 0.079 (0.176 0.229 0.214 0,299 0.268 0.353 6.285 0.405 0,272 0.475 0.222 0.465 j.7p0-050 -0,021 -0.027 -0,015 0,030 -0.011 0.039 0.009 -0.055 -0.009 0.085 -0.018 0.148 -0.020 “0,056 0.055 0.102 0.141 0.142 0.200 0.170 0.252 0.191 0.299 0.211 0.376 0.217 0,419. 2.0 90.042 -0.022 -0,045 -0.018 -0.067 -0.015 -0.052 -0,013 -0,060 -0.012 ~-0.081 -0.013 -0.105 -0.013 “© “oloss "0.072 0.084 0.118 0.110 0.365 0.130 0.205 0.149 0.243 0-179 0.311 0.206 0.368 2.5 ~0-025 -0-005 -0.027 -0,005 -0.050 -0.003 -0.033 -0.001 -0.036 -0.000 -0.041 0.002 -0.045 0.005 *° 0,062 0.102 6.073 0.124 0.088 0.147 0.097 0,170 0.208 0.193 0.13L 0.238 0.152 0.281 3.9 “0-010 0,005 0.012 0.005 0,015 0.006 -0.016 0.007 -0.017 0,00 -0,019 0.015 0.052 0.097 0.058 0.211 0.073 0.139 0.079 0.154 0.093 0,182 0.105 0.208 4.9 0-006 0.007 0,005 0.007 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.007 0.004 0.007 0.004 6,007 -0,000 0.c08 0.018 0.058 0.021 0.064 0,026 6,070 0.027 0.075 0.029 0.081 0.034 0.091 0.037 9.101 9 0-005 0,001 0,005 0.001 0.005 0,002 0.005 0,001 0.005 0.001 0.005 0.001 9.005 0.000 “0.008 0.017 0.001 0.018 9.001 9.020 0,002 0.021° 0.003 0.022 0.004 0.025 0,004 0.027 8.0. 0,002 -0.001 0.002 -0.001 0.002 -0.001 0,002 -0.001 0.002 -0.002 0.002 -0,001 0.002 -0.901 w=0,002- 0.002 -0.062 0.002 -0.002 0.005---0.001 0,003 -0.001- 0.003. -0.001- 0.004 -0.001 . 0.004 2nve LoannNG a TABLE 2.12 INFLUENCE VALUES Z;_, FOR HORIZONTAL SHEAR STRESS t,_, te raw = 2 Tee fe Mee 0.9 0.8 D7 0.6 2.4 0.2 o 2 Oo oo 2 0 oO oo oo oO 0 0 oo a) Ca) oo o 0 Cn) 9.1 0-143 0.295 0,164 0.195 0,219 0.254 0,509 O.515 0.447 0.448 1.051 1.026 2.914 2.906 “1 91268 0.330 0.225 0.280 0.242 0.243 0.310 0.307 0.436 0.427 1.008 0.999 2.888 2.885 0.2 0-265 0.364 0,300 0.387 0.391 0.422 0.556 0.550 0.744 0.747 1.441 1.452 2.250 2.215 +2 91496 0.617 0.416 0.468 0.439 0.453 0.582 0.537 0.72 0.710 11596 1.580 2.181 2.178 13 [+348 0.485 0.388 0.470 0.490 0.536 0.643 0.665 9.843 0.849 2,522 1,309. 1,224 1.203 “3 91666 0.830 0.554 9.630 0.563 0.588 0.657 0.655 9.820 0.803 11260 1.258 1.155 1.147 9.4 0-391 0.554 0.427 0.529 0.517 0.578 0.645 0.676 0.792 0.802 1,008 0.994 0.658 0.612 4 0.765 0.960 0.655 0.732 0.618 0.655 0.671 0.677 0.771 0.757 0.936 0.912 0.553 0.541 o.5 0-39) 0.572 0.421 0.839 0.489 0.561 0.575 0.615 0.660 0.676 0.694 0.680 0.325 0.295 “8 97798 1.007 0.660 0.775 0.610 0.866 0.617 0.654 0.645 0.640 0.617 0.594 0.227 0.215 0.6 0-367 0.552 0.385 0.514 0.427 0.510 0,475 0.524 0.510 0.532 0.448 0.435 0.185 0.122, "S 07780 0.995 0.664 0.774 0.571 0.683 0.534 0.367 0.508 0.516 0.372 0.558 0.050 0.045 0.7 0-319 0.806 0.532 0.465 0.353 0,442 0.570 0.424 0.370 0.397 0.270 0.258 0,059 0.025 "7 01724 0.953 0.606 0.740 0.511 0.599 0.844 0,494 0.380 0.404 0-198 0.198 0.048 -0.042 0.8 0-258 0.486 9.271 0.407 0.273 0.372 0.275 0.335 0.256 0,290 0.180 0.141 0.008 -0.027 “8 9.649 0.849 0.540 0.688 0.447 0.850 0.563 0.452 0.280 0.524 0.085 0.105 -0.100 -0.077 9.9 0-212 0.385 0.215 0.548 0,210 0.307 0.197 0.261 0.269 0.205 0.072 0.066 -0.018 -0.054 "9 01567 0.787 9.475 0.627 0.385 0-500 0,295 0.380 0.205 0.267 0.018 0.055 -0.124 -0.084 1.9 0152 0.305 0.148 0.274 0.159 0.254 0.119 0.185 “0.090 0.129 0.014 0,029 -0.030 0.066 *9 01460 0.636 0.382 0.544 0.512 0.438 0.226 0.329 0.139 0.222 -0.028 0.034 0.120 -0.070 1.25 0-085 0.177 0.054 0.161 0.046 0.131 0,030 0.092 0.010 0.049 -0.026 -0.028 -0.020 -0.059 “95 97285 01480 9.252 0.401 0.199 0.338 0.136 0.263 0.069 0.186 -0.050 0.049 -0.112 -0.022 4,3 0-012 0.098 0,004 0,090 0.003 0.073 -0.004 0,048 -0.012 0.021 -0.020 -0.025 0.006 -0.038 “3 g2179 01311 01157 0.300 0.127 0.268 0.087 0.223 0.043 0.174 0.038 0.080 -0.085 0.020 0. 70.015 0.051 -0.011 0.028 -0.009 0.013 -0.000 -0.013 0.031 -0.019 0.094 0.228 0.979 1189 0,028 0.359 -0.025 0.095 -0.064 0.041 2.9 0-011 0.029 -D.018 0.029 -0.010 9.026 -0.004 0.020 0.003 0.013 0.021 0.000 0,052 -0.005 *© 9.054 9.272 0,053 0-175 0.045 0.169 0.033 0.156 0.017 0.239 -0.018 0.096 -0,051 0.050 2.8 0-002 0.017 0.005 0,018 0.005 0.018 0.015 0,016 0.025 0,016 0.048 0.010 0.075 0.005 5 o.o16 0.116 0.015 0.118 0.011 0.314 0.008 0.109 -0.003 0.100 -0.023 0.075 -0.048 0.042 ~0.004 0.015 0.005 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.036 0.011 0,079 0.007 70.000 0.087 -0.003 0.087 -0.006 0.088 0.079 -0.016 0.056 ~0.051 0.031 4,0 0-007 0.012 0.018 0,012 0.025 0.011 0,030 0,010 0.038 0.009 0.054 9.007 0.070 0.004 -° 0.020 0.05 -0.022 0.043 -0.025 0.040 01057-01021 0,034 -0.039 0.025 -0.049 0.014 6.0 91007 0.007 9.012 0,006 0.017 0.005 0.008 0.027 0,004 0.037 0.003 0.047 0.001 - .0:026 0.018 -0.028 0.014 -0.029 0.013 0.012 -0.052 0-010 -0.035 9.007 -0.038 9.004 4.9 00004 0.004 9,007 0,005 0.012 0.003 0,014 0,003 0.017 0,002 0.024 0,001 0.030 0.001 “9 0.028 0.006 -0.024 0.005 -0.025 0.005 -0.026 0.004 -0.026 0.004 -0.028 9.003 -0.030 0.001 CONCENTRATED LOADING TABLE 2.12 2,3 Line Loading—Axial Symmetry INFLUENCE VALUES I, FOR SURFACE DISPLACEMENTS 2.3.1 UNIFORM VERTICAL RING LOADING OW ane koko SURFACE OF SEXI-INFINITE MASS 0, Big (ig. 2.13) HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT . ° o2 08 05 366 0.952 0.516 -0.098 ppenttengts [| The oles 01217 “0/188 {io oma? oliz7L0l2e0 —ho £ img 0.613.042 70.542 872 0.518 -0.033 -0.407 | le [743 0.438 -0.087 -0-460 . Soke 0135 “OL1S1 101499 iS56 01288 “01194-01524 ! S47 0.227 "0.223 “0.838 - = 390 0.180 -0.247 -0.537 FIG. 2.13 01237 0.084 01261-07509 01167 0.026 0.241 -0-448 : 01111 0.008 “01212 “0.384 -0} 0.074 9.001 -0.175 -0.308 On the axis G=0), 0.034 0.602 0-114 -0.210 0.012 -0.01S -0.067 -0.135 Sp2*a see (2.13a) 0002-01002 -01026 | 0.053 (atea?) s/t S000 "0:00 L0‘005 0.007 1000 0.000 °0:000 -0"000 Oy = oy = Pel tew) Cate") 204 8 atateat)/* eee (2,130) TABLE 2.35 (apse 6 = entitles we INFLUENCE VALUES Top FOR SURFACE DISPLACEMENTS (aaa?) 2? G2. 130) LINE LOAD =2 = we QL ee o see (23a) ng © PORE fact) +] o. Gut3e) vo 0.2 0.8 0.8, Blatea?) (aPeat) O.1 3.786 3.466 2.635 1.926 01221461 2.222188 0,973, a, <9 see (2.158) 9,5 1,730 11585 0.965 0.458. 0.4 (11244-1069 0.583 0.152 0.5 0.896 0.749 0.324 -0.079 0.6 0.643 (O.5TL 01145 -0.217 2.3.2 UNIFORM VERTICAL SUBSURFACE LINE LOAD 0.7 0.433 «0,347 0.085 -0,209 (Pig. 2.14) 01313 0.218 -0.057 ~0.344 O19 0.212 042-0101 -0.358 10 01126 0.059 0.239 -0.589 12 ws 7 2.0 25 310 4.0 6.0 8.0 0.025 0,006 0.146 -0.515 0012-01024 -0.112 0.254 “is “olazs “01023 “o.08e “o-a98 Sertse 5 0.017 -0.015 -0.071 -0.134 'S “olo1d "0908 “elose “0-088 50 “aloo “oL001 | “o!o14 “0.087 op] fret wos 0.002 -0.000 0.007 -0.025 =0.000 -0.000 0.002 -0.004 =0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 FIG. 2.24 ‘EINE LoaDTve Geddes (1966) evaluated the following express- ions for the stresses from Hindlin's equations: “1 aes) = RE Beds 2(2y) + 27-20) B ataonte2(a4e0) Ont - antartee(aee0) Bem * CE + By ry 2 * BY * 3 + 8 Unt + 1 + ace egg) | see (Q.1b) + + e satemtioceestne? Bab + iw Be atmo 2) = at - aT smomrRy —* 33 onPatnt 2 t420In2 2) . 400m) + da-wiew)t go - ghe) ] cee Mae) Leo wie. 4 Sgt See = we [a a2? tm 4 2 tats? yd + (pG- 3 + whe + DAD Eth ae 3 aa? am-gumt(me2)* (2) + 12 Be) + z e . at 2" mets 3 2 st Ady a . 6 -21-2) & P mn, ant s6m* (2) pe e tom timn? Eye 12% + On the axis with m=0 and md.0, st sca _ att) , st2-0) Ke en(I-) 7 ~ tmaad * Craead ey et] ves 186) -1 B+8v(I-2y) | (1-80) ao = iy [PMLEDD 4 SldeBv? _ on _ tat Coe) Tinea * Teed vee Qu14E) Xe = ses (2.148) where m= 2/D, m= 2/D Bente mt ats int + (meI)71 Be tn? + (me) *1. Keg throughout the mass, and Km aud Xog on the axis, are tabulated by Geddes (1966) ey CONCEWERATED LOADING 2.3.3. LINEARLY VARYING SUBSURFACE LINE LOAD (Fig. 2.15) e FIG. 2.15 The following expressions for stress have been obtained by Geddes (1966): 2 B¢1-20) By 862-9 ated)? aE + mem 1) F ae 2 aactnsin®15ntm- 205420) (med) fret) + 2(7-BInn?6n? 9205420) 2D a? oo 2 mn? (n8-m™}+18(2) (mei) oo 180) mS +600? (nn?) a =e to, Ct ash vee (2.15) Bey ( io = Spe ~ Fai [a (2-B0)-12m 131-0) BY (at) 2 a deme 28CI-V) FE (not) Soe P a + 2 Smet) ?—2m?+(22-svhiax?42Se2v) ) Amet) ® rr 5 atse2y) By + 4(5-v)mn* —areeere P ome?) 2202)" fed)* + = eaten at - = + (nay) log + (CGB)? 6Mos Petey yt my # B(devita-ny) GEE | vee (215) (a-20) farce > ait 2 (2-20 (B-20)46 (2-20) Y(t) 96 (3-1) a a 61-20) Be +180 F aimed) yt? 2B) * (met) ® o caayy LA mG Ct” + 2 2 26me1) *46mn*-an 6) (eZ) * ——r oe +1-20) log, CEN +f ¢1-20)*-6) «tog CB 2c-wa-ar GEL - 2] + (2.180) and, D2 Kes = Tra FO 2 2¢2-v)el 1-202 5b) 8 Telnet) . SGP Raina elattlet Grint) P 8 on B(2v)4( 1-27 afer | Bnet) Mon? - + LINE LOADING — axzaL SYmosrRY (40) i aliitd) Sant sr nerd Fete) BP a nf 201-20) Be ta Seva e + 8 x (et2) 5-6 %, tenet) #2 20°n* a at gmt eB no + tata ee | ses (2154) On the loading axis with m1,0 = aerthay [2 ~ Seay + Seooaee = accept faa = Getter |? “treet 2) (mea )® 1 be + tyr - eteviteg, C4 coe (2180) Xo fog Bar [pese-a9caoco) + log EB (1-20) tog AS ~siog' CE n + a Bay Hoh 181 Zp got 2a? +2 - Gn ve Q.15Q) =0 vee (2188) where n= 1/D, m= 2/D Bante Ae oe (m1)? Bie inte (med) 2 Yaiues of ag whroughout tie nays, and ten and gg on the axis,are tabulated by Geddes (1968). 35 Chapter 3 DISTRIBUTED LOADS ON THE SURFACE OF A SEMI-INFINITE MASS 3.1 Loading on an Infinite Strip 3.1,1 UNIFORM VERTICAL LOADING (Fig.3.1) PIG.3-4 1, = 2 [e+ etna coelare6)] + Gala) re = B [a ~ ina coe(w26)) Gap) o, - Bve ses Ge) Yq = Boi sinta25) ve Gd) 0, = Elat ein} ve Ble) az = B [a sin] vee GAY Twat E etna : ws BAD Loci of constant o1 and oz are circtes passing through 0) and 02. Loci of constant yar are circles passing through Oy and 03. ‘Trajectories of 9; are a family of confocal hyper- bolas, foci at 0: and 02, These curves bisect the angle, a, at all points. Trajectories of 02 are a family of confocal ellipses, foci at 0, and 02. Trajectories of thar are two orthogonal famili equiangular spirals intersecting the ellipses under 45°. Maximum tax = P/", occurs at all points af the soni- ‘cisele’ through 0) and. O>- Maximua 01 = Py Cecors at points (2,0), -dtexb. Minimm y= 0, " " (2,0), -b>a>B. Values of Og, Og, Tes, 1 02 and Tyor are tabulated in Tabl6 3.1, and contours of 0, and oar are given in Fig'3.2 (Jorgenson, 1934). As for Line loading, displacements due to strip loading on or in a semi-infinite mass are only mean= ingful 1f evaluated as the displacement of one point relative to onother point, noither point being located at infinity. The vertical displacement at the sur- face, relative to the centre of the strip, is given by PIG.3,2 Stresses beneath @ strip (Jurgenson,1934). Kwerurte 97a7P 0,(5,0) - 0,(0,0) = BN (2. )2nle-| 78 ~teeb)an|rb| + bend) (See plot in Fig.9.28, Chapter 9) vr G2) TABLE 3.1 STRESSES BENEATH A UNIFORMLY LOADED STRIP (Jurgenson, 1934) Bo afo Ojo OfP tal? B Cyy/P OafP on/p oo 1.0000 1.0000 0 oO 0 1.0000 1.0000 ws 18584 14498-02548 «9594 14498, iY lexes [iee7 00 “318s ‘e1es L817 1.5 6673 0805 © 012937 16678 .0805 2" 13508 “ozo 0 «02545. 15508-0410 2.8 las? [0x28 0 © 0 295 [467 “0228 3 [39s [onze 001908 “3954 cox38 3.5 ‘3457 Lovs1 9 = 1683. 13457 ‘0082 4” T3050 ‘oost 9 §=—@ ‘2499 ‘3050 ‘oven 0.5.0 1.0000 1.0007 © =~ 9.__1,0000 1.0000 125 la7e7 “ezid 0522 8P35¢ 1871 19871-6129 {5 ‘9028 13920 11274 1317" “ede ‘9325 ‘3629 i) 17552 “aes "1590 laes2" ‘3ise 17763 Lasse 2.5 le078 loasa <1275 1318" 2847 1¢370 0677 215107 “0542 ‘0989 11+25" ‘2479 15298 10357 2.5 lasre lossa 10721 9°49 2143. lae93 "0206 -25 4996 4208 3154 151587760 144d 3 4969 3472 .2996 + 30BB 7308 «1153 ‘4797 ‘2250 ‘2546 i267 les7i 10677 1.8 14490 11424 2057 26034" 12546 15498 “o408 2° “aons “onde ‘1592 22°50" ‘22s ‘a7si ‘ozas 2.5 <3701 [0595 11243 19°20" ‘1969-4137 ‘o159 15.28.0177 .2079 .0606 75°47" 112.2281 .0025 1S 0892 2950 D (3.16) ‘The radial distribution pf tpg beneath the surface of the circle is shom in Fig.3.26 for various values ‘The surface displacements ere as follows: 24) navy Bat) (a(r-v)E(a/a) - LB | Ps A- "| (fas)... (3.178) spCievte (Poa?) 0, = we pay ed gay (ofa? 1)... 3.17) yp = 8 Glas... B17) = Geatnema airy « dt Fy Gar. (8.178) where x(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind, E(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind, Surface displacenent profiles are shown in Fig. 3.27 for both a frictionless and fully rough circular ares. For v=0.5, friction has no influence on displacenent. ‘The influence of v on the central vertical surface displacenent is shown in Fig.3.28. %% Redlat Disterce r/o oon os Oo 02 04 O06 08 1-0 ° oe oe 1° é Sly NS vs 0-4 “Adhesion tvs 0), on v. poses wo Ee ae on Asai (405) oN L/ oa 20 2 3 \ 3 Poa t |] tote, 2 / | os I mo ea, — fide, on as] 0 o so ¥16.9.26. distribution of shear stress t,, tens surface (Schiftnan, 1968) fa) Vertical stress 6, %y, Rashet Ostance fa a +0 20 o o2 04 08 08 10 ° 02 on v0) ieee ios) os| 20 ok ol Aaron gk vol “wee Bo 12 ; rictoness on “ - " y saline) vs me () Radial stress o, ae FIG.3.25 Distribution of stress on axis of circle. FIG.3.27 Vertical displacement profile along surface. (Scniféman, 1968) . (Schizsman, 1968). 34 SUREACE LOADS ON SEMT-INPIUITE MASS Palgson's Ratio ¥ wef #16202 os estes efor 1s —— 1h8 L. oe 1 FIG.3.28 Influence of V on p, at surface on axis. (Schiffman, 1968). 3.3.6 OTHER TYPES OF LOADING (4) Paxabolic loading - see Harr and Lovell (1963) and Schiffman (1965). (ii) Linearly varying vertical stress = see Appendix B. (411) Linearly varying torsional stress = see Appendix 8. 3.4 Loading on a Rectangular Area 3.4.1 UNEFORM VERTICAL LOADING py Urilore vertiot | stress pjseit oreo. FIG: 3.29 Benesth tho corner of the rectangle (see Fig. 3.29), Hoil (1940) gives tho following expressions for stresses for v = 0.5: sre Go288) vee G18) ses G80) see GBel84) ses BeBe) se G18) where y= Pat) fa = (at) Ry = (22a, Influence factors for the normal stresses have been presented by Giroud (1970). These stresses are expressed as follows: Under the corners: o, = PX ves (Bela) 0, =P (Kye (20082) see (3.198) =P thee (A-2v)th see G9) e influence factors Ko(# I in Fig.3.30), KayKts Layla are reproduced in Tables 3.1¢ to 3.13. Influence factors for og beneath the cornez are shown in Fig.3.30(Fadun, 1948). For points other than the comer, the principle of superposition may be employed. - Beneath the comer of a rectangle (see Fig.3.29), Harr (1966) quotes the following expression for Vertical displacement at depth a: = Bava EB) ve (8.20) 1 (ism em wnete An Lene Teme Cig e nied fim bet a Vitmi tn - ECTANGUEAR AREA ss (sroud, 1970) = ST it 00 Lh us 1s 10 © 0.009 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 9.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.2 0.000 O:137 01208 1254 01240 0.249 0.2493 9:249 0.249 0.249 0.248 014 91000 0.076 01186 O:i87 0.202 0.244 0,244 91244 01244 01244 0.248 8.§ 01000 0.061 0-15 01164 0-181 0.235 01240 01240 01240 0.240 0:240 0.6 01000 0.081 0.096 01145 0.161 9.283 0.234 01254 01284 0.254 0.284 018 0.000 0.037 0.071 0.141 01127 0.218 0.219 9.220 0.220 0.220 0,220 1" 0000 02028 0.088 0,087 0/101 0.200 9:202 0/208 1204 0.208 0:205 h.2 01000 01022 0-045 01069. 0081 9.182 0.185 01187 01189 01169 0.189, 1.6 01000 0018 0-035 0.056 0.066 Ori64 0.168 9.171 01176 01174 0.174 453. 01000 01016 0.081 0.081 0.060 0.186 0.161 01164 01166 L167 0.167 118 0,000 0.014 0.028 0.046 0.085 Ores Olist Olis7 Ol16) 01360 0-160 18 01000 0.012 91026 0.039.046 OL1SS 0.140 01145 9.147 01148 01148 2° olo00 01010 92029 0.033 01039, 05120 0.127 01151 61156 01137 0.157 2.8 01000 91007 9.013 0.022 0.027 0.095 0.108 01106 O-11§ OLS 0.115, 5° 91000 0.005 9:010 0.016 0.019 OL075 0.081 0.087 01086 0.099 0.009 4 ploon 02003 0.008 9.009 0-011 01048 0.085 0.060 9.071 0.076 0.076 S 01000 0.002 0.004 0,006 0.007 0.038 0.059 0.043 01085 0.061 0.062 io 91000 0.000 0001 9.002 0.002 0:009 0-011 0.013 0.020 0.028 0.032 1S 91000 0.000 01000 0:001 0:001 0-004 9.005 0.006 9-010 0.026 0-021 2 01000 0.000 9:000 0.000 6.000, 8.002 01005 0.004 9.006 0.010 0.016 50 0/000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 000 0:000 0.001 91001 91002 0.008 TBE 3.15 VALUES OF Ke (Gixous, 1970) moO 02 MS 04 08 2S 1 LS 2) RS SUSU 0 0,000 0.259 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.280 0,2 01900 01069 0-116 0.149 9.159 0/169 0177 0/188 OL187 Olles Qlies 0.188 0.4 01000 0.081 0,056 L085 109s 01206 01118 01128 Oliss Ose O.1s8 0.134 Os oLao0 01022 0.085 0.084 O.07S OL08s 0.094 01205 9.110 O.112 9.112 0.112 0:6 8.000 0.017 0.0582 0-049 01086 01065 0.075 0-086 .091 0.095 0.095 0.094 0:8 01000 01009 0/018 0-029 0.05% 01040 0.047 0.087 01062 0.084 0,064 0.065 1" 01000 0.008 0.011 0-018 4,021 01025 0.050 0.087 0,042 0.044 01085 0-045 1.2 01900 01003 0°007 0.011 0.013 0.016 0.020 0.025 0.029 O.081 0.082 0.082 LI 01000 0.002 0.004 0,007 L008 0-010 0-013 0.017 0.020 0-022 0-025 0.025 1's 0:90 0.002 01008 0.006 0.007 01008 0.011 0.014 OL017 OL019 0.019 0.020 16 0.000 05009 01012 0.015 0.016 9.017 9.017 18 0.000, 0,006 0.008 0.011 0.012 0.012 0.013 2 0.000 01008 01006 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.010 2.5. 0.000 0.002 0.005 0.908 0:005 6.005 0.008 3° 0.000 05601 0,002 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.003, 4 0!000 0.000 0:00 0.001 0:201 0.001 0.001 501000 0600 0000 0.090 0.000 0.001 0.002 to 0.000, 01000 0:00 0.090 0.000 0:00 0.000 1s 0,000, 0,600 0:00 0:000 9.000 0.000 0.000, 20 0.000, 0000 05000 0:009 0.000 0.000 0.000, 500.000, 05000 0:000 0.000 9:00 0.000 0.000, 56 SURFACE LOADS OW SSMI-INPINITE "ASS TABLE 5.16 VAUIES OF Ka (Giroud, 1970; 202 WS 04 08 2/5 1 10 0.074 0.061 0.051 0.031 0.016 0.000 9.067 0.056 9.048 0.030 0.016 0.000 0.069 0.051 0.045 0.028 0.015 0.000 9,056 0.049 0.043 0.028 0.015 0.000 0.03 0.047 0.041 9.028 0.015 0.000 9-254 0,219 0.199 0.189 0.176 0.156 0.125 0.059 0.097 0.138 0.121 0.122 0.118 0.103 0.026 0.048 0.069 0.075 0.082 9.086 9.083 0.019 0.036 0.054 0.960 9.067 9.073 0.074 O.015 0.028 0.043 0.049 0.086 0.067 9.066 0.009 0.018 0.029 0.033 0.039 0.046 0.052 0.047 0.043 0.038 9.026 0.015 0.000 0,007 0.013 0.021 0.024 0.029 0.035 0.042 9.042 0,033 0.035 0.025 9.014 9.000 0.005 0.009 9.018 0.018 0.022 9.027 0.084 0.037 0.037 0.035 0.052 9.024 0.014 0.000 0,004 9.007 0.012 9.014 0.017 0.021 0.027 0.032 0.033 0.032 0.030 0.023 0.014 0.000 02003 0.006 0.010 0.012 0.028 0.019 0.025 0.029 0.031 0.039 0.029 0.022 0.014 0.000 0,003 0.006 0.009 0.011 0.613 0,017 0.023 0,027 0.029 0.028 0.027 0,022 9.013 0.000 0.002 0.005 9.007 9.008 0.011 0.014 0.019 0.024 0.025 0.026 0.025 0.021 0.013 0.000 0.002 0.004 9,006 0.007 9,009 0.012 0.016 0.025 0.023 0.020 0.013 0.000 0.001 0.002 0,004 0.005 0.008 0,008 0.021 9.028 0.019 0.017 0.012 0.000 0.001 0.002 9.003 9.003 0,004 0.006 0.008 9.615 9.015 0.015 0,012 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 9.002 0.002 0.003 0.00 0.007 0.008 0.010 0.011 9.022 0.010 0.000 9-000 0-001 0.001 9.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.096 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.009 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.001 0,001 9.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 0.000 0,001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 9.003 0.000 0.000 0.900 9.000 9.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.000 9-000 0,900 0.000 0,000 6.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 TABLE 5.17 VANES OF be (Giroud, 1970) TE ahh 0.2 V3 04 us Ls 2.5 10 0 0.090 9.250 0.250 0,250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250° 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.2 0,000 0,010 0.045 0.094 0.112 0.134 0.158 0.184 0.201 0.208 0,211 0.214 0.217 0.218 0.219 0.4 0,000 0.002 0,010 9,032 0.045 0.064 6.091 0.128 0.156 0.169 0,176 6.179 0.186 0.188 0.189 0.5 0.000 0.003 0.006 9.020 0.029 0.044 0.058 0,105 0,136 0.151 0.159 0.164 0,172 0.175 0.176 0° 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.023 0.019 0.051 0.051 0.086 0-118 0.134 0.144 0.149 0.158 0.163 0.164 0-8 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.006 9.009 0.016 0.029 0.057 0.087 0,106 6.117 §.124 0.135 0.141 0.143 1" 0.000 9.000 0.001 9.003 0.005 0.009 0.017 0.037 0-064 0.083 0.095 0.103 0-116 0.125 0.125, 1.2 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.005 0-005 0.011 0.025 0-047 0.065 0.077 0.085 0.100 0-108 0.112 14 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.007 0.017 0.035 0.051 0.052 0.071 0.087 0.095 0.059, 1.5 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.001 0.00 0.005 0.005 0.014 0.030 9.045 9.056 0.064 0.081 0.090 0.094 1.6 0,000 0.000 0,000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.012 6,026 0.040 0.051 0.059 0.076 0,085 0.089 18 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.001 0.001 0.903 0.008 0.020 0.031 0-041 0,049 0.066 0.077 0.081 2” 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.00 0,001 0.001 0.002 0.006 9.015 0.025 0.034 0.042 0.058 0.069 0.074 2.5 0.000 0:00 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.003 0.008 0.914 0.022 0.027 0.083 0.055 0.061 3°” 0.000 9.000 0.000 6.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0-004 0.008 0.013 0.018 0.952 0.085 0.051 4 0.000. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0-080 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.008 0.018 0.031 0.039 5 0,000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 6.000 0.000 0.000 9.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.011 0.022 0.031 10 0.000 9.000 9-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.080 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0-006 0.015 15 01000 0.000 9.000 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.011 20 01000 0.000 9.009 0.009 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 2.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9-000 9.001 0.008 50 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.090 0.090 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9-000 9.900 0.000 0.000 0.003 RECTANGULAR AREA TSE 3.18 VALUES OF 3 V3 0.4 05 2/3 (Giroud, 1970) 1 152 2503 3 10 ® 0.051 0.061 0.176 0.189 0.199 0.219 0.254 0.250 0.041 0.049 0.148 0.160 9.269 9.188 0.203 0.219 0.032 0.039 9.222 0.133 0.141 0.159 0.174 0.189 0.029 0.034 Q.11 9.121 0.129 0.161 0.176 0.025 0.050 0.200 9.110 9.118 9,149 0.364 9.020 0.023 0.082 9.091 9,098 0.127 0.145 0.035 0.018 9.067 9.075 9.082 0.119 0,125 0.012 0.015 9.056 0.065 9.069 91096 0-111 0.010 0.012 9,046 0.053 9.058 ° 0.084 0.099 u 0.009 0-011 0.083 0.089 0.084 0. 0.079 0.098 1 9.008 9.010 0.039 0.045 0.080 9. 0.074 0.089 1 0.007 0.008 0.023 9.059 0.043 0.055 0,066 0.082 2 0.006 0.007 0.029 0.033 0.038 0.048 0.059 0.074 2. 0.008 0.005 0,020 0.924 0.027 0-036 0.047 0.061 a 6.903 0.003 9.015 0.018 0.021 0.028 0.038 9-051 4 0.008 9.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.009 0.011 0.013 0.018 0.026 0.039 S 0.000 0,009 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.013 0.019 0.031 19 0.000 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 0.002 0.092 0.002 0.004 0.007 9.016 18 0,000 0.000 0.090 0.000 0.000 0.001 9.001 9.001 0.002 9.003 0-011 20 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.200 9.001 9-001 ¢.002 9.008 50 9,000 9.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003 m m ons Be eto oa cal co on] 2 3456810 2 9455000 °oara 3456807 FIG,3.30 Vertical stress beneath comer of uniformly Joaded rectangle. (Fadun, 1948). ca my Aen tnt Explicit expressions and influence factors for the vertical displacement at the surface (20) have been evaluated for four points beneath the Tectangle, and for the wean displacenent om, by Giroud (1968). These influence factors are shown in Fig.5.31 and are tabulated in Table 3.19. For all points, < Sxpsr s+ G2) where bis the length of the shorter side b M is the centre of the longer side N the centre of the shorter side © the comer 0 the centre of the rectangle the mean 58 SURPACE LOADS OW Sirxt~TNFINITE MASS TABLE 3.29 INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACEMENT BENEATH RECTANGLE (Giroud, 1968) £ a ee ee 101000” so 1 ¥IG.3.31 Influence factors for vertical surface @isplaceent benest' rectangle. (Giroud, 1958). For a point on the centre-line of the rectangle, @istance = from the centre (Fig.3.32), Giroud (1959) gives the following expression for the horizontal Suréace displacement Pz! 2452 po, = GLG=BV) op [2 yy Stew) edt = one ae 4nt+ b? +81 - Sareten pepoy - GE aetm 2} ser G2) Froa this expression,the solution for Oe ‘Deneath the corner of a rectangle of proportions may be obtained by taking half the value of Py obtained from equation (3.21) when sat. FEG,3.32 RECTANGULAR AREA 59 ‘At the corners = Ciavtph 3.4.2 LINEARLY VARYING VERTICAL LOADING °. FT Ag bet. (5.248) Gig. 3.33) : ox 3435. (324d) | where I, = - Fir? + tn Atte wea) lb | see B.240) ¢ M cs tina + Fea} x 0 le - : see G.24d) t Ice atm, 710.3.33 # : o, 7 Speer, if Pe. sete) or The normal stresses are expressed as follows by tov? 0b Gixeud (1970 Gaile yy Af 2b og = 0 at points MH and 0 Under the comers: waa TABLE 3.20 = ERM, se Gotta) INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACEMENT ‘DUE TO LINEARLY VARYING COMPRESSION TO TENSION 5, = © PL Me ~ (2-208 see B-22b) LOADING (Gixoud, 1968) bee 226 oe, = © af Fa: - (1-20mi] vee Gite. qi : . 7 y bn t,t, |Yb tg Ty BTS oy Under the centre: 9, = 0 ses (3.238) 0.169 0,263 35.785 1 0.262 9.282 20 0.872 =o wes G2) 20.174 0,500 25 0.940 30.187 0.517 30 0.995 =o ses G.230) 4 0.198 0.354 40 1084 S$ 0.210 0,349 50 1.154 6 0.221 01568 60 2.211 where © #2 at Cy and ch, and, 7 0.252 0.379 70 1.259 - 2 8 0.243 01392 80 1.501 tat Cy and Ch, 9 0.255 0.806 90 1.335 Mo,Ma,Mi,Ha,M2 are influence 0.263 0,418 100 1.371 2 0.282 01442 200 1.590 factors which are given in 4 0.300 0.465 300 2,719 Tables 5.21 2o-3.25. 0.307 0.475 400 11810 . 01349 01524 $00 1.882 Influence factors for the vertical surface dis- 5 01386 0.566 600 1.939 placomont beneath various points have been obtained by 01418 0.603 700 3.988 Giroad (1968), and are tabulated in Table 3.20, S 0,448 0,636 800 2.032 Explicit expressions for the displacoments are given 01475 01666 909 2-068 ‘by Giroud, 0.524 0.739 10% 2.101 0.566 0.765 io" 2.834 0.603 0.804 105 3.567 0,636 0.840 30° 4.300 0.666 0.872 = 60 SUREACE LOADS ON SMEATUELHETE MASS TSE 5.21 VALUES OF Mo (Giroud, 1970) 27 20 od O28 Ok OSB SS 0 0.000 0.250 0.250 9.250 0.250 0.250 0.280 0.250 0.250 9,250 0.2 0-000 0.160 0.180 0.183 0.186 0.187 0.188 0.186 01186 ol1as 014 0.000 0.085 0.111 0.118 01126 0.152 ‘01154 0.154 01255 0.155 0:5 0.000 0,060 0.085 0.082 0.100 0.207 1121 0.112 Ons O11 016 07000 0.044 0.068 0.072 0.078 0.087 0.092 0.093 O04 0.098 018 0,000 9:02 0.038 0.043 0.049 0.056 0.062 0.064 0106s 0.065 1" 0,000 0.018 0.025 0.026 0.051 0.055 0,042 0.045 O.o8s 0-085 1.2, 0.000 0.008 0.024 9.017 0.020 0.024 0.029 0.051, 0.032 0.032 14 0.000 0.006 9,009 0.011 0.013 0.016 0.020 0.022 01023 90.025, 15 0:00 0.005 0.007 9.009 0.011 0.013 0.027 0.019 9.020 9.020 116 0.000 0,004 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.011" 0.018 01017 0.017 18. 0.000 9.003 0-004 0.005 0.006 0.008 0.010 o.013 0.013 2° 0.000 9.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 2.8 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 9.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.605 0.006 0.006 0.006 5°” 01090 01000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 01001 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.003 0.005 01003 0.003 0.005 4 02000 9:000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 S 02000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0,001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 Jo 0.600 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.090 0.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.000 0.090 0.000 45 01000 05000 9.000 0:00 0:000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 26 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0:000 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 50 01000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 TABLE 3.22 VALUES OF Me (Giroud, 1970) Fo 03 02 3 08 05 28 1 LS 2 25 3 5 We © 0,000 0.250 0.250 0,250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 9.2 02000 0.026 0.040 0.046 0.046 0.046 0.045 0.043 0.042 0.042 01042 0.042 0.062 0.042 0.042 024 01000 0.002 0.003 01092 0.003 -0:000 -0.002 - -0.008 -0:008 -0.008 -0.008 -0.008 -0.008 0:5 0.000 -0.001 -0.002 6,005 -0.006 -0.008 -0.010 -0.013 20.016 “0/016 -0.036 -0.036 0.016 -0.016 076 0.000 Zol008 £0007 <0:009 “0/010 -0:013 70,018 “0019 “0020 -0020 0.020 +0020 0:8 0-000 79:05 “0.007 0.009 -0:010 -0.015 ~* “0/019 “07019 -07019 “0.019 0.019 -0.019 19.000 70.003 70.006 0.007 -0.008 -0.010 ~ 70.015 -01026 -0.016 0.036 0.016 -0.016 1.2. 0,000 Zol0n2 “0004 “02005 70.006 20.007 ~ 70.012 “0/012 20.012 “0.013 -0.013 -0.018 a4 01000 “9092 0.003 -0/003 -0:004 -0.005 ~ 29008 “01009 “0003 -0:020 -0.010 -0.010 1s 0/000 0/001 “0002 “0003 0.003 -0.006 ~ Ze!0n8 “07008 “0008 0.008 0.009 0.009 1s 0-000 0/001 “0002 0002 “0.005 0.008 = “0007 0007 “0.007 -0007 “0008 “0.008 18 9.000 701001 0001-0002 -0:002 -0.005 = 70!008 =0:008 -0:006 -0:008 -0.006 -0 006 2° 0.000 “07001 “0001 0001 <0:002 0/002 = Zoloe4 70008 “0.008 0.005 -0:005 -0.00 2.s 0.000 70/000 “01000 -0.001 0.001 -0:00 ~ 201002 “01002 “0.002 -0003 0.003 -0.00 3° 0.000 Zp!000 “0000 0.000 0,900 0.002 ~ Zo:001 -0:00L -0:001 -0002 -0.002 -0-002 4 01000 -0:000 -0-000 -0:000 0.000 =0.000 0.000 = “0.000 -0:001 -0-001 -0:001 -0.001 -0.001 § 0.000 -0.000 =0.000 =0.000 -0.000 -0:000 -0.000 “01000 “0000 -0000 0000 0000 -0 000 30 0.000 -0.000 -0:000 0.000 -01000 -0:000 -0.000 - +0000 -07000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 15 0.000 -0000 -0:000 =0:000 =0.000 -0-000 -0.000 ~ “02000 “0000 £0000 0000 0009 ~0 000 20 0.000 -0000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0. =02000 -07000 -0:000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 50 0.000 -0-000 =0.000 =0:000 -0:000 =0.000 =0:000 =0:000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 =0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 RECTANGULAR AREA a TABLE 5.23 VALUES OF Mi (Giroud, 1970) Po on 02 Ms 04 08 278 1 18 2 25 3 5 1 © © 0.000 0.161 0.115 0.077 0.063 0.006 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.2 0.000 0.025 0.037 0.036 0.055 8.005 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4 0.000 0.007 0,012 9-015 0.015 9-004 0.002 0.002 9.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.5 0.000 0.004 0.008 0.010 0.910 0-005 0.002 0.901 0.001 0.000 0-000 0.000 9:6 0.000 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.007 9-003 0.002. 0.002 9.001 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.8 0.000 0.001 0.002 9.005 0.008 9.002 0.001- 0.001 9.001 9.000 0.000 0.000 1” 02000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.902 9.002 0-001 0.001 9.000 0.000 0.000 0-900 1.2 0,000 0.000 0,901 0.001 0-901 9-001 0.001 0.001 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.4 0,000 0-000 0.000 6.001 0.001 92001 0.001 0.901 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 1:5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 2.001 0.001 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.900 156 0.000 0-009 9.000 0-000 9.000 9:901 0-001 0.000 9-000 9.000 0.000 0.900 1.8 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2-001 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 9.900 2° 01000 0.009 0-009 @.000 0.900 9.009 9.090 0.900 9.000 9.000 0:00 9.900 2.5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0-009 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 7 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 9-000 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 0-000 9.000 $0,000 0.000 0.000 9.090 9.000 9-000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.009 0-000 0.000 10 0.000 0.000 9.000 ©.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0-000 0.000 15 0.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 .000 0.000 20 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.900 9.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 50 0.000 0.000 0.090 0.000 9.900 9.900 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 TABLE 5.24 NAHIES OF He (Giroud, 1972) az, sha Ol 0.2 WS 04 O88 43 2 LS 2 25 5 SW ® © 6.000 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0,250 9.250 9.250 9.250 9.250 0.250 0.250 9.250 0.2 0.000 0.008 9.034 0,067 0.078 0.090 110 0.114 0.114 0.215 0.115 0.115 0-115 0.115 0.4 0.000 0-001 0.006 0.018 0,024 0.033 0.056 0.061 0-062 9.063 0.063 0.063 0.065 0.063 0.5 0.000 0.000 0.003 0.010 0.014 0.020 0.040 0.045 0.047 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0.048 0:6 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.006 0.008 0.013 0.028 0.034 0.036 0.036 0.037 0.057 0.8 0,000 0.000 9.000 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.015 0.019 0.021 0.022 0.022 0.023 1" 0.000 0-000 9,000 0.001 0,001 0.002 90.008 0-011 0.025 0-016 0.014 9-015 3.2 0.000 0-000 0.909 0.000 0-001 0.001 0.008 9.007 0.008 0.009 0.008 0.010 1:4 0.000 0.009 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 9.004 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.007 325 01000 0.000 9.009 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.005 0.006 156 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.900 0,001 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.008 005 1.8 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 0-008 2° 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.009 0.000 9.000 0-001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 2.5 0.000 0.000 9.009 0.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 3° 9000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.001 0-001 4 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.09. 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.900 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 $0,000 0.009 9.000 0.609 0.090 0.000 9,000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.009 0.000 19 0.000 0.009 9.000 9.090 -0.900 0.000 0.009 9.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 0.900 0.000 YS 0.000 9.000 9.000 9.009 0.000 -0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.900 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 20 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 9.990 9.000 0.000 50 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.090 0.000 9.000 0.000 -0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 62 SURFACE LOADS ON SEMI-INFINITE "BSS TABLE 3.25 oe VALUES OF Ne (Girovd, 1970) wks SSS SS oO 0.000 0.039 0.135 0.173 0.187 0.202 0,219 0.2355 0.249 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.2 0,000 0.022 0.042 0.062 0.070 0.079 0.091 0.103 0-414 0.135 0,115 0.115 0.4 0.000 0.009 0.018 0.028 0.053 0.038 0,045 0.054 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0:3 01000 01006 0.015 0.020 0,023 9.027 0.035 0.040 01047 01048 0.048, 0.068 0.6 0.000 0,005 0.009 0.014 0,017 0.020 0.024 0.029 0.036 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.8 0.000 0.002 0.005 0.008 0.009 0.011 0.013 0.017 0.022 0.023 0.023 0.023 1°” 01000 01008 0.005 0.004 0.005 9.006 0.008 0.010 0:01 0.015 0.018 0.015 1.2 0,000 9.001 0.002 0.003 0-003 9.004 0.003 0.006 0:00 0:010 0.010 0-010 14 0.000 9000 0.001 9.002 9.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 9006 0.007 0.007 0.007 11S 02000 0.000 0.001 01001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 01005 9.096 0.005 0-006 1.6 0,000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004.,0.005 0.005 0.005 1.8 0.000 0,000 0.000 0,001 0,001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.004 2° 0,000 9.000 9.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.902 0.003 0.008 0.003 2.5 01000 0.000.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0001 0001 0.901 0.002 3” 01000 9:000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.001 9.001 0.001 0.001 4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 5 0.000 0,000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.000 0.000 19 9.000 01000 9.000 0:000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 01000 :000 0.000 0.000 15 9.000 0.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.000 29 9,000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4.000 19:000 0.000 9.000 -0.000 50 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 ¢.000 -0.000 0.000 0.000 6.000 0.000 -0.000 For 4 point at a dittance = fron the edgo 3.4.3 VERTICAL EBANOENT LOADING che, on the axis HOY (Fig.5.33), Glroud (1969) (Fig.5.54) gives the following solution for the horizontal Vertical surface displacements pz have been displacenent py! ED) PD ayy, Mest *s ME a tate BF - Ra-Placta B+ aera se 2 + Pprlerotan % + archon MES) ) By wee ($28) As in Section 3.4.1, the solution for the comer of a rectangle of proportions 22/b may be obtained by taking half the value of G2 for z=b. ‘The xesults in this section cam be combined with those in Section 3.4.1 to give the results for a ‘trapezoidal distribution of loading, For the par- ‘thoular case when the loading varies linearly across the rectangle to zero st one edge, expressions and graphs for the vertical stress are given by Gray (1943,1948), expressions for the horizontal and shear stresies by Anbraseys (1960) and graphs and expressions for vertical displacenant by Stazatopoulos (1959). evaluated for several points by Giroud (1968). Influence factors Ko, Xe ete for the seven points marked in Fig.3.5¢ are shown in Figs. 3.35 to 3.4L. Im all cases, dwt = iM paz ae 3.26) Expressions for the influence factors Xo(eentre) and Kg(oornen) are as follows: ty = Bl ben car Gey Ban Dt Mot _ facee)? g, anae + Mern2a)? + (an2)* 8 1-28 (o-26)* 1-28 + M928)" + (nap) - eB py a-28 RECTANGULAR AREA Pa _ eu For the point 4, Ee y= Z| Em counlieaaty + 22 og sefhsset on | 2B 8 20 1[i viet Ee [E mm conlieats +B pn Le ee! 1 ,, Alma ase 3728 ¥a-1 8 ty Eaeibetoral? — Lemct)® , aca=2py eaten B)*s48- 2001 2 BHBMe(I-B) 2488 Vitisde*)- (2420) LAL y, fasteetin-a)*+ 28-7 ~ 4-28)" Ya874(7-28)*-28 te -1 28 Vir=26) 44 (a8) 2 (8a) wt Aiea tee + esl ay Sai er Tia en 8 [i-28)¥ +4 (a-B)*428-1 . 2 — facwl? g, ABP rate 8) e980 ane cere! | v8 Parse?) -(140) see (3.276) 2 Tara _ ast, eee In the above expressions, 8 1-8) +(0-8)?e6-0 a= of oe? 4, Arto os Be ofa 8 Tia)? Hon8) 48-1 +28 snt243] see (3.278) + 4 ee ae i FIG.3.36 SURFACE LOADS ON SBMI-INFINITE MASE 66 2 2 1960) . ‘e FIG.3-35 Digphacenent Influence Factors K,. (Gizoud, 2.97. ploplacerent Influence Factors i. (Girovd, 1560). FIG.3.36 Displacement Influence Factors %,- (Giroud, 1968}. Frc. RECTANGULAR AREA 6s FIG.3.38 Displacement Influence Factors X,. (Girowl: 1968). FIG,3.29 Displacement Influance Factors x". (Gizoud, 1968). 3° + « s 2% os i 16-3.40 Dlgplaceneat Infleenoe = actors i (soa 1568)» = os Sel 2 2 UNIFORM HORIZONTAL LOADING (Fig.3.42) = ES 34.6 PIG, 3,42 Holi (1940) gives the following soluions for the stresses beneath the comers Cz and Cj of the rectangle: ee (3,28a) FIG.3.42 Displacement Influence Factors X,'. (Gérow’, 1968). Z feort . 2b te eS front on aR BR soe (3.288) =f eke ated . a Gage aee ] .. G28 we Q fgp Ratt (Rac (Lay ty 1 & {en ae - +g wl] . vee 288} where Ry = (2%22)" Ry = (bYegt yt Ry = (1247402) Ie should be noted that the values of Tea, tys snd 9 for vaifom horizontal loading corsespend £0 the values of Gz, Tay and Tqg for uniform vertical loading (fron the reciprocal thedren). The principle of superposition may be applied to determine the stresses at points not beneath the comer of the rectangle. Influence factors for the normal stresses have been obtained by Giroud (1970). The stresses are ‘expressed as follows: . Under the corners, seek see (3.29a) Q Mk ~ (120K ses (3.290) q Ws ~ (1-20)K2) ves (3.298) PERSE Soa See |S S8a5 VALUES OF _{, {Giroud, 1970) . FY in Boban BalED BOSUNN EEE EES oODS S8u5 RECTANGULAR AREA where € = #1 at Cy and Ch (see Fig.3.42) “tat C) amd Ch. and, 82828228228 9.000 9.000 Hy, Xs, Ei, Ke, 2 are influence factors which are given in Tables 5.26 to 3.50. o. 0.159 oco71, 0.037 0.028 0.023 0.015 0.010 0.007 0.005 0.008 0.004 9.003 0.002 9.001, 90001, 0.000 0000 92000 0.000 0.000 9.000 On 0.107 0.037 0.023 0.026 0.007 0.008 0,002 0.001, 2001 0.001 0.000 0-000 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 ‘000 +000 0,000 0.000 0.2 0.189 ou 0.067 0.054 0.043 0,029 02020 0.014 0.010 0,009 0.008 0.006 0.004 0,003 0.002 0.001 0.000 0.000 9,000 0,000 90.000 ge8828833° v3 0.8 0.159 0.140 0.105 0.089 0.5 0.159 0.145 9.115 0.100 0,08s 0.082 0.045 0.033, 0.028 0-021 0.018 esscccss00 S8S8288888 Under the centre, ‘TABLE 3,26 VALUES OF _k, 2/3 0.159 0.149 0.125 O.a1L 0,097 9.073 1054 0.080 0.030 0.026 0.023, 0.018 0.014 9.008 0.005 0,002 0.001, 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 1 0.159 0152 0.133 0.221 0.109 02086 0.057 0.051 0.040 9.035 0.031 0.024 0,019 OL0LL 9.007 0.003 0.002 0.000 0.000 9.000 000 TABLE 3,27 23 0.332 0.150 9.104 0.074 02038 3888 8838 g o,-0 oo a0. 1s 0.159 olass 0.136 o.125 ects 0.093 0.075 0.059 0.047 0.042 0.038 0.030 0,025 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 90.000 Babue*|h REEEES BBB288 SSBSSSSSSRSSSSSERIEE 38 geeeeeseeee © 9992922292 99~p0S9009 288288 SB28c8 33 eoeecesee S88888282 ‘7 SURFACE LOADS ON SEMI-INFINITE MASS TABLE 3.28 wes oF zou, 19 e wR 0 Od 2 SOM 2st Mso2) 2s) 35 © 0,000 0.143 9.128 0,109 0.100 0.088, 0.047 0.027 0.017 0.011 0,008 0.005 0.001 9.000 9.2 0.000 0.025 0.048 0.033 0.021 0.014 0.019 0.007 0.095 0.001 0.200 0:4 0,000 9.009 0.026 01023 0,016 0-011 0,008 0.006 0.003 0.001 9.000 915 0.000 0.006 0.020 0.019 0.014 0.010 0.008 0.006 0.003 0.001 4.000 0.6 0.000 9,004 0.015, 0.036 0,012 9.009 0.007 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.c00 0.8 0.900 9.002 9.008 0.011 0.009 0-007 0.006 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.000 1 0,000 9,002 0.006 9.008 0,007 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.000 1.2 0.000 0.001 104 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.000 1:4 0.000 0.003 0.005 9.004 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.000 1:5 0.000 0.000 9.002 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.003 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.000 1:6 0.000 0.000 0.002 9.003 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.093 0.002 0.601 0.000 18 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 6.003 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 2° 0.000 9.000 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 9.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 2.5 0.000 0.000 0.008 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.901 0.001 9.000 0.000 5” 9.000 0.000 9.000, 9.001 0.001 0.002 9.901 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 4 6,000 9-000 0 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 5 0.000 0.600 0.000 9.000 9.000 0.900 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.009 9.000 10 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 9.900 9,000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 15 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0,009 0.000 20 0.000 0.000 0,000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 9,000 0.000 0.000 50 9,000 .0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 0.900 9.000 0.000 TABLE 3.29, VALUES OF Ks (Giroud, 1970) bn a0 SSS 2S ¢ 000 = © - 8 2 « -@ 9.2 0.000 0.005 0.027 0,218 0.254 0.242 0.247 0.255 0.4 0,000 0.001 9.005 118 0.133 0.143 0.145 0.155 9.5 0,000 0.000 9.005 0.090 0.108 0.111 0.116 0.123 046 9,000 0.000 0.002 0.070 9.082 0.089 0.084 0.101 0:8 0.000 0.000 0.002 9.082 0.055 0.059 0.063 0.070 1 0.009 0.009 9.000 0.027 0.035 0.040 0.044 0.051 1.2 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.017 0.024 0.028 0.032 0.038 1,4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.011 0.016 6.020 0.025 0.029 1:5 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.015 0.017 0.020 0.025, 1.6 0.000 4.000 0.000 9.007 0.012 0.025 0.017 0.022 1.8 6.090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.008 0.011 0.013 0.017 2° 6,090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.000 0.009 0,001 0.003 0.006 0.008 0.030 0.015 2.8 0,000 01000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.001 0.001 0.003 6.004 0.005 0.008 3 0.000 0.000 0 0.001 0-091 0.002 0.003 0.005 4 0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.200 0.001 0.001 0.002 3 0.000 0.000 0.009, ° 0.000 0,000 0.000 0.000 0.001 300.000 -0:000 00 8 000.000 01000 0.000 0.000 150.000 -0.000 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 20 0.000 -0.000 30.000 ~ ° 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.900 50° 9.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 -0.090 0.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 RECTANGULAR AREA 6 TABLE 3.50 1 NAKIES OF Ks (Giroud, 1970) Ot 0.2 5 04 05 23 1 1S 2 25 3 5 1 0.036 0.225 0.256 0.244 0.248 0.255 0.258 01036 01127 0.337 01183 0.187 on 01100. 0.309 9.128 0.127 2009 0,080 0088 o.102 0.105 0.005 01053 0.059 . 0.071 0.074 0,003 0.056 0.041 2.052 9.054 0:02 91025 0.030 0.038 0.042 9.002 91018 61022 0.030 9.032 0.001 92016 0.019 0.025 0.028 0-001 0.014 0.016 0.025 0.025 0.001 a:o10 0,015 0.019 0.020, 0:01 0.008 0.010 0.015 0.017 0000 003 0,005 0.006 0.009 0.011 0.012 0,000 002 0,003 0.004 0.006 0,008 6,008 0.000 001 9.002 0.092 0,005 0,004 9.05 07000 (000 0.001 0.001 01002. 01005 0.083 0.000 (000 9,000 0.000 9,000 9.000 0.001, 9.000 (000 9.000 0.000 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 000 0.000 9.000 0:00 0;009 0,000 0,000 000 9000 0,000 0,000 0.000 0.000 1 Explicit expressiens and influonce Factors for or Miewiheet Ib yyy vertical displocenent pz beneath the points Ci, Cay 5 2 By and 82 of the rectangle havo been evaluated by we 310) Giroud (1968) and are given in Table 3.31 (refer Fig. 3.42 for definition of & and b). Giroud (19692) gives the following expression At Oy, p, = SOBA To ie pap for the horizontal dleplacenent pz of a point on at = E = ‘the centre-line 5382 (Fig.3.42), distance = from = (3.30a) BE ‘ Miticah TE or SGA ETE ie yoy tg > Gath ot [tase ~ Han Bees z = 1 2a) coe (8.506 1 lak (508) 2 yy WHERE, , by, Meslay where T= (anetoes ate 8) (3.206) pee te eee and a = b/d vee (3.32) lia a For the corners ¢; and €2, Giroud (1969b) Tok (weten 2 = (330d) gives and ae fh Cae 4 [even AEB, B oy sl + @.53a) G33) aviv) JE At Be, p, = titevitteova BID ce py UN) aaah Jeb?) at 7 e see G.31a) ( for C1 and 6; * for €, and ch), 70 SURFACE LOADS OU SENT-INFINITE MASS TABLE 5.51 INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACEMENT ‘DUE TO UNIFORM HORIZONTAL LOADING (Gixoud, 1968) bee £26 *A,! Se ig tp te 1 0.180 1 0.276 18 0,590 0.701 1.2 0.185 aa 0.290 20 0.656 0.746 1.2 0.190, 12 2.303 25 ol671 0.782 13 0.196 13 0.515 30 0.701 0.811 14 0.197 ua 01326 40 0.746 0.857 1s 02200 us 0.337 30. 0.782 (0.892 1.6 0.203 Me 01347 60 0.811 0.921, 1:7 0.206 “7 0.356 70 0.835 0.946 1.8 0.208 ne 0.365 80. 0.857 0.967 1.9 0.210 1s 0.375 90 0.875 0.986, 2" a.212 2 0.581 100 0.892 1.002 2.2 9.215 22 01396 200 1.002 1.113 25 0.219, 24 0.410 300 1.067 1.177 3 0.228 23 01416 409 L113. 1.225 3.5 0.228 3 01448 $00 1.168 1.259, 4" 0.230 3.8 0.469 600 1.177 1.288 4,5 0.252 4 0.481 700 1.202 1312 Ss 0.254 48 01508 800 1,225 1.333 7 0.239 5 01526 909 1.242 1.352 10 9.242 6 0.555 10° 1.259 1.369, 15. 0.245, 01879 10 1.628 1.735 20 0.246, 0.601 10 1/991 2,102 40 0,248 01619 10 2.388 2.469 = 0.250 0638 =e 3.4.5 LIMEARLY VARYING HORIZONTAL LOADING (Fig.5.43) 8 % 4 cx & 22 fo o - oF FIG.3.42 Influence factors for the normal stresses have been obtained by Giroud (1970). The stresses are expressed as folloxs: Under the corners? oath wes GMa) 0, = gla « (2-2vKG] see (B.34b) ais — (1-20)M31 wee (3340) Under the centre, 2qlks~ Mh) sss G.38a) = Bg ikem Uae Cta tv) = MA] we (5.350) Oy = Palen Mae (2-B0) (85~ 15)1 see G.35e) ‘The influence factors MMa,ME,is, i in Tables 3,52 to 3.36, Tables 3.26 t0'3.30, are given KisKy,K3,Xs,X$ are given in~ Explicit expressions and influence factors for teal displacement pz; beneath the points 0,4,C1, C1,21,02,C4,B2 of the rectangle have been evaluated by Giroud (1968) and are shown in Table 3.37. Influence factors for the mean settlement py are also given. = rey t-2v)g Tp At ad Dy ? GERYL (3.368) 1 or saNBUEETS se 45 p soe (8,360) and similarly for points 2, and 31, GS. 36e) pe : e vee (8.360) and a= f/f At 0, (ae) otto ss ae vee (3.37a) ox Hevit-pyab a if 20 wee (3.370) and similarly for point A and the mean Settlement. Ppp Giroud (19696) gives the following expressions for the horizontal displacements at the corners of the rectangle: Hh q [ban keene p, = Sy Bb - Hen teeny = ’ y me Te B 2 ae 2 EE oa. (5.580) vex (3.308) (+ for Gy and Ch, - for C2 and ch) ( for cf and cl, = for Cy and ¢2). TABLE 3,32 VALDES oe oF Me (Gitow, 1970) et 0 Ol 02 MS 04 OF 2S 2 18 2 2S 3 § 1 @ 0 0.000 0.359 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 0.159 9.2 0.000 0.085 0.075 0.076 0.078 0.078 0.078 0.078 0.078 0-4 0.000 01021 01027 0.029 4.030 0.031, 0.030 0.030 0.030 0.8 0.000 o.0n1 0.016 9.017 0.017 0.015 0.015 9.015 0.6 0.000 0.005 0.007 0.008 0.007 0.005 0.003 0.005 8.8 0,000 0.000 0,001 -0.002 -0.003 0,006 -0.007 -0.007 1 9.000 +0002 02004 -0:005 ~0.006 0.071 -0.011 0.011 1.2 0.000 -0.002 02004-01005 -0.007 0.011 -0.012 -0;012 1:4 0.000 0.002 0,004 “0.008 0.021 20012 1's 0000 “0.002 201004 0.006 70.010 -0.011 -0,011 326 0.000 =0.002 -0°005, 20-005 “02010-91010 -o!a1r 1:8 0.000 -9.005 30.004 +9009 <0:009 -0.010 2° 0.000 70.002 01008-0005 0.008 -0.008 -0.009 2.8 0.000 0.901 -0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 -0.006 -0.006 0.006 70.006 3° 0-000 70.001 “0-001 -0.001 -0:002 ~0.003 0.004 -0.004 ~0 004 0.005 70.005 4 01000 0-000 -0:001 -0.001 -0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 -0.003 “0.003 5 0.006 0.009 0.000 -0.000 -0:001 +0001 -0.002 ~0.001 -0-002 -0.002 Yo 0.000 0.000 -0:000 -0.000 ~0.000 0,000 -0:000 0.000 0.000 9.001 15 0.000 0000 -0:000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0-000 0,000 20 0.000 02000 “0:00 ~0:000 -0.000 0,000 -0.000 ~0.000 -0.000 0.000 0° 0.000 0.009 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 02000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -9.800 FABLE 3.33 VALUES OF Ms (Stroud, 1970) Be sft 9 102 SAS SS SS 0.0.00 Oe ee © & 8 © © © «© » @ 0,2 0.000 0.013 9.017 9,008 0,092 -0.006 -0.035 -0.019 -0.020 -0.021 0.021 -0,021 -0.022 -0.021 0.4 0.000 -0.006 -0.012 01024 -0.028 -0.035 0.042 -0.046 -0.047 0.047 -0.048 0.048 -0.048 -0.048, 9015 0,000 -0.006 -0.012 0.022 01026 -9:031 -0.037 ~ ». 0.043 90.6 0,000 -0.005 -0.010 0.018 -0.021 0.026 0.031 -0.036 9:8 0.000 0.003 -0.006 “0.011 -0:013 “9.916 “0.020 0.023 10,000 0002 -0.003 “0-006 -0-008 -0.008 -0:012 -01015 1.2, 0,000 -0.001 -0:002 “0-004 “9.004 0.006 -0.007 -9:010 1.4 02000 -@-001 -0.001 -0:002 +0003 0.003 -0.004 -0.005 375 0,000 -0.000 0,001 -01002 0.092 0.003 +0004 -01005 356 0.000 0.060 -0.001 0.001 +0092 +0002 +0003 0.004 18 0.000 -0.900 -0.000 0.001 -0:001 -0:001 -0.002 -0.003 2° 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 “0.001 -0.001 “0.001 “0-001 “21002 2.5 0,000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 0,000 -9.000 -0.000 -0.001 3” 0.000 -0.000 -0-000 +0:000 “07000 01000 -0-000 =0,000 -0.000 4 0.000 -0.000 -0-900 70.000 -0-000 -0,000 -0.000 -01000 “0.000 § 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0-000 -0:000 -0.060 -0:009 -0:000 Je 0.000 ~0.000 -0:000 =0,000 -9.000 -9.000 -0.000 “0.000 0.000 15 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 9-000 0-000 -9.¢00 -0.000 -01000 0.000 20 0.000 -9.000 ~2-050 0.000 ~0.000 -0000 -0.000 “0.000 0.000 50 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0,000 0.009 "0,000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 SURFACE LORDS OW SBME-TNFIVTTE MASS TABLE 5,34 aus OF (Sire, 1970) _ bf wt oko SSS Law 0 0 0.017 0.009 0.001 -0.006 -0.009 -0.007 -0.005 -0.003 -0.001 -0,000 0.000 8.2 9 01001 01001 -0.003 -0.006 -0.007 0.006 -0-004 -0.003 “o:001 0.000 0:0¢0 2. 0. 0,002 -0,003 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.004 -0.003 -0.003 0,001 -0.000 0.000 3 “e002 -a1003 “0003 -0.004 -0.008 -0-004 -0-003 -0.002 “oioat <2:000 0-000 a6 0 0002 “01002 “01003 -0.008 -0.004 -0.008 -0-003 0.002 Zole0t “0000 07000 0. 0, 0,001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 ~0.003 -0.003 -0.002 -0.002 0.001 -0.000 0.000 1 0. 0.001 -0,001 -0.001 -0,002 +0,002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 001 -0.000 0.000 Lz 0 e‘bot “000i “0001-0001 -0.002 0.002 -0-002 -0-001 ole01 -0:000 9.000 1 0. 0.001 -0,001 -0.001 -0,001 -0.001 -0.001 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -9.000 0,000 is 6. [0000 “0.00 0-001 -0.001 -0:001 0.001 -0-001 Zote0i “0000 0:000 1, 0. 0.000 -0,000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 - 0.000 0,000 . Ta‘e00 0000 “0:000 0-001 =0.001 =0:001 ol000 0.000 2° 0.000 -9,000 0.000 -0.000 0-000 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.001 ole0o 0:000 2.8 91000 -0.000 “0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0-000 -0.000 -9.000 0.000 -0.000 o%e00 0.000 3 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 ~0.000 -0,000 -0,000 -0,000 +0,000 0.000 — of000 -0:000 -0-900 -0:000 -0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 “0000 9.000 s 0.000 -0.000 -0.090 -0.000 -0.000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 0.000 10 0,000 -0,000 -0.000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0,000 -0.000 0.000 1S 01000 -0,000 0-000 -0000 -0-000 -0-000 -0,000 -0-000 -0:000 e000 "0-000 0.000 20. 9.000 -0.000 701000 “0.000 -0:000 0.000 0009 0:000 i) 0.000 -0.000 0.000 +0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0.000 0,000 TABLE 5.35 VALUES OF Ms BFR aft ° 1 02 V3 0.6 05 2s 1 Ls 2 0 000 ell le lll 0.2 0.000 0,005 0.015 0,031 0.036 0.042 0.1 0,045 0.040 0.036 9.034 0.032 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.4 0,000 0.000 0,001 0.004 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.006 0.002 -0.002 -0.004 -0.005 -0.008 -0.009 -0.009 0.5 0.000 0.000 0,001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.001 -0.004 -0,007 -0.009 -0.010 -0.013 -0.014 -0.014 0.6 0.000 0.000 0,000 9.002 0.001 2.001 0.000 -0.002 -0.006 -0.009 -0.011 -0.012 -0.014 -0.015 -0.016 -0.000 -0.000 -0,000 0.001 ~0.003 ~0.006 -0.009 -0.010 -0.012 -0.014 -0.015 -0.015 0.000 0.009 =0:000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 0,002 ~0.002 - 0.000 -0-000 -0:000 -9-000 -0:000 -0:001 - 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.009 -0.090 -0.001 - 79.000 -0,090 -0.000 ~0.006 -0.009 -0.001 -0.002 0.903 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008 0,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0-000 -0.000--0.001 - -02000 -0.000 -0-000 ~0-000 -0:000 -0,000 - 000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 ~9.000 -0.000 -9.000 -0.001 -0.001 ~0.002 -0.003 -0.003 -0-004 =0,000 -0,000 -0.000 -0.000 ~ ~8,000 -0.000 -0.000 -0,000 ~0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.00¢ ~0.000 -0.000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 70.000 ~0.000 -0.000 ~0.000 ~0.000 -9.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.001 -0.001 =0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0-000 - 0.060 - +0000 -0.000 -0.000 ~0.000 ~9:000 -: ~0.090 =0.000 - 0-000 -0,000 - 9.000 -0.900 ~0.000 - 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0-000 -9. 002 ~0.002 -0.005 -0.007 0.009 -0.010 -0.012 +0.013 -0.013 004 -0.005 -0.007 -0.008 -0,010 -0.011 -0.011 +005 -0.004 -0.005 -0,006 -0.008 -0.009 -0.009, -002 - 0,003 -0.004 0.008 ~0.007 =0,008 -0.008 .001 ~ 0.002 ~ 0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.006 1-001 ~ 0.002 -0.002 -0.003 ~0,006 -0.005 -0.005 000 = 1.000 ~0.000 -0.000 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 ~0.005 000 ~0.000 -0,000 0.000 -0.000 -.000 ~0.000 - 0.000 00 ~0.000 -0.000 -0.000 ~0.000 -0.000 - 0.000 -0.000 +000 -0.000 ~0.000 ~0.000 -0.000 - 0.000 100 -9.000 -0.000 0.000 -0.000 -0-000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 73 00.000 oe = 2 «@ 9.2 0.000 0 0.045 0.048 0.088 0.035 930 0.029 0.028 014 0.000 0 0006 0.005 -0.000 -0.003 -0.008 -0.009 ~0.009 0's 91000 9, 0000-07002, 70014 =0.014 016 01000 -0, 0.005 0008 20008 20030 “o‘oas “0:016 028 0.000 -0.001 -0.001 70002 “0/003 0:00 01008 -0:009 Zolors “0l01s 1° 0.000 -0:001 -0.003, 70002 “0/003 0:00 “01013 -0.018 1,2 0,000 -0.000 -0.001 201002 “01002 “0003 “o:011 -0:011 154 01000-0000 -0%002 0001 -0:002 “0:02 0.003 =01009 20009 1's 0.000 -0000 -0:001 001 -0.002 -0002 -0:003 20/008 “0-008 1101000 “0000 -0.001 700% -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 201007 0008 1/8 0:00 -0.000 -0.000 So.001 “0/003 =0:006 02006, 2° 0,009 0.000 -0.000 -0.00% “9.002 “o!008 02005 2.8 0,000 +0000 0.000 0.002 70/003 0004 3° 9000 -07000 0.000 °0.000 +0003, “o!002 “0/003 4 ~0,000 0000 0000 70:000 “01000 201001 0.002 3 -0,000 01000 -0000 “0000 “0:60 70/001 0002, “2000 0.000 0000 ~0:000 “0000 70000 -0000 “0-000 0000 =07000 “9:00 =0/000 -02000 -0.000 -0'000 = =0.000 -0000 “0-000 -0:000 702000 “92000 70-000 -0:000 -0:900 “0000 -0:000 “0000 =0000 “07000 “0000 2090-02000 “0:000 “0/000 “0000 “0000 =0:000 702000 =0:000 -01000 -0.000 TABLE 3.37 TINPLUENGE FACTORS FOR VERTICAL SURFACE DISPLACENENTS LANEARLY VARYING HORIZONTAL, LOADING (Giroud, 1968) bed a2b fe ee ee ee ho 1 0.159 0.080 | 2 0.021 0.057 15 0.288 0.590 | 1 0.159 0.080 la Origa 0.083 | 1.1 01024 01064 zt 01350 Orass | 2-2 01166 0.085 12 01376 0.087 | 2:2 0.028 0.071 25 0.363 0.468 | 1.2 our) 0.087 us 02383 0.090 | 1:3 0.032 0.078 30 01390 0.497 | 1.3 01176 0.090 14 O.389 0.093 | 114 0.085 o.0m 40 01484 o.sal'| 1.4 01281 0.095, us ovis 9.086 | 1:8 0.039 0.090 so arse | 1:5 01185 0.095 16 0.201 0.098 | 1.6 0.043 0.086 60 0605 | 1:6 O1188 0.098 17 9.206 0.100 | 3-7 0.046 0.102 70 0.629 | 1.7 02191 9100 ra 0210 o.102 | 1.8 0.050 a.108 60 o.6sa | 1.8 0194 0/102 19 aiais otc | 19 0.083, 30 o.ss9 | 1.9 0:197 0.104 2 a:219 0.306 "| 2%. 01087 100 o.sss | 2 0:19 0.306 2.2 01226 0.110 | 2.2° 0.064 200 0168s 0.795 2.2 0.208 07108, 2's 01258 0-11 | 2/6 0.071 300 0.749 0.859 | 2.5 0.209 01113 3 o.2a7 ong | 215 0.074 400 0.795 0.905 | 3° 0.009. 0.081 0.215 0.119, 35 025s 1124 | 5° 0.090 500 01830 01940 | 3.8 0.007 0.028 9.220 0.424 4 01262 01127 | 3.5 01105 600 01859 01969 | 4° 01007 0.025 124 01127 5 ol27s buss | 4° asiis 300 o18sa 01994 | § 01008 01020 0.229 31135 7 0.285 119 | 4.5 0.152 800 0.905 3015 | 7 0.008 0.015 0.255 0.140 10 0.204 o.1ss | 5) 0.146 909 0.924 1.034 | 19 0:003 9.010 0259 01146 15 07302 0.189 | 6 0.165 aot 01940 101 | 45 9.002 0.007 0:243 9.151 20 01306 O11s1 | 7 0.185 10° 11507 1.817 | 20 0,001 0.005 01245 gigs 50 O1sI3 1156 | 8 0.202 308 1673 1.784 | 500,001 0.002 01248 01161 100 O.31g O88 | 9 0.217 30" 2059 21150 | 100 9.000 0.001 01249 0.365 : 0:38 0.159 10 0.282 ~ ee le 0.250 0.167 74 SURFACE LOADS OM SEMI-INFINITE ASS 3.5 Loading on an Elliptical Area Tne! 3.5.1 UNIFORM VERTICAL LOADING ot O82 29 os os Stresses and displacenents at the surface and on the axis of the ellipse have been obtained by Deresiewicz (1960) (Fig,3.44), Expressions are derived for the stresses and dis- 1 placements on the axis vithin the mass, and on the surface. The variation of maximm shear stress with depth for various ¢ values is shom in Fig.3.45. Stress distributions along the axis for four values of ¢ 2 are given in Fig.3.4@; | ty all cases, w.3, and #9 is defined as e=(1-a8/4)5, f-we a8 y , . 099) ‘ 1 5 fl FIG.3.45 Maxim shear stress dovn axie of ellipse. (meresiewicz, 1960). Values of the horizontal stresses on the axis are tabulated in Table 3.38. ial Peasitess FIG.3.44 TABLE 3.38 HORIZONTAL STRESSES ON AXIS OF ELLIPSE (0.3) Qeresiewicz, 1960) e a 0.3 0.6 0.9 9.99 fes/a on/p y/o oe/p ay/p Ge/p _%y/p ae/p yp Salp yd 9.8000 90,8000 0.8047 0.7953 0,822 0,7778 0,8786 0.7214 0.9636 0.6364 OS 0.7852 017351 9.7404 0.7330 0.7585 0.7244 0.8157 0.6875 0.8987 0.6158 10,6711 0.6711 0.6765 0.6716 0.6954 0.6716 0.7535 0.6538 0.8343 0.5954 2 0,$488 0-5488 0.5542 0.5542 0.5744 0.5604 0.6338 0.5875 0.7100 0.5551 4 0.3428 6.3428 0.3488 0.3531 0.5681 0.3894 0.4236 0.4647 0.5003 0.4849 70,1488 0.1488 0.1524 0.1599 0.1668 0.1999 0.2094 0.3137 0.2587 0.3839 0 0.0875 0.0575 0.0600 0.0648 0.0673 0.0949 0.0928 0.2060 0.1235 0.3105, Ss 0064 0.0064 —0,0067 0.0090 0.0086 0.0229 0.0154 0.0997 0.0179 0.2270 0.0037 -9.0085 0.0017 -0.0050 0.0457 -0.0277 0.1721 0.0067 -0.0078 -0.0054 -0.0115 0.0080 -0.0604 0.1095 0.0084 -0.0058 -0.0046 -0,0092 -0.0021 0.0723. 0.0761 0.0050 -0.0038 -0.0080 0-006 -0.0030 0.0783 0.0566 0.0001 -0,0020 -0.0015 0.0023 -0-0018 0.0898 0.0252 -0.0050 -0.0050 0.0064 -0.0064 0.0046 ~0.0046 0.0033 -0.0033 0 -0.0009 -0.0009 % oe ot oe 10 ay o o oe oa 26 0 2, | , ! %, A i | { A ; | : a 5 a0 e068 crows : : er © w % 002 04” og 08 ° 3 i soa6 4 7 O82 a e 4 308 a dra A e089 sere z © FIG,3.46 Variation of normal stresses with depth on axis Of ellipse. 0.3, (Deresiewicz, 1960). wo 75 % SURFACE LORDS ON SEMI-INFINITE MASS On the axis the displecenents are given by op, = —tfevtipe x9) vee G.308) 1 2 0 wee Be 0, = by (3.390) where K(e) = comsete elliptic integral of the ‘first bind. Relative vertical displacements /o,0n the axis of the ellipse are shown in Fig.5.47 for w=0.3. ‘The variation of 0/9, along the bemdary of the ellipse with position is given in Fig.S.48, wiiile Fég.5.49 shows the variation of the displacements st the extremity of the major axis (py) and the nino axis (oq). Pg_ is expressed in sll cases as a ratio of the surface displacement 2p. 208 ae s FIG.3.47 vertical displacement on axis as ratio of surface value p,. (Deresievice, 1960). ool 222% 2-08 eo, oe) ¢ e065 Phy o4 — to J Fre.4. to centre value p, with position along boundary. (Deresiewier, 3960). +o oa Omji oe P10 Bal Po. nai o2 ° ¢ oF oF os oe 10 exantricity, FIG.3.49 Variation of ratio of displacement ot extremity of Rajor ads, 0, and minor axis, Pye to that at centre, 0," Weresiewice, 1960). 5.5.2 VERTICAL SENI-ELLIPSOIDAL LOADING ‘This type of loading has been used to simulate wheel loading on road pavements. Vertical stresses and vertical displacements within the mass have beet: evaluated by Senbon and Yoder (1967). LORDING OVER ANY AREA 3.6 Loading over Any Area 3.6.1 "NENMARK CHARTS" ‘The basis for, and use of, "Newmark Charts", is described in 1.7.2, Charts for vertical stress g, horizontal stress, bulk stress @ and shear stresses tog amd tzy (all as a function of the applied stress), originally presented by Newmark (2942), are reproduced in Figs. 5.50 to 3.34, Fig. 3.85 gives correction factors for when Poisson's ratio is different from 0.5, while Fig. 3.56 gives part of the correction factor for cy. When v#0.5, oy is given by the value of Gg for v0.5, plus (2-20)/6 ‘tines the value of @ for W=0.6 (Fig. 5.82) plus (1-2) times the quantity obtained from Fig. 3.56. Similar charts for vertical displacement pz on the surface and below the surface were obtained by Newmark (1947) and are shown in Pigs.3.57 and 5.58, A chart for correcting the vertical subsurface dis- placenents in Fig.5.58, which are for v0.5, for other values of v, is given in Fig.3.59. Figs. 3.50 to 3.59 are for vertical surface loading. Charts for the horizontal normal stress due to an applied surface horizontal shear loading have been prepared by Barber (1965) and are given in Figs.3.60 to 3.63. Stresses parallel to, and perpendicular to, the applied loading are considered for both v=0.5 and WJ. As pointed out by Barber (1966), the Vertical stress due to shear loading is, by the reciprocal theorem, identical to the shear stress due to a vertical load and may thus be determined from Fig.5.55. 3.6.2, SECTOR CURVES The sector method and the use of sector curves have been described in 1.7.3. Sector curves for ‘the normal and shear stresses due to vertical loading, obtained by Poulos (1967a), are shown in Figs.3.64 and 3.63, For the vertical and redial displacomants pz and ‘pp, plots of the curves are unnecessary, as the sector curves have the following simple explicit form: a) @. e, = 2.80. ‘s see G39) ase (3.306) ° oo 62 63 On OF Pov to on 0 Aw FIG.3.64 Sector Influence Values for 0, and t_, : A See “S @.2-toomy sap eb toonany ref L ’ * ° © | : [ ml ° ° "0291 02 09 04 05 s oso ” FIG.3.65 Sector Influence values for © and Up. 78 SURFACE LOADS OM SEMI-IWFINITE MASS = ot Ostaper 8: Br Bicexso-eo Depth sat whien Stress 1s) Computed P1G.3.50 Influence chart for vertical stress 0, ‘(Newmark 1942) (ll values of v) o, = -OOINp * vhere Neno.of blecks. Hy [ be TT! go : Innueige she Sep o omer 00 + Sa Eatetbo, ap Pe wen Seen | Carenfed FUG.3.51 _tnfluence chart for horizontal stress o, (tlewmark, 1942). 0.5 a.m .colip where tano, of blocks. SURPACE LOADS OW SEMI~INPINITS MASS Foe 0 parce Of eain 2 #3G.3.52 Influence chart for bulk stress @ (Newmark, 1942) (for all values of v) ee 2049 comp 3 ‘where Yeno.of blocks. seysotd Jorouen OT gy amcor = ox. (a 30 conten rye 303) steven Paxeuneny -?*) seaxqe avous 203 32¢y9 eOuNTIUT eS"E“OTa ‘uBis(-) snupu D Aq pazooypul ave_7 TS SoQUONYU! 2ANDBIN “100-03 S$! T - = pojq wed anja aduen|jul - = [> x” - - = Te a = _ | == ok - = > 21D2g - - = qaby> Aq S| et LESAN ssh aS SETI SURFACE LOADS OW SEMT-INFINTTE KASS “tay “Ox 203 “p 09 woYROuIZ09 30 Ted “yDy> Aq uaAlB [/ Sh / ye i @S-L) S| UORDB1I0D LY [Ty ‘poo; ie THY Dl OA - Ubu LT nue iN WX ACTH ARS ALR eis ns Ky law FIG.3,57 Influence chart for vertical displacement: ‘surface. (ewmark, 1947). HY AIT OT ou SHES OSs LO SH oe SS SO \\ 1\ Ti Ht oH {~~ FIG.3.$8 Influence chart for vertical displacement at depth + (Newmark, 19871, 20S ot oot gas soon) ALITY Teh LH a <7 sen OO i BS Oy < VEO. 5. 2 below surface. SURFACE LOADS OW SEMI-INFINITE wASs KSA POO ARATE SSS si SK 8% LSS f PDO} JO Ud}}IBIG 219s Buntold=2 asa ¥ $SNS'JO LODD JO Bur 4 Depth 7. Plotting scale U OSS Ohi 4 SSS SSS SSeS o Stat ‘an applied shear load, ress, parallel to a SX Se S WO My Marg ES emergent sim bance: = %o txoqrea) ‘oma “peOT ZROYs sc cay Seno Sowekngan ee" qWlog 552.35 Jo UOROD 4) Co 40 U7, [rr S 0 io EEE j eget ee Ye % ° CPi Q SOZ} Coco Chapter 4 DISTRIBUTED LOADING BENEATH THE SURFACE OF A SEMI-INFINITE MASS 4.1 Vertical Loading on a Horizontal Area where Ri = eben) Rog alab e(eth)® rio a'efek* ork = a*etaen)® 4.1.1 RECTANGULAR AREA vhs Beta-n? eh © b*eree* ‘The Mindlin point load equation (Section 2.1.4) x for vertical stress Oz has been integrated over a rectangular area by Skopek (1961). The following ‘expression has been ebtained for % beneath the ‘The stresses at other points within the mass may comer of a rectangle ax (Fig.4.1): be obtained by use of the principle of superposition. Influence factors for the vertical displacement of the comer of a rectangle are shown in Fig.4.2 {Groth sd Chapamn, 1968), The displacement {5 glven os et ses 2) where a is the shorter side of the ‘rectangle, ‘The influence factor I is given by ies males weeded + intpe/eest) | Ey = —2— | 1-v) faretan prt _y g, w) + Kal tn da 2° gultv) (e-WR of ne tt 3 wag .-3 ((4-e) (Ba-t). + ob) , (ahem | ata-t)* Babee? (2) + dante (ei fBaatyy (athe Bri thst Py hee + apy tor? Ly 4 —Ss! g Usesvlalath) (Sack) jaRy ‘eat st tedute?) atatilbae -f2et- 4] vex (6.28) wo “ _ UGatv)at eth)? -h(eti) (sch) a dey Re where ky = gfe ¢ DaslzthlaRe , SheaRerl _ helzrhi%e He on Bh (athibere Bry Re Ky = S-laveNt a= vb _ eet wee ed 8 = ba oe : BE VERITCAL LOADING OW SORTZONTAL AREAS eo = feat t= IH) Stresses and displecenents beneath a rigid rect- angle eabedded in a semi-infinite mass are given in Section 7.9. 93 For the limiting case of a uniformly loaded strip (b/em), Skopek gives the following expression for the vertical stress on the central axis of the strip: 2 o, + 2 fereten 32° + archer 3, ale), at avian Blare(a-R)*](d-v) Bhat (ath) (2-v) + Hate 1 see Gea) a+ (wth) ?3* (av) wes wane Youealor pe -—f-—_| | ee os = — 0-5] a = h — on a 1 on o 08 fo 88 BB on os 02 or 0 * % ig.4.2 vertical displacement factor for corner of embedded rectangle. Fox (1948b) has obtained solutions for the relat- ionship between the mean vertical displacement f,, of a rectangle beneath the surface to the mean displace- Bent my of a tinilar rectangle situated at the © n/oag is plotted against h/va5 and vaiph im Fig.4.3 for various values of b/a and for 3. IN 16.4.3 Ratio of mean displacenent Of rectangle at depth h to that of rectangle at surface. W605. (Pox, 1948). 4.4.2 CIRGILAR AREA {Fig.4.4) T taste “ FIG.4.4 Psy Nishida (1966) has derived the following expressions for vertical stress cg aid vertical displacenent p3! (@) Beneath the contre o,, = 2 | ate) 1 70 aft-v) { Ge (atoy® ~pist-ty} Weise]? me ate = ies” Brim} ite, ° : +2- (8, 2 fat+(a-c)* — (zt)? wef » (as | se 3) = BU) (avy (Ue Camel (a-0)} 1) + (sotbvnevt)(Yebelare)® ~ (ara)} + (2-2) _ —fanel* _, (3éy) (she) 208 AP t(a-0}* ate _ —2ezlato)* Boa atetato)*)" (ata) _ (tuldsted? = 20a APs (ate) see 44) pal, Pao. sre ha) VERTICSL LOADING OW HORIZONTAL AREAS 95 (©) Beneath the edge (ra) Values of ¢_/p beneath the centre and edge of the circle given by Nishida are tabulated in Table See Nishida (1966) for explicit expressions. 4.1, Influence factors I, and Ig for the vertical displacement beneath the centre and edge of p, beneath the edge is given by the circle are tabulated in Teble 4.2, pat, oe GS z (5) TABLE 4.1 VERTICAL STRESS oj, BENEATH CIRCULAR AREA e ~ (itishida, 1966) Feo? (contre) se’? (edge) 2 v 4% o 1 2 3 ° 0 1 2 3 . 0.00 ° 1.00 0,70 0.56 0.54 0.50 9.50 0.53 0,30 0.28 0,25 1 (0.64 0.35 0130 0127 0.25 9.34 0.21 0.18 O27 0.13, 2 0.28 0,17 0.33 0112 0.10 9.20 9.12 0:10 0.09 0.07 4 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.12 9.05 0.34 0,03 0.01 0.25 0 1,00 0.71 0.57 0.53 0.50 0.50 9,38 0.31 0.28 0.25 1 064 0,46 0.39 0.29 0.26 0.54 0.24 O18 0115 0:13 . 2 0.28 0:18 0.18 0113 0.11 9.20 0.13 0-11 0.09 0,08 4 0,09 0.07 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.12 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.80 o 1.00 0.75 0.58 0.54 0.50 0.50 0.40 0.52 0.28 0.25 1 0,64 0145 0.38 9.55 9134 0.54 0,29 0.21 0.19 0.16 2 0.28 0:22 O11 9.18 O14 0.20 0.17 0:13 0.41 9:10 4 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.04 0.12 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.08 The centze displacement may aiso be obtained TABLE 4.2 fron INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR = Flo, we (666) ‘VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT OF CIRCLE ‘20 Nas (ishida, 1966) Z, (centre) T, (edge) where (92), is the surface displacement given aja» 950 0.25 0.00 © 0.50 0,28 0.00 ¢ in Section 3.3.1, and 7y_-—s«is a reduction factor, plotted in 0.00 1.875 2.000 0.955 1.194 1.273 Fig.4.7. For this case, S 995 0.909 5.00 0.947 0.862 0.586 0.649 0.585 Rema. 100 0.750 0.883 0.750 0.478 0.530 0.478. 3000 0.750 0.833 0,750 9.478 0.530 -0.478 = 2, er as GENERAL AREAS SUBSURFACE LOADING Sector curves for bulk stress © aro shown in Figs. 4.5 and 4.6 for ved and 0.5 Sector curves for the ratio Aisplacenent of a sector at depth face to the vertical displacement of, the sane sector of the vertical below the sur- situated at the surface, are shown in Fig.4.7 (Poul 10s, 19672). Hin cast 9p See res re ert | FS + PS |— Ha I. | , Pt (Poulos, 19674). FYG.4.6 Sector curves for bulk stress 0. Xo. v0.5. +0 | 4 v0 a o: |__4 0-9 (2). FIG.4.7 Ustio Fy of Afsplaceaent at apox 08 Ot sector Fat depth d to that Of sector at surface: a O7 & So6 tee. ¥ a gos foo on || ! . oye 3 «8 SO HORIZOUTAL LOADING OW VERTICAL. RECTANGLE, ” 4,2 Horizontal Loading on a Vertical Py = 28, in (A) + rel & ‘Tete Rectangle ean (——Ceatte The honizontal displacement hg at the upper DTC, Head and lower comer of a rectangular area (Fig.4.8) has been obtained by Douglas and Davis (1964). = ty (CMDR?) | OH) RHR) 4 XAT (nek ~ KOE = Hy) pone tn earl ats t14eK Hy)™ srt 10 fet rr + Ohya) an (RAE HTS | oe (RyRy) e, L j§“4, + Gata. el (Ry #Ke) Ke x Py = 2kz tn = RAR) x 7 ord FrG.4.8 x tn Gf /GH(Ky #K2 )? At the upper corners A and B, for a uniform (Kyte Modan KAKI?) (Kyte horisontal prezause Py +m Cai era (tly 20a#/ 14K) 4 he = wo { (8-40) Fy +Pyt# (2-2y) (1-0) Ps} WEE Ke)® = Ota) = Be lie ER) ve : At the lover comers D and 6, ang the displacement ne other points in the seme e, the principle of superpositi Pg = ER faery trees (rat) (1-024) Bapleyed. Principle of = sion say be S2nG{T =v) wee 4.8) Values of F; to Fs are plotted in Figures 4.9 v0 4.11. Be where i (Ry-Ka) y= Cir) tn Ceti 2 -2 tm (— Goulet? - 20+ feet) P= @ ml + liy-Ka) x (Ky He AVE HK) x ty 2+ Get), are? 93 Gea _ Fy (ye) ky SUBSURFACE 98 and Ps 16.4.9 Factors Fy (Douglas and Davis, 1964)~ ree os o4 oO = = HI Ra \ . , FINN ; a : ot }2- — zt as SAIN ; 2 sy z F ne Ee | ¥ | i ° i ANAS: at ¥ 2 [ts 3 [al ee ‘ 3 Ig 5 | Pe 5 riled o| on RECTANOLES WITH SHEAR LOADING 4.3 Rectangles Subjected to Shear Loading ‘Three cases have been considered by Groth and Chapman (1969), as shown in Fig.4.12, of the corner displacements in the direction of uniform loading applied to subsurface rectangles. Influence factors for the displacements are shown in Figs. 4.15 to 4.17. In all cases, the displacenent is expressed as qar o = 48 wee (4.9) case 1 Top Comer Ai 1 = xolongen) tnt HEB + oxy 22 EB) + Ghasie) in CRED) + Bravealee tal) = Baits ta GE) + a8 tn (2 . 08 mabe me Teele), a2 - 6e}} were a = E eek 3 = Yiest(teda)? | t = vinta? gt ww Be Raw) Ks bay Botton Comer 8: Tw telat CEE) © omer mn /ia-8) (28 (140) +8) Hive) in + amabtava) mn(—4#2 3 28(240) it = KebltHI) Inf ‘B(z#20) + Bite) mn(2) - t(D +0 = BE 204.062 (440)? Teaa 7 g{t#28? (140)) * Street (140) (1420) }} where c, 8,! «= Visas (ata)® 6 = Aisbti40)* yas above case 2 ‘Top Comer A: Tom xoffxyen) (8 2 Cees + Br1¥8e) gn (EE ~ 2B en (ES + CBE + xy tn Onley + 8(4-v) (1-20) [BCA +80) (o-8¢1+23)) = s3B(t-208) + ty (EBLE) where ,B,Ko,k, as above @ = Anstey t= Miedo B 2 = 28 Bottom Corner B: Fos Kol 0x41) ( mn By + 2140) bn (geht = (120) on GE = Xan co aBt B+ tn SEBO nacre) 2-2 - 284240). Biteas _ Bfis20. a) + 2CL-vi(1-Bv) [28(deae-B¢i+20)¢ 200 SUBSURFACE LOADING where 4,6,X»,%; as above Ka = 4-0) (1-29) : 2 = Vis (THe?) = BP (20006 8 CT¢ 0)? + tn GEESE) t = Viega*8* where 6,8,%),%; as above u © B/IH0? 1 8 = f1+68* (140)? t= See eae)? 1 | THT of Ea 7 SESE 0.4.12 tonating cases for hovizenead loading on tad = S2] TF receangle, 2 = =] z Sosed Sate Sse Yuca fooge Sea ee "ras ero 20 18 1s oH v.08 case 3 ta b—veoe To kof [en (oefiest) + oan HY r \ +0 + BCE HL) Bas eee oe + Ceti) in BZ) + atn ES) on { - MC t~2) 2 oe == ¥ Rab Bear” (Fares) ~ toe at =. oe + BE ter gh = ot } ataetatory ~ Kotor Ge) tale eapeay) ~ tor) pt puedo + Ba Gira))) Id comer An. case or RECTANGLES WITH SHEAR LOADING srr 8869. -y reus09 x0€in 103 sorVey auesveTSTP waloztIoN ety ora ° tz ps09 “q xotz0n ROMOY 303 TOROET AUeMDSETATTD THOTIIOA FT -P'DKE Sq % CV 10 FO $0 wo ro 60 70 82 on go 04 SUBSURFACE LOADING 302 cru oFe3 srr eseg “a xeuzeo saxguze 10g tox0e3 auoMoRTdesp TeauoeyzonT"p°OL snot 94 soxany auouese aE Ae tte gos 4 % 0 to £0 70 go ° or si os 0 20 2orn--—— $o-4—— eo low Chapter 5 SURFACE LOADING OF A FINITE LAYER UNDERLAIN BY A RIGID BASE 5.1 Loading on an Infinite Strip S.1.1 WREPORN VERTICAL LOADING (Fig.5.1) PTF ope Influence factors for the vertical displacensnt eg and the horizontal displacenent 92 beneath the edge of the strip, obtained by Poulos (19670), are shown in Figs. 5.2 and 5.3. Tafluence factors for the vertical stress dz, Dulk stress € and shear stress tex beneath the edge are shown in Figs. $.4 and 5.5, for four values of ¥. The interface between ihe layer and the base is rough ("adhesive'’). ‘The horizontal stresses oz and og, may be evaluated as follows: a, = 5-4, vee Gal} 2 Tw Se oy = vlo,s0,) s+ 2) 103 = “30o1 02 63 OF % Ye 23 ws 10 os 0 FIG.5.3 strip curves for p,. tod FINITE LAYER +8) we 2 +2 ow In o-| Ste nuance Factors ‘arta Stress oy veo oe dete 0 or 08 Os OOS FIG.5.4 Strip curves for 0,. veo. FIG,S.S Strip curves for 9, “Th "| is ZS val xd In o8| Sir Ditence Faces, onl 22] eekly o7| OF 0203 0a OS z an oy 6 Strip curves for o,. va0.4, FIG.5.7 Strip curves for ,. v=0.5. 105 20 ¥ } + % ’ * “, rn o. wi Z I on ee 9 1 o¢| ost od sre, muon rocor | om suo © og, Sip names cers —| of eb od wor ¢ coo YO OF OF ta OS od em Powe 1 08 0 . Me ° oor G2 OF 0 OF ¥IG.5.8 Strip curves for ©. ve. % were yo os 8 ¥IG.5.9 Strip curves for ©, v00.2 ao af 2 le é 204 = ‘Sto otuwnee Fesors oa Seen +0 an °, 0 01 02 09 os 95 *% r % 2 1s 10 os ve Ms FIG.5.10 Strip curves for 8. WO.4. FIG.S.11 Strip curves for 8. wa0.5. 206 FINITE LAYER +0 on f stip tntowen Fecuws | on ‘Seo Sees te | a Bie | opt b ors! os 4 ani ? / “EE “Ae AT LA Ji 3 Oo oF 02 03 04 O85 ea . ts 0 08 0 % % ‘3 10.5.3 stip curves for Tye WO. 10.5.3. Stetp cutis for tyqe MOR. ta val, Ste fe [ Yt we he 7 wee : 7 sore | 7 oy} Beth eg o “ Te o24t——t o o ° f o tt © we ol oa] 93) ] Pry °. / a ° IZ Ka os os [TRIANGULAR LOADING ON STRIP Ueshita and Meyerhof (1968) have also obtained influence factors for .p, beneath the edge of the strip, considering both a rough rigid base (adhesive interface) and a smooth rigid base (snooth interface). ‘These influence factors, reproduced in Fig. 5.16, show that the effect of the interface is considerable for 0.5 but almost negligible for v=0. Displocement Intuenee Value. Iye 01 02 03 04 05 06 207 o2| | S |, -FYG.5.16 Displacement factors for edge of strip (Ueshita and Meyerhof, 1968). Thiemness Factor." 5.1.2. ‘TRIANGULAR VERTICAL LOADING (Fig.5.17) Rough Rib Base FIG.5-27 Solutions for the stresses within the layer have Deen obtained by Giroud and Watissee (1972). Some Solutions for 0z,0z and Tz, beneath the centre and gd of the loading ure shown in Figs.5.18 to 5.20 OF V=0.35 Giroud (1970) oxpresses the vertical surface dis- placement as Pa. py, 2 Bey + 6.3) Values of ry are plotted in Figs. 5.21 to 5.25 for five values of v, ‘The solutions for triangular loading may be superposed to determine solutions for “eabankment” or trapezoidal loading. 208 “oust feeeezzen pur pnozzo) feo 80 20 00 60 FO fo 26 10 ny “(ust ‘eosey9eH pue pnozyD) ebpo yateueg (q) « exyweo weeueg {6} [p aeex3e TequczTI0q BT'S‘DId “hp TRIANGULAR LOADING OY STRIP 409 Xe a” FIG.5.20 Shear stress <_ beneath edge (Giroud and ) Watkseee, 1972), ° vr09 % Kinceo e i+ ot | Ly s Each nipiicomne fate Hy, =a Saou 4 . LM , : ¥3G.5.22 Displacenent factor ry. 60.2. (Giroud, 1970). ¥IG.5.23 Displacement factor x. V0.3. (Girowd, 1970), FIG.S.24 Displacement factor x4. Vand. (Girout, 1970), ¥IG.5.25 Displacement factor Ty. V=0.5, (Gizond, 1970), CIRCULAR AREA 5.2 Loading on a Circular Area (Fig. 5.26) my —T : (ee Rigié Base PIG.S.26 For four velues of A/a and three values of v (0.15, 0.30 and 0.45) Milovic (1970) has tabulated Solutions for the stresses and displacements beneath tie the centre (1/a = 0, (r/a = 0.5), and the edge (z/a= 1) for the case of uniform vertical loading. Solutions for 6, snd Op beneath tho contre and edge, and tpg beneath the edge, are shown in Figs. 5.27 to $.31 for v= 0,50. 4IG,5.28 ¢, beneath edge (iilovic, 1970). # 0m 0:20 030 9-49 0-50 060, es thes ¥10.5.27 @, beneath centre (iilovic, 1970} + FIG.5.30 0, beneath adge (Hilovic, 1970), ui