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RachelBarnes

MuscleLabReport

Mrs.Lafferty

MuscleSystemLabReport
SkeletalMuscleisthetypeofmusclethatisattachedtobonesbyaligament.Muchofthe
humanmuscleisskeletalmuscle.Infact,thehumanbodycontainsover400skeletalmusclewhich
makesup40to50percentofapersonsbodyweight(Powers&Howley,2009).Thestructureisvery
stringy.Itlooksmuchlikearoastinhowyoucanpullthefibersapart.Skeletalmuscleasawholeis
coveredbyathinlayerofconnectivetissuecalledfascia.Underneaththefasciaisanotherlayerof
connectivetissue,epimysium.Whenpulledaparttheskeletalmusclefirstseparatesintobundlesof
fasciclescoveredinperimysium.Fromhere,thestructuresjustgetsmallerandsmaller.Thefascicles
willseparateintothecellsoftheskeletalmusclewhichareactuallycalledmusclefibers.Now,the
musclefibersarecoatedintwotissuesendomysiumandsarcolemma.Onthecellsofthemuscle,there
arecompartmentscalledsarcomeres,whichisasingleunitofmuscle.Also,mitochondriaandmultiple
nucleicanbefoundinsidethemusclefibers,butthisisstillnotthesmalleststructureoftheskeletal
muscle.Whenseparated,themusclefibersrevealstringsofmyofibrilswhichseparateintotwo
filaments,actinandmyosin.Thesearethesmalleststructuresofskeletalmuscle,andtheychangein
sizeduringmusclecontractions.
Thereareseveraltypesofresearchbeingconductedoverskeletalmuscle.Onesuchresearch
projectisinvestigatingtheabilityofskeletalmuscletoregenerateaftersometypeofinjury.Itis
remarkablehowfasttheskeletalmusclewillrespondtotheinjuryandstarthealing(AmericanJournal,
2009).However,thewayphysicianstreatmuscleinjuriesdoesnottakethisintoaccount(American
Journal,2009).Thisresearchislookingforwaystoincludethecellsresponsetostimulisuchasinjury
intotheclinicaltechniquesoftreatingskeletalmuscleinjuries(AmericanJournal,2009).Another
researchprojectwasoverthetypesofskeletalmuscletransformationsafteraspinalcordinjury
(Burnham&Martin,1997).Whathappensinthemuscletocauseparalysis,isthattheMyosinis
damagedandbecomesunabletocontractcorrectly(Burnham&Marin,1997).However,insomecases
theparalysismaynotappearuntillater,andthisresearchshowsthatinordertosavepatientsfrom
developingparalysisinterventionshouldoccurwithinthefirstthreeweeksafterthespinalcordinjury.
Thefinalresearchprojectwasoverdysfunctionalmitochondriaintheskeletalmuscleofpatientswith
type2diabetes(Kelly&He,2002).Theamountof
NADH:O
oxidoreductasewastestedintest
2

subjectsthatwerelean,obese,andcarriersoftype2diabetes(Kelly&He,2002).Itwasfound
thatoxidoreductaseactivitywashighestintheleansubjects,andlowestinthesubjectswithtype
2diabetes(Kelly&He,2002).Theconclusionwasthattherewasanimpairedenergycapacityin
mitochondriafoundinsubjectswithtype2diabetes,withsomelevelofitinobesetestsubjects
aswell(Kelly&He,2002).

RachelBarnes
MuscleLabReport

Mrs.Lafferty

Figure1.Labeleddrawingoftheskeletalmusclestructure.

http://www.thinglink.com/scene/611263416459329537

Musclecontractionisaverycomplexactivity.Whatisseenasjustanarmmoving,or
someonedoingapushupmayseemsimple,butthestepsareactuallycomplex.Thestepsareas
follows:
1. TheCentralNervoussystemsendsoutamessagetomoveabodypart(caneitherbe
voluntaryorinvoluntary)(TexasA&M).
2. Amotorneuronintheventralhornofthespinalcordisactivated,andanaction
potentialpassesoutwardinaventralrootofthespinalcord(TexasA&M).
3. Musclefibersarethensuppliedwiththeactionpotential,whichisthenconveyedtothe
motorendplatesonthemusclefibers(TexasA&M).
4. Atthemotorendplates,theactionpotentialreleasesacetylcholineintosynapticclefts
onthesurfaceofthemusclefibers(TexasA&M).
5. Acetylcholinecausesthepotentialenergyinthemotorendplatestochangetokinetic
whichthentravelsinbothdirectionsalongthesurfaceofthemusclefiber(TexasA&M).
6. Theactionpotentialthentravelsintothemusclefiberbymeansoftheopeningonthe
transversetubule(TexasA&M).
7. Ateverypointthatthetransversetubulecomesincontactwiththesarcoplasmic
reticulum,itcausesthesarcoplasmicreticulumtoreleaseCA++ions(TexasA&M).
8. Thecalciumionscausemovementinthetroponinandtropomyosinontheirthin
filaments,andthencausesthemyosinthemoveupthisthinfilamentcausingmuscle
contractions(TexasA&M).
Thatisthecomplexprocessofamusclecontracting!

RachelBarnes
MuscleLabReport

Mrs.Lafferty

Figure2.FilamentsinRelaxedandContractedMuscle
Fibers.

Figure3.ContractedMuscle.Picturetakenby
MandiSeaton.
.

Figure4.RelaxedMuscle.Picturetakenby
MandiSeaton.

Figure5.Chartdepictingthepercentchangeofmuscle
fibersduringcontraction.

Thereweremanyvariationsinthepercentageofcontractionsinthedatathatwas
collected.Thiswascausedbyseveralfactorsincludingthewaythemusclesamplewasmeasured
suchasrulers,ipads,andthemicrostage.Anotherfactorthataffectedthepercentagewasthe
lengthandwidthofthemusclesamples.Also,differentsampleswereunderdifferentamountsof
temperaturewhichcouldcauseadifferentamountofcontractionindifferentmuscles.Twofinal
factorsthatcouldhaveaffectedthepercentofcontractionsaretheamountofatpsolutionputon
apieceofmuscleandthetimethatelapsedbeforeitwasmeasured.Bothofthesecancreate
differencesintheamountsofcontractionbyhavingmoreatporgivingonepieceofmusclemore
timetocontractthananother.Thereasonthattheresultsareshowninpercentchangeisbecause
iflengthwasusedthedatawouldbeincorrectduetothevaryinglengthsofthemusclefibers
used.
Therearetwodifferenttypesofmusclefibersinassociationwithrunning:fasttwitch
(alsoknownasfastglycolytic),andslowtwitch(alsoknownasslowoxidative).Thesedifferent

RachelBarnes
MuscleLabReport

Mrs.Lafferty

typesofmusclesareusedinthedifferentrunningtypeslongdistanceandsprinting.
LongdistancerunnerssuchasXCrunnersuseslowtwitchmuscleswhentheyrun.Thisis
becauseslowtwitchmusclesarebetteratcreatingATPforlongperiodsoftimewhichhelpsthe
runnersrun23mileracesorevenmarathons(Quinn,2014).However,shortdistancesprinters
usefasttwitchmuscle.Sprintersneedtoputalotofforceintotheirspeedforashortamountof
time.Therefore,theydonotneedtogenerateATPforextendedamountsoftime.Fasttwitch
musclehastheabilitytocreateATPinaveryshortamountoftime(Quinn,2014).Thisgivesthe
musclesaburstofenergyandforceallowingforhardrunningforshortdistances.However,fast
twitchmusclewillfatigueveryquickly(thisiswhyitissohardtosprintforverylongdistances)
(Quinn,2014).Sprintingandlongdistancerunsareverydifferentsodifferentthattheyevenuse
differenttypesofmusclefibers.

Figure6.Whatisthechangeofforcewhentheforceexertedincontinuous?Also,whattypeofmusclefiberexertscontinuous
force?

RachelBarnes
MuscleLabReport

Mrs.Lafferty

Figure7.Whatisthechangeinforcewhentheforceexertedisrepetitive?Whattypeofmusclefibercontrolsrepetitiveforce?

Figure8.Whatarethecharacteristicsofthethreetypesofmuscles?

Isthereadifferenceinforcebetweenathleteandnonathletes?Yes,thereis.Itisproven
thatathleteshavetheabilitytoputmoreforceforththannonathletescan(Mitchell,2011).This
isbecausewhenathletesaretraining,themusclesarebeingworkedandbeingstrengthened.The
musclesaregettingbetteratmovingoxygenandenergy(ATP)forgreaterperiodsoftime.
MusclesthatarenotworkedregularlydonotgainanystrengthorabilitytocreateATP.While
everymusclecancreateATPthroughprocessessuchasGlycolysisandAerobicrespiration,
practicemakesiteasierforthemuscles.Also,exercisegivesthemusclestheabilitytoretain
moreATPforlonger,andthereforegivingthemusclesstrengthforlongerperiodsoftime.
Basically,conditioningintheathletesmusclesiswhyathleteshavemoreforcethannon
athletes.

RachelBarnes
MuscleLabReport

Mrs.Lafferty

Figure9.Whichhasmoreconinuousforceanathleteoranonathlete?

Figure10.Whichhasmorerepetitiveforceanathleteoranonathlete?

Researchwasconductedoverthedifferenceinmuscleforcebetweenathletesand
nonathletes.Theconclusionofthisexperimentisthatathletesonaveragehavemoreforceboth
withcontinuousgripandrepetitivegrip.Thisisshowninfigure9bytheaverageforcefora
continuousgripbeing191.8forathletesand178.7166667fornonathletes.Also,figure10shows
thattheaverageforceinrepetitivegripforathletesis228.4833333and217.2fornonathletes.So,
dailyexercisehelpsintheabilityofmusclestocontractandcreateforce.Italsohelpsinthe
differentmusclesprocessesofcreatingATP.ATPisthechemicalinmusclesthatcreates
energy,andenergycreatesforce.Therefore,withabetterabilitytocreateATP,muscleshavea
higherpotentialmuscleforce.

RachelBarnes
MuscleLabReport

Mrs.Lafferty

References
AmericanJournalofPhysicalMedicine&Rehabilitation,(2009).
TheEffectofMuscleLoading
onSkeletalMuscleRegenerativePotential:AnupdateofCurrentResearchFindings
RelatingtoAgingandNeuromuscularPathology.
Retrievedfrom
http://journals.lww.com/ajpmr/Abstract/2009/02000/The_Effect_of_Muscle_Loading_on
_Skeletal_Muscle.9.aspx
Burnham,R.,&Martin,T.,(1997).
Skeletalmusclefibretypetransformationfollowingspinal
cordinjury.Retrievedfrom

http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/9044514
.
Kelly,D.E.,&HeJ.,(October2002).
DysfunctionofMitochondriainHumanSkeletalMusclein
Type2Diabetes.
Retrievedfrom
http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/10/2944.short
Mitchell,C.,Cohen,R.,Dotan,R.,&Falk.B.,(2011).
RateofMuscleActivationinpowerand
endurancetrainedboys.
Retrievedfrom
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21487153
Powers,S.K.,&Howley,E.T.,(2009).
SkeletalMuscle:StructureandFunction.
Retrieved
from
http://www.depts.ttu.edu/hess/mccomb/documents/ess3305/ppt/chap08.pdf
Quinn,E.,(2014).
FastandSlowTwitchMuscleFibers
.Retrievedfrom
http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/anatomyandphysiology/a/MuscleFiberType.htm
TexasA&MAgricultureandLifeSciences.
TheMechanismofMuscleContraction.
Retrieved
from
http://meat.tamu.edu/ansc307honors/musclecontraction/