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Components of the Control
 Protection Relays
 Auto Transformer Bank (ATB) Panel
 Bus Bar Panel
 Shunt Reactor Panel
 Rectifier’s
 Fire Extinguisher
 Battery Room
Components of the Control
 Isolator control panel
 Circuit breaker control panel
 Tape changer control panel
 Bergular alarms
 Lay out drawings
Protection Relays
►A relay is a device that “detects” the
fault and “directs” the circuit breaker
to isolate the faulty part/equipment
from the system.
► Relay Panel
Function of Relay
A relay performs three functions.
► Sensing.
► Comparing.
► Tripping.
► Itsenses the “fault”. This is done by
the relay to “respond” to the change if
any, in the currents passing through it.
► It compares the current through it with
the designed value of current. It
responds only if the current through it
is different from its designed current
► If the current through it is different
from its designed current rating, it
sends information to the circuit
breaker for tripping.
Qualities of a Good Relay
In order to perform its function successfully,
a relay should have the following qualities.
► Selectivity.
► Speed.
► Sensitivity
► Reliability
► Simplicity.
► Economical.
Relays Application
► Ground fault
► Phase fault
► Bus protection
► Transformer protection
► Generator & motor protection
► Auxiliary
Bucholz Relay
► Gas operated relay
► Used only in oil
► Use to protect the
internal faults of T/F
Advantages of Bucholz
 It is the simplest form of protection that can
protect a transformer from all faults.
 It gives advance warning for any future

Disadvantages of Bucholz relay

 This device can be used only in oil-
cooled transformer.
 This can detect fault only on the
falling of oil level.
Auto Transformer Bank Panel
Auto Transformer
Auto Transformer
► This
is a transformer with only one
winding instead of primary and
secondary windings found on a simple
power transformer
► A/Tis the most important part of the
grid station. It is used to step-up or
step-down the voltage or power.
Advantages of A/T
► Single winding is required instead of
► It is less expensive than simple
Transformer of the same rating
► ATB Panel
The panel consists of

► Tap Changer
► Phases Voltage Level
► Oil Temperature
Tap Changer
► Itis used to low or high the secondary
voltage of A/T. It has different pins
usually 27 pins. The voltage depends
on the pin at which tap changer is set.
► In normal condition tap is set at
between 10 to 14 .
Phases Voltage Level
► There are three phases indicated by
Red, Yellow and Blue cables.
► Each phase has it’s own current,
voltage and temperature.
Oil Temperature
► We can monitor the temperature of
► Fans are used to cool down the oil in
order to decrease
the temperature.
Rectifier’s & Battery Room
► Relays operate on D.C
► We need rechargeable batteries for the
► To recharge batteries we need to convert
A.C to D.C so we use Rectifier to do so
► All batteries are connected in parallel &
each is of 2 V.
Shunt Reactor Panel
► Shunt Reactor
Shunt Reactor

► In the transmission line where distance

is very large the voltage can not
remains constant in the entire line.
This is called Front Effect.
► Shunt Reactor is used to maintain
voltage level constant in the line
Shunt Reactor

► Itis usually plugged between two

phases or between phase or neutral
► Long Transmission line which have
less load, we need to compensate or
absorb the reactive power due to line
capacitance’s leading current
Fire Extinguisher
Fire Extinguisher
► It is an important part of grid station
control room.
► It is used in accidental case of fire in
control room
Circuit breaker
Circuit Breaker
It is piece of equipment which can

 Make or break a circuit either

manually or by remote control under
normal conditions
 Break a circuit automatically under
faulty conditions
► Isolator is a mechanical switch that is
used to isolate transmission or other
equipment in No-Load condition from
energy sources
► Isolator is always placed before Circuit
Breaker as Extra Protection
► It does not used to break the load
► Because there is no system to
eliminate arc.
► It is basically used a no load switch
Difference b/w circuit breaker
and Isolater
► Isolator operates on no load condition
because if we use isolator on loaded
condition then arc will produce.
► We operate circuit breaker before
Bus Bar Panel
 Bus
What is bus bar

 Bus bar is a constant voltage

supplier conductor.”
 Bus bars are the nerve-centers of the power
system where various circuits are
connected together.
 These are the nodes of the electrical circuit.
 Under the normal power flow condition the
sum of incoming currents is equal to the
sum of outgoing currents.
► This is the simplest system, adopted to
connect a number of generators,
transformers etc, with the busbar.
► All these are connected through circuit
breakers & isolators
► Busbars and lines are important
elements of electric power system
require immediate attention of
protection and inspection staff for
safeguard against the possible faults
► Simple & cheap
► Needs little maintenance

► Bus bars cannot be cleaned or repaired
without switching off the whole system
► If a fault occurs at bus bars, the whole
of the arrangement has to be switched
Links and References

 132 kv grid station muzaffargarh

 500 kv grid station muzaffargarh
► Guide to electrical power system by
Antony j.pansini
Thank you