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1. According to Ruth Strang:

Guidance is the process of helping every

individual, through his own efforts, to discover
and develop his potentialities for his personal
happiness and social usefulness.
2. According to Crow & Crow.

Guidance is assistance made available by

personally qualified and adequately trained
men or women to an individual of any age to
help him manage his own life activities,
develop his own points of view, make his own
decisions and carry his own burdens.
3. According to United States Office of Education.

Guidance is the process of acquainting the

individual with the various ways including
special training in which he may discover his
natural endowments so that he makes a living
to his own best advantage and that of society.
Need of Guidance:
Complex nature of society.
Individual Differences.
Welfare state and the individuals.
Changed industrial and educational pattern
of the country.
Changed economic patterns of the country.
Conservation of human energy.
Basic Principles of Guidance.
Guidance is a slow process.
Guidance is developing the insight of an
Problems for which guidance is required
arise out of situations,
Problems are interrelated.
Guidance is based on individual
Guidance is based on planning.
Guidance is based on rigid code of

Guidance is related to the development of

the student.
Guidance and instructional activities are
Guidance is meant for all.
Guidance is based on educational
Guidance is a specialized service.
Standard of ethics are observed.
Periodical evaluation of guidance work is
1. To make the students to discover
information about themselves.
2. To develop educational and occupational
3. To promote self concept in an individual.
4. To improve personal potentialities.

5. To enhance forward- looking attitude in

an individual.
6. To bring in desirable changes in curricular
activities to improve educational
7. To help each individual to meet and solve
his problems as they arise.
Elements of guidance.
 It focuses our attention on the individual
and not the problem.
 It leads to the discovery of abilities of an
 Guidance is based upon the assets and
limitations of an individual.
 It leads to self development and self
 It helps the individual plan wisely for the
present and the future.
 It assists the individual to become adjusted
to the environment.
 It assists to achieve success and
Advantages of Guidance.
1. It helps the pupil to understand himself.
2. It helps the pupil in making careful choice
of subjects and courses.
3. It enables the teacher to understand the
strengths and weaknesses of his pupil.

4. It enables the parent to understand their

5. It feeds the community with better adjusted
6. It serves to prevent problems which may
lead to mental illness.
7. It enables the administrator to make the
best use of the energy, money, time and
resources available.
Limitations of Guidance:
1. Guidance services are not well organized.
2. It is limited due to lack of personnel and other
3. There is an overdoing of psychological tests.
4. Conditions of life are too complex for any
person to solve the problems of another.
5. Qualified guidance personnel may do great
According to Perez (1965):

Counseling is an interactive
process conjoining the counselee
who need assistance and the
counselor who trained and educated
to give this assistance.
According to Pepinsky and
Pepinsky (1954)
Counseling is that interaction which
Occurs between two individuals
called counselor and clients.
Takes place in professional setting
Is initiated and maintained to
facilitate changes in the behaviour of
a client.
According to Patterson:
Counseling is the process involving
interpersonal relationships between a
therapist and one or more clients by
which the former employs
psychological methods based on
systematic knowledge of the human
personality in attempting to improve
the mental health of the later.
Purposes of Counseling
1. To give the student information on matters
important to his success.
2. To help the student in solving his problems.
3. To establish mutual understanding between
students and teachers.
4. To help the student work out a plan for
solving his difficulties.

5. To help the students to known his

interests, abilities, attitudes etc….

6. To encourage and develop special

abilities and right attitudes.

7. To assists the student in planning

educational and vocational choices.
Characteristics of
 Person to person relationship.
 Involves two individual.
 Helps the counselor to discover and
solve his personal problems
 Helps and assist properly
 Establish a relationship of mutual
respect, cooperation and friendliness
between the two individuals.

 Discovers the problem of the client and

helps him to set up goals and guide him
through difficulties and problems.

 Counseling process the main emphasis

is on the counselor’s self direction and
self acceptance.

 Counseling is democratic.
Steps or Phases of
G ---- Greet the client
A ---- Ask clients about themselves.
T ---- Give information of Strategies of
coping mechanisms
H ---- Help the client to choose a
E ---- Explain how to use a method.
R ---- Return for follow-up.
Counseling process.
I. Phase-1: Establishing Relationship:
Introduce yourself.
Listen attentively.
Always address the individual by
his/her name.
Ensure physical comfort.
Do not interrupt the individual while he
is talking.
Observe non-verbal communication.
II. Phase- 2: Assessment:
III. Phase- 3: Setting
Goals:The skills of drawing inference.

Differentiation and

Teaching individuals to think realistically.

IV. Phase- 4:
Handling the interventions.

Knowledge of its effects.

Ability to read clients reaction.

V. Phase – 5: Termination
and Follow-up:
Types of Counseling.
I. Directive counseling.
Also known as Prescriptive or
counselor-centered Counseling and
the Steps involved.
 Analysis.
 Synthesis.
 Diagnosis.
 Prognosis.
 Treatment.
 Follow-up.
II. Non Directive
Also called Permissive Counseling or
client centered Counseling.
The client or the counselee is the pivot.
He actively participates in the process.
Steps involved are
 Need.
 Attitude.
 Understand.
 Accept
 Translate.
 Steps.
III. Eclectic Counseling:
It is the combination of Directive and
non directive Counseling
Steps involved are,
 Diagnosis of the cause.
 Analysis of the problem.
 Preparation of a plan.
 Interviewing and stimulating a
 Proper handling of any related
Organization of Guidance and
Counseling centre in a
.school/college of Nursing
 To help adolescents with normal
developmental problems.
 To help individual through temporary
 To identify signs of disturbed
behaviour at the earliest.
 To refer cases needing
specialist treatment.
 To support tutors who
are helping individual
but who themselves
want guidance and
The organization
For constituent colleges on the
For affiliated college at a distance.
At universities.
Members in the

Liason officer

Teacher from
academic disciplines.




Medical staff.