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GENERATOR CHEMISTRY

HYDROGEN COOLING SYSTEM

STATOR WATER COOLING SYSTEM

CORROSION OF COPPER
-LOW O2 REGIMES
-HIGH O2 REGIMES

MONITORING AND CONTROL

GENERATOR

CHEMISTRY

MOST OF THE 200 & 500 MW SETS UTILIZE


PRIMARY STATOR WATER COOLING SYSTEM
(FOR STATOR) AND HYDROGEN COOLING
SYSTEM (FOR ROTOR).

HYDROGEN COOLING SYSTEM


HYDROGEN HAS SEVERAL ADVANTAGES OVER AIR AS A
MEANS OF REMOVING HEAT FROM TURBINE GENERATORS.
THESE INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING :
THE DENSITY OF HYDROGEN IS THE LOWEST OF ALL GASES
AND IS 1/14TH OF THAT OF AIR.
THE HEAT TRANSFER CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN IS ABOUT
TWICE THAT OF AIR.
HIGHER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT
ENSURES EFFECTIVE HEAT REMOVAL FROM HEATED
SURFACES (APPROX. 10 TIMES THAT OF AIR).
THE DEGRADATION OF INSULATION PROCESSES CANNOT
OCCUR IN HYDROGEN ATMOSPHERE.
THE MAIN DISADVANTAGE IS THAT THE CONCENTRATIONS
FROM 4% TO 76% ARE EXPLOSIVE.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)


IN HYDROGEN COOLING SYSTEM THE FOLLOWING
TWO PARAMETERS ARE OF PRIME IMPORTANCE :
1. HYDROGEN PURITY.
2. MOISTURE CONTENT IN HYDROGEN.

THE HYDROGEN PURITY SHOULD BE MAINTAINED


AROUND 98%(MIN.) IN THE GENERATOR. IT CAN BE
MEASURED USING ORSAT APPARATUS OR BURREL
GAS ANALYZER.
THE
MOISTURE
CONTENT
IN
GENERATOR
HYDROGEN SHOULD BE CONTROLLED TO SUCH
LEVELS SO THAT THERE IS NO POSSIBILITY OF
LIQUID
WATER
CONDENSING
INSIDE
THE
GENERATOR. THIS IS
NECESSARY TO PREVENT
ELECTRIC FLASHOVERS ON END WINDINGS.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)

MOISTURE IN HYDROGEN CAN BE MEASURED BY


GRAVIMETRIC
OR
BY
THE
DEW
POINT
MEASUREMENT.
IN GRAVIMETRIC METHOD A KNOWN VOLUME OF HYDROGEN
IS TAKEN AND MOISTURE IS CONDENSED BY SOME MEANS OR
ABSORBED BY AN ABSORBENT AND WEIGHT OF THE
MOISTURE IS THUS DETERMINED.
DEW POINT OF A GAS IS THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE
GAS IS FULLY SATURATED WIT WATER VAPOUR AND IF THE
TEMPERATURE FALLS BELOW THIS, WATER WILL FORM ON
ANY AVAILABLE SURFACE. DEW POINT IS MEASURED BY
EXPOSING A COOLED MIRROR TO THE GAS AND OBSERVING
THE FORMATION OF DEW.

GEN ERATO R CH EM ISTRY (CO N TD.)

IT IS IM PO R TAN T TO SPECIF Y TH E PRESS URE


AT WH ICH TH E DE W P O IN T IS M EA SURE D
BECAUSE IF TH E GA S IS E XP ANDE D TO A
LARGE VO LUM E TH E V AP O UR PRESSURE O R
TH E
CO NCE N TRA TIO N
OF
W A TER
IS
REDUCE D AN D TH E DE W PO IN T WILL FALL.
M ANUAL
M E TH O DS M EASURE TH E DE W
P O INT A T A TM O SP H ERIC PRES SURE. TH IS
VALUE M UST BE USE D TO CO M PUTE TH E
VALUE A T SYSTEM PRE SSU RE FO R IT TO BE
O P ERATIO N ALLY M EAN IN GFUL E.G., A DE W
P O INT O F 10 DEG.C A T A TM O SPH ERIC
P RESSURE CO RRESP O N DS TO A DE W PO IN T
O F +7.9 DEG.C A T 3.1 BA R (G AU GE) O R 4.1 BAR
(ABSO LU TE).

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)


THE DEW POINT OF HYDROGEN IN
GENERATOR
SHOULD
BE
MAINTAINED
BELOW 0 DEG.C AT CASING PRESSURE AND
MEASUREMENT SHOULD BE MADE ONCE IN A
SHIFT.
CONTINUOUS
MONITORING
IS
DESIRABLE. ANY RISE IN DEW POINT ABOVE
THIS VALUE SHOULD BE INVESTIGATED AND
IMMEDIATE REMEDIAL ACTION TAKEN.
WHEN DEW POINT REACHES 10 DEG.C, IT
SHOULD
BE
PURGED
WITH
FRESH
HYDROGEN TILL THE DEW POINT REACHES
NORMAL VALUE. IF THE DEW POINT
REACHES 18 DEG.C AT THE CASING
PRESSURE
SERIOUS
CONSIDERATIONS
SHOULD BE GIVEN TO OFF-LOADING AND DEENERGIZING THE UNIT IMMEDIATELY.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)


THE STATOR WATER INLET TEMPERATURE MUST
AT ALL TIMES BE HIGHER THAN THAT OF THE
HYDROGEN. UNDER THE REVERSE CONDITIONS
MOISTURE FROM HYDROGEN COULD CONDENSE
ON TO THE END WINDINGS. HENCE THE STATOR
WATER INLET TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE
CONTROLLED ABOVE 30 DEG.C AND ALSO 5 DEG.C
ABOVE THE HIGHEST COOL GAS TEMPERATURE.
THE COLD GAS TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE
MAINTAINED 20 DEG.C ABOVE THE DEW POINT.
Limits for moisture content

15 g/m3 at 44 deg.C cold gas temperature and


3.5kg/cm2 gauge pressure of hydrogen.

HYDROGEN DRIER HELP IN BRINGING DOWN THE


MOISTURE LEVEL IN CASING HYDROGEN. THE
HYDROGEN DRIER SHOULD BE KEPT IN SERVICE
CONTINUOUSLY.

GEN ERATOR CH EMISTRY (CO NTD.)


THE COOLING FANS DIFFERENTIAL
HYDROGEN TROUGH THE DRIER.

FORCES

THE

WHEN THE MACHINE IS UNDER SHUT DOWN, THERE IS NO


MEANS TO CIRCULATE HYDROGEN THROUGH THE DRIER.
IT IS THEREFORE IMPORTANT TO MAINTAIN HYDROGEN
PRESSURE IN THE CASING DURING SHUT DOWN AND ALL
VAPOUR EXTRACTORS AND VACUUM PUMPS OF SEAL OIL
SYSTEM SHOULD BE KEPT RUNNING SO THAT THE
CHANCE OF MOISTURE TRANSFER FROM SEAL OIL IS
MINIMIZED.
THE COMMONEST CAUSE OF MOISTURE INGRESS TO THE
HYDROGEN IS SEAL OIL. MOISTURE IN SEAL OIL SHOULD
BE BELOW 0.05% W/W (500 PPM).
THE MOISTURE IN OIL SHOULD BE CHECKED AT LEAST
ONCE/WEEK AND REMEDIAL ACTION TAKEN IN CASE OF
EXCEEDING THE LIMIT.
IF THE HYDROGEN DEW POINT SHOWS A SUDDEN
MARKED INCREASE AND ESPECIALLY IF THE DEW POINT
EXCEEDS 0 DEG.C AT SYSTEM PRESSURE, THE MOISTURE
CONTENT IN THE SEAL OIL SHOULD BE CHECKED
IMMEDIATELY.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)

THE
DE W
P OINT
SHOUL D
BE
CHE CKED
REGULARLY. CONTINUOUS MONITORING US ING
DEW P OINT METER IS RECOMMENDED.
THE INS TRUME NT SHOUL D GIVE A READING
REP RESENTING A MEAS URE OF THE DEW P OINT AT
SYSTE M P RESSURE.
THE METER SHOULD BE CAL IB RATE D REGULARLY
AND IT IS RECOMME NDED THAT WE EKLY CHECKS
ARE MADE ON THE HYDROGEN DEW POINT US ING
AN ALTE RNATE INS TRUME NT.
THE GENERATOR GAS SHOUL D BE SAMP LED AT
TWO POSITIONS, INLE T AND OUTLET OF GAS
DRIE R. THE DRIER INLET IS REP RESENTATIVE OF
GENERATOR CASING GAS AND DRIER OUTLE T
GIVES AN INDICATION OF DRIE R P ERF ORMANCE.

G EN ERA T O R C H EM IS T RY (CO N T D .)
S T A TO R W A TE R C O OL IN G S Y S TE M

T H E D IR E C T C O O L IN G O F W IN D IN G C O ND U C T OR
W IT H W A TE R
IS T H E M OS T E F F E C T IV E A N D
E C O NO M IC M E A N S OF
H EA T
RE M O V A L .
THE
F O L L O W ING P O IN TS S H O UL D B E O B S E R V E D :

T H E C O ND UC T IV IT Y O F TH E W A T E R M US T B E
V E R Y L O W T O P RE VE N T C U RR E N T F L O W A N D
E L E C T R IC AL F L A S H O V E R .
T H E VE L O C IT Y O F W A T E R M US T B E L O W E NO UG H
T O P R E V E N T E R O S IO N . TH E W A TE R S H O U L D B E
T R E A T E D TO M IN IM IZ E CO R R OS IO N . E IT H E R O F
T H E S E T W O C AN L E A D T O DE P O S IT IO N O F
E R O S IO N/ CO R R O S IO N P RO D U C TS W IT H IN TH E
C ON D U C T O R W A TE R W AY S A N D T HE R IS K O F
O B S TR U C T IN G T H E
C O O L IN G
W A TE R
F LO W
T H R O U G H T H E B AR S .

G EN ERA T O R C H EM IS T RY (CO N T D .)
S T A TO R W A TE R C O OL IN G S Y S TE M
T H E M AX IM U M W A T E R P RE S S UR E M U S T B E
L O W E R T HA N T H E CA S IN G HY D RO G E N P RE S S U R E
S O T H A T IF A N Y L E AK AG E OC C U RS IT IS O F
H YD R O G E N IN T O T HE W A T E R C IR C U IT S IN C E
L E AK A G E
OF
W A TE R
IN T O
THE
W IN D ING
IN S U L A T IO N C O UL D L E AD TO A N E L E C T R IC A L
B RE AK DO W N.
T H E M AX IM U M TE M P E RA T U R E IN T HE W A T E R
C IR CU IT M U S T B E L O W E NO U G H T O P R OV ID E AN
A DE QU A T E M A R G IN B E L O W B O IL IN G P O IN T . T H E
IN L E T TE M P E R A T U R E S A R E G E NE R A L L Y J U S T
A B O VE 4 0 D E G .C A ND O U TL E T T E M P E RA TU RE S 6 5 7 0 DE G.C .
T H E M E A N S US E D T O T R A N S F E R W A T E R IN T O TH E
C ON D U C T O R S M U S T B E O F H IG H IN T E G R IT Y
IN S U L A T IO N M A T E R IA L , N O T E A S IL Y D E G R A D E D .

GE N E RA T O R C H E M IS T RY (C O N T D .)
R E C O M M E N D E D C H E M IC A L C O N TR O L L IM ITS F O R
G E N E R A T O R S TA T O R P R IM A R Y W A T E R O F 5 0 0 M W
S E TS .
S .N O .

PAR AM E T ER

C ON TR O L LIM ITS
W IT HO UT
A LK A LIZ ER

W IT H
A LK A LIZ ER

FR EQ U EN C Y
O F T ES TIN G

1.

Co n duc ti vit y at 2 5 o C , S/c m

< 1 .5
(pre fe rably
be lo w 0 .5 )

< 2 .2

Co ntin uo us

2.

Disso lve d o x yge n, g/l

<100

<100

Co ntin uo us

3.

To t al c o p pe r, g/l

<20

<20

Onc e in 2 m o nths

4.

To t al iro n, g/l

<20

<20

Onc e in 2 m o nths

5.

pH at 2 5 o C

6 .0 -8 .0

8 .5 -9 .0

Onc e in 2 m o nths

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)


SOURCES OF MAKE UP WATER FOR THE STATOR
WATER COOLING SYSTEM CAN BE DM WATER
FROM THE WATER TREATMENT PLANT.
THIS WATER HAS A CONDUCTIVITY OF LESS THAN
O
1.0 S/CM AT 25 C, pH OF ABOUT 6.8-7.0 AND A HIGH
DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF ABOUT 8 PPM.
AN ALTERNATE SOURCE IS THE CONDENSATE
WHICH USUALLY AS A CONDUCTIVITY OF ABOUT 4
S/CM AT 25OC, LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN, AND A
pH OF ABOUT 9.0.
DURING STARTUP THE QUALITY OF CONDENSATE
CAN VARY AND CAN CONTAIN AN EXCESSIVE
AMOUNT OF COPPER & IRON OXIDES, AND THE
CONDUCTIVITY CAN BE HIGH, AS IT CAN BE IN THE
EVENT OF A CONDENSER LEAK.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)


MONITORING AND CONTROL
CONDUCTIVITY IS THE BASIC CRITERIA OF
QUALITY FOR THE STATOR COOLING WATER AND
A LOW LEVEL MUST BE MAINTAINED TO
ELIMINATE THE POSSIB ILITY OF FLASHOVER.
THE CONDUCTIVITY WILL HAVE A TENDENCY TO
INCREASE SLOWLY DUE TO THE INCREASE OF
IMPURITIES SUCH AS CARBON DIOXIDE AND ALSO
FROM THE MAKE UP WATER.
CONTROL
OF
CONDUCTIVITY
IS
USUALLY
ACHIEVED BY PURGING AND MAKE UP AND BY THE
OPERATION
OF
BY PASS
ION
EXCHANGE
POLISHING PLANT.
IT
IS
RECOMMENDED
TO
MONITOR
THE
CONDUCTIVITY OF STATOR COOLING WATER
CONTINUOUSLY.
THE
CONDUCTIVITY
MEASUREMENT
AFTER
CATION COLUMN, AFTER DEGASSING WITH
NITROGEN
TO
REMOVE
CO2,
GIVES
A
MEASUREMENT OF THE EFFECT OF SALTS AND
WILL ASSIST IN IDENTIFYING THE CAUSE OF
ABNORMALLY HIGH VALUES.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)


MONITORING AND CONTROL

DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN STATOR WATER IS THE


MAIN REASON FOR CORROSION.
IN UNITS FOLLOWING LOW OXYGEN REGIMES ANY
APPRECIABLE
QUANTITY
OF
MAKE
UP,
PARTICULARLY DM WATER, WILL LEAD TO
INCREASE IN DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF
WATER RESULTING IN DISLODGING OF PASSIVE
CUPROUS OXIDE LAYER FROM THE SURFACE AND
THUS BLOCKAGE OF BARS.
IN ORDER TO AVOID THIS IT IS NECESSARY TO
REGULATE THE MAKE UP WATER FLOW IN A
MANNER THAT DISSOLVED OXYGEN DOES NOT
ABRUPTLY INCREASE. HENCE MAKE UP SHOULD
BE TAKEN IN THE SYSTEM IN LOW QUANTITIES
AND IN STAGES.
THE MAKE UP WATER CAN BE PASSED THROUGH
SPECIAL DE-OXIDIZING RESIN
COLUMN
TO
REMOVE OXYGEN.
ALSO DURING MAKE UP PURGING OF PRIMARY
WATER TANK SHOULD BE ENSURED TO BRING
DOWN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT TO
POSSIBLE LOWEST VALUE.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)


IT
IS
REC OMMEND ED
TO
C ON TINU OUSLY
MONITOR THE D ISS OLVED OXYGEN L EVE LS IN
THE S TATOR COOL IN G WATE R.
DISSOL VED OXYGEN IN STA TO R COOL IN G WA TER
IS GENERALLY R EMOVED B Y PURGIN G WITH
NITR OGEN GAS OF HIG H P URITY (99.99 %, MIN .).
RE MO VAL OF DISS OLV ED OXY GEN DEPENDS ON
THE NITROGEN P RESSURE WHICH IS NORMALLY
2
MA INTA INED A T 0.2 KG/C M WITH ALARM F OR
NITR OGEN P RESSURE IN P RIMAR Y WA TER TANK
2
SET AT 0.4 KG/CM FOR B ETTER EF F ICIENC Y.
A B YPASS ION EX CHANGE P OL IS H ING P LANT IS
CO MMONLY INS TALLE D TO
CO NTR OL
THE
CON DU CTIV ITY OF THE S TA TOR WATER AND C AN
ALSO TRAP SOME OF THE S USP ENDED MATTER IN
WATE R.
P OLIS HING PLANT IS GE NER ALL Y D ESIGNED TO
TREAT ABO UT 2-5 % OF TOTAL S TA TOR WA TER
F LOW. THE P OL IS HER C ON TA INS A B ED OF MIXED
RES INS CONS IS TING OF S TR ON G CA TION R ES IN IN
H-FORM AND S TR ON G AN ION RESIN IN O H-FORM.
ANALYS IS OF THE EX HA USTED RES IN CAN BE USED
TO KN OW HO W MUCH CORROS IO N PRODU CTS A RE
RE MO VED B Y THE MIXE D B ED.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)

COP P ER AND IR ON C OR ROS ION

THE QU ANTITY OF C OP P ER IN THE S TATOR


CO OL ING WA TER WILL MAINL Y DEP END UP ON
THE QU ALITY MAKEUP , THE OP ERA TION OF THE
P OLIS HING P LAN T, AND THE CONCEN TR A TION OF
OXY GE N AND HYDRO GEN.
BI-MO NTHLY
MEASUREMEN TS
OF
THE
CON CENTR ATION OF COPP ER IN S TATOR COOL IN G
WATE R IS RECOMMEN DED. UNDE R THE LOW
OXY GE N REGIME CORR OS ION OF COP PER IS
RE TAR TED
BY
MINIMIZING
THE
OXYGEN
CON CENTR ATION.

GENERATOR CHEMISTRY (CONTD.)

ON THE OTHE R HAND THE HIGH OXYGEN REGIME


REQUIRES THE OXYGEN TO BE KEP T ABOVE A
MINIMUM LEVE L TO CONTROL CORROS ION OF
THE COP PER. STAINLESS S TEEL CORROSION IS
NEGLIGIB LE UNDE R EITHER TREATME NT.
THE L IMITING VALUES FOR BOTH HIGH AND LOW
OXYGE N REGIMES ARE pH DEP ENDENT AND IT IS
IMPORTANT THAT THE pH IS CONTROLLED AND
MONITORED.

TREATMENT OF THE STATOR COOLING


WATER SYSTEM
LOW LEVELS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN CAN
READILY BE ACHIEVED BY USE OF TURBINE
CONDENSATE FOR SYSTEM FILLING AND MAKE UP.
PRECAUTIONS MUST BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT
THE
QUALITY
OF
THE
CONDENSATE
IS
SATISFACTORY DURING STARTUP OR IN THE
EVENT OF CONDENSER LEAK.
THE ALTERNATE SOURCE, i.e., DM WATER,
REQUIRES A MEANS OF DEAERATION (USE OF N2
CAPPING OR USE OF DE-OXIDIZING RESINS) AND
MIGHT NEED PROVISION OF DOSING FACILITIES
TO INJECT CAUSTIC SODA (ALKALIZER UNIT) IF
THE pH VALUE IS LIKELY TO BE DEPRESSED TO
UNACCEP TABLE LEVELS BY THE EFFECT OF CO2.

TREATMENT OF THE STATOR COOLING WATER


SYSTEM
SUITABLE LIMITS CAN BE DETERMINED BY THE
USE OF GRAPH.
THE LOWER THE pH VALUE THE LESS OXYGEN
CAN BE TOLERATED. AT pH=8 UP TO 20 G/KG
OXYGEN CAN BE TOLERATED WHEREAS AT pH=7
THE OXYGEN MUST BE NOT MORE THAN 10 G/KG.
IN HIGH OXYGEN REGIMES ALSO SUITABLE LIMITS
CAN BE DETERMINED BY THE USE OF GRAPH.
AT pH=8 THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN MUST BE AT
LEAST 800 G/KG AND AT LOWER ALKALINITIES
THE HIGHER OXYGEN LEVELS REQUIRED MIGHT
BE IMPRACTICABLE (5000 G/KG AT pH=7.5) AND
THIS REINFORCES THE PROBABILITY THAT
EQUIP MENT FOR INJECTING CAUSTIC SODA WILL
BE NEEDED.