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Attributes Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation

Concepts • Scriven (1967) state that formative • Scriven (1967) state

evaluation was intended to foster that summative
development and improvement evaluation was used
within ongoing activity. to assess whether
the results of the
object being
• Scriven (1991) confirm that evaluated met
formative evaluation is typically stated goals.
conducted during the development
or improvement of a product and it
is conducted often more than once. • Bhola (1990) state
that summative
evaluation is a
• Robert Stakes state that “when the method of judging
cook tastes the soup, that’s the worth of a
formative, when the guests taste program at the end
the soup, that’s summative” of the program
activities. The focus
is on the outcome.

Implementation • It’s happen during instructional • It’s happen in a given

process. periodically to determine
at a particular point in

Duration • Take a short time. • Take a long time.

Area • Test of specific skills, concepts and • Test general/overall

objective. concepts, skills and/ or
• Ideally test every concept which has terminal objectives.
been taught. • The combination of all
skills and concepts.

Purpose • To help the students during the • Summative evaluation

instructional process because of the provides information on
formative evaluation is implemented the product’s efficacy.
during the teaching and learning • Used to determine
process. students’ grades and
• Determine specific skills, concepts and report them.
objectives which students have not • Used as a basis for
mastered. subsequent revision or
• Provides immediate feedback to redesign of a course or
students on their learning performance: program
often suggest learning activities. • Determine program/
• Identifies specific weakness in ongoing course effectiveness
instruction (material and teaching
procedures) allowing the teacher to
remedy the instructions.

Examples • Criteria and goal setting • State assessment

○ Engages students in instruction • End-of-unit or chapter
and the learning process by tests
creating clear expectations. • End-of-term or semester
• Observations exams
○ Teacher observes to identify the • Scores that are used for
students that need clarification. accountability for
○ Observation assist teacher in schools and student
gathering evidence of student (report card grades)
learning to inform instructional
• Questioning strategies
○ Elicit immediate information
about students learning
• Self and peer assessments
○ With peer evaluation, students
see each other as resources for
understanding and checking for
quality work against previously
established criteria.
• Students record keeping
○ Helps students better
understand their own learning
as evidence of their classroom
work (worksheet etc. )