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CHUOI SO CHUOI HAM

<VI.1> Tnh tong

x
n =1

a) x n = q n
c) x n =

vi :
b) x n =

(| q |< 1)

1
(n 2)
n -1

d) x n =

1
n(n + 1)

1
n +1 + n

n(n + 1)

. Giai:
at Sn = x1 + x 2 + ... + x n
a) Sn = q + q 2 + ... + q n = q

1 - qn
1- q

q
n
1- q
n =1
1
1
b) Ta co x k = , t o
k k +1
1
1
1 1 1
1
Sn = 1 - + - + ... + =1n +1
2 2 3
n n +1

= lim Sn =

= lim Sn = 1

x
n =1

1
1 1
1
=
, k 2
k -1 2 k -1 k +1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1
Sn = x 2 + x 3 + ... + x n = 1 - + - + - + ... +

2 3 2 4 3 5
n -1 n +1

c) Ta co x k =

1 1 1
1
= 1 + -
2 2 n n +1

1 1 3
x n = lim Sn = 1 + =

n
2 2 4
n =1
d) Ta co x k =

1
k +1 + k

k(k + 1)

k +1 - k
k. k + 1

1
1
k
k +1
1 1
1
1
1
1
nen Sn =
+
+ ... +

2 2
3
n +1
1
n
1
= 1.
n +1
=

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Vay

n =1

= lim Sn = 1
n

<VI.2> Khao sat s hoi tu cua cac chuoi sau :

1
a) 2
n =1 n

n
c) n
n =1 2

b)

2
n =1

d)

n
n =1

2n + 3n
1
f)

6n
n = 2 ln n
n =1
. Giai:

1
1
1
1
hoi tu nen 2 hoi tu.
a) 2
, "n 1 va
n
n(n + 1)
n =1 n(n - 1)
n =1 n

1
1
1
b) n = q n vi 0 < q = < 1 nen n hoi tu.
2
n =1 2
n =1 2

e)

c) do

n
n

( 2)

22

0 nen n < 2 2 , "n n 0 .

n n

n 22
T o n n , n n 0
2
2
n
1
hay n
, n n0
n
2
2

( )

ma

( 2)

d) at Sn = 1 +

hoi tu nen

2
n =1

hoi tu.

1
1
+ ... +
2
n

1
, va moi so nguyen n N lay n N va m =2n
2
1
1
1
1
th Sm - Sn =
+
+ ... +
( = e)
n +1 n + 2
n+n 2

vi e0 =

do o theo tieu chuan Cauchy, ( Sn )n khong hoi tu, nen

phan ky.

1
1
>
ln n n

1
1
ma phan ky nen
phan ky.
n
n = 2 ln n

e) T n > ln n , n 2 ta co

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2 n + 3n 1 1
f) Vi x n =
= n + n va cac chuoi :
6n
3 2

va

hoi tu.

2n + 3n
Vay
hoi tu.
6n
n =1

<VI.3> Chng minh rang chuoi:


2.4 2.4.6
1+
+
+ ... phan ky.
1.3 1.3.5
. Giai:
2.4.6...2n
>1
So hang tong quat x n =
1.3.5...(2n - 1)
day ( x n ) n khong co gii han la 0 nen
<VI.4> Cho

(a )
n =1

va

( b ) vi a
n =1

phan ky.

0 "n

b n 0 "n
an
= c ( 0 ) . CMR
n b
n

va lim

a) c = 0 , va
b) c = , va

n =1

n =1

( bn ) hoi tu th ( a n )

( bn ) phan ky th

(a )

n =1

c) 0 < c < th

(a n )

va

n =1

hoi tu.

n =1

phan ky.

( b ) cung ban chat, ngha la cung phan ky hay cung


n

n =1

hoi tu, luc o se ghi a n ~ b n (n )


. Giai:
a) do lim

Vay

( bn ) hoi tu dan en
n =1

b) do lim

Vay

an
= 0 nen $n 0 sao cho 0 a n b n , "n n 0
bn

(a )

an
= nen $n 0 sao cho b n a n , "n n 0
bn

( bn ) phan ky dan en
n =1

c) lim
n

hoi tu.

n =1

( a ) phan ky.
n =1

an
= c vi 0 < c < , $n 0 :
bn
c
3c
b n a n .b n , "n n 0
2
2

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neu

n =1

neu

3c
.b
ho
i
tu
,
do
o
( a n ) hoi tu

n
n =1 2
n =1

c
phan ky th .b n phan ky do o ( a n ) phan ky.
n =1 2
n =1

( bn ) hoi tu th

(b )
n

n =1

<VI.5> Khao sat s hoi tu cua cac chuoi sau:


1
1
a)
b)
1+ n2
n(n + 1)
1

c)

e)

( ln n )

n!
2

xn
g) n (x 0)
n

2n + 1
i) 2
n = 4 n - 4n + 3
. Giai:
1
1
a)
~
(n ) va do
n(n + 1) n

d)

f)

1
n(n + n 2 )
1
n ln n

xn
h)
n!

p
1
j) sin
n
n =1 n

phan ky nen

n =1

n =1

1
phan ky.
n(n + 1)

1
1
1
2 nen
hoi tu.
2
1+ n
n
1+ n2
1
c) at x n =
ta co
n
( ln n )
b)

d)

xn =

( ln n )

1
0 (< 1)
ln n n

hoi tu

1
n(n + n )
2

1
3
2

( n ) nen

1
n(n + n 2 )

hoi tu.

n
( n + 1)! n 2 = n 2 , nen chuoi
n!
x
e) x n = 2 t o n +1 =
2
n
xn
( n + 1) n! n + 1
f) Xet

n!

1
n ln n = n
1
ln n
n

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phan ky.

ma
g)

phan ky, vay

1
phan ky.
n ln n

xn
n n hoi tu theo tieu chuan Cauchy.

xn
n! hoi tu theo tieu chuan DAlembert.
2n + 1
1
2n + 1
~ ( n ) nen 2
phan ky
i) do 2
n - 4n + 3 n
n - 4n + 3
1
p
sin
n = n sin p p
j) Xet n
1
n n
2
n
p 1
1
p
nen n sin ~ 2 ( n ) . Vay sin hoi tu.
n n
n
n
h)

1.3.5...(2n - 1)

2.4.6...2n
n =1
Chng minh rang chuoi hoi tu khi va ch khi p > 2

< VI.6> Cho chuoi so

. Giai:
p

1.3.5...(2n - 1)
at x pn =
2.4.6...2n
1 3 5 (2n - 1) 3 5 (2n - 1) (2n + 1) 1
ta co x 2n = . . ...
.1. . ...
.
.
2 4 6
2n
2 4 (2n - 2)
2n
2n + 1
1 1
1 1 1 1 1
= 1 - 1 - ... 1 - . 1 + 1 + ... 1 + .
2 4 2 2 4 2n 2n + 1
1
1
1 1

= 1 - 2 1 - 2 ... 1 .
2
2 4 (2n) 2n + 1
do

1 1
1
1 1 1
1
+
+
...
+
=
2=

2
2
2
2
2 4
( 2n ) 4 k =1 k 4 2

1 1
nen x 2n .
2 2n + 1
1 1
ma v .
phan ky, ta co
2 2n + 1
T o suy ra

p 2 : ta co x pn x 2n nen

phan ky.

2
n

p
n

phan ky.

p > 2:

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1
1
1 1
Ta co x pn = (x ) = 1 - 2 1 - 2 .. 1
2
2 4 (2n) 2n + 1
1

p
2n
1
+
(
)2
p
2 2
n

ma

n =1

1
(2n + 1)

hoi tu (

p
2

p
> 1) , nen
2

x
n +1

<VI.7> Khao sat s hoi tu tuyet oi cua


x 2n +1
2n +1
a) (-1)
( 2n + 1) !

p
n

p
2

hoi tu.

b)

(-1)

n +1

xn

( x + 2)

. Giai:
2n +1

a) at a n = (-1)

2n +1

x
x 2n +1
=
( 2n + 1)! ( 2n + 1)!

x
x
( 2n + 1)! =
a
Ta co n +1 =
.
0
2n +1
an
( 2n + 3)! x
( 2n + 2 )( 2n + 3) n
2n + 3

Vay

hay

(-1)

hoi tu vi "x .
2n +1

x 2n +1
hoi tu tuyet oi tai "x .
( 2n + 1) !

b) at a n = (-1)
n

Ta co

an =

n +1

xn

( x + 2)

x+2

("x -2) .

x
x+2

x
<1 x < x + 2
x+2
x > -1

x
> 1 x < -1
x+2

x = -1 th an =1 nen
Vay

(-1)

n +1

xn

( x + 2)

phan ky.

hoi tu tuyet oi khi va ch khi x > -1

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<VI.8> Cho ( b n )n b chan va a n 0, "n . Gia s

hoi tu. CMR

a b

. Giai:
Do ( b n )n b chan nen $M > 0 : | b n | M, "n
nen

M.a n | a n .b n |, "n

va

Ma

hoi tu nen

( a n 0 ).

a b
n

<VI.9> Xet tnh hoi tu cua

hoi tu, do o

( ln n )

a b
n

hoi tu.

vi k > 1 va p > 1

np

. Giai:
Vi p > 1, ta co p = 1 + a trong o a > 0 .

( ln n )
np
1

Xet

1+

n
Ma

a
2

1
n

1+

( ln n )
a
2

0 (

hoi tu, nen

a
2

n =2

a
> 0)
2

( ln n )

hoi tu.

np

<VI.10> Khao sat tnh hoi tu cua

n
n=2

1
ln b n

(a, b > 0)

. Giai:
1
xac nh tren [2, ) va la ham so giam.
x ln b x
Hn na bai tap tch phan, ta co

dx
a >1
2 x a lnb x hoi tu.
Xet ham so f (x) =

a <1

a =1

- b >1
- b 1

T o

n
n=2

dx
phan ky
ln b x

dx
hoi tu
ln b x
dx
phan ky
ln b x

1
hoi tu khi va ch khi a > 1 hay a = 1 va b > 1
ln b n

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hoi tu.

<VI.11> Cho

va

2
n

a b

hoi tu. CMR

2
n

hoi tu

. Giai:
Ta co a n b n

a 2n + b 2n
, "n.
2

a 2n + b 2n
hoi tu vay
ma a , b hoi tu nen a + b hoi tu va do o
2
2
n

a b
n

2
n

2
n

hoi tu, suy ra

a b
n

<VI.12> Cho a n 0, "n va


CMR

2
n

hoi tu.

phan ky

an
phan ky, con

n =1 1 + a n

an

1+ n a

hoi tu.

n =1

. Giai:
an
0 , neu ngc lai th
1 + a n n
e
Ta co : "e > 0 , at e' =
1+ e
an
$n 0 : n 0
< e'
1+ an

Gia s

an <
Vay lim a n = 0

an

1+ a
n =1

phan ky.
n

e'
= e , n n0 .
1 - e'

t o a n a n , "n N 0 (N0 u ln).


Suy ra luc o
Hn na
Va
do

an
a
1
n =
an
1+ an 2 an 2
an
1

an
1+ an 2

(a n > 0)

neu an = 0.

a n phan ky nen

De dang kiem chng


t o do

a n phan ky.

an

1+ a

phan ky.
n

an
1
2 , "n
2
1 + a n .n
n

hoi tu, ta co

an

1+ n a

hoi tu.

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<VI.13> Cho a n 0 , "n va

hoi tu. CM

an
hoi tu.
n

. Giai:

an

Theo <V.11>,

) = a
2

va

hoi tu.

an
hoi tu.
n

<VI.14> Tm mien hoi tu cua :


a)

nx

c)

b)

-n

xn

xn
d) 2
n + 2n

. Giai:
a) a n = n n a n = n n 1 tai x = 1 chuoi phan ky
n

Vay mien hoi tu cua

nx

la ( -1,1)

1
1
n an = 0
n
n
n n
xn
chuoi n co mien hoi tu la ( -, + )
n
1
c) a n = 2- n n | a n | =
2

b) a n =

-n

x n hoi tu tren "x :| x |< 2 va phan ky vi "x :| x |> 2

x=-2 :

( -2 )
2n

phan ky.

2n
2n phan ky
Vay mien hoi tu la ( -2, 2 ) .
X= 2 :

d) a n =

1
1
n an =
1
n
2
n + 2n
n + 2n n
2

x n hoi tu vi "x : | x |< 1

va phan ky vi "x : | x |> 1


tai x = 1 chuoi hoi tu.

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Vay mien hoi tu la [ -1,1]


<VI.15> Tm mien hoi tu cua
xn
a)
n
c)

xn
( 4n - 1)!

b)

d)

2n
( 2n + 7 )! x n

ln n

. Giai:
a) Ban knh hoi tu la R = 1.
x = 1 chuoi phan ky.
x = -1 chuoi hoi tu (theo Leibnitz)
mien hoi tu la [-1,1)
b) Ban knh hoi tu la R=1
tai x = 1 chuoi phan ky.
Mien hoi tu la (-1, 1).
( 4n - 1)! =
1
a
2
c) a n =
, th n +1 =
an
( 4n - 1)!
( 4n + 3)! 4n ( 4n + 1)( 4n + 2 )( 4n + 3)
Ban knh hoi tu R =
Mien hoi tu la (-, +)
d) a n =

( 2n + 7 ) ! =
a
2n +1
2
2n
th n +1 =

n
an
2
( 2n + 7 )!
( 2n + 9 )!
( 2n + 8)( 2n + 9 )

mien hoi tu la (-, +) .


<VI.16> Chng minh rang

x
n =0

1
hoi tu eu tren [0, ] va khong hoi tu eu tren (0,
2

1).
. Giai:
n

1
1
Ta co x n , "x [0, ]
2
2
1
1
Va n hoi tu nen x n hoi tu eu tren [ 0, ]
2
2
2
n
at Sn (x) = 1 + x + x + ... + x
=

1 - x n +1
1- x

"x (0,1) ta co limSn (x) =


n

xet Sn (x) -

1
= S(x)
1- x

1
x n +1
=
1- x 1- x

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vi n cho trc, ta co :
xn
xn
lim
= nen $x :
>1
x 1 1 - x
1- x
Vay Sn(x) khong hoi tu eu ve S(x) tren (0, 1).
<VI.17> CMR

(1 - x ) x

khong hoi tu eu tren [0, 1].

n =0

. Giai:
1 - x n +1
at Sn ( x ) = (1 - x ) x = (1 - x )
= 1 - x n +1 (k 1)
1- x
k =0
Sn (x) = 0 tai x = 1 .
1 , x 1
Vay Sn (x) S(x) =
0 , x = 1

do o : f n (x) = (1 - x ) x n lien tuc tren [0, 1] va S(x) khong lien tuc tren [0, 1] nen
Sn (x) khong hoi tu eu ve S(x) tren [0, 1].
<VI.18> Chng minh

1
hoi tu eu tren [0, )
+ x2

. Giai:
Vi f n (x) =
do

1
1
a n = 2 , "x [ 0, )
2
n +x
n
2

hoi tu nen

<VI.19> Chng minh

(x) hoi tu eu.


sin nx
hoi tu eu tren .
n n

. Giai:
sin nx
n n
1
do f n (x)
va
n n
Vi f n (x) =

1
n

hoi tu nen

<VI.20> Xet tnh hoi tu eu cua

x e

n - nx

(x) hoi tu eu.

tren [ 0, )

. Giai:
Xet ham so f n (x) = x n e- nx ta co f n' (x) = nx n -1.e- nx - nx n e- nx
= nx n -1e - nx (1 - x )

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x 0

1
+

'
n

f (x)

e- n

f n (x)
0

Vay 0 f n (x) e- n , "x [ 0, )


ma

-n

hoi tu vay

(x) hoi tu eu.

xn
1 + x n hoi tu eu tren moi oan [0, c] vi 0 < c < 1 ,
nhng khong hoi tu eu tren [ 0,1) .
<VI.21> Chng minh chuoi

. Giai:
Vi moi so c (0,1) .
Xet ham so f n (x) =

xn
tang (theo bien x)
1+ xn

cn
Do o f n (x)
cn , " [ 0, c]
n
1+ x
Do

hoi tu nen

(x) hoi tu eu tren [0, c].

Xet tren [0, 1)


xk
k
k =1 1 + x
"m, n cho trc ta co
n

at Sn (x) =

x n +1
x m +1
+
...
+
(m > n)
1 + x n +1
1 + x m +1
xn
1
xn
1
do lim
=
ne
n
$
x

0,1
:
>
)
[
n
x 1 1 + x n
2
1+ x
3
Sm (x) - Sn (x) =

vay

(x) khong hoi tu eu tren [0, 1).

1
2
n =1 1 + n x
a) Tm mien xac nh cua f.
b) Xet tnh lien tuc cua f.
. Giai:
a)
x = 0 , chuoi khong hoi tu nen f khong xac nh.
<VI.22> Cho f (x) =

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1
1
khong xac nh, ham so khong xac nh
, so hang tong quat
2
n
1+ n2x
-1 -1 -1
1
1
"x \ {0, , 2 , 2 ,...} c chon trc
~ 2 ( n ) nen
2
1 2 3
1+ n x n
1
1 + n 2 x hoi tu tuyet oi , f xac nh.
-1 -1 -1
Vay mien xac inh cua f la D = \{0, , 2 , 2 ,...}
1 2 3
b) Lay x0 bat ky tren D.
Ton tai a, b : x 0 [ a, b] D
x=-

1
giam (theo bien x) tren [ a, b] nen
1 + n 2x
f n (b) f n (x) f n (a), "x [ a, b] , "n N , v vay f n (x) max( f n (b) , f n (a ) ) = a n
Do f n (x) =

Trong o a n = f n (a) hay a n = f n (b) va co

hoi tu. Suy ra

(x) hoi tu eu

tren [ a, b] , ma cac ham fn lien tuc tren [ a, b] , vay f lien tuc tren [ a, b] . Tc la f lien
tuc tai x0 va do o f lien tuc tren D.
<VI.23>Xet tnh lien tuc cua f (x) =

nx 2
tren [ 0, )
x3 + n3

. Giai:
nx 2
nx 2 x 2

= 2
x3 + n3 x3
n
Vi bat ky x 0 ton tai a > 0 thoa 0 x a nen
nx 2
n.a 2 a 2
0 3

= 2
x + n3
n3
n
2
a
ma 2 hoi tu
n
Vi x 0 th :

nen

nx 2
x 3 + n 3 hoi tu eu tren [0, a]

nx 2
nx 2
lie
n
tu
c
tre
n
[0,
a]
(v
f
(x)
=
lien tuc, "n )
n
x3 + n3
x3 + n3
f lien tuc tai moi x [ 0, ) .

suy ra f (x) =

<VI.24> Tnh ao ham cua f (x) =

1
n + x2
2

. Giai:

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vi f n (x) =

1
-2x
2|x |
ta co f n' (x) =
nen f n' (x) 4
2
2
n +x
n
(n2 + x2 )
2

vi x 0 cho trc

'
n

(x) hoi tu eu tren [ x 0 - 1, x 0 + 1]

(x) hoi tu eu tren [ x 0 - 1, x 0 + 1] , ta lai co cac ham f n' lien tuc nen
'

'
f n (x) = f n (x), "x [ x 0 - 1, x 0 + 1]

-2x
, "x
vay f ' (x) =
2
(n2 + x2 )
<VI.25> Tnh cac tong vo han:
a) -2x + 4x 3 - 6x 5 + ... + (-1)k 2k.x 2k -1...

| x |< 1

n -1

1 2x 3x
nx
+ 2 + 3 + ... + n + ...
a a
a
a
2
3
n
x
x
x
c) x + + + ... +
+ ...
2
3
n
. Giai:
b)

a) Xet chuoi

(-1)

2nx 2n -1 (1)

| x |< a
| x |< 1

| x |< 1

n =1
n

vi f n (x) = (-1) 2nx 2n -1 co mot nguyen ham la


Fn (x) = (-1) n x 2n
Chuoi (1) co ban knh hoi tu la R = 1, nen vi moi x 0 (-1,1)
$a > 0 : x 0 [ -a, a ] ( -1,1)

(1) hoi tu eu tren [ -a, a ] . Hn na

F (x) cung hoi tu tren [ -a, a ] nen:


n

'

F
(x)
=
n f n (x) , "x [ -a, a ]
1
n =1
'

Va do o Fn (x) = f n (x) , "x ( -1,1)


1
n =1
Sn (x) = F1 (x) + ... + Fn (x)

1 - (- x 2 )n
= - x 2 + x 4 + ... + (-1) n x 2n = - x 2

2
1+ x

-x 2
t o Fn (x) = lim Sn (x) =
, x ( -1,1)
n
1+ x2
1

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'

x2
-2x
nen f n (x) = =
2
2
1 + x (1 + x 2 )

b) Chuoi cho co dang


f n (x) =

(x) vi

nx n -1
vi | x |< a
an
n

co nguyen ham la Fn (x) =

xn x
= ,
an a

x
<1
a

Ly luan nh tren :
'

x n
a
f n (x) = a = (a - x)2

c) Chuoi a cho co dang

f
n =1

(x) vi

f n (x) =
do

n -1

xn
= t n -1dt
n 0

hoi tu eu tren [0, x], vi | x |< 1

n =1

nen

n -1
f
(x)
=
t
dt
=
t dt
n

0
n =1 0
n =1

n -1

dt
= - ln (1 - x )
0 1- t

x 2n +1
<VI.26> Cho f (x) = (-1)
(2n + 1)!
n =0

x 2n
(2n)!
n =0
a) CMR f (0) = 0 va f (0) = 1
va g(x) = (-1)n

'
f (x) = g(x)
b) f , g kha vi tren va '
g (x) = -f (x)

. Giai:
a) Ban oc t kiem tra.
b) Cac chuoi f (x), g(x) co ban knh hoi tu la R = nen hoi tu eu tren moi oanj

[ a, b] . Cac ham thanh phan f n (x) = (-1)n


va g n (x) = ( -1) n

x 2n +1
( 2n + 1) !
x 2n
(2n)!

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kha vi lien tuc tren .


Do f n' (x) = g n -1 (x)
va g 'n (x) = -f n -1 (x)
S hoi tu eu cua f (x), g(x) dan en s hoi tu eu cua

'
n

(x) va

T o
'

f (x) = fn (x) = fn' (x) = g n (x) = g(x)

'

'

va g (x) = g n (x) = + g 'n (x) = - f n (x) = -f (x) .

'

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'
n

(x)