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Astronomia dalla luna a cura di Franco Malgarini Roma, settembre 2009 ASTRONOMIA DALLA LUNA La Luna é il sito ideale nel sistema solare per fare osservazioni ¢ misure astronomiche ed essa diventera inevitabilmente la principale base scientifica dell'umanita per astronomia, Per questa sola ragione si dovrebbe dare la prioritA af ritorno sulla Luna, primi astronomi trassero la fora conoscenza dell'universo atilizzande Yosservazione dell nce visibile che era emessa o riflessa dagli oggetti dello spazio. Passi significativi furono fatti con le osservazioni telescopiche, tuttavia i risultati ottenuti crano incompleti perché la tuce visibile rappresenta solo una piccola frazione dello spettro elettromagnetico dal quale possono essere ottenuti dati_sull'universo. Nel XX secolo i progressi della tecnologia hanno permesso agli astronomi di espandere te loro investigazioni per includere f'intero range dello spettro elettromagnetico, aumentando considerevolmente la conoscenza delfuniverso. Flectramagnetic Spactrum visible spectoum , Por f Sea MED i Astronomia terrestre Le osservazioni astronomiche fatte da telescopi posti sulla superfice terrestre sono limitate fortemente dalatmostera che distorce le immagini ed attenua la maggior parte dello spettro elettromagnetico. La ionosfera rifleite le emissioni di lunghezza d'onda maggiori nello spettro radio indictro nello spazio, impedendo loro di raggiungere i rilevatori terresiri. L'acqua nellatmosfera assorbe la radiavione infrarosse, Ie nuvole bloccane la luce visibile © Vatmosfera superiore, particolarmente lo strato di ozono, assorbe la maggior paste delle lunghezze d'onda pitt corte (pity energetiche). In pid la luce © Tinguinamento radio prodotti da sorgenti naturali o artificialt interferiscono con Je osservazioni, Pertanto le osservazioni astronomiche fatte dalla Terra sono Timitate o degradate. Alcuni indesiderabili effetti almosferiei possono essere superati utilizzando ottiche correttrici dell distorsione o ponendo i telescopi su acrei o sulle cime di montagne, tuttavia queste misure aumentano i costi¢ la complessiti delle osservazioni astronomiche Sotecoomin dullertens tormeare Das quando ¢ gato reso accessbile dalla tecnsing’a sxtrurentica by spazio cicustterrestre, tclewogi Sedicati sfosservnchooe dellx maggint paste dolby spectre eettroregnntice sino sti pest in orbita teerestee creanto un 2uovo compo di eunsseenze will univer. Telescopi per nfreasn, per i ragyi X. por | aati pienina, hance fatto importane oservuzvai LHubble Space Telescope, che opera fel campo dell luce veibile, ba um potere risoheate pil grate dei telssoopi temesta, Tuttaria Forbita texrestre moo ¢ il posto eae por un oxervatce’n, Un tekescopén in orbita terrestte son &.una pintaforea completamente sabibe perché exay si move aetraveno i capi gruviaziooall del siserres Teed any Sole, Inolire esx0 & soapetia a sine ete di dintusbo some bb luce solare ¢ by lem atmondern dells Terra che 1 exiende per parecchie cettinsia di Km nelle spazis. Sebtene il Toto erraste dei teesecgi cebkarti pod essere misimizzato da dispostivs come i giromeg! o da gecth d comtotlo di axct% a reazione, i} potere ricahuivo di tall welescopl ¢ compromesso dal meta lzdoaro da have destabilizcanti ¢ comestive, Inokse Tosarvatione di opzec coketi & impossibie guanto Vorbis del tekscopin cass i cogertora da parte della Terra de opactio in rtusio. Ttekesopi in orbite terrestre sone diffkill da muxtionere ¢ tipurare oxne TST ba dimostrato, ¢ ta dno vita ulilizzabie ¢ timiaia, spocialmente se si usin taitcriali come Felio ligsido pee fe toro Speneiniti (Iciewopi ell ntrasexo), Inokre ei soo meactii x dauneggiamero da paste i mierceneteorsti, stress termict (nisowendosi Getten ¢ fiscei daltomben ferrestte), reggi cvsmnicl, solar flares ¢ foroal 30 alta coentin (engi X € yamima). Alla 60 Ene, ¢ cortos> trasportare tclescop aclin Hpaio ¢ mastezettl, Nile quote onmgeess tra $06 « HO) Km dalta superficie, dove cetita bi iaggice pare dt sitet astumeici, i telesoopi devon> allicatare previ peobtennh, Hanareekattn lwrsbieene 8 “spores” ¢ ty nute di detriti orbiearti peodetti dal voll spaziali si ispexsisee di ae in sens. Si wana fa gras parte di opyettt dette dimencon) i quakbe mixometn che 6 moxrcoo md abs velekh € sore Ggsci di inflipgere prvi daeni allappesio week & aly strumcatezon: cotremeenente dekeati di us the In sconnda hango a quests quote criss mocorn wid quartz ma trecursbile di potvrce © gas; Is polvere diffonde ta haar ¢ crea una leminosed intrerossa dl fondo che marchers Temissione Selle aorgenti infrsrcone cedeti phi debok. Leokire gli ated delTatta atmoston, eccitami dalle collision! demuee al mou cetitale ad alta vebocitA dei satelliti, peodeoons uso sporti di righe in emixdnne nelle hingherse donde del visite che soso impolire © intralciare be osservazsoni estronasichs. Un tero> fntore di dierto & fattrito deititmosfers cbs, seppure rireliita, fx beecamesis pordere qoota al surellzi in cibita terredre bases, poovocanono ta sicatuta a terra, Hh problema é psrticolarmente grave nci perindi di attivina solare obevers quando. fame di intestits cells redlaiore ultraviokt wbre fe “eeaaderd” Ie pate pil alte deifatmmsfers. F stato peop a Uvello elevate deP'atlivads whare » costringere fa Nasa o lenalzee Aa qucea peovistn per Portite dell HST. 1h queew problema ocasize ret fino the ta Terms eeem @ unictenss sonpeme di natiaxioni di disteto: I hace che esa teflstte pad aetivare per diffissione ab siersd ottici dei teloangi ¢ deteesceare ta quali detle oseervacioni. Inoltre il campo megnttico texestre produce rumore nelly Banta dellt code radio a base frequencs, rumece che sepern di gies nga per intensies i segnali delle someiti extraterrestri. Ne conmgue che gli osservalor in ortita besa hanno ditficok) a tikewace of aralirsare le cote ratio chilmetriche, Tenica bend dello spectro clettromagneticn che gli acronis non abtento ancora coservee9, Seine i anelliti posi is ortita tecoe subiswons solfectarioai termicte ¢ gravitational che virians rapilimeere © costitusdony un fittore linstarte pec bs dimensical « ogindi per be seasibetita e ta Fismhuione - dei telesocpi colbentili ie tali orbite, infin, queste veetazioni deformans speochi ¢ antenwe radio, Impedeide di ottercre immagin omimals ¢ Saxends speocése presiveo tempo é oxervarisee stentre by enumento si stabilitrs. Pec clmitere Je soliccitavion’ termicby oscorre costiube schermio parbice di mntevale eomgéessiti Nei eseiretbem mighonmemt sgnificatie’ posiziscands i teleasopi in orbits goostanotas a. WA rtaagene BAS Hancet Owe i cssersnr bef asc di radianione genersdoramore tap lfre prospeatne ete Fe che sired Testa «bbe rn peedegere gh aenersator ratte nateral «grate Liassenza totale di atmosfera, la stabilitA sismica, Ia scarsita d'interferenze da parte delle onde Inminose ¢ radio (soprattutto sulla faccia nascosta) e Vabbondanza di materie prime fanno della superficie tunare un luogo ideale per Tosservarione astronomica, Col vantaggio della minore attravione gravitazionale si potrebbero costruire apparcechiature pid grandi di quelle terrestri Le risorse lunari comprendono alluminio, tiunio, materiali ceramici e vetri con una resistenza alla trazione paragonabile a quella dell'aceiaio ¢ con un basso coefficiente di dilatazione termica, che potrebbero essere usati per costruire telescopi. L'uso di materiali compositi potrebbe rendere meno grave it problema de; di temperatura sulla superficie lunare. Gli osservatori andranno collocati Jontano dagli impianti minerari per ridurre gi effetti degli inquinanti atmosferici. stallazione di una base sulla Luna presenta naturalmente anche diverse difficoltd. La Terra possiede un campo magnetico che allontana dalla superficie ¢ dallo spazio immediatamente circostante le particelle cariche dei raggi cosmici e del vento solare. La Luna non & dotata di ‘campo di questo tipo e cid impone Fadozione di accorgimenti per proteggere gli operatori umani e i delicati strumenti elettronici dal pericolo dell’esposizione a radiazioni, La Luna subisce inoltre un bombardamento costante da parte di piccole meteoriti; sulla Terra queste particelle si disintegrano nelfaita atmosfera mentre sul suo satellite, privo daria, precipitano sulla superficie con velocita delfordine di alcune decine di chilometri al secondo, Le superfici esposte in ambiente unare risullerebbero ben presto costellate da minuscoli crateri con un diametro compres tra uno ¢ 10 micrometri: sara quindi necessario proteggete le superfici delicate, come gli specchi dei tclescopi, con cupole o tubi. 7 Git un semplice teleseoy ottico da un metro di diametro, con una risoluzione di 0.1. secondi dlarco, potrebbe compiere ricerche preziose, per esempio sulle variazioni di luminosita di stelle variabili e di quasar. Un {elescopio da 16 moti per luce visibile ¢ infrarossa rivelerebbe oggetti 40 volte meno luminosi ‘di quelli individuabili col telescopio spaziale Hubble. Lo specchio di questo telescopic sarebbe costituito da componenti esagonali ¢ sostenuto da un'impaleatura semplice ¢ leggera costituita da tre paia di "zampe” dotate di attuatori controliati dal computer che dovrebbero compensare eventuali assestamenti strutturali del telescopio. La regolite lunare pui essere usata per schermare i telescopi dalle temperature cstreme, dai micrometeoriti ¢ dalla radiazione ionizzante. La schermatura pud eliminare gli stress termici nei telescopi (Ja temperatura a un metro di profondita sotto la superfice lunare & costante a -20°C) eceetto per quel telescopi che guardano direttamente al Sole. | telescopi a raggi X e gamma, che per definizione sono designati a scoprire fotoni ad alta energia, possono essere posti prrecchi metri soto il livello delta superficie unare per eliminare ta radiazione di fondo dello spazio. In questa maniera, j telescopi sotterrati vedranno solo fa radiazione primaria X e gamma che proviene da un piccolo angolo del cielo che contiene Toguctio osservato; tulle fe alte radiazioni primarie sevondarie (i fotoni attamente energetic’ prodotti datta collisione dei raggi cosmici con a superfic’ lunare) ionizzanti saranno attenuate dalla Luna (i telescopi a raggi X ¢ gamma posizionati sotto la superficie Iunare saranno soggetti alla minima, naturale radiazione di fondo dei materiali di superficie). La limitazione dei teleseopi posti sotto la superficis lunase & che essi avranno accesso solo a una piccola porzione del cielo a un tempo. La rorazione della Luna muoverd if telescopic fuori dal range di veduta di un dato oggetto di interesse per un intero mese lunare, Per superare questo tempo di osservazione limitato, si possono piavzare telescopi multipli a intervalli regola atlomo alla circenferenza della Luna alfequatore, ad altre latitudini © ai poli, cost che ciascun ‘oggetto nei cielo sari sempre entro il ange di veduta di almeno un telescopio. In questa maniera sara possibile una continua osservazione degli oggetti celesti. Le immagini degli oggetti celesti devono avere un alto eontennto di informazione © sono quindi utilizeati lunghi tempi di esposizione per raccogliere un grande numero di fotoni, ‘Tuttavia le distorsione atmosferica annulla i vantaggi dei lunghi tempi di esposizione per i telescopi terrestri, mentre per i telescopi in orbita terrestre il piccolo numero ¢ fe spese operative limitano if tempo disponibile per creare immagini di oggetti celesti. Telescopi multipli piazzati sulla Luna non necessiteranno di una capacita pili alta di raccogliere luce, ma ciascun telescopio sulla Luna pud essere dedicato & un singolo corpo celeste per tutto if tempo desiderato. Per esempio tekescopi posti nel polo nord della Luna raccoglieranno luce continuamente da oggetti deli'emisfero nord celeste per mesi o anni 1 problemi dell'astronomia lanare sono i seguenti: lanciarvi un telescopio dalla Terra & pid costoso che dalla Terra alforbita terrestre, C8 i problema deltenergia e delle telecomunicazioni per te operszioni (elescopiche. | pannelli solari non possono fornire energia ai telescopi durante i 14 giomni i notte lunare. Inoltre i tclescopi che operano sul lato nascosto della {una non possono trasmeticre i foro dati alla Terra. Perd ci sono delle soluzioni a questi problemi, 1] costo del trasporto di un telescopio pud essere nullo se lo si costruisce sulla Luna dai materiali della segolite tunare. Le strutture di supporto primario di un radiotelescopio per esempio possono essere fatte di ferro 0 alluminio lunare, 1 servizi di trasporto di superficie, le telecomunieazioni ¢ la fornitura di energia cleltrica possono essere disponibili usando appropriate infrastrutture Iunari, come ka rete globale di infrastrutture funari, cost che i telescopi possono essere assemblati, resi operativi ¢ mantenuti in qualsiasi posto sulla superficie lunare. Con avvento di adeguate strutture di supporto, la Luna pud essere trasformata in un osservatorio astronomico coordinato globale. Centinaia di tclescopi possono essere posti nelle regioni polari, lungo equatore a intervalli regolari ¢ a 45° nord e sud latitudine lunare, Interferometsi Otici Teleseopi a grande apertura e schiere di telescopi pith piccoli collegati da sistemi eletlronici migliorcrebbero notevolmente la qualita delle osservazioni ostronomiche lunari. { sistemi di teleseopi collegati si chiamano interferometsi perché sfruttano Tefferto di interferenza tra ta radiazione raccoltu doi vari elementi: combinando i segnali in maniera opportuns € possibile oitencre da una coppia di piccoli telescopi lo stesso potere risolutive di un unico teleseopio di diametro pari alla distanza trai due componenti, La realizzazione di un interferometro in orbit intomno alla Terra esigerebbe una piataforma spaziale gigantesoa o wn posizionamento complesso € costoso in slazioni separate di tutti i telescopl componenti, mentre sulia Luna sarebbe sufficiente installare opportunamente i vari clementi in superficie. La Luna & una base particolarmente stabile: Yenergia di un tipico evento sismico lunare & 100 milioni di voke inferiore a quella media di un corrispondente evento terresire ¢ ke scosse sismiche inducano nel suolo lunare spostamenti di appena un miliardesimo di metro citca. Una simile stabitita & una vera benedizione per gli imerferometri ottici, per i quali la distanza tra | vasi clementi collegati che costituiscono il sistema deve essere nota’ a meno di una piccola fraione di lunghezza d’onda della luce, approssimativamente paria un decimilionesime di meu. Linterferometria & i] trattamento delle immagini per mezzo del quale telescopi separati prendono multance di un dato oggetto celeste nei sepmenti radio, microonde, infrarosso © hice visibile dello spettre efettromngnetico (La tecnica delVinterferometria richiede che it frome donda dellimmagine ricevuta da un telescopic deve arrivare entro parccchie lunghezze d'onda delta stessa immagine che artiva a un altro telescopio. Ideaimente fo stesso fronte donda viene ricevuto simulianeamente ad ogne sito. Poiché le lunghezze d'onda delle onde radio sono pitt lunghe ¢ sono Quindi meno impegnative per produrre immagini interferometriche, queste tecniche farono sviluppate per prime per la radioastronomia. Recentemente immagini basate sullintecterometria sono state cealizzate anche con teleseopi a microonde, a infrarossi e a hice visibile), Le immagini separate sono quindi combinate in un'immagine singol. 1H vantaggio delt'interferometria & che la risoluzione di unvimmagine ricostruita ¢ equivalente al poterc risotutive di un telescopio con diametro uguale alla distanza che separa i singoli telescopi: si possono cosi raggiungere rivoluzioni delfordine di 10-6 areseeondi sulla Luna. Se per escmpio immagi simultanes sono ottenute di un singel corpo celeste sopra il polo nord deila Luna da telescopi posti 4 intervalli regolari lunge Fequatore lunare, il toro potere risolutive combinate ¢ equivalemte a un tclescopio col diametro uguale a quello della Luna, Questa tecnica permettera losservazione non solo di pianeti in orbita atiomo alle stelle vieine, ma anche le loro caratteristiche geograliche, come montagne € eccani, Olive a creare immagini ad alia risoluzione con le teeniche interferometriche, i telescopi lwnari saranno capaci di raccogliere luce per Junghi periodi di tempo, con immagini molto dettagliate. Una immagine telescopica é la comma di fotoni raccolti dalloggetto in esame ¢ la sua ercazione dipende dal potere di raccolta di luce del telescopio (numero ui fotoni raccolti per unitd di tempo; questa capacilé & proporzionale alla superticie dello speechio primarie del tclescopio) © dal tempo impiegato per ottenere Fimmagine. Un primo interferometso oitico lunare potrebbe essere costituito da 3 tetescopi da 1.5 metri post sulla circonferenza di un cireolo di 100 metri di raggio attorno a una stazione centrale. La luce riecvuta dai telescapi viene diretta a una stazione centrak dove ¢ combinata usando lince di ritardo oltiche per formare degli imterferogrammi. I percorso ollico deve essere stabile durante un‘osservazione per un valore delfordine di un decimo di una lunghezza donda (circa 50 nm per fa luce visibile). In altri termini, j teleseopi, ld stazione centrale ¢ fa superficie Tunaze costituiscono un hance: ottico € il livello estremamente basso di altivita sismica detla Luna diventa una condizione critica per Yoperativitd dello stramento. Operando con un interferometro, il puntamento viene fatto con pli speechi secondari def sistema ottica per minimizzare la vibrazione, Lallineamento iniziale dell" LO. & molto critico ¢ richiederebbe un equipaggio per il dispiegamento ¢ la sistemazione dello strumento, Si "LO, viene controltato da Terra. Solo una piccola frasione del campo di veduta di ciascun telescopio viene estratta per essere inviata alla stazione centrale, Conseguentemente, ciascun telescopio & progettato per comportarsi come uno strumento che funziona da solo e raccoglic i dati indipendentemente usando i} rimanente campo di veduta, Ciascun telescopio ospita uno strumento differente per questo scopo: un rivelatore CCD, uno spettrometro UV c un polarimetro, Vome interferometro, i tre telescopi devono puntare lo stesso oggetto, © Ie misure degli stramenti indipendenti sono limitate al campo circostante Toggetto primario. Un interferogramma @ creato nel rivelatore nel mozzo centrale solo quando i fasci di luce da due telescopi sono combinati in moda che Ia distanza delloggetto osservato é Ia stessa per ambedue.La distanza da un oggetto nel cielo é ta stessa per tutti i telescopi solo quando Foggetto & posizionato allo zenith Jocale. Una linea di ritardo ottica nella stazione centrale pud correggere i diversi percorsi ot no a 30 metri, d'aliro canto. Questa cap limita 1 1.0. a osservazioni entro 11° dallo zenith, Con solo tre telescopi che contribuiscono alle misure, I' 1.0. non pud realmente ritrarre it cielo ma pud effettuare astrometsia ad alta risoluzione (3 nanoradianti) lungo te linee di base definite dalle combinazioni accoppiate dei telescopi. Fig. 9.28. ‘The Very Large Optical Interferometry Telescope at Copernicus (DiMare.) ambizinsy per quanto riguarda Yastronomia ottica & quello dlinstallare un grande interferometso otivo sulla superficie lunare, i} Lunar Optical-Uiltraviolet-tnfiared Synthesis, Array (JLOUISA), ebe supererebbe ia risoluzione det pid grande telescopio terrestee di ben 100,000 volte: in teoria potrebbe distinguere wn oggetto delle dimensioni di una una distana pari a quella esistente tra ta Terra ¢ fa Luna, Un interferometro ottico di questo tipo & insealizzabile sulla Terra a causa della turbolenea atmosferiea ¢ dei movimenti sismici della croste terrestre, mentre in orbita terrestsc bassa i gradicnti gravitazionali su una tinea di base di 10 Km imporrebbero un Invoro continuo, raffinato ¢ costoso di riposizionamento di tutti gli clementi del telescopin, Ls schiera hunare sarebbe costituita da due ancili concentrici di telescopl con specel da 1.5 metei di diametro, L'anello esterno, del diametro di ben 10 Kon, comprenderebbe 33 teleseopi mentre quello interno, costituite da 9 telescopi, avrebbe un diametro di 500 metri, La luce raccolta da ciaseuno snvento verrebbe trasmenss 3 una stazione centrale per ta elaboraziane ¢ Ja registrazione LOUISA potrebbe cffettuare osservazioni in unt vasta gamma di lunghezze onda che vanno daltoliravioietto (0.1 micrometri) ailinfrarosso vicino (1 micrometro). Con una risoluzione di ire un centomillesim di second d'arco, LOUISA consentirebbe di studiare categorie interamente fuove di problemi, Esso sarebbe in grado dindividuare eventvali pianeti simili alla Terra in orbits intone a stelle vicine e forse anche di determinarne la composizione atmosferica; sarebbe il prime passo verso Ja determinazione della possibilita. di esistenza di forme di vita extraterrestre. Alfinterno del sistema solare, LOUISA potrebbe fornine magia’ dei pianeti ¢ degli asteroidi con ‘una ricchezes di particolari superiore persine a quella delle immagini trasmesse dalle sonde Voyager. Si potrebbero osservare direttamente le carnttetistiche superficiali delle stelle, stabilendo cosi eventuali analogie tra Fattivita del Sole © quella delle alte stelle © permettendo lo studio dei moti meno evidenti della foro superficie; questi moti fomirebbero preziose informazioni sulla steuttura interna delle stelle e sulla lora evoluizione. Gli astronomi sarcbbero in grado di analizzare la dinamica dei nuctei galattic, di wsservare i dischi di accrescimento formati dalla matcria che cade ei buchi neri € nelle stelle di neutroni lungo traietiorie « spirale © di esaminare Ia strutturs di galassie peculiar. Nel'ambito cosmologico, LOUISA potrebte misurare il moto proprio dei quasar ¢ rivelare eventuali anisotropic dellespansione deltuniverso Very Low Frequency Array (VLFA) Un motivo particolarmente valido per costruire un osservatorio lunare & la possibilita che esso offrirebbe di studiare le onde radio di bassa frequenza (a lunghezze donda chilometriche), che si possono osservare solo dalla faccia nascosta della Luna, Nel corso degli ultimi vent'anni, via via che le nuove tecniche permettevano osservazione dei raggi X e delle radiazioni infrarosse celesti, si ‘sono scoperte categorie completamente nuove di sorgenti ¢ fenomeni fisici sorprendenti; oggi le ‘onde radio di frequenza inferiore a 30 MHz. circa sono I'ullima regione inesplorata dello spettro clettromagnetico. Si traita di frequenze che non sono relevabili alla superficie terrestre pperchéTalta atmosfera riflette verso Yesterno questo tipo di radiazione incidente, Sarcbbe possibile aprire questa finestra, che fa sorgere negli studiosi una fortissima curiosita, costruendo sulla Luna i} VLFA, costituito da eirea 200 antenne a dipolo, simili ad antenne per la ricezione televisiva, di kungheva pari a un metzo circa, Queste antenne verrebbero distribuite su una superficie grosso modo ciroolare del diametro di 20 Km ¢ sarchbero sensibili a frequenze comprese tra i 50 KHz e i 30 MHz Vari gruppi di antenne sarebbero collegati elettronicamente in modo da poter "puntarc" la schiera verso sorgenti diverse senza bisogno di spostare materialmente gli clementi, I segnali provenienti da ciascun gruppo verrebbero trasmessi a una postazione centrale che prowederebbe a correlarli ¢ a calibrarli. I dati cosi ottenuti potrebbero poi essere analizzati al calcolatore o sulla Terra o sulla Luna in modo da determinare la luminositi superficiale, ¢ quindi la struttura, della sorgente di radiazione. La costruzione del VLFA presenterchbe difficolta tecnologiche di rilievo. La schiera di antenne dovrebbe essere collocata sulla faccia nascosta della Luna, molto tontana dai probabili siti delle basi con equipaggio, e quindi andrebbe installata tramite sistemi telecomandati. Occorrerebbe progettare veicoli robotizzati in grado di percorrere unfarea di 20 Km di estensione su terreno vario © di eollocare fe antenne nelle posizi segnali sia verso Ia Terra, sia verso la faccia visibile della [Luna (circa tre secondi tra andata ¢ ritorno nel primo caso) i veicoli dovrebbero essere dotati di programm autonomi d’intelligenza artificiale, La trasmissione dei dali da ciascun dipolo a una stazione central: di claborazione imporrebbe la realizzazione di un raffinato sistema multiplatore di ricezione ¢ trasmissione che utilizzi laser oppure onde radio. Una volta superate queste difficolta, per’, & ragionevole attendersi che il VLBA si riveli una vera cornucopia di dati scientifici, Gli astronomi sarebbero in grado di studiare i processi che accelerano le particelle di alta energia dei brillamenti solari, il che pormetterebbe di realizzare un sistema di preavviso delle enuzioni solari di grande energia i cui da completerebbero quelli forniti dal telescopio ottico da un metro destinato allo studio del Sole Sarebbe Itre possibile studiare il flusso di clettroni di alta energia nei campi magnetici dei pianeti, nei resti di supernova, nelle pulsar € nelle sorgenti radio extragalattiche, che sono sede di fenomeni astrofisici spettacolari ma ancora non chiariti. I! VLFA sarebbe accompagnano il comportamento pitt appariscente delle galassic attive ¢ dei quasar.in grado di analizzare la struttura Gel mez» interplanetario ¢ i quello interstellare. Infine, le osservazioni nelle onde radio a bassa frequenza permetterebbero di esaminare i poco evidenti fenomeni di bassa cnergia che accom pognona Hl compertomento pl appatiscente dette galassie attive e dei quasar. semen Grantee nebo Radiosslesconi Alcuni studiosi hanno progettato un radiotelescopio hunare costruito con material avanzati a base di resine epossidiche e grafite, Essi ritengono che non vi siano ostacoli pratici alla realizzazione sulla {.umna di anteane paraboliche per la raccolta di onde radio otientabili in tutte le dirczioni e avent) un diametro di 500 metri, considerando i? vantaggio delia minore attrazione gravitazionale che perinettercbbe di costruire apparecchiature pit grandi di quelle realizzabili sulla ‘Terra Un radiotclescopio sulla Luna collegato uno sulla Terra avrebbe il potere risolutive di unvuni aamtenna del diametro di quasi 400.000 Km, coe avrebbe una risolurione di um centomillesimo dt secondo d'arco alla frequenza di 10 GHz. Inokre i crateri funari rappresentano conche ideati per adagiarvi radiotclescopi fissi del tipo esistente ad Arecibo (Porto Rico). Questo tipo di radiotelescopi & costituite da calotte di rete metallica adagiate su conche naturali ¢ fa direzionalita & ottenuta attraverso wnantennn 303 focalizzabite a piacimento, 1” 1La distanza della Luna dalla Terra riduce grandemente i disturbi terreste? RFT, rage yamma e radar (per la lege deltinverso del quadrato). La faccia nascosta della Luna offre un completo silenzio radio a mute le frequenze, rendendolo un sito ideale per investigazioni SETI. A circa 400,000 Km dalla Terra, la Luna & lontana abbastanza per essere libera da interferenze terrestri causate dagli cesseri umani. Una recente tendenza della ricerca SETI prevede la fattibilitd di osservatori costituiti da una schiera di piccole antenne. I] progetto prevede centinaia 0 migliaia di antenne paraboliche che offrono maggiore sensibilita, pit ampia copertura di frequenze, minore sensibilita a interferenze maggiore tempo di osservazione, Radiotelescopi da uno o pid chilometri quadrati consentiranno Taccesso simultanco alf'intera finestra delle microonde. Un ampio campo visivo € una notevole potenza di calcolo parsllelo permetieranno di osservare nello stesso tempo decine di oggetti. La sensibilita potra aumentare di un fattore 100 rispetto a quanto di meglio si riesea 2 fare oggi sulla Terra, Per i progetti SETI c traduce in un fattore 10 relativamente alla distanza ¢ in un fattore 1000 per quanto riguarda il numero di stelle esaminate. Queste schicte di rudiotclescopi non saranno eccessivamente costose da costruire in quanto i loro componenti deriveranno da prodot Per quanto possibile, la complessita verra trasferita dalle strutture vere e proprie a componenti eletironici ¢ programmi di software. mente | dispositivi di misurazione dele emissioni X ¢ gamma (b) incorporerchbero avanzati di germanio ¢ maschete speciali per migliorare la risoluzione, NaS A, {oastronomis fuhare pigehe Miers sis easy eagibe tents save del In inperionereh i iallesehivvettes Wh Nei crateri perennemente in ombra dei poli lunari si potranno installare sirumenti per particolari icerche, come i telescopi per I'infrarosso, che richiedono per il loro funzionamento temperature molto basse. [ rivelatori astronomici devono essere in genere raffieddati fino a temperature bassissime per ridurre il rumore termico sempre presente nelle parti elettroniche degli strumenti L'ambiente gelido delle depressioni hinari permettcrebbe il raffreddamento passivo non sole della strumentazione elettronica ¢ dei rilevatori sensibili all'infrarosso, ma anche delle strutture del telescapio che, dove la temperatura é pill elevate, rappresentano esse stesse una sorgente cospicua di radiazione infrarossa, Questo telescopio per onde millimetriche & dotato di copertura che protege Ie superfici pitt delicate dall'impatto delle meteoriti 1 rivelatori di impulsi di raggi gamma ricercherebbero i brevi quanto incomprensibili "scoppi” di ‘ raggi gamma, le cui sorgenti sono sconosciute. cotterrons Infine sulla Luna si potrebbero studiase i ncutrini ¢ le onde gravitazion mai rilevate con certezza, mediante un sistema laser individuare le distorsioni provocate da queste onde. i, previste dalla teoria, ma misurazione delle distanze che potrebbe oe couerTone pen rAsce EGenrng EL AnONarone OAT Missioni Per ragioni politiche ¢ tecniche, un tale programms di ricerca deve comprendere delle attrezzature su piccola scala per sondare le caratteristiche dell'ambiente lunare, come le escursioni termiche ¢ la mobiliti della polvere lunare, Per tali ragioni, inizialmente verranno fatti atterrare sulla superficie Junare due robot; un teleseopio da I metro di diametro per sondare il cielo nella regione dell UV (peso totale 400 Kg). Un secondo lander doveebbe trasportare una piccola versione del VLFA, inque dipoli dispiegati da un minirobot alla distanza di 100 metri dal lander, dove viene localizeata fa stazione centrale (massa totale 100 Kg). Ambedue questi strumenti dovrebbero essere controllati da Terra, Naturalmente il programma operative prevede prima uno o pili satelliti per ricavare informazion si sifi ideali per posizionare gli osservatori astronomici e verificare Vinfluenza della polvere hunare elettata dai lander in atterraggio. Un satellite per telecommnicazioni viene posto in orbita hunare per fe comunicazioni sulla faccia nascosta della Luna. Per quanto riguarda fe ottiche, una nuova tecnica sviluppata negli Usa permette di ridurre rasticamente il peso ¢ il costo degli specchi primari dei teloscopi, soprattutto per usi spaziali, nello spettro dellultravioletio, del visibile c del!infrarosso. II materiale usato ¢ un composito di fibre di trafite rinforzate rivestito di uno strato di resina speciale, Utilizzando lo stesso materiale anche per le altre parti del telescopio, si minimizza la distorsione dovuta ai diversi effetti dell'espansione nica dovuta ai cambiamenti di temperatura. tet The picture shows an experimemal telescope made entirely of the same composite material - primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors, ples the support structure. The telescope weighs about the same as the hwo month old kiten named Pacohet on the righ Bibliogratia = W,W,Wendell: An International Iaunar Farside Observatory and Science Station ~ Lumnar Farside VLFA Workshop; Albunquerque, February 1988. ~ AA.VV.Osscrvatori astronomici sulla Luna; Le Scienze, n°261, maggio 1990. AA.VV.; The Moon; Resources, Future Development and Colonization; Wiley-Praxis, 1999. Osseroatort sulla Luna, avamposti «ideali» per la ricerca astronomica, Figure 3. This fred-basod observatory was also proposed at LL such that sensitive equipment could be protected bya considerable thickness of lunar soil and rock (Malina, 1969), ‘adition sheng enocrograph Figure 2. The Lunar international Symposiun (LIL) of 1965 suggested this semi-permanent observatory in a smnall lunar crater, Radiation shielding lids of expanded foam materials are shown (Malina, 1969), ‘igure 1. Radio astronomy from the Moon has three advantages over terrestrial observation: man-made, terrestrial originating background noise is avoided (particularly on the farside}; there is less gratitational pull to cause distortions in the structures; and there is a slower period of rotation relative to objects being observed (from Malina, 1969). ‘TABLE L- SUMMARY OF FUTURE ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES ON THE MOON, ‘Folescope Lunar advantages Scientific goals X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY OPTICAL A, Large apertures (051020. m) B. Optical interferometer INFRARED, No atmaopherie absorption. Large collecting area, high throughput. High resolution via long focal lengths. Diffraction-limited imagery with high sensitivity. Use glass mined on the Moon. Phase-coherent interferometry. Very high resolution: 10 paresce for 10-km basoline at 500 nm. 100.000 times better than ground-based. 10.000 times better than Hubble Space Telescope, No atmospheric absorption, Excellent vacuum. Passive thermal shielding. “Naked” cathode arrays. Cosmology: Clusters of galaxies in formation. X-ray background. Bursting sourees: Black holes. Supernova nucleosynthesis. Direct emission from aceretion disks of black holes. Galaxies in formation, Distant quasars. Expansion and evolution of the universe, Detect planets around other stars. Study sunspots and flares on other stars. Resolve optically violent variables. Resolve cores of elliptical galaxies. Probe center of Milky Way. Direct examination of star formation. Study planets in formation, ‘TABLH -Coneluded Lunar advantages A. Arecibo-styleantennas | Low gravity. Radar measurements of planets Natural shaping in craters. and asteroids, High sensitivity to extended | Sonsitive Fil and continuum adio emission. mapping of gas in Milky Way. Simple observations, Study solar wind/magnetosphere for integrated view. B. Lamar very large array | High phase stability. High-nceuraey astrometry, (VLA) or very-long- ‘Stable baselines, Short spacings for longer baseline baseline array (VLBA) | Lunar materials for interferometers, construction ©. Moon-Barth radio Very high resolution: Determination of Hubble constant interferometer 12 yaresee at 10 GHz, using statistical parallax of 0.4 paresee at 300 GHz, oxtragalactie masers. ‘Mapping the “engines” al the cores of active galaxies and quasars, D. Very lowfrequency | Lunar far side provides natural | Evolution of extragalactic radio array insulation from manmade sources radio static. ‘Measure nonthermal emission Opening new window to the from stars. universe. Study low-energy population of energetic particles in planets, pulsars, active galaxies Millimeter-wavearray |Noatmosphere attenuation. | Mapping new star formation High resolution regions in other galaxies COSMIC-RAY AND New window of energies. Distribution of primaries, NEUTRINOTELESCOPES | Low radiation background. | Monitor radiation exposure for Woak magnetic field humans Large-voluine detectors Very-high-energy cosmie rays and neutrinos, Solar flare production and solar aucleosynthesi Radiotelescopio di Arecibo Da Wikipedia, 'enciclopedia liber, Losservatorio di Arecibo & situato cirea 15 km a sud: sudovest di Arecibo, nel!'isola di Porto Rico. Esso opera attraverso la Comell University sotto wn accorddo ‘eooperativo con ka National Science Foundation (un'agenzia govemnativa USA), L'osservatorio 8 note come il National Astronomy and Yonosphere Center (NALC, Centro Nazionale per Astronomia ¢ la Jonosfera) anche se entrambi i nomi sono ufficialmente utilizzati per riferirsi ad esso. NAIC si riferisce pit propriamente all'organizzazione che dirige sia Fosservatorio che i laboratori associati ¢ gli uffici della Cornell University. Llosservatorio possiede un radiotelescopio formato da unvantenna di 305 metti ed é if pit grande telescopio con singola apertura che sia mai stato costruito. Esso viene utilizzato principalmente per tre grandi arce di ricerca: la radicastronomia, la fisica atmosferica (utiizzando sia il radiotelescopio che la funzione LIDAR delfosservatorio) e fosservazione radar di oggetti de! sistema solare, 11 telescopio ricevette ulterior’ riconoscimenti intervazionali nel 1999, quando comineid a raccogliere dati per il progetto SETI@home. [antenna é stata utilizzata anche in diversi film, Indice | Informazioni generali 2 Design e architettora 3 Scoperte 4 Alte utile 5 Arecibo nella cultura popolare 6 Possibile chiusura 7 Altsi progetti 8 Collegamenti Informazioni generali Coordinate: 18°20°39"N 66°45"10°W Radiotelescopio di Arecibo Cornell Organizexziont | University, NSP, Axecibo, Porta ine Rico Coordinate geografiche Lughezza d'onda Anno di costruzione ‘Tipo di teleseopi Diametro 304,8 m Superficie di raecolta “Launghezza focale| riflettore sferico Sito web 11 braccio del radiotelescopio I radiotelescapio di Arecibo si distingue per le sue enormi dimension: il colleitore principale ha un diametro di 304,8 metii, ed stato costruito alfinterno di un avvallamento naturale. La superficie dell'antenna & formata da 38,778 pannelli in alluminio, ciascumo det quali misura tra 1 © 2 metri, sostenuti da una maglia di cavi di acciaio. Sopra il disco si trova uma piattaforma triangolare di 900 tonnellate che & sospess in aria 150m sopra il disco attraverso 18 cavi che partono da 3 torri di cemento armato, une alta 110 me due alte 80 mn {il vertice delle tre torri si trova comunque alla stessa altitudine). Su questa piattaforma é situata la ricevente, posta allinterno di una struttura a forma di mezza sfera, detta anche braccio dell'azimut, poiché pud ruotare per intercettare segnali riflessi da direzioni differenti della superficie sferica ¢ quindi ricevere segnali provenienti da differenti porzioni di cielo. Proprio a causa di questo metodo utilizzato per “centrare” i! faoco, 'antenna é un riflettore di forma sferica, infatt il suo fuoco si trova ungo una linea pjuttosto che in un singolo punto (come dovrebbe essere invece in un rflettore parabolico). Questa tecnica permette al telescopio di osservare qualsiasi regione di cielo entro un ‘cono di 40 gradi visibile verso lo zenit locale (tra -1 ¢ 38 gradi di declinazione), Laricevente & formata da diverse antenne lineati molto sensi ciascuna sintonizzata su una tistretta banda di frequenze. Questi dispositivi operano immersi in un bagno di elio liquido, per mantenere una temperatura molto bassa. A queste temperature il disturbo generato dagli clettroni nelle riceventi & molto piccolo, & solo i segnali radio in arrivo, che sono molto deboli, vengono amplificati Il sistema di Atecibo opera alle frequenze dai 50 megahertz (lunghezza d'onda di 6 m) ai 10.000 megahertz (lunghezza onda di 3 cm). Particolare della complessa radio antenna Nel braccio dell'azimut & situata anche Ia trasmittente del radar planefario da I MW che dirige le onde radar verso gli oggetti nel nostro sistema solare. Analizzando le eco che riceviamo possiamo avere informazioni sulle proprieti della superficie e la dinamica degli oggetti. Porto Rico & unfisola vicina allequatore e permette al telescopio di vedere tutti i pianeti del sistema solare, tuttavia ‘ess0 non & abbastanza potente da consentire losservazione radar oltre a Saturno. Design e architettura La costruzione del telescopio di Arecibo inizid grazie al professor William B. Gordon della Cornell University, che inizialmente intendeva utilizzarlo per studiare la ionosfera deita Terra. Originariamente era previsto un riflettore parabolico fisso che puntava in una direzione fissa con una torre di 150 m con la strumentazione per il fuoco. Questo progetto avrebbe avuto un utilizzo molto Jimitato per altre potenziali aree di ricerca, come Ia scienza planetaria ¢ la radioastronomia, le quali richiedevano Tabilita di puntare verso differenti posizioni nel cielo ¢ inseguire queste posizioni per periodi estesi a causa della rotazione della Terra. Ward Low, dell’ Advanced Research Projects, Agency (ARPA) elimind questo difetto e mise Gordon in contatto con Air Foree Cambridge Research Laboratory (AFCRL), a Boston, nel Massachusetts, dove un gruppo diretto da Phil Blacksmith stava lavorando sui rifletiorisferici e un altro gruppo stava studiando la propagazione delle onde radio attraverso la pid alta atmosfera, La Comell University propose il progetto all! ARPA, nellestate del 1958 e nel novembre dell'anno successivo venne stipulato un contiatto tra 'AFCRL € Tuniversita. La costruzione incomincid nell'estate del 1960, con lapertura ufficiale il 1 novembre 1963, Scoperte I radiotelescopio di Arecibo ha prodotto importanti scoperte scientifiche. Il 7 aprile 1964, poco dopo Vinaugurazione, il gruppo di Gordon H. Pettengill determind che il periodo di rotazione di Mercutio non era di 88 giomi, come era stato previsto, ma di soli 59 giomi. Net 1968, la scoperta di Lovelace altri della periodicita della nebulosa del Granchio (33 ms) forni la prima evidenza fondata dell'esistenza delle stelle di neutroni nell'Universo, Nel 1974 Hulse ¢ Taylor scoprirono fa prima pulsar binaria PSR B1913+16, per la quale verra poi assegnato foro il premio Nobel per la fisica, Nel 1982 venne scoperta la prima millisecondpulsar, PSR 41937421, da Don Backer, Shri Kulkarni e altri. Questo oggetto ruota su se stesso 642 volte al secondo ed & rimasta fino al 2005 fa pulsar pit a. velove conos Nellagosto del 1989 si otfeme la prima immagine diretta di un asteroide nella storia: il 4769 “astalia, Nelfanno seguente, 'astronomo polacco Aleksander Wolszczan scopri la pulsar PSR B1257+12 in orbita alla quale vennero poi trovati tre pianeti (¢ una possibile cometa). Questi furono i primi pianeti extrasolari scoperti. Nel 1994, John Harmon wiilizzd il radiotelescopio per mappare la disisibuzione del ghiaecio nei poli di Mercutio. Altri utilizzi 11 telescopio é stato utilizzato anche per scopi militari, per esempio per localizzare le installazioni radar sovietiche captando i loro segnali che rimbalzavano sulla superficie lunare, Bsso & pure la sorgente dei dati per il progetto di calcolo disttibuito SETI@Home proposto dal Laboratorio di Scienze Spaziali a Berkeley. Universiti della California ed é wilizzato per le osservazioni del Progetto Phoenix de} Seti Institute, Nel 1974 con il radiotelescopio venme trasmesso verso Fammasso globulare ML3 (distante citea 25.000 anni luce) i] messaggio di Arecibo, un tentativo di comunicare con forme di vita extraterrestri. $i trattava di un modetlo a 1.679 bit di uni ¢ zeri che definiscono un'immagine bitmap i 23x73 pixel la quale include numeri, figure stilizzate, formule chimiche e un‘immagine stilizzata dello stesso telescopio. Arecibo nella cultura popolare Loosservatorio di Arecibo é stato utifizzato come luogo per la scena finale del film di James Bond, Goldenkiye. Nel film lex-agente Alec Trevelyan, diventato un malvivente, usa un telescopio simile a Cuba per comunicare con un satellite russo per sparare un impulso elettromagnetico su Londra, Il telescopio potra essere riempito con dell'acqua per farlo sembrare un lago, u impossibile nella realta in quanto presenta una superficie forata. Inolire ulilizzare il radiotelescopio di Arecibo per ‘comunicare con un satellite in orbita attomno alla Terra & assurdo da un punto di Nell'episodio di X-Files “Litile Green Man”, Fox Mulder viene inviato ad Arecibo da un senatore degli USA perché é avvenuto un contatto con una forma di vita extraterrestre. Come spesso suecede nclia serie, Mulder é costretto a fuggire quando artivano le forze milifari del governo USA senza cire ad otienere prove definitive del contatto alieno con hui, Il film Contact mostra Arecibo nell'ambito del progetto Seti. Liosservatorio @ pure presente nel film Specie mortale, come il luogo principale del romanzo The Listeners (1972) di James E, Gunn e come un elemento prominente nel romanzo di Mary Doria Russel The Sparrow (1996). Nella serie radiofonica Space Force (1984) della BBC, gli alieni contattano la Terra dopo aver sicevuto il messaggio di Arecibo. Uno dei personaggi dell’episodio “The Voice from Nowhere” (La ‘Voce dal Nullla) dice che losservatorio era stato chiuso e smantellato. Possibile chiusura ‘Un sapporto della National Science Foundation, pubblicato il 3 novembre del 2006, parla di una diminuzione dei fondi destinati per Yosservatorio di Arecibo. Se non si troveranno altre sorgenti di fondi il telescopio verra chiuso nel 2011. II rapporto ha inoltre consigliato che I'80% del tempo di ‘osservazione venga assegnato alle indagini gia in corso, riducendo cos! il tempo a disposizione per altto lavoro scientifico. Se verranno seguiti i consigli del rapporto, il programma radar di astronomia cesseri nel settembre del 2007. Altri progetti « (© Wikimedia Commons contiene file multimediali su Radiotelescopio di Arecibo Collegamenti esterni * (EN) Sito web ufficiale dellosservatorio Sito del progetto SETI@Home Categorie: Osservatori astronomici | Esobiologia | Arecibo. = Ultima modifica per la pagina: 13:27, 6 feb 2009. = Tutti i testi sono disponibili nel rispetto dei termini della GNU Free Documentation License. N89- 15814 CRYOGENIC, POLAR LUNAR OBSERVATORIES J.D, Burke NASA dot Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California 91109 Diseussion ‘Though it has been known for centuries that the Moon’s polar axis isnearly normal tothe plane of the ecliptic (ref. 1 and fig. , not much attention seems to have been paid to the resulting Astronomical possibilities. In permanently shadowod crater bottoms near the lunar poles (igs. 2 and), very low temperatures must prevail, Just how low is unknown because no direct measure- ments have yet been mado. However, measurements in other lunar regions and various theoretical investigations (refs. 2 to 6) suggest that arabient ground tomperatures, resulting from the balance among radiation to space, sunlight seattored into the shadowed aroas, starlight and other cosmic fenergy sources, and the Moon's internal heat flow, may be as low as 40 K. A telescope located in one of these low, dark, polar regions could operate with only passive cooling at that temperature or perhaps lower, depending on how well itcould be insulated from the ‘ground and surrounded by radiation shields to block heat and light from any nearby warm or huminated objects. Of course, such a site affords access to only half ofthe sky at most, but within the sky not masked by the horizon, the teleseope could continuously track any object for as long as desired, Ideally, thore would be two teloscopes, one at each pole, With this arrangement, all but ‘small part of the sky (near the ecliptic) could be covered without the engineering problems of the 2-week hatdays and the 2-week cold nights encountered anywhere else on the Moon. ‘At lower latitudes on the Moon, both the U.S, Surveyor spacecraft and the U.8.S.R. Lunokhod rovers observed a postsunset glow (Fig. 4) believed to be sunlight scattered from small dust particles moving under electrostatic forces within a few meters ofthe surface. Since the Sun is always neer the horizon at the poles, this phenomenon may be different there. It could, from the point of view of light scattering into a telescope, be either better or worse than at the equator. ‘The only way ta tell is to make measurements. These, with other environmental and topographic data, would be part of the site surveys that ure essential for planning a lunar polar observatory “The possibility of passive cooling to temperatures of tens of kelvins or Tower makes it logical to consider this unique tunar polar environmentasa locale primarily for infrared and subsnilfimoter astronomy and secondarily for any other instrumentation benefiting from low thermal noise. Other advantages of lunar polar base sites are discussed in reference‘ Why should astronomers concern themsetves now with this prospect? There are two reasons, First, automated lunar exploring missions are, after @ gap of many years, now being seriously proposed by the U.S.S.R,, the United States, and Japan, These missions can and should make the first polar measurements needed in an astronomical site survey. Astronomers should seek to influence the mission planning which would otherwise be done entirely in the geosciences community. Second, the suitably dark and cold territorieson the Moon are surely small, probably only hundreds of kilometers in extent, and thus need to be protected by international agrectment just ‘aedoes the radio-quict region on the Moon's far side. Astronomers have a long and successful background in establishing such agreements. With these preparatory steps in progress, scientists requiring eryogenic instruments will be in a good position to benefit when, for whatever reasons, the United States, the U.S.S.R,,or both decide to resume the exploration and settlement of the Moon. 31 PREORDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED N89~-15816 HIGH-ENERGY ASTRONOMY PROM A LUNAR BASE Paul Gorenstein Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 Introduction Astronomical investigations in the x-ray (0.2 to 100 keV) and gamma-ray (10~1 to 104 GeV) regions of tho electromagnotie spectrum were mado possible by spacecraft above the absorption of the Earth's atmosphere, For the future, x-ray and gamma-ray telescopes that are considerably larger and more inassive than those currently under development for the next generation of satellite experiments are envisioned. Indeed, the collecting area of these instruments is limited by the size and weight capacity of current spacecraft rather than by any intrinsic difficulty in constructing larger detectors or telescopes. ‘The virtually unlimited "real estate” of the lunar sueface would accommodate instruments with considerably more capability than is possible on an Earth orbiting platform. Consequently, a lunar base offers investigators the best opportunity to achieve the ‘ultimate potential in high-energy astronomy. First-goneration high-energy astronomy observatories on the Moon will eonsistof telescope and detector components that are manufactured on Farth and aligned insitu. Asa lunar manufacturing capability evolves, it may become possible to fabricate the heavy telescope ‘components by using the Moon’s low gravity and good vacuum. ‘The unlimited space of a lunar hase as compared to an Earth-orbiting station offers the following advantages. 1, Large space: Many large-collecting-area x-ray and gamma-ray instruments can be ‘accommodated at the same time. 2, Stable baseline: Long focal length between telescopes and detectors can result in configurations with very high resolving power. 3. Long duration: Inaelive instruments need not be removed to make room for other telescopes needed. 4, Assembly of large instruments: Manned activity on the lunar surface is loss difficult than extravehicular activities from a space station. Using common surveying techniques, lunar ‘astronauts can align various components ofa telescope system, change the configuration for other ‘measurements, oF incorporate improved technology. 5. Service: Sufficient space is available for a large supply of consumables, replacement parts, and dedicated computers, 6. Expandability: ‘Telescope systems, particularly those of a modutar type, can be developed incrementally in reserved spaces. 7. Observing: Coritinuous 14-day coverage of cosmie sources is possible. 45 PRECHDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED Phe drawbacks ofa lunar base the eost of transporting cargo to the Moon and the difficulties of edapting to the day-night temperature extremes — would be ameliorated as iransport capability improves and as more experionee is gained on lunar surface operations. ‘Chere isan intrinsic problem in that the absence of a magnetic field on the Moon results in a cosmic-ray background that is four times higher compared to near-Barth orbit, Although this inereased background is disadvantageous tosome x-ray and gamma-ray detector systems, it is nota major impediment for focusing x-ray telescopes or for gamma-ray telescopes which measure the arrival directions of individual photons, ‘These telescopes are capable of discriminating against a diffuse background on the basis of the souree’s position. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrum ‘Three generic classes of instruments are optimum for deployment on a lunar base. 'they are systems with one or more of the following characteristies. 1, Very high throughput: Collecting area of 108 cm? or more 2. Very long focal length: Very high angular resolution when used in eonjunetion with oceulting aperture masks 3, Broad sky coverage, 2n se: Studies of temporal variability in many objects simultaneously, including burst sources, flares, and transients, as well as monitoring the activity eycles of many galactic and extragalactic sources Photon fluxes (but not necessarily energy fluxes) of sources in the x-ray and gamma-ray bands tend to be relatively low compared to those of eptical and radio-emitting objects. Hence, high throughput isa prerequisite for detailed astrophysical studies that go beyond merely detecting and cataloging sources. Investigators have stated that collecting areas exceeding 108 em? are needed to satisfy their requirements in the next century. The objectives of such instruments include imaging, spectroscopy, and measurements of temporai variability, ‘An artist’s eoncoption of a high-throughput x-ray telescope system on the }unar surface is ‘shown in figure 1, The inetrument shown is the largo-area modular array of reflectors (LAMAR), ‘which consists of arrays of independant modules with imaging x-ray telescopes and detectors. ‘Although the LAMATis shown as a compact unit mounted ina single large pointing system, in practice, the array is more likely to be in a modular pointing aystem to facilitate serviee and insertion of gratings and crystals for spectroscopy and polarization measurements, A small version of the LAMAR with about 103 em? of collecting area atan energy of 1 keV is being developed as a Space Shuttlo experiment (ref. 1). This sketch (fig. 1) ould represent other instruments as well, including coded-aperiure devices for hard x-rays and low-energy gamma rays and a system of spark chambers for gaunma rays with energies greater than 100 MeV. In contrast to the isolation afforded by a lunar base, it seems virtually impossible to accommodate and maintain all of these large systems in the lose confinement of ari Barth-orbit platform simultaneously for long periods without encountering mutual interference. ‘The angular resolution of conventional x-ray telescope is limited by optical tolerances to aps 01 second of arc. Any further improvement would require a different approach, such as one hhased on occultation involving a long, stable bascline between apertures and detectors rather than on accuracy in the polishing process. For example, two 2-mm apertures separated by a 20-km baseline dofine a direction to within 0.02 aresee. For wavelengths shorter than 0.4 nm, diffraction through 2-mam apertures will be below the level of 0.02 aresee. [Lis possible to specify a variety of 46 long-baseline instruments on the order of these dimensions that.can achieve higher angular resolution over a limited angular range than is currently achievable by the best focusing telescopes, One approach is shown in figure 2. The instrument is a variation ofthe seanning modulation, collimator of the High-Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-1 and HEAO-3) experiment (refs. 2 and 3) and is considerably larger. Rising or sotting of sources caused by lunar rotation provides the scan, There is 0 20-km baseline between two “picket fence” collimators that are presumed to be Tocated near the equator of the Moon. The collimators are repetitively open for a distance of 2mm and opaque for 6mm. A 104.cm? moderate-resolution x-ray telescope, eg.,a subset of the LAMAR experiment (fig. 1), is behind the second collimator and serves as adetector. ‘The telescope, as compara to a nonimaging detector, eliminates background and confusion from multiple sources. Ifa point source isin the field of view, the modulated intensity of the image as a function of time isa series of perfect triangles as the Moon rotates. Ifthe source has finite structure ona seale between 0.01 and 0.1 arcsec, it an be derived from a deconvolution of the shape of the ‘modulation. Intrinsic time variations in the source are corrected by monitoring the source with a portion of the detector array that.is outside the collimators. If the source ean he tracked for 1°of lunar rotation, or 2 hours, as rises or sets, there would be sufficient counts for studying the structure of the faintest extragalactic sources detected by the Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2). The objective of such studies is the structure of the central regions of quasars and other active galactic nuclei, inelud- ing the existence of jets projecting from them, Resolving multiple images due to gravitational lensing effects is another objective. ‘The pieket fence collimators have to be precisely periodic. For each degree of tracking, the distant one would either have to be 320 m high (at a20-km distance) or have to move along. a 320-m vertical track ata precisely known rate slightly different than that of the Moon's rotation, Alternatively, the nearer collimator and telescope could be placed on an elevator that is situated in a crater (fig. 3). ‘Phe elevation of these instruments above the crater floor is adjusted to maintain the ine of sight to the distantcollimator along a constantdirection on the eelestial sphere as the source rises or sets. There are potentially hundreds of interesting sources in a 1° by 360° band of azimuth along the lunar equator. The amount of sky accessible to the instrument could be inereased by providing a means of rotating the axis of the system off the lunar equator. In particular, the distant collimator is placed on a circurnferential track around the near collimator-detector. Each 320-m segment of track length adds another 1°hand of sky. AA semicircle, or about 66 km of track, would bring nearly the full celestial sphere within reach of the instrument. Although this particular instrument provides angular resolution in only one dimension, varia~ tions of this configuration can be effective for twodimensions. Por example, the Japanese satellite Hinotori obtained x-ray images of the Sun with a rotating modulation collimator (ref. 4). In analogy to that instrument, the two widely separated collimators of the unar-based observatory are slowly rotated about the same axial direction in spaco, Their rotation rates are synchronized to a common lock, ‘The Fourier transform of the intensity modulations provides the high-resolution image. Obviously, many details need to be worked out, including the most practical means of rotating the collimators and determining whother they should be integral or modular. Simulation studies would clarify the resolving power of this configuration, ‘The first reaction of someone habituated to working within the limited confines ofa laboratory ora satellite experiment.is to be intimidated by “fences” and platforms that can be elevated 320 mor tracks that are many kilometers long. However, these items are not at all unusual to the transporta: tion and building construction industries. Ifa lunar base is developed, the necessary tools are likely to already be present. Fuéthermore, the problem of constructing tall fences and high elevators is ceased by the low lunar gravity. 4 ‘The preceding exemple is merely illustrative of many possibilities for achieving higher angular resolution with long-baseline observatories on the lunar surface. & narcow field of view, :nultiple-pinkote camera or Fresnel zone plates are other possibilities. A large high-energy gamma ray teleseope, for example, an expanded version of the EGRET instrument ofthe Gamma-Ray Observatory (ref. 5) nd a telescope under study for the Space Shuttle external tank (re. 6)can Sunetion extremely woll in the vacuum and the weak magnetic field of tho Moon, A gamma ray ia converted into aa electron-positron pair, whieh then travels in straight lines for lng distances. ‘The coordinates along their paths can be detected in spark or proportional chambers ta define the incident gamma-ray direction with excellent precision. his is perbaps the only possiblity far obtaining the precise positions neoded for optical identification of high-energy gamma-ray sources near the galactic equator. ‘The third genoral class of instrument is an “all-sky detector.” Within the next decade, a great deal of additional information on the temporal behavior of many x-ray objects is expected from Japan’s ASTRO-C and the U.S. X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) satellites. The ultimate instrament is ‘one that combines the resolution of the small-area wide-field cameras of these satellites with the throughput of their large-area detectors, which have small fields of view. ‘The instrument should be capable of resolving thousands of objects simultaneously and providing 104 em? of effective area for studying the temporal behavior of many objects without problems of excessive background or souree confusion. An example of such an instrament for x-raysis shown in figure 4. tt isbased on concepts proposed by W. Schmidt (ref. 7} ofthe Max-Planck Institute and on the “lobster eye” camera of R. Angol (ref, 8) of the Stowart Observatory. This particular device is a hybrid in that it images in ‘one dimension by focusing, whereas a cireuraferential, pseudorandom collimator with open bands ‘long the axis ofthe eylinder acts as a coded aperture for angular resolution in the other dimension (eof. Because individual photons are being detected from thousands of sources simultaneously with their position, energy, and arrival time information encoded to high precision, the quantity of data flowing from the instrument is enormous. A dedicated supercomputer would be neaded for processing , this data stream in real time and for extracting the essential results. Information on transient events ienceded with minimum delay so that it can be wansmitted to other observers. Indeed, Use coord nates of a given object are necded at the lunar base so that other detectors, including optical and ultraviolet telescopes, can be pointed at.a cource whieh is exhibiting gamma-ray or x-ray activity, ‘A lunar base is the optimum locale for the deployment of the ultimate high-throughput x-ray and gamma-ray instramenta, ‘Pho virtually unlimited apace would permit the construction of telescope systems with a collecting area that is, atleast, two orders of magnitude mare than that of observatories currently in the planning stages for Barth orbit. A stable, very long baseline will also enable achiovement of better angular resolution than iseurrenily possible. References 1. Gorenstein, P.: New Instrumentation for Space Astronomy, K. van der Bi Vaiana, eds,, Pergamon Press (Oxford and New York), 1978, p. 287. 2. Gursky,H., etal: Astrophys. J,, vol. 228, 1978, p.973, 48 Schwartz, D.H.; Schwarz, J.; Gursky, H.; Bradt, H.; and Doxsey, 16th Aerospace Sciences Conference, 1978, p. 78. rroceedings AIA (Oda, M.: Institute of Space and Astronomieal Science Research Note 186, presented at, COSPAR/AU Symposium, Advanced Space Instrumentation in Astronomy, 1982. Hughes, E. B., etal: IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sei, vol. NS-27, 1980, p. 364. Koch, D.: Proceedings of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference, NASA CP-2376, Aug. 1985, Schmidt, W. K. H.: Nuel. Instrum, Methods, vol, 127, 1975, p. 285, Angol,J.R.P.: Astrophys. J., vol. 224, 1979, p. 233, Gorenstein, P.; and Mauche, C.: High Energy Transients in Astrophysies, AIP Conference Proceedings no. 115, 8. B. Woosley, ed., American Institute of Physics Press, 1984, p. 694. ORIGINAL PAGE 1s ie OF POOR QUALITY ORIGINAL PAGE IS OF POOR QUALITY Figure 1.- Artist's eonception ofa Lunar-based LAMAR. As the Moon rotates, sources are maintained “within the telescope fields of view by a pointing system. The collecting area ofa lunar based facility ean be much greater than those of the next generation of Kerth-orbiting ray and gamma- ray telescopes, ext NOTION OF mm Smm PICKET FENCE" 2okm ‘ SHORT "PICKET FENCE Z wacins [tl jf] ANGULAR RESOLUTION revescore [i AD god = 002" DETECTOR ‘COUNT RATE TIME Figure 2.- Plan view of long: baseline system with very high angular resolution. Because flux transmitted through two “picket fence” collimators is modulated by lunar rotation, x-rays having wavelengths of 0.4 nm or less are not diffracted significantly. Deconvolution of the modulations reveals the structure of the source in one dimension toa resolution of 0.02 aresee or less. This resolution is ar better than can be achieved by conventional x-ray telescopes Synchronized rotation of the two collimators about a common axiseould, in principle, provide imaging information in two dimensions, { 51 ELEVATOR, Y aero ee Figure 3~ Profile view of long-baseline sy-tem shown in figure 2, ‘The elevation of the second Collimator (short “picket fence”) and the detector is varied with respect to the floor of acrater so as {o remain pointed at a source as it rises or sets between angles 0; and Oy, 52 ORIGINAL PAGE IS OF POOR QUALITY — miaRon VANES -IYENSIONAL POSITION BRRSRINE Berecror congo APERTURE Figure 4 A large-area, wide-field x-ray camera system fixed on the lunar surface. Thecamera focuses in one dimension, asdeseribed in reference 7, and has a coded aperture for angular resolution in the other dimension, This instrument is eapable of monitoring temporal variations of many sourees simultaneously. The maximum angle of reflection, actually about 1°, appears greatly exaggerated in the figure. 53 N89-15817 7 COSMIC-RAY DETECTORS ON HE MOON Jobo Linsley Department of Physies and Astronomy and Institute for Astrophysics Univorsity of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 the Place of Conmie Ray Studios in Astronomy Jn the context of astronomy, cosmic rays are charged particles — usually protons or clectrons—that have heen accelerated through the action of naturally occurring eleetrie fields, or they are neutral secondaries of such particles, Presumably, the clectrie fields are a consequence of changing magnetic folds, ‘The high energy of the partieles shows that these fields are remarkably strong and extensive. Cosmic rays provide direct.and conclusive evidence that partiele aceleration is a ubiquitous and enorgetieally vory important feature ofthe astronomical landscape, which increases in importance as one leaves the familiar territory inhabited by ordinary stars to oxplore the extrome conditions present in supernova explosions, near collapsed stars, and near active galactie nuclei Although the cosmie rays studied directly near the Barth are almost all protons or other nuclei until recently, the indirect evidence for cosmic rays in distant parts of the universe has shown only that high-energy electrons are present. ‘This evidence comes from synchrotron radiation, Anatogous evidence for the presence of high-energy nuclei, hence for the fields that have accelerated them, is given by gamma rays and neutrinos arising from the decay of pions produced in hadronic interactions, Cosmic rays also provide the only directly accessible sample of matter from outside the solar system, Since they ean Lravel very great distances, Ley may reveal the existence of mirror-image galaxies consisting entirely of antimatter. Carbon-14 and other “cosmogenic” nuelides provide information about the activity of the Sun in prehistoric times, whereas, on shorter time scales, cosmic-ray modulation is an important source of information about conditions in the heliosphere far Srom tho celiptie plane, ‘The Seale and Charaet#r of Cosmie-Ray Research ‘The current scale and character of worldwide cosmic-ray research is shown in table Lin the form of a program summary of the Nineteonth Internationa Cosmic Ray Conference, whieh took place in La Jotla, California, in the summer of 1985. ‘These conferences have been held every 2 years since the firstone in Kracow, Poland, in 1947. Like most conferences, they have grown, so that the attondance has been about 500 in recent years, ‘The number of contributed papers has been about 1000; thas, even with a limit of 4 pages each, one is faced every 2. years with 10 or more thick volumes of conference proccedings. The number of professional scientists engaged in this work is about 1000. ‘This number may be compared to Virginia 'rimble’s estimate that, eurrently, there are about 7000 professional estrenomers worldwide. In 1985, about one-fourth of Lhe sessions (those listed under "High-energy interactions") eoncerned the application of cosmic rays to the study of particle physics rather than astronomy, Some of this activity, but not ail, will dry up in the next. few decades because of competition from manmade accelerators (colliding beam machines). A large percentage of the papers (almost 80%) concerned. observations (called “experiments” in Uhis context) and the manner of performing them. 85 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NO® FILMED Advantages and Disadvantages of the Moon as a Base for Cosmic-Ray Observations Advantages ‘Some advantages of the lunar surface as a location for performing cosmic-ray observations follow. 1, Absence of atmosphere 2. Weak magnetic field 3. Low radiation background 4, Vast oxtont 5, Enormous mass, for use as shielding, as target material, in construction, and as raw material for manufacturing 6. Stability 1. Low gravity 8, High vacuum 9. Variety ofenvironments (within a small range) by choice of latitude ‘The absence of an atmosphere has overwhelming importance. As humans, we tend to take for granted the atmosphere on planet Barth. We overlook the fact that its transparency to very-low- energy electromagnetic quanta is exceptional, a consequence of the eapability of these quanta to propagate through the atmosphere in the form of waves. However, to higher energy electromagnetic ‘quanta and to fast particles, our atmosphere isa formidable barrier, at sea level, it isequivalent to 33 feetof water. All the cosmic rays one observes at the Earth's surface consist of secondary particles, a greatly altered remnantof those striking its'at mosphere from above, Another form of shielding is provided by the Earth's magnetic field. Except near the geomag- netie poles, this field prevents charged particles from reaching the Earth's surface unless their energy is higher than 1 to 10 GeV, three orders of magnitude above the energy of charged particles produced by radioactivity. It follows that, with a few notable exceptions, observations of primary cosmic rays must be performed currently using balloons, cockets, or space vehicles, Thus, for the majority of observations listed in table f, the Moon is an excellent site. The exceptions include, of course, some of the solar and heliospheric obser ations requiring special loeations in the solar system. The other exceptions are observations of nuclei, gamma rays, neutrinos, and interactions of these partictes, in the highest. ‘energy range, for which the Earth's atmosphere is used as an amplifying device in the production of extensive air showers, Ina niimber of cases, the Moon is not just an alternative to artificial satellites. Its other advantages—of vast extent, enormous mass, and low level of background radiation — will enable performing cosmic-ray observations on the Moon that otherwise would be physically impossible or economically impractical. One of these eases, neutrino astronomy, has been described in another 56 paper; others are deseribed in the Final portion of this paper, following same coraments about scientific style and ite possible implications with respect to rosmie-ray deteetors on the Moon. Disadvantages Soro disadvantages of the hinar surface as.a base for performing cssmie-ray observations are the high cost of transport. from Barth and the absonce of an atmosphere and of oceans, ‘The Scientific Backdrop, ‘Sineo they first hegan, cosmic-ray studies have manifested a special style which may still influence the manner in which cosmic-ray physicists react to opportunities afforded by the establishment of permanent bases on the Moon. Cosmic rays were discovered not in the laboratory but at great heights by placing ionization chambers in manned balloons (Hess 1912). ‘the extraordinary penetrating power that distinguishes cosmic rays from other forms of natural radiation ‘was demonstrated not in the laboratory but by lowering ionization chambers to suitable depths in ‘mountain lakes at different altitudes in the California Sierras (Millikan 1923-26). Proof that primary cosmic rays are mostly charged particles (Clay 1928-33, A. Hf. Compton 1930-36) and that their charge is positive (T. H. Johnson, L. Alyarer, Rossi and DeBenedetti 1933) was obtained not in the laboratory butby using the Earth's magnetic field, obser ving first the latitude effect and then the east-west effect, Proof that cosmic-ray energies ean measure at least LOIS eV (Auger et al. 1938) depended on the fact that particles with this much energy generate enormous atmospheric easeados, called extensive air showers. Considering just the solid angle, any air shower experiment at sea level makes essential use of a cone-shaped chunk of atmosphere weighing some 1010 kg. This mass explains why the lack of an atmosphere can he a disadvantage for locating cosmic-ray detectors on the Moos. ‘The greatest contribution of cosmic-ray studies to science came from discoveries leading to a new branch of physics, particle physics, now performed almost entirely using giant particle accelerating machines. Some of these discoveries, of the positron, of p-mesons or muons, of eharged 1 ‘mesons or pions, of kaons, and of hyperons, were made in a conventional laboratory setting. Others involved going out of conventional laboratories and setting. up unique new bases on the highest seessible mountains: on Mt. Evans in the United States, on the Jungfraujoch, Aiguitle du Midi, and ‘esta Grigia in the Alps, on Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and in the Pamirs ofcentral Asia, Going to the other extreme, the discovery of eosmnie neutrinos was made using the deepest accessible mines, at Kolar Gold Field in India and in South Africa. ‘These accomplishments itlustrate a cortain scientific style. ‘The physicists who performed these feats were equipped with an especially broad range of knowledge and skills. But they also were ‘marvelously opportunistic, using whatever wasavailable in the environment, and later on, using whatever new vehieles were introduced to gain access to new environments. ‘The discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts was the frst discovery using a space vehicle, There are important cosmic ray detectors still functioning on the Explorer spacceraft, which are now reaching the houndary of interplanetary space. ‘The important advantages offered by the Moon no doubt will be exploited for the study of cosmic rays, However, this opportunistic style makes it hard to prediet the form of cosmic-ray detectors on the Moon. Most of the earliest detectors will be similar to instruments already in use Others will take advantage of unrelated activities in progress on the Moon at later Limes. Planners should be warned, perhaps, thal cosmic-ray scientists are used to not paying for some essential parts 8st of their equipment such as mountains, mines, or the overlying atmosphere. Planners must guess first what other investigators will be doing and then make guesses about how cosmic-ray scientists might avail themselves of the new research environment. Some of these guesses follow. Cosmie-Ray Detectors on the Moon ‘Most studies of solar and heliospherie cosmic rays and of cosmic-ray phenomena require long- term observations using relatively small, lightweight detectors. Studies of gamma-ray bursts are similar in this regard. The lunar surface is an attractive location for work in these fields, but th 10 obvious way to enhance the value of this work through the application of lunar resources. "The kind of cosmic-ray research that is likely to be performed on the Moon in the early stages of lunar base development is research in the low-enorgy rango on constituents such as ultraheavy nuclei, positrons and electrons, gamma rays, antiprotons and antinuclei, and certain secondary isotopes useful as cosmic-ray clocks. These constituents share the property of being very sparse: therefore, detectors need to be very large, although they can be lightweight in relation tosize. The detectors are well suited to modular design and for incremental assembly, By basing detectors of this kind on the Moon rather than on a space station, money may be saved in the areas of deployment, mechanical support, and some aspects of maintenance, Athigher energies, the intensity decroases; thus, the need for large dotectors becomes even greater. It also becomes difficult to measure the energy of the particles and to differentiate between particles, As arule,a targetof some kind in which the particles undergo collisions with stationary nuclei must be provided. The detector must be very heavy and very large. Since unprocessed lunar soil is entirely adequate for use as a target and an absorber, the Moon has an overwhelming advantoge over spac stations as a hase for detectors of every sort of very-high-energy (VHE) cosmic rays. illustrative Examples Figure I shows the manner in which a detector of high-energy (greater than 1‘TeV) gamma rays, electrons, and charge-resolved nuclei might be incorporated in the protective shield of a structure intended primarily for manufacturing or research of some kind unrelated to cos "The structure is imagined to be roughly cylindrical, 20 m indiameter and 60 m long. For the protection af personnel from the intense low-energy cosmic rays, itlias been shielded with a 5-m-thick layer of lunar soil. Ihave imagined that during construction of the shield, several layers of lightweight gas-Giled counters were deployed at intermediate depths, A similar layer of counters lies ‘on top of the shield, and a final layer is attached on the inside to the ceiling of the tank. rays. ‘The uppermost layer of counters measures the charge of individual incoming particles. The first layer of soil benesth it acts as.a target in which the particles initiate cascades, The higher the incident energy, the larger the cascades witl be and the further they will penetrate, The number of particles reaching suceessive layers of counters provides a measure of the primary energy and also serves to diseriminate between incident hadrons (nactei) and leptons (eleetrons) or gamma rays. ‘The product of detection area and solid angle is several thousand m?-steradians; thus, the cosmic-ray counting rate will be several thousand per year for particles with an energy greater than 1016 eV. Useful results on cosmic-ray composition will be obtained to a maximum energy of 1017 eV per particle, the energy spectrum of electrons will be measured up to about 10!4 eV, and ‘gamma rays from point sources will be observed up to at least 1014 eV. 58 Lightweighteounters ean be constructed from metallized plastie oil as indicated in figure 2, and the eylindrieal shape of the individual cells is maintained by the pressure of the filling gas. The ‘tondeney for distortion produced by the pressure of the overlying soil is redueed by the low gravity of tho Moon, so the filling pressure doos not have to be excessively great. Porhaps the filling gas, typically consisting mainly of argon, can be obtained as a byproduct of the gas extraction plants some authors have envisioned for generating hydrogen on the Moon, Another interesting possibility is to measure the intensity of ultra-high-eneray (UNE) antiprotons, using the Barth's magnetic field to separate them from the much more abundant protons. Antinnelei accelerated in antigalaxies, if they exist, can enter the Milky Way galaxy more easily iftheix energy is ultrahigh. To accomplish the separation, one would use a horizontal cosmic- ray toleseope located near the Moon's Himb so as to point at all timos in the direction of the Earth. In general, highly relativistic particles with a charge Z timos the charge ofan electron, and onorgy & (elesteouvolts), wil be deflected by a transverse magnetic field B (gauss) through an angle Ogiven by where the integration is over the path of the particle. For particles grazing the Barth's limb in the equatorial plane, the magnetic field integral equals 4 X 108 G-em, some 400 times greater than Une field integral of a superconducting magnet facility proposed for the U.S. Space Station. The energy coverage would therefore extend to energies that are higher by about the same factor, A consequonee of this deflection is that the Barth's cosmic-ray shadow, duie to particles being, intercepted by the Earth, will be displaced through an angle given by the equation, Fora given particle energy, the shadows produced by protons and antiprotons will fall symmetrieally on opposite sides of the geometrical shadow. ‘The telescope 1 envision, shown schematically in figure 3, would consist ofa large ionization calorimeter for measuring F and of widely spaced drift chambers for finding particle trajectories. The ionization chamber would consist of gas-filled counters interleaved with bins of lunar soil, Electrons and antiprotons of the same energy would be distinguishable by virtue of their different cascade profiles; electron-initiated cascades are purely electromagnetic, whereas cascades initiated by Antiprotons are hadronic, The calorimeter woulde used concurrently, in combination with other counters not shown here, for other purposes, stich as gamma-ray astronomy in the VIUN-UE bands, TABLE I.- PROGRAM OF THE 19TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE, LAJOLLA, CALIFORNIA, AUGUST 11-23, 1985 {Numbers of sessions devoted to the various topics} GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC COSMIC RAYS .... Observations Gamma rays Nuclei ...... eet eich Electrons, positrons, antiprotons .....-..... ee Neutrinos, Searches for monopoles, quarks, ete. Theory Peete alles ‘Techniques and Instrumentation 7 SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC COSMIC RAYS AND COSMIC-RAY PHENOMENA Observations Solar flare particles and gamma rays Solar noutrinos Interplanetary acceleration, Jovian electrons Modulation... Intensity gradients in the heliosphere Cosmogenie nuclides Theory oe eee eee eseeeeeeeee iE alseebeet ‘Techniques and Instrument HIGH-BNERGY INTERACTIONS | Observations Hadronic interactions Cascades Secondary leptons (rations) and leptonic interactions ‘Theory and Simulations .. Seaeeeet : ‘Techniques and Instrumentation Beane 16 10 a 18 Figure L~ A large ionization calorimeter built into the shielding of a manufacturing facility or a Taboratory on the Moon. ‘The dashed lines represent layers of gas-Gilled ionization counters. a Figure 2.- Cross section of a lightweight gas counter pane! made of metallized plastie foil (with the ‘ueual anode wires). To save eargo space, the panels would be deflated and pressed lat during shipment. — TOWARD EARTH ‘DRIFT CHAMBERS ‘CALORIMETER Figure 8.- A cosmic-ray charge analyzer designed to be located on the Moon and to use the Earth's dipole asa magnet. 62 N89~ 15820 INPRARED ASTRONOMY FROM THEE MOON Dan Lester eDonald Observatory, University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712 "Phe Moon offers some remarkable opportunities for performing infrared astronomy. Although the transportation overhead ean be expected to he very large compared with that for fcilities in Barth orbit, certain aspects ofthe lunar environment should allow significant simplifications in the aesign of telescopes with background-limited performance, atleast in some parts ofthe thermal infrared spectrum. Why Leave the Barth fo Perform Infrared Astronomy? Infrared astronomy from ground-based telescopes is severely handicapped compared to that possible with observations from outside the atmosphere, A serious problem caused by the atmosphere is absorption (and remission) of light in large swaths across the infrared spectrum. At wavelengths bootween 1 and 20 jim, less than half the speetrum of an astronomical source can be seen from the. ground. At longer wavelengths out to roughly | mm, almost none ofthe light gets throngh to the telescope. Much ofthis absorption is due lo water vapor, which can be substantially avoided by stratospheric teleseope platforms, but large pieces of the spectrum remain obscured by spocies with longer scale height, such ascarbon dioxide and ozone. ven at wavelengths at which the atmosphere is fairly transparent, thermal emission from a warm telescope and the atmosphere constitutes the ultimate limitation on infeared sensitivity to faint sources. Although the offects of “seeing” are somewhat smmaller at infrared than at optical wavelengths ic, the seeing disk is about half the size at 20 pm compared to that in the visible), most infrared imaging that is popsible from the ground has beon done in seeing-limited pixels. Observations from outside the atmosphere render the point source profile (PSP) completely diffraction-limited, and thus highly stable, Such PSP stabitity will allow us to take maximum advantage of superresolution techniques that allow the Rayleigh limit to be exceeded. Why. Go All the Way to the Moon? ‘The lunar enviconmentoffers certain advantages over Karth orbit for performing infrared astronomy. The modest lunar gravity, although perhaps an operational disadvantage in the ‘construction of a large factlity, yields the convenience of superb pointing stability. Lunar telescopes will not be subjected to the varying gravitational torques and residual atmospheric drag associated with Barth-orbiting telescopes. ‘The lunar surface also provides exceptionally stable baselines for coherent infrared interferometry. “The vacuum on the Moon is super (~10~12 torn), even by comparison to Earth orbit, Low Barth orbit (EO) telescopes are expected to see strong emission lines as a result of excitation of residual atmospheric molecules by callinion with the epacocraft. Speefal eare must be taken with eryogenic LEO telescopes to avoid ieing the optics with these residual gases, Neither of these effects is expected to be important.on the Moon. 85 PRECEDING PAGER BLANK NOT FILAMD ‘The combination of excellent lunar vacuum and the massive thermal shielding, provided, for example, by the walls ofa crater near a lunar pole, provides an opportunity for efficient passive ‘cooling ofa lunar telescope. This is a great advantage in that cryogen consumption may be mini- mized or even avoided entirely. For a well-designed telescope, one that is radiatively decoupled from the lunar soil, is shielded from direct or diffracted sunlight, has a structure that is blackened to ‘ensure excellent thermal coupling to the cold sky, and is isolated from dissipative electronics, the entire structure will efficiently coo! as it passively radiates to space, How cold can a passively cooled lunar telescope get? Lunar soil cools to ~90 K by the end of the lunar night, and small, specialized Earth-orbit packages (the exteriors of which are bathed, throughout their orbits, by sunlight and earthlight) have been sustained passively to temperatures as low as ~100 K. Therefore, one can expect ‘even better performance from a well-designed, optimally situated lunar telescope. Figure isa comparison of the celestial background power with that from a telescope of different temperatures ‘and illustrates the advantage of cooled optics. The solid lines indicate the celestial background, whereas the dashed lines indicate the background from a clean telescope. It should be noted that the background emission from a 300-K ground-based telescope is orders of magnitude higher than. anything shown in this figure, We can see from this figure that, for example, ifitis possible to passively cool a lunar telescope to ~60 K or less, celestial background-limited data can be obtained toa wavelength of about 200 pm. 86 N8Q9- 15821 Y LARGE ARECIBO-TYPE TELESCOPES Prank D. Drake University of California Santa Crus, California 95064 Abstract "Phe Arecibo-type radio teleseope, based on a fixed spherical reflector, isa very effective design for a large radio telescope on tho Moon, In such telescopes, major structural “members” are provided by the ground on whieh they are built, and thus are provided at no cost in materials or transportation. ‘The bulk of the remaining structure ig made up of members which are always in tension and thus ean be very simple; indeed, most of the structure can be made from cables, "The strong compression members, the tall towers which support the suspended platform, are an expensive part of the actual Arecibo telescope. ‘The need for such towers can be eliminated if suitable valley or crater can be found wherein the rim of the depression can be used as the support, point for the cables which support the suspended platiorm. Reasunable valley and crate cross soctions fulfill this need quite nicely. In this case, a substantial saving in cost and materials acerues, ‘This approach could be used ta build Arecibo-style telescopes on the Moon or on the Earth at. substantial savings over the cost ofthe actual Arecibo design. See figure 1 With an Arecibo-type radio telescope on the Moon, there are no ehanging gravity loads because of the design and no changing wind loads because of the location; therefore, the only source of time variation in the telescope geometry is thermal changes. ‘The actual Arecibo telescope has built into it simple relationships between structural cross sections which cause criticat points, such as the location of the reflector surface or of the suspended platform, to remain fixed in space when the temperature changes. 'This configuration can be achieved through the use of conventional materials and with no requirement for active controls. These techniques could be used with a lunar telescope to eliminate thermal changes in crucial telescope dimensions. Calculations show that with conventional materials, such as stocl, it should be poasible to constrict an Arecibo-type telescope with a reflector diameter of some 30 km on the Moon, and with a reflector diameter of some 60 to 90 kim if materials of high specific strength ave used. PRECEDING Pt in .uR NOP Htinw PRECEDING PAGE BLANK NOT FILMED a Figure 1.- Proposed emplacement of a very large radio telescope in a crater using a cable suspension system to stabilize the instrumentation platform. 92. N89- 15823 MERE: AN ULTRA-LONG-BASELINE MOON-BARTH RADIO INTERFEROMBTER Jack 0. Burns Institute for Astrophysies ‘The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 Introd Radiofrequency aperture aynthesis, pioneered by Ryle and his eolleagues at Cambridge in the 1960's, has evolved to ever longer baselines and larger array’ in recent years, The European Very {Long Baseline Network and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Very Long Baseline Acray, currently under construction, use a large fraction ofthe Barth's diameter to synthesize apertures with resolutions of milliareseconds at centimeter wavelengths. These arrays sample the Fourier components ofa distant radio souree’s brightness distribution using the Earth's rotation o increase tho coverage in the Fourier domain. Maps of the radio surfaeo brightness are produced by performing Fourier tronsforme on the source visibilities gathered from the correlated signalsof the radi antenna pairs. Tropospherie, ionospheric, and systom-related contamination of the source visibilities ean be Fomoved by iterative modeling, termed hybrid mapping or self-calibration (rf, 1). A variety of Aeeonvolution algorithms such as CLEAN and Maximum Entropy can remove the diffraction effects in maps produced by incomplete sampling of the Fourier transform plane (i.e, incomplete aperture). ‘This process results in maps of increasing quality with milliaresecond resolution and dynamic ranges of hundreds to one “The Himiting resolution ata given frequeney for modern ground-based very-long-baseline (VEB) interferometry (VLBI is simply determined by the physical diameter of the Zarth. There are no other technologieal barriers Unat constrain VLB observations at eontimotor wavelengths, ‘This limitation can, of course, be overcome by placing radio antennas in orbit around the Earth. A first step toward space-based VLBI may occur within thenext,decade. A joint miasion proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) and to NASA would place a free-flying 15-m radiofrequency antenna in elliptical orbit about the Earth (ref. 2). This project, termed Quasat for quasar satellite, would have an orbital perigee of about 4000 km and an apogee of about 15.500 km and would be inclined by 62° to the Earth's Equator, The operating frequencies would be between 22 and 1.7 Giz. The resolution would inerease that of the ground-based VLBI by a factor of 3 or 4. ‘The superior sampling, of spatial frequencies (projected baselines) would also greatly enhance the quality of maps by reducing the ambiguities usually encountered in the image restoration process. The Quasat antenna would be linked to ground-hased VLB antennas with telemetry commands (including clock reference) relayed from the ground. During the observations, data would be recorded on magnetic tape, Later, the tapes would be brought to a central processing station for correlation and mapping. A second-generation, totally space-based VLB network was proposed recently by a group at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) (ref. 3). ‘The Astro-Array would consist of 30 spaceborne antennas with no ground-based elements and with the correlator station also in space. Bach antenna would he ‘50 m in diameter and placed in orbits that. would yield minimum and maximum baselines of 1000 km and 200 000 km, respectively. ‘The resolution of the Astro-Array at 5 GHz would be <0.1 mareses. "The array receivers would oporate in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 300 Gliz, Since the entire array would be above the Barth's atmosphere and therefore not subjected to atmospheric wave scattering and uncertainties in baseline positions, it could act as a phased-linked interferometer. Real-time correlations of source visibilities, via satellite links, would remove many of the uneer- tainties that limit ground-based VLABL. Diffraction-limited resolution at higher frequencies and 7 dynamic ranges of tens of thousands to one (limited only by system clocking and correlator errors) would then be possible, ‘The next logical extension of space-based VLBI would be a station or stations on the Moon. T “originally proposed this concept, termed MERI for Moon-Earth radio interferometer, at the NASA Symposium on Lunar Bases and Space Activities ofthe 2ist Contury held in Washington, D.C. (ref. 4). The Moon could serve as an outpost or even the primary correlator station for an extended array of ‘space-based antennas, Because ofthe stability ofthe lunar surface, the natural eryogenie environ- tment, and the proximity Lo seientists on the lunar base, one may wish to build the counterpart of the very jong array (VLA) radio interferometer (ref 5) on the Moon (fg. 1), Sueha lunar VLA alone ‘woutld be capable of impressive new science, especially inastrometry (ref. 6). But, as part of a larger VLBI network, the combined resolution and sensitivity would allow usto probe far deeper into the universe and with much greater spatial resolution than previously possible, Resolutions, Wavelengths, and Sensitivities Asa guide to the potential radiofrequency science that would be possible with MERI, I propose ‘a two-component array consisting of the Astro-Array anda lunar VLA. Furthermore, I will presume that the system parameters are these given in table I with uniform antenna apertures of 60 m. The ‘baselines for such an array of telescopes would range from a minimum of about 200 m (for the lunar ‘VLAD toan instantaneous maximum of about 500 000 km (about 5 times that of the Astro-Array alone). Over the 2-week, half-sidereal period of the Moon, the maximum baseline could be doubled to 108 km, Such aconfiguration has four distinet advantages. First, this MERI array would offer an unprecedented resolving power as is discussed further below. Second, the wide range of spatial frequencies that would be sampled by these baselines offers us an opportunity to study an amazingly ‘broad spectrum of structures in radio sourees. ‘Third, the sensitivity of the array ~fer greater than that of any interferometer currently in existence — would enable the resolution and mapping of weak, fine-scale structure. Fourth, the combination of short (hundreds of meters to kilometers) to intermediate (thousands of kilometers) to very long (hundreds of thousands of kilometers) spacings in, ‘anairless environment would allow us to reconstruct the cadio cource brightness distributions with a ‘minimum of uncertainty. ‘The resolution of MERI would be governed by two factors. At high frequencies, the interfer ometer is iffraction-limited. The smallest resolvable feature (full width half maxiraum (FWHM}) is, given by a 8 gig us tO9€0) = 6.3 X 10 54 Dg) a where vores the frequency in gigahertz and Diy is the baseline in kilometers. For an instantaneous aseline of 500.000 km, the resolution at. 10 GHz is 12.6 parcsec and at 300 Glizis 0.4 paresec. These resolutions are improved further by a factor of 2 for aperture synthesis using a balf revolution of the ‘Moon around the Earth. ‘At lower frequencies, the resolution of MERI is limited by electron density turbulence as the radiofrequency radiation passes through the interstellar mediuin (ISM) ofthe Milky Way. (See ref. 7) This turbulence causes the radio sources to be broadened angularly in amanner that depends upon the line-of-sight direction to the source. Recent VLB measurements, interplanetary scintillations of extragalactic sources, and interstellar scintllations of pulsars have been used to 98, constrain the amount of broadening by the ISM. Cordes etal. ref. 8) and Dennison et al, (ref. 7) find Uhal the seattering angle for « plane-wave souree is given by 18 = SE, ®. Ogg barzee) = 1.98 x 10°C, < cry vi 8 y= 5 Gan gy 8 = 10 vail in| o) @ ‘assuming a power-law spectrum ef turbulence in the form Cyf--25, where his the wave number; Lape is the effective path length in kiloparsee, vey: is the frequency of observation in gigahertz, and 6 is, the galactic latitude (where eq, (2) is valid for & > 10°). Pulsar interstellar scintillation measurements suggest that Cy?is about 10°95, Rquating equation (1) to equation (2) yields the frequency above which the MERE obser vations, are dilfraction-limited Veins > 10 ' in [ap D8 @ i "on For high galactic latitudes and an instantaneous baseline of 500 000 kim, this frequency is 6 GH». Above this frequency, the resolution of the MERI array is given by equation (1). Below this fre- ‘quency, the resolution of the array ia limited by turbulence broadening and is given by equation (2). ‘The sensitivily of the MERI array (ref. 9) is given by 3 Fy y-2 4 55. 10°) DV yyy NN AYE) a Sug SY) where Symp is Uke rms noise for the system with receiver system temperature 7, antenna efficiency ¢, antenna diameter D, bandwidth Avipirz integration time f, and number of antennas N. To correspond to.aone-bit digital correlator of the type currently used for VLB observations, a correlator efficiency (0f64% has been assumed. For T = 50K, = 0.65, D = 50m, Av = 50 Mix (at 10 GHz wavelength), 2 = G he X 3600 sec/hr, and N = 60, the tms sensitivity is 4 py. This isa faetor of 19 more sensitive than the VLA, which is currently the most sensitive aperture-syntbesis telescope in the world. ‘Phe combination of high resolution and sensitivity with MERI will allow radio astronomers to probes far greater range of source structures at larger distances than ever befure. Asa result, the science with MERI will be far ranging and should greatly advance radio astrophysics. Radio Astrophysies With MERI Awide variety of astronomical observations at radiofrequencies can he undertaken with the MERI array ranging from observations within our solar system of active regions on the Sun and the magnetosphere of Jupiter to examination of the nuclei of active galaxies and quasars. Table 11 contains the spatial resolutions of a variety of galactic and extragalactic objects that could be observed with MERT at 10-GHz and 300-GHz frequencies. Many of the important radio observations that could be conducted with MERI involve astrometry, Let me consider a few fundamental astrometey experiments, 99 1. The potentiat <0.1-paresee position aceuracy of MERI could be used to improve upon the current celestial coordinate system. In particular, the combination of an optical interferometer on the Moon (refs, 10 and 11) and MERI could be used to refine the relationship between the optical and the radiofrequency coordinate systems. 2, It may he possible to search for dark companion stars (black holes and neutron stars) or even planets around radio stars by measuring the perturbations of radio star proper motions. 9, Relative astrometry ean be used to measure the expansion of radio source components in extragalactic ets, Resolutions and sensitivities of current VLB interferometers are generally not high enough to conduct such observations. 4, Aparticularly exciting prospect involves the fundamental cosmological experiments that could be performed. Morgan (ref. 12) has described the manner in which Hz0 masers in our galaxy canbe used as independent distance measures through the use of classical statistical parallax techniques. The angular resolution of MERI could enable radio astronomers to extend this technique toother galaxies and to accurately determine their distances. Thus, a powerful new tool io at hand for measuring the Hubble parameter. Similarly, trigonometric parallax ineasurements of radio galaxies in clusters combined with redshift measurements could allow us to determine distances to clusters ‘and thus to further calibrate the extragalactic distance seale. ‘There are also various aperture-synthesis observations that one might wish to perform with MERI, Some of theso include: 1. Mepping radio burst rogions on othor stars ~ Enough son: MERI to refine our understanding of the solar-stellar connection. ivity and resolution exists with 2, High-resolution mapping of radio stars such as $8433 and RS CVn ~ Some of these stars. may serve as sealed-down prototypes of the engines at the cores of active galaxies and quasars, 3, Mapping the coro of the Milky Way — Recent radio observations of the Sag A region of our galaxy have revealed a great deal of complex structure, both thermal and nonthermal in origin. The MERE could be used to probe the source of this activity at very high spatial resolution and sensitivity. 4, Studying the collimation of radio jets very close to the core of aetive galaxies and ‘quasars ~ The radio jets hold the key to transporting magnetized plasma from the “engines” at the centers of galaxies to the extended lobes or tails. Currently, we eannot determine the manner in which the radio jets are first collimated; therefore, we are missing a key element in understanding the physics of radio jets. 5, Mapping the engines in nearby active galaxies ~ For the first time, the MERI array provides sufficient resolution and sensitivity to map the accretion disks around the compact object. that is fueling the radio emission. We may be able to get adirect answer to the question, “Do giant black holes power active galaxies” 6. Testing fundamental physics of compact extragalactic sources ~ Researchers such 05 Kellerman and Pauliny-Toth (ref. 13) believe that the region which we ean resolve near the eore of @ galaxy will be limited by the so-called Compton catastrophe. The maximum brightness temperature thatis visible from such a source is 1032 K. Inverse Compton scattering of radio photons by relativistic electrons near the core makes the central region of the source effectively opaque. By “observing the source sizes at a variety of wavelengths and resohutions with MERI, we ean test this basie physical process, 100 "The MERI array will open an entirely new regime of wavelengths, resolutions, and sensitivi ties for radio astronomy. As with any such leap in astronomical instrumentation, this advaneermont, will result in the observation of a variety of known radio sources and the exploration of their struchures in unprecedented detail. Bvenso, it may be the serendipitous discoveries, which are by definition impossible to predict, that ultimately justify the construction of MERI. Acknowledgment ‘This work was partially supported by the Los Alamos National Laboratories through a grant from NASA, Twould like to thank Jeff Taylor for his help in constructing figure f References 1. Pearson,’T. J.;and Readhead, A. C.8. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., vol. 22, 1984, p.97. 2 Burke, W. R., compiler: QUASAT ~ A VLBI Observatory in Space. BSA Scientific Publications (the Netherlands), 19864. 3. Weiler, K. W.; Speneor, J. Hl; and Johnston, K. J.: NRE Memorandum Report 5887, 1985, 4, Burns,J. 0.: In Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 2tst Century, W.W. Mendell, ed., Lunar and Planetary Institute (Houston, Tex.), 1985, p. 293, 5. Napier, P.J.;"Thompson, A. Rand Ekers, R. D.: Proc. IEEE, vol. 71, 1983, p. 1295. 6. Linfield, R.: 1986, this workshop, 7. Dennison, B.; Thomas, M.; Booth, R. §.; Brown, R, La; Broderick J. J; and Condon, J. J. Astron. Astrophys., vol. 196, 1984, p, 199. 8 Cordes, J. M.; Ananthakrishnan, S;;and Dennison, B.: Nature, vol. 309, 1984, p. 689. 9, Christiansen, W. N.;and Hogbom, J. A. Radiotelescopes. Cambridge University Press (New York), 1985, chapter 8 40, Burko, B.: In Lunar Basos and Space Activities of the 21st Century, W. W. Mendell, ed, Lunar and Planetary Institute (Houston,'Tex.), 1985, p. 281. 11. Burke, B.: 1986, this workshop, 12, Morgan,d.M.: Nature, vol, 310, 1984, p. 270. 43. Kellermann, K. 1.yand Pauliny-Toth, 11, K.: Annu. Rev, Astron, Astrophys., val. 19, 1981, p. 373, tot TABLE I- CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MERI ARRAY Number of antennas Saat hie en east 60 Antennasize,m ..... 50 Antenna efficiency ... a ; 0.85 Frequency coverage, MH .......eceescceeseeeeesteeseseeeeee sce teteeenetes 30 to 300000 Bandwidth, %of frequency ..... 7 10 System temperature, K oe. cseeeeceeesceeeeeee 50 Baselines Minimum for lunar VLA, m : 200 ‘Maximum for instantaneous observations, km +500 000 ‘Maximum for holf-sidereal period synthesis, km ......2..20c000 aan 108 Resolution At 100 MHfz,) aresee ferbe eariiee oz AtLOGHe,¢paresoe 6... cece Han 12.6 At 300 GHz,¢ paresce . od Sensitivity in6 br, wdy rms... 4 330 in Earth orbit and 30 on the Moon, Limited by interstellar turbulence broadening, ‘Assuming observations near the galactic poles. 102 TABLE UL. SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS AP 10 AND 300 Gite Seientific goals or items of interest Sun 9 3 Solar flare activity Mercury 5 16 Differential heating of surface by solar wine Jupiter 40 we Mapping of magnotosphere Ux Aci 97 x 107 sat x 107 Solar-stellar connection Orion nebula 9.7 x 108 B.A x 108 Starbirth; bipolar outflow 88433 977 x 108 BAX 109 Formations ofadio jets: raini-engine Sag A 1.95 x 1010013" 0.6 X 1080(0,04% Fingine at galaxy core (galactic center) M31 109.5 x 1010(7.3) 84.5 1010(2.3) Comparison of closest spiral galaxy to Milky Way 57x 1018) 18 x 10112) Engine powering active galaxy; collimation of radiojets Perseuscluster 136.1 1012901) 43.6 1012290) ‘Trigonometrie parallax for radio galaxies se273 948 x 1082(6300) 800 x 1072¢2000) Radiofrequency activity in quasars Schwarzschild radius for 106M, black hole. bes, 403 Figure 1 - Retouched photograph showing a very long array of antennas constituting a radiofrequency interferometer emplaced on the Moon. ORIGINAL pa GE Is OF Poor QUuatmry 104 N89- 15824 RADIOWAVE SCA'TPERING AND ULTRA-LONG- BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY Brian Dennison EO. Hulburt Conter for Space Research, Code 4191D Naval Research Laboratory ‘Washington, D.C. 20375-5000 Abstract Interstellar seattering ean irretrievably blur the images of compact radio sources when, oxamined with extremely high resolution. Because of this effect, diffraction-limited observations of ‘extragalactic sources with an Barth-Moon baseline wil} only be possible at frequencies above about. ‘GHz, in which case the resolution will be <20 paresee, Preliminary observations to determine the ving power are discussed. The simplest of these would eonsist of a search for interstellar scintillations in compact sources at 10 GHz, which would provide an effective resolution about equal to that of an Karth-Moon baseline at this froqueney. Also important in this context is the development of very-long-baseline interforometry (VLBI) in near-Earth orbit, as any ultea-high-resolution observations (such as with an Barth-Moon baseline), if appropriate, would require intermediate baselines for mapping. Introd I wish to address two questions concerning ultra-long baseline interferometry. First, what are the fundamental limitations imposed by scattering due to irregularities in the interplanetary medium (IPM) and the interstellar medium (ISM)? Second, what, ifanything, ean be learned in advance about possible souree structure on the 10~S-aresee seales thal, would be probed using an Earth-Moon interferometer? Interplanetary and Interstellar Seattoring A fundamental difference between interplanetary scattering IPS) and interstellar seattoring (USS) should be noted at the outset. At most frequencies v and solar elongations ¢ likely to be used (eg.,v > 1GHzande 2 5°, IPS is weak. This means that each antenna in the interferometer will “undergo an indepondont time-varying phase shift due toa changing refractive index along ench path inthe IPM. Ifthe integration time is loss than the scintillation time seale, then the fringes are nat destroyed (although they would fluctuate in amplitude and phase beenuse of sintillation), and image restoration is possible, i principle, Convorsely, ISS is atrong,for many situations of intoreat(v < 10 Giiz at high galactic latitudes and up to considerably higher frequencies at low galactic latitudes). Physically, this roughly corresponds tea different propagation phase shift, not only for each antenna, but also for each partof the source covered by an independent phase blob of size L. The radiation is scaltered over an angular distribution, ~ VZ. (eefig 1) An extragalactic source seen at high galactic latitude, the intrinsie size 8; of which is in the range 2 uw : ~22 Liz = (2 warcsee)v}” <0, <0, = (1 maresed vy 105 will have an apparent size ~0,, and its intrinsic structure will be irretrievably lost, even ifthe integration time and bandwidth are smaller than the time and frequency scales characterizing the scintillation (ref. ), (In the preceding expression, 2 is the distance to the scattering "screen," taken to be 250 pe, and v1 isin gigahertz.) Of course, the structure of a component smaller in angular size than a phase blob may possibly be recoverable, providing an interferometer having sufficient resolution is used. An Earth-Moon interferometer is eapable of resolving structure on scales 20°; extragalactic 1x 10-3 7X 108 lb < 2% distance >5 kpe 50x 10-3 300 x 108 ‘To galactic center 1 1x 10198 8b = galactic latitude, 0 FREQUENGY, GHz Dry oe aS SOLAR ELONGATION, DES Figure 2.- Parameter space for interplanetary scattering, under typical solar-minimum conditions. If the integration time exceeds the time seale for interplanetary scintillation, observations in the shaded domain will undergo decorrelation of greater than 10%, The assumed baseline is 4X 105 km. VISIBILITY 03 1 10 100 FREQUENCY, GHz Figure 3.- Schematic illustration of the interferometric (solid line) and scintillation (dashed line) Visibilities of a homogeneous 20-naresee component, Below a frequoney of approximately 7 GHz, the interferometric visibility is reduced because of ISS; ahove 7 GHy, interferometric visibility is reduced because of overresolution on the assumed baseline of 4 x 105 km. The scintillation ity is reduced at a frequency below approximately 10 Gliz because of “overresolution” of the source by the decreasing blob size. (Fis roughly proportional to v.) Above 10 GHz, the scintillation is weak and thus the scintillation strength decreases, n2 N89~- 15826 ALUNAR BASE PORSETI? Berard M, Oliver NASA Amos Resoareh Center Moffett Field, California 94036 ‘The proposed NASA search for extraterrestrial intolligonee (SW'TN will have two search modes, 1, Anall-sly survey covering the frequency range from L to 10 GHz 2. Ahigh-sensitivity targoted search listening for sigaals from the ~800 solar-type stars within 80 light-years of the Sun, and covering 1 to 3 GHz, Both modes will use existing antennas: 34-m antennas of the Deep Space Network for the sky survey and large radio astronomy antennas such as the NAIC facility at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, for the targeted search. ‘The frequency ranges of the search are determined by the microwave window, in free space, this window extends from about 1 GHz to 100 GHz and is limited on the low end by rapidly. synchrotron radiation from the galaxy and on the high end by quantum noise as shown in the silent valley between these two noises, a third noise source sets the floor ab 2.76 K, "This is the microwave background ~ the relict radiation from the big bang, ‘On Barth, noise is added by the absorption lines of water and oxygen as shown in figure 2. The effect is to raise the floor to about: 8 K and to reduce the upper limit of the window to 10 GHz. This reduction is not considered to be serious boeause thore are many reasons for preferring the low end of the window anyway. ‘The nominal range Emit of an SETI system is given by a fe a where R = range limit d= antenna diameter P = effective isotropic radiated power I= receiver noise power ‘We will reduce N as much ae possible by using maser or cooled HEMT receivers and by operating in the microwave window. There is nothing wecan do about the power P that they radiate. Ifthe proposed search fails, it will be necessary to increase dand hence the antenna collecting area, “Todo this, one-can use 1. Ground-based phased arrays 2, Large shielded antennas in space 3, Lunar arrays 4, Lamar evater Arecibo-type antennas 119 Let: 4, satellites) ‘Therefore, 2, Shit ‘uo now consider these alternatives, Ground-based phased arrays © Areeasily serviced and repaired © Can be fairly well shielded from radiofrequency interference (RFT) (except for # Present no unsolved technical problems ‘© Aresmoothly expandable up tod > 108 m © Are much cheaper than other altornatives ifSETI must bear entire cost) our first conclusion is that SET! does not require a lunar base. Large antennasin space © Need only haif the area (noise floor is less) © Can probably be lightweight © Present technological problems of construction, transport, and deployment © Mustbe shielded from RT © Aveexpandable only in discrete steps © Require very expensive maintenance and servicing © Require broadband data link ing of the antenna from strong Barth-based RFT is on unresolved, serious problem, The high cost of servieing makes this alternative unattractive. Antennas should be located close to the permanent maintenance base. 3, @ Can use larger elements than on Barth beeause of 1/6g and no wind @ Require half the area of an Earth-based array ‘© =Must be on far side © Require data link with relay station Lunarerater "Arecibo" arrays (See fig. 8.) © Offer possibilty ofcheaper construction © Need many antennas to get full sky coverage © Require half the area of Barth-based array 120 © Mustbe on farside © Require date link with relay station [All space alternatives present problems not found in ground-based arrays, ‘The logistics of Inunch, deployment, and servicing add greatly to the cost. Lunar-based antennas on the far side are probably the most expensive solution ofall and are out of the question if SETI must pay the bill. If there is a far-side base for other reasons, the inerernental eostof adding SIT might be reasonable, 1 “TEMPERATURE, « ‘TEMPERATURE, te Figure 1.- Free-space microwave window. Figure 2,- ‘Terrestrial microwave window. 122 BACKGROUND Figure 3.~ Artist's concept of an array of three Arectbo-type spherical antennas constructed within natural eraters on the far side of the Moon, 123 UNLOAD FROM LUNAR LANDING VEHICLE. DEPLOY PRIMARY MIRROR SYSTEM UNLOAD COMPONENTS ‘AND INSTRUMENT ROOM ‘WITH DAVIT Figure 2.- Deployment of 100-in. horizontal telescope, part }. INSTALL DOME SEGMENTS DEPLOY INFLATABLE TUNNEL ALIGN OPTICS; ACTIVATE AND CHECK OUT Figure 3.- Deployment of 100-in, horizontal telescope, part I 134 301 A VERY LOW FREQUENCY RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY ON THE MOON James N. Douglas and Harlan J. Smith Astronomy Department, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 ‘Because of terrestal lonaspheric absorption, very ile K Known of the radio Sky beyond 10 rm wavelength ‘ie propose an extremely simple, low-cost Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio telescope, consisting of a large (approximately 15 30 km) aray of short wes Ind on the lunar surface, each equipped with an ampiifer and digitizer, and connected to a commen computer. The telescope could do simultaneous mutifequency observations of much ofthe visible sky with high resohition inthe 10- to 100-m wavelength range, and with Tower resohtion inthe 100- toward 1000-m range. It would explore stuctize and specita of galactic and etragalatic point sources objects, and clouds, and would produce a detailed quas-tree-dimensional mapping of interstellar matter within several thousand parsecs ofthe sun INTRODUCTION The spectral window through which ground-based radio astronomers can make ‘observations spans about five decades of wavelength, from a bit Jess than a millimeter tosomething more than ten meters. The millimeter cutoff produced by molecular absorption in the Earths atmosphere is fairly stable, but the long wavelength cutoff caused by the terrestrial jonosphere is highly variable with sunspot-cycle, annual, and diurnal effects; scintillation on much shorter time scales is also present. Radio frequency interference imposes further limits, making observations at wavelengths longer than 10 m normally frustrating and frequently impossible. Consequently, the radio sky at wavelengths longer than 10 m is poorly observed and is virtually unknown for wavelengths longer than 30 m, except for a few observations with extremely poor resolution made from satellites. Exploration of the radio sky at ‘wavelengths longer than 30 m must be done from beyond the Earth's ionosphere, preferably from the farside of the Moon, where physical shielding completes the removal of natural and manmade terrestiial interference that the inverse square law ‘has already greatly ‘weakened, THE LONG WAVELENGTH RADIO.SKY What may we expect in the long-wavelength radio sky (apart from the unexpected, which experience often shows to be more important)? First, non-thermal radiation from plasma instabilities in solar system objects is present jn rich variety, especially from the sun, Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth itself (which was ‘unexpectedly discovered by telescopes flown for other purposes). © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 902 / Sclence om the Moon Second, the synchrotron radiation from the galaxy reaches a peak of intensity near 4 Miz, (75 m), then drops off as absorption by ionized hydrogen becomes important, and possibly for other reasons, as well. This behavior has been seen by the low-resolution (20° beam) telescopes already flown. Third, the plane of the Milky Way—already dimming at 10 m—becomes even more absorbed by ionized hydrogen, and many black blots of Hi regions are seen in absorption against the bright radiation background. Such clouds, whose emission measure is too smail to be noticed optically, would be obvious using a moderate to high resolution (1°— 0.1°) VEF telescope. Ai longer wavelengths, our distance penetration becomes increasingly Jimited, decreasing with the square of the wavelength until, by 300 m, unit opticat depth corresponds to only a few hundred parsecs. Fourth, extragalactic discrete sources continue to be visible as wavelength increases (outside the gradually expanding zone of avoidance at low galactic latitudes), and theit spectra can be measured, although their angular structure will be increasingly distorted by interstellar and interplanetary scattering. At these wavelengths, one fs looking at the expanded halo parts of such objects, and turn-overs will be noted in the spectra of many, For wavelengths longer than about 300 m, Hil absorption in our own galaxy will effectively prevent extragalactic observations, even at the galactic poles, and, al wavelengths longer than a kilometer or so, we will be limited to studying objects within a few tens of parsecs of the sun. Finally, there are possible new features of the sky that can be studied only by a high resolution and high sensitivity telescope at long wavelengths. These inchice non thermal emission from stars and planets or other suich sources within a few parsecs f any of these are significantly more powerful than the sun and Earth); radio emission of very steep spectra from new classes of galactic or extragalactic discrete sources that may have gone undetected’ to date in even the faintest surveys al short wavelengths, yet be detectably strong at 100 m; nearby and compact gas clouds, visible in absorption, ‘Whose presence has hitherto been unstispected; and fine-scale structure in the galactic emission, which—given data at high-resolution and multiple low-frequencies—can be studied in depth as well as direction. In this connection the proposed telescope should provide a uniquely detailed and effectively three-dimensional map of interstellar matter in the galaxy out to distances of thousands of parsecs. ‘THE. LUNAR VLF OBSERVATORY. AS noted above, the low-frequency telescopes Mown w@ date have had very poor sesolution, although valuable for some studies on very bright sources, eg, dynamic spectra of the sun, Earth, Jupiter, and the cosinic noise spectrum. Significant advances, however, ‘will require high resolution (say 1°, corresponding to 15 km aperture at 300-m wavelength) and high sensitivity (many elements). A lunar base offers probably the best location in the solar system for constructing an efficient low-cost VLF radio telescope. in contemplating any lunar-based expetiment, the question must first be asked whether it is preferable to carry out the work in free space. For the proposed VLF observatory, the Moon offers a number of advantages: © Lamar and Planetary Institute © Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System Douglas & Smith: Lunar VEF Radlo Observatory / 303 1. Itisafine platform, able to hold very large numbers of antenna elements in perfectly stable relative positions over tens or even hundreds of kilometers separation (this would be excessively difficult and expensive to try to do in orbital configuration); 2. The telescope can begin modestly, though still usefully, and can continue to grow to include thousands of antenna elements added in the course of traverses of lunar terrain undertaken at least in part for other purposes; 3. The dry dielectric lunar regolith permits simply laying the short thin-wire antenna elements on the surface. No structures, dificult to build and maintain, are required; 4, Lunar rotation provides a monthly scan of the sky; 5. The lunar farside is shielded from terrestrial interference, although even the nearside offers orders-of- magnitude improvement over Earth orbit because of the inverse square law, and the much smaller solid angle in the sky presented by the Earth, Limiting Factors Various natural factors limit the performance of a lunar VLF observatory. Long wavelength limits. (1) Interplanetary plasma at 1 AU has about 6 electrons/ ‘cm* corresponding to a plasma frequency ({)) of 20 kHz, or a wavelength of 16 km, (2) The Moon may have an ionosphere of much h higher density than the solar wind; 10° i torr corresponds to about 40,000 particles/em’, if the mean molecular weight 18 20. If such an atmosphere were fully singly ionized, f, would be around 1.8 MHz, uscfully but not vastly better than the typical values for the Earth of around 9 MHz. However, ground based observations of lunar occultations suggest that N, is actually less than 100. In this case, {, would be less than 90 KHz (wavelength 4 km), and would set no practical Iimit to very low frequency lunar radio astronomy. It will clearly be very important for detailed planning of the lunar VLF observatory to have good measures of the lunar mean electron density and its diurnal variations. ‘Scattering. (1) The interstellar medium produces scattering and scintillation, and thus angular broadening of sources—eg, the angular size of an extragalactic point source ‘would be about 8 arcscconds if observed at 30 m wavelength. The size grows with wavelength to the 2.2 power, becoming 1/3° at 300 m. (2) Interplanetary scintillation is more important, Obeying essentially the same wavelength dependence as interstellar scintillation, it ranges’ from about 50 arcsec at 30 m to a few degrees at 300 m (1 MHz). However, it is still worthwhile designing the telescope ‘with: higher resolution: than 2° al | Milz, since techniques atialogous to speckle interferometry may recover resohition down to the limits set by interstellar scintillation, which will be relatively small especially for nearby sources in our galaxy. Interference. (1) Solar. the intensity of the cosmic background raidation is 6n-the order of 10° wm” Hz” ster"'. The sun is already known to emit bursts stronger than this by an order of magnitude in the VLF range, so the most sensitive observations may have to be carried out during lunar night. (2) Terrestrial: Nearside location will always ‘expose the telescope to terrestrial radiations. Consider two known types: auroral kilomettic radian fs song between 100 and 600 Kan sere song burs wou produce flux density at the Moon of about 2(10)7° wm? Hz’—far stronger than the cosmic © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 308 7 Sclonce on the Moon noise we are trying to sludy. Fortunately it is sporadic, and limited to low frequencies. ‘Also, it probably comes from fairly small ateas in the auroral zones, so that its angular size as seen from the Moon will be sitall, Lunar VLF observations below 1 MHz will therefore be limited unless the telescope is highly directive with very low sidelobes, or built on the lunar farside, “Terrestrial radio transmitters may leak through the ionosphere in the short wavelength portions of the spectrum of interest. If we assume a 1-Mw transmitter on Earth with a 10 kz bandwidth, the flux density at the Moon would be about 5(10)"7 wm” Ha"! without allowing for ionospheric shielding, This would be a serious problem; much weaker transmitters with some ionospheric shielding would merely be an occasional nuisance. ‘Again, this is an argument in favor of a farside location, particularly for frequencies above 4 Mitz or so. Considerations of Telescope Design 1k would be futile to carry out a detailed telescope desigh at this point; however some general considerations can be addressed: Frequency range. The telescope should be broadband, but capable of observing in very narrow bands over the broad range to deal with narrow-band interference. The upper limit of frequency should be around 10 MHz or 30 m, Even though this wavelength can be observed from the ground, it is extraordinarily difficult to do so. The initial normal lower limit should be about 1 MHz or 300 m, although the capability for extending observations with reduced resolution to substantially onger wavelengths should be retained, Resolution. Itis probably useless to attempt resolution at any given frequency better than the limit imposed by interstellar scintillation, eg, about 1/3° at 1 Mliz. A reasonable initial target resolution for the observatory might be 1° at 1 MHz, Although this is somewhat. better resolution than the limit normally set by interplanetary scintillation, it is probably attainable using restoration procedures, This choice of target resolution implies antenna dimensions of 15 x 15 km for a square filled array, or of 30 X 15 km for a T configuration, Filling factor. A 1° beam may be synthesized from a completely filled aperture (100 x 100 elements, for a total of 10°) or by a T, one arm of which has 200 elements, the other 109, for a totat of 300 clements—far less. Many other ways of filling a dilute aperture also exist, including a purely random scattering of elements over the aperture. ‘The: filled array ‘has far greater sensitivity, but, what is also important in this context, it has much better dynamic range and a cleaner main beam. This will be of great benefit in mapping the galactic background, particularly in looking at the regions of absorption, which will be of such interest at these frequencies. The sensitivity of the filled array is also decidely better: a 1° beam produced by a filled aperture at 1 MHz with a bandwidth of 1 kHz and an integration of 1 min has an tms sensitivity of 1 Jy; the same sensitivity ‘would require an integration of 1 day with the dilute array of 300 elements. The most sensible approach is probably to begin with a dilate aperture and work toward the filled ‘one, the power of the system increasing as more antenna elements are set out. Telescope construction. The telescope would be an array of many elements. Each ‘element should be thought of as a field sensor rather than as an ordinary beam-forming ry Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Dala System Douglas & Smith: Lumar VLF Radio Observatory / 305 antenna—in other words 8 a very short dipole. The inefficiency of such devices can be great before noise of the succeeding electronics becomes a factor, in view of the high brightness temperature of the cosmic background radiation. An A/D converter at each element would put the telescope on a digital footing immediately. The exceedingly Jow power requirement at each antenna element could be met with a tiny solar-powered battery large enough to carry its element through the lunar night. ‘Communication with the telescope computer at lunar base via radio or perhaps by Individual optical-fber links would bring all elements together for correlation. Bandwidth of the links need only be about 1 kHz per element if only one frequency is to be observed ata time, although maximum bandwidth consistent with economics will produce maximal simultaneous frequency coverage. In any event the central computer will produce instant images of a large part of the visible hemisphere with the 1° resolution, at one or many frequencies, which can be processed for removal of radio frequency interference (ef) and bursts prior to long integrations for sky maps at various frequencies in the sensitivity ange of the system. ‘Short wavelength operation. Operation at the short-wavelength boundary of the telescope range will be a different proposition. Element spacing for 1 MHz is very dilute indeed for 10 MHz; some portion will have to be more densely filed, and operated against the rest of the system as a difute aperture. At 10 MHz the system would have a resolution ‘of about 0.1°, in this way, an extremely powerful telescope for work both on extragalactic sources and on galactic structure would result. ESTABLISHING THE VLF OBSERVATORY ‘The individual antenna elements—short wires—will probably weigh about 50 gm each. Their associated microminiaturized amplifiers, digitizers, transmitters, and solar batteries can all be on several tiny chips in a package of similar weight. Allowing for packaging for shipment to the Moon, the initial array should still weigh less than 50 kilograms! Materials for the entire filled array would only need about a ton of payload. If individual optical fiber couplings to the central computer are used, each of these should add only a few tens of grams to the total, not appreciably affecting the extraordinarily small cost of transporting the system to the Moon. ‘A powerful computer is of course required, to process continuously the full stream of digital information, Some on-base short-term storage of processed data is probably also desirable, but at frequent intervals this would presumably be dumped back to Earth, “Again, with the increasing miniaturization yet steady growth in power of computer hardwate ‘over the next twenty years, the requited computer facilities may also be expected to weigh less than a hundred kilograms. It thus seems clear that at least the initial, and quite possibly the ultimate, VLF observatory system could be catried to the Moon as a rather modest part of the very first scientific payload. Laying out the initial system of several hundred antenna elements on the lunar regolith should requite only a few days of work with the aid of an upgraded lunar rover having appropriate speed and range. (Such vehicles will be“an essential adjunct of any lunar © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 306 / Sclence on the Meon base for exploration, geological and other studies, and general service activities). The elements need not be placed in accurately predetermined positions, but thelr actual relative positions need to be known to a precision of about a meter. This can easily be done, as the layout proceeds, by surveying with a laser geodometer. ‘The conspicuous tire marks produced by the rover vehicle will delineate the sites of each of the antenna elements for future maintenance or expansion of the system. A concentrated month using two vehicles each carrying teams of pethaps three workers would probably sutfice to fay ‘out the full proposed field of 100 x 100 elements. ‘These estimates, while necessarily rough at this preliminary stage of planning, strongly suggest that because of its extreme simpticity and economy, its almost unique suitability for lunar deployment, and its high scientific promise, the VLF observatory is a major contender for being the initial lunar obser vatory—~perhaps even the first substantial scientific project that should be undertaken from Lunar Base. i Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System ASTRONOMICAL INTERFEROMETRY ON THE MOON Bernard F, Burke ‘Mail Code 105-24, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, Permanent address: Room 26-238, Massachusetts Instltute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 Optical interferometric arrays are particularly attractive candidates for a manned lunar base. The radio ‘model already exists: the Very Large Array (VLA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, situated on the plains of St. Augustine near Socorro, New Mexico. A Y-shaped array of 27 antennas, each arm being 20 km long, operates as a cohetent array, giving 1 arcsecond resohution at 2 cm wavelength. an array of simlat concept, but with optica elements, would therefore give angular resolution ofneatly one microarcsecond resolution at optical wavelengths and would give an absolutely revolutionary new view of objects in the universe. It woukl rot be built on the Eanhs surface because the atmosphere damages the phase coherence too severely at optical wavelengths. W could be constricted in Earth orbit as an assemblage of station-keeping free fyers (@roposals to do so have been put forward) but the technical problems are not simple, eg, controling element Position and orientation to 100 A in 20 km. Ifa permanent lunar base were availabe, an optical analog of he VLA would, in contrast be a relatively straightforward project ‘THE CASE FOR HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION Galileo's telescope was the first step in improving the angular resolving power of the human eye; this thrust in astronomy continues in our own time, The atmosphere ofthe Earth has posed a barrier at about one arcsecond (perhaps one-third of an arcsecond at the best sites), but if optical instruments can be mounted in space there seem to be few fundamental difficulties in extending to the microarcsecond range. Most of the problems are of a practical nature, centered on structural stability, satellite station-keeping, instrument adjustment and, control, and related technical questions; these problems are solvable in principle, but may turn out to be costly if conventional orbital concepts are followed. Although the surface of the Moon has not been seriously considered in the past, it appears that astronomical instruments of great power could make good use of a lunar location. A_permanently occupied lunar base could play a key role in-such a program. os Bene Angular resolution can never be better than the diffraction limit 4/D, the wavelength divided by the aperture diameter, and at 5000-A, a one-meter aperture gives one-tenth arcsecond resolution, Milliarcsecond and microarcsecond resolution. will require interferometers of large size, but much wider classes of problems, all of great current interest, become accessible. These are illustrated in Fig. 1, which shows the approximate optical fluxes and angular sizes of a variety of stellar and extragalactic objects. Since it is the maximum flux and largest angular size that is indicated, objects in each class will generally fall along the locus indicated by the upward sloping arrows. An object ten times more distant than the closest member of its class lies at the tip of the arrow, © Lum sand Planetary Institute + Provided hy the NASA Astrophysies Data System 282 / Sclence on the Moon ws Sea, Gea, Figure 1, Magnitude and 3 olin MEY Inaxirnum angulor sizes for a z Hay selection of allarand extragalactic 2 ihe objects. The scales are chosen so Bir aa thatan object ofa given class moves = re wna” Cr om in the dirscion of the arrow, whose 2 ear Iength correspon ta factor often 2 7 fers sm indistance 24 > ¢ a co o z fo & 7 3 ue sm 5 Boe eee © oseeas Toner iar WoojaeWopos Tp, ANGULAR SIZE for the given scale, The figure, therefore, gives the Jargest expected scale for each class of object, For the various classes of stars, Dupree et al. (1984) have commented that measuring the size ofa stars not enough, a conclusion that is generally valid for nearly all astronomical objects. Most interesting objects tend to be complex, and understanding the physical processes requires some detailed knowledge of the phenomena. For most stars, at least factor of thirty resolution beyond the gross size is certainly needed (Le, about 100 pixels), Phenomena such’as starspots, flares, and other analogs of solar processes will be interesting and, indeed, should be surprising One is driven to the conclusion that every class of stellar object (except for the closest red supergiants) will demand an angular resolution of a milliarcsecond ot better. ‘The extragalactic phenomena are still more demanding, The complexity of the processes is not known, since we do not have close analogs (such as.the sun, for the stellar case) to-guide-us. The subject matter is of extraordinary intérest, however: the physics of quasars, blacertids, and “ordinary” galactic nuclei press close to (or perhaps. beyond) the limits of fundamental principles. tiscleat that enormous energies are generated, both from radio and x-ray observations of these objects, and the indications are very strong that the energy source must be gravitational. “Black holes,” though not yet demonstrated in nature, may play a Key role in these energetic processes. The optical study of the accretion processes and instabilities near the cores of the active extragalactic objects, with high angular resolution, should be as astounding asit has been in the radio case, where millaresecond resolution reveals velocities that appear to surpass the speed of light, Reference to Fig. 1 shows that only the broad= © Lumar und Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, ‘Burke: Astronomical interferomeny / 283 line regions at the nuclei of the closest Seyfert galaxies are accessible to an instrument of milliarcsecond resolution. The rest are smaller in angular size, and it is clear that an optical instrument having angular resolution in the 1-10 microarcsecond range would have truly extraordinary impact. None of the objects are brighter than the twelfth magnitude, and most are substantially fainter; an instrument having at least the collecting area of the Palomar 5-meter telescope is indicated. This challenge of obtaining angular resolution. in the milliarcsecond to microarcsecond range, with a net collecting area of at least twenty to thirty square meters, is fully justified by the scientific rewards that would surely be gained. APERTURE SYNTHESIS: Radio astronomers have, for the past several decades, circumvented the problem of oblaining high angular resolution by using interferometry, culminating in the concept that is called aperture synthesis, The methods were, ironically, developed by Michelson (1920) for measuring the diameters of stars at optical wavelengths, but the Earth’s atmosphere hindered its quantitative use. The radio version of Michelson’s stellar interferometer is illustrated in Fig. 2, which shows a pair of radio telescopes simultaneously receiving radiation from a distant source. There isa difference in arival time, the geometrical time delay Ar,, determined by the orientation of the source direction relative to the interferometer Baseline. There is obviously no chance of interference if Ar, is larger than the coherence time t, of the radiation, so a time delay must be inserted to compensate for this difference. Then, ifthe antennas are fixed and the source drifts through the reception Figure 2 The Michelson stellar Interferometer in its radio form. The ‘output of thé correlator, withthe dc term removed, is shown for fixed apertures as a function of time: this ‘s equivalent to variation with angle offads, © Lamar and Pauctary Iistitute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 2A / Sclence on the Moon pattem, the product of the received signal amplitudes varies sinusoidatly as the signals altemately interfere, constructively and destructively. These characteristic angular scales are important; the primary reception pattern of half-width 0, the fringe spacing $,, and the delay beam ¢y, The analysis is most straightforward if the antennas tack the source, with the source itself being small compared to the primary beamwidth 6,. The fringe spacing is determined by the projected baseline D', which is the projection normal to the incoming radiation, For the interferometer description, there is a thitd angle, the delay beam gy, that is determined by the receiving bandwidth or, equivalently, by the coherence time. If the time delay is set to match Az, perfectly, the central fringe will have full amplitude, but, as the time delay error grows, the interference conditions will be different at the upper and lower ends of the band. The interference effects cancel, and the fringe amplitude diminishes over an angle $,~1/Brg, where B is the bandwidth and zy is the baseline Jength measured in light travel time. The nuntber of fringes observed as a consequence is of the order of the inverse of the fractional bandwidth, an effect that has strong consequences for optical interferometry. Given a two-element Michelson ‘interferometer as illustrated in Fig. 2, the output is well-specified if the following conditions are met: the source under study must be small compared to both the primary resolution 6, and the delay beam Op, and the delay compensation must approximate Ar, with an accuracy corresponding to a fraction of the fiinge angle 0,, or at least the error must be calibrated to that accuracy. The interferometer output is the convolution of its sinusoidal fringe pattem with the source brightness B(xy) where xy are angular coordinates on the sky. This means that the interferometer output is equal to the Fourier transform B(uwy) of the brightness distribution, ‘The conjugate coordinates (u,v) are defined by the baseline and the source location as showm in Fig. 2: on a plane normal to the source direction, coordinates (u,v) are defined (North and East, for example) and the interferometer baseline D, measured in wave numbers (2x D/X);s projected-onto'that plane with the reference antenna (which can be chosen arbitrarily) at the coordinate origin. The plane is called the u-y plane, and the projected vector D'(uv) defines the conjugate coordinates at which the Fourier transform B(uwy) is defined by the fringe amplitude and phase. if all interferometer baseline lengths and orientations aré taken, the ‘complete Fourier transform is determined; and performing Fourier inversion gives_a.tnie map B(xy) of the source, In practice, of course, there is, ioise introduced by the apparatus; the coverage of the u-v plane is-not complete; and «ine caution and knowledge must be exercised. ‘The process by which the Fourier transform is developed is known as aperture synthesis, and substantial literature. has been developed -for the radio case, The first complete description, in which the rotation of the Earth was used to move the interferometer baseline, was conceived by Ryle and Hewish (1960), and an authoritative summary of the two- element interferometer has been given by Rogers (1976). The most powerful aperture synthesis instrument is the radio array known as the VLA (the Very Large Array, operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory); it is described by Napier et al. (1983). ‘The VLA probably provides the best model for a desirable optical instrament. its 27 elements © bamar ama ie » Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System Burke: Astronomical Interferometry / 285 give 351 simultaneous baselines; this means that "snapshots" of fairly complex objects are nevertheless faithful representations if the target is not too complex, or if a dynamic range of a few hundred to one is suflicient. At the same time, for large fields of view and complex targets, its variable configuration and ability to use the rotation of the Earth to obtain more complete u-v plane coverage is vital The size of the array, 20 km per arm of 36 km equivalent overall size, was set by the original operating requirement that it should equal conventional optical telescope resolution (1" at 20 cm, 03” at 6 cm). ‘The same considerations will apply to an equivalent optical instrument. The discussion in the beginning of this paper, illustrated by Fig. 1, indicates that a mapping capability of ten microarcseconds would give a rich scientific return. At this angular scale, significant changes can be expected both for stars and active extragalactic objects within brief time spans, The system must therefore have a large number of elements, as in the case of the VLA. This gives two further advantages: a large number of objects can be studied in a short time because of the “snapshot” capability, and the more complete u-v plane coverage can yield maps of high dynamic range. If the optical array contains 27 elements, each element would have to have at least one m diameter to give a total collecting area comparable to the five m Palomar telescope. The instrument should cover the ‘wavelength range 1216 A (yman-alpha) to 5 microns; for the mean wavelength of 5000 A, this implies that an optical aperture-synthesis array should have a diameter of about 40 km. ‘One of the major considerations of any concept has to be the phase stability of the system. incoherent and semicoherent interferometers (the Brown-Twiss interferometer is a briliant example) suffer in signal-to-noise ratio and loss of phase information, and so must be rejected. For the complex objects of greatest interest, phase information is essential. This requirement exacts a price: control (or measurement) of the optical paths to 4/20 means that 250 A precision is needed at 45000, and proportionally tighter specifications are requited as one goes to shorter wavelengths. The radio astronomers, in developing VLBI, havé forniulated a powerful algorithm, phase, arid amplitudé closure that eases the problem if there are enough receiving apertures, The technique has been applied to VLBI mapping problems with great success (Readhead and wilkinson, 1978). if one has three elements, and hence three baselines, the instrumental phase shifts sum to zero; similarly, if there are four elements. in.an array, the instrumental perturbations to-the amplitudes.cancel. As. the:nuiniier.of clements:increase, the information recovery becomes more and’ more complété:" ForN antennas, a fraétion’ (N-2)/N of the phase information and (N-3)/N-1 of the amplitude information can. be recovered. If N is. 10 ‘or more, the procedure appears to be thoroughly reliable. The phases must still be stable over the integration period; this- means that the precision requirement on the optical paths must be held, but the time for which it is held is reduced, The desired sensitivity and the total collecting area therefore set the final stability specifications. Up to the present time, two general classes of optical space interferometers have been proposed: station-keeping, independently orbiting interferometers, and structually mounted arrays. Examples of the first class are SAMSI (Stachnik et al, 1984), in which pairs of telescopes are placed in near-Earth orbit, and TRIO (Labeyrie et al, 1984), in © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System 286 / Sclence on the Moon which a set of telescopes are maneuvered about the fifth Lagrangian point in the Earth: Moon system, Among the structural arrays that have been proposed are COSMIC (Traub and Carleton, 1984), OASIS, a concept proposed by Noordam, Atherton, and Greenaway {unpublished data), and a variely of follow-on concepts to the Space Telescope being examined by Bunner (unpublished data). At the present time, all of these concepts hold promise for giving useful results in the mifliarcsecond class, but when the number of elements grows to the order of 27 (or more) and when the spacings extend to 10 km (or even 100 km, for one microarcsecond resolution at 45000) the solutions may prove to be expensive, perhaps prohibitively so. A third class of optical array becomes feasible, however, if there is a permanently occupied Iunar base. The Moon tums out to be a most attractive possible location for ‘an optical equivalent of the VLA, capable of microarcsecond resolution. A LUNAR VLA Assuming that a hmar base has been established, the general outlines of a large optical array following the pattem of the VLA can be visualized with some confidence. igure 3. “A schematic view of an ‘oplical aperture synthesis array on the Moon. The individval elements ‘could assume forms very diferent from the versions shown © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astraphysies Data System Burke: Astronomical interferometry / 287 A schematic form is shown in Fig, 3; a set of telescopes, suitably shielded, are deployed at fixed stations along a Y, each arm being 6 km long, for a maximum baseline length ‘of 10 km. There is a fixed station that monitors the telescope locations by laser interferometers. The telescopes must be movable, but whether they are self-propelled (as shown in Fig. 3) or are moved by special transporters (as in the case of the VLA) is.a technical detall The received light signals are also transmitted to the central correlation station, but time delays must be inserted to equalize the geometrical time delays (Ar, Ilustrated in Fig. 2. These are not shown; a number of configurations are possible, probably in the form of laset-monitored moving mirrors. ‘The individual telescopes might well be approximately one m in diameter. The telescopes could be transported in disassembled form and, hence, they need not be extremely expensive since launch stress would not be a problem, A simple conceptual design indicates that each telescope might have a'mass of 250 kg or less; the total telescope mass would then be about 7 tonnes for 27 telescopes plus a spare, The packing volume could be relatively small, since the parts would nest efficiently. The sketch in Fig. 3 shows cach telescope being self-propelled, but if mass transportation to the Moon is a key consideration, one or two special-purpose transporters seems much mote likely. Each might have a mass of about 200 kg. “The shielding of the telescopes is an interesting design problem. The simplest scheme ‘would be to adopt the systems used on past telescopes in space, such as the International Ultraviolet Explorer (1UE), but the construction possibilities on the lunar surface may allow concepts that give dramatic improvements. Instead of mounting the shields on the telescopes themselves, the shields could be constructed as independent structures that sit on the lunar surface, free of the telescope itself. The shields might be very simple, low-tolerance, foil and foam baflles, Keeping the telescope forever in the shade, radiatively cooled to a very low temperature, or perhaps kept at the average 200 K temperature of the hinar subsurface. It would appear that the thermal stresses might be kept very ow by adapting the design to the lunar surface conditions, ‘Transmission of the received light from the telescopes to the central correlation station must proceed through a set of variable time delays as indicated carlier, and here there is a need for technical studies. For the 10 km maximum baselines proposed here, the maximum time delay rate would be 2.6 cm/s, which is not excessively high. The requirement: ‘of 4/20 phase stability is challenging:-the sh. shotild not have a jitter much greater than 100 A/s rms, so a sinoothness of Something belter-thant a part per million is needed; not an easy goal, but not beyond. reason, The curvaturé of the:Iunar surface has to. be taken into account unless a ‘convenient crater can be found whose floor is suitably shaped. ‘The height of the lunar bulge along a 6-km chofd is 1.5 m and, hence, is not a serious obstacle. For the larger concept (60-km baseline, microarcsecond resolution at 45000) the intervening rise of 150 m would be more serious, and suitable refraction wedges ‘or equivalent devices would have to be arrayed along the optical path. The transmitted signal should probably be a quasi-plane wave; this translates to the requirement that the receiving aperture at the central correlator station should still be in the near field of the transmitting aperture of the most distant telescope. This specifies the diameter of the transmitted beam, which must have a diameter greater than 10 cm at A5000, © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophy System and 30 cm for 5 jt I there were a desive to carry out aperture synthesis at SO m (which there might well be), the transinitted beam would have to be at least a meter in diameter, ‘a requirement that would still be easy to meet, since the tolerances would be relaxed ‘The characteristics of the central correlator will depend on the results of detailed studies, ‘Wwo general classes of optical systems can be projected: the “image plane” correlation geometry developed by Labeyrie (1984) for TRIO (a continuation of the traditional technique of Michelson), and the “pupil plane” correlation scheme generally used by tadio astronomers, but realized in the optical regime by the astrometric interferometer of Shao. etal, (1984), ‘One interesting advantage generally enjoyed by optical interferometry as compared to radio interferometry is the ease with which multi-banding citcumvents the “delay beam" problem described earlier, Labeyrie (1980) has devised an ingenious dispersive system that efficiently eliminates the problem for most cases. The fringes are displayed in delay space and frequency space, but modern two-dimensional detectors such as CCDs (Charged ‘Coupled Devices) handled the increased data rate easily, ‘The data rales are not excessive, being compfetely compatable to the data rates now being handled by the VLA. The 351 cross-correlations needed for a 27-clement system (or 1404 if all Stokes parameters are derived) requires an average data rate of about 100 kilobaud for a 10-second integration period; future systems always require Jarger data rates, but even a projection of an order-of-magnitude increase does not seem to present formidable data transmission problems. Finally, a word is in order conceming the use of heterodyne systems to convert the optical signals to lower frequencies. The technique is in general use in the radio spectrum, extending to wavelengths as short as a millimeter. Unhappily, the laws of physics offer no hope for astronomical use of heterodyne techniques at optical and ultraviolet frequencies, Every amplifier produces quantum noise, and the laws of quantum mechanics are inexorable: approximately one spurious photon per second per Hertz of bandwidth is produced by every amplifier. At radio frequencies, thé quantum noise is swamped by the incoming signals since there is:so little energy per quanturn, Optical systems, with bandwidths of 10” or 10 Hertz, can afford no such luxury. The crossover in technology ‘occurs somewhere between 100 and 10v As infrared detectors improve, the shortest ‘wavelength at which heterodyne detectirs-are practicable wil be perhaps 50. -Except-for. these-quantun Jimitaliolis, the concepts developed for radio techniques, camyy over torttie optical domain, the:signal-to-noise analysis differs somewhat. The noise limits are. determined by ihe Rayleigh. noise of the system in the radio case, while the quantuin shot noise of the signal itself determines the signal-to-noise ratio in an optical system, Otherwise; the extensive software armory developed for radio synthesis systems shoutd be directly applicable to optical interferometers. ARE THERE SERIOUS OBSTACLES? Relatively litile thought appears to have been given thus far to the advantages of the Moon as a base for astronomical instruments. There are a number of current misconceptions that seem to hold little substance. © Lunar und Planetary Institote + Provided by the NASA. Astrophysies Data Burke: Astronomical Interferometry / 289 1. Does lunar gravity cause problems? On the whole, the effects of lunar gravity appear to be beneficial, The relatively small (1/6 g) acceleration helps to seat bearings, locate contact points, and generally should provide a reference vector for mechanical systems. ‘The lunar gravity removes dust from above the surface, keeping the density of light- scattering particles low. Gravitational deflection for telescopes in the one-meter size range is completely negligible. Gravitational deflection does not depend upon the weight of a structure; ‘elementary physics shows that the structural deflection s of a structure depends on the length 1 of the beam, Youngs modulus ¥, the density p, the gravitational acceleration Sq and a dimensionless geometrical factor -y that decreases as the depth of the beam increases: S~ 7H) onl a On Earth, 4- and 5-meter telescopes have been built with mirror support systems that limit mirror deflection to a fraction of a wavelength of light under full gravity. A I-meter mirror, located on the Moon but otherwise similar, would be stiffer than a terrestrial 4-meter mirror by a factor of about 100! Deflection of the telescope structure can be controlled to high tolerances. Not only are superior materials like carbon-epoxy now available, but there are improved design methods such as the concept of homologous design (introduced by von Hoerner in 1978), in which a structure Is designed that always deforms to a similar shape. In summary, gravitational deflection poses no problem. 2. What about the thermal environment? The Moon is an approximately 200 K blackbody subtending 2 steradians on the underside of a lunar-based instrument, For a conventional satellite in low-Earth orbit (LEO), the Earth is an approximately 200 K blackbody subtending nearly 2s beneath the spacecraft; however, if the spacecraft is tacking a cefestial object, the aspect is changing rapidly—on the order of 4° per minute, ‘The telescope tracking a celestial source in the lunar environment is changing its aspect at about 001° per minute. When one considers the additional advantage of the natural lunar terrain for better thermal shielding to start with, and the ability to upgrade its quality at a permanent base, the lunar environment is almost certainly more favorable: than LEO from the point of view of thermal stresses, The LS case is diferent, since the elements ‘would always be exposed to direct solar radiation, 3, Js scattered light a problem? Again, equipment in LEO has the Earth subtending early a hemisphere, but the Earth has high albedo and the Moon has low albedo. The lunar environment is strongly favored, and, as in the thermal case, one should be able to provide superior light shielding on the Moon. 4, Is direct sunlight a problem? The sun shines only half the time, and its direction changes slowly. Given the superior light baflling of the lunar-based telescopes, the lunar environment will probably turn out to be far superior to either LEO or LS, but thermal studies of real designs should be made, ‘8. What about lunar dust? he laser retro-reflectors have been in service for over ‘a decade, with little performance degradation reported, Dust seems to be no problem, © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System 290 / Science on the Moon probably because the Moon's gravity scavenges it rapidly. A very rare meteorite impact. nearby might take one or two telescopes out of service, and the choice would have to be made to clean or replace the instruments. 6. Is seismic activity a problem? The Moon is far quieter than the Earth, with a low © At good seismic stations on the Earth, the seismic noise is less than one A rms; the poor locations have high noise because of the ellects of wind and surf. Lunar seismic activity is not a concern. 7. Do thé solid body tides of the Moon move the baselines too much? Earth tides are routinely dtcommodated by geodesy groups conducting VLBI studies on Earth, where the motions amount to several wavelengths every 12 hours. The ltmar tides are larger in amplitude, but they proceed so slowly that they can be compensated for, The 10 km maximum baseline of a lunar VLA Is a smaller fraction of the lunar diameter than the 10,000 km VLB baselines are of the Earth's diameter, which diminishes the amplitude of baseline motion. The net tidal motion of the maximum baseline vector should be of the order of a few tenths of a millimeter. This is not a negligible motion, measured in wavelengths of light, but the slow lunar rotation leads to a manageable correction rate of the order of a few wavelengths per hour. The usual interferometric calibration routines should keep this error source under control & Can the baseline reference system be well defined? The analogy with terrestrial VLBI is so close that the answer has to be affirmative. The errors can be conttolled; the lunar soil fs sufficiently competent to stably bear the load of a telescope; and, if necessary, hard points can be established to check on vertical motions, Interferometers are largely self-calibrating: there are enough quasi-stable reference points in the sky to allow the observations thernselves to bootstrap the instrumental constants. SUMMARY ‘Apetmanent lunar base can provide support fora variety of astronomicatinvestigations. ‘An optical interferometric array, perhaps of the general form of the VLA.but designed for optical instead of radio wavelengths, would lead to a qualitative advance in our understanding of the universe. The Y configuration is well suited to expansion, and the VLA has demonstrated that it can make maps both rapidly (in its snapshot mode) and ‘with high dynamicrange (when multiple array configurations.are used). Other configurations, such as maximum-entropy-derived circles, should certainly be examined. A wide variety of scientific problems could be addressed by such an instrament. ‘The stellar analogs of the solar cycle, the behavior of sunspots on other stars, the magnetic field configurations of other stars, and the behavior of dynamic plasma phenomena such as flares and winds, are all examples of star-related problems that ultimately would lead toboth fundamental knowledge of how stars formed and evolve, and increase understanding, of our own sun, A wide vatiety of extragalactic problems could be studied, including the fundamental processes associated with black holes and massive condensed objects. as they are manifest in quasars, galactic nuclei, and other optically violent variables, There would surely be a number of dramatic surprises, both in stellar and extragalactic studies, © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the N/ SA. Astrophysies Data System Burke: Astronomical Interferometry / 291 and the instrument would certainly be at the foreffont of astronomy from the time of its first use. ‘There seem to be no fundamental problems in building such an instrument. The total mass to be delivered to the hunar surface for the instrument would be 10-30 tonnes, roughly equivalent to one space station habitat module. The detailed system studies have not yet been made, but even a preliminary conceptual investigation indicates that the elements of the system are relatively straightforward. The presence of man is highly desirable for this particular instrument, in marked contrast to the free-flyer case in which the instruments are too easily perturbed by human presence. How long would it take to build the instrument? The answer depends upon the timescale of development for a lunar base. Once a cleat consensus exists to establish a base on the Moon, development of the components of a lunar VLA could be started and would be ready to be among the first large shipments of non-life-support systems to the Moon. Assembly and development time at the lunar base would depend on the details of the design and on the philosophy of lunar base operations. Finally, it is clear that a large astronomical community would use the instrument. {All the major astronomical facilities on Earth are heavily subscribed, and the VLA probably supports more users than any other astronomical instrument today. An interferometric array has many possible modes of operation: it can take brief snapshots; it can be broken Into subarrays to serve multiple user groups simultancously for specialized projects; and it can interweave long observing sequences with short projects in an efficient fashion. ‘The VLA supports the observing programs of over a thousand scientists per year, and a lunar-based optical equivalent could be expected to do the same. REFERENCES Dupree A.K. Balinas S. 1, and Guinan B. (1984) Slats atmospheres, and shells: Potential for high resolution Iniaging Bull Am Astron Soc, 16,797 Perea ‘abeyrie A. (1980) interferometry with arays of arge-aperture ground-based telescopes. Proc. Optical and infared. Telescopes forthe 19908 (A. Hewitt ed), p 786. Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson. Labeyre A, Autbier B, Boit J. L, DeGraauw T, Kibblewhite £, Koechln L, Rabout P, and Weiget G. (1984) “TRIO: A kilomette optical array controlled by sola sits. Bull Am. ASTON. SC, 16,828. owe Michelson A.A. (1920) An interferometer for measuring stliar diameter. Astrophys J. 51,267. : ape PJ, Thompson A. and hers RD (198) The VLA: A lage ape snes inetrometer. EEE Proc, 71, 1295. Readhead A.C, Sand Wilkinson. (1978) Phase closure in VLBI. Astrophys J. 23,25 Rogers AE E_(1976) "The two-clement interferometer. Methods of Experimental Physic, Vol. 12¢:Astropysis, ‘Radio Observations (Mt. Meed, ed), p. 139. Ryle M. and Hews A. (1960) The synthesis ofa large radi telescope. MNRAS 120, 220-230, shao M, Colavita M, Stacin D, and Johnston K. (1984) The technology requnements for a small space-based astrometric interferometer. Bull Am. Astron, Soc, 16,750. stachnile R.V, Ashlin K, and Hamilton S. (1984) Space station SAMSE A spacecraf array for Michelson spatat Interferometry. Bull Am. Astron. Soc, 16,838. ‘traub W. A. and Carleton N. P. (1984) COSMIC A high-resolution large collecting area telescope. Bull Am. ‘Astron, See, 16,810. nd Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System. 293, A MOON-EARTH RADIO INTERFEROMETER Jack 0. Burns Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 97131 in this paper, the logistical considerations and astronomical applicauons of placing a radlo antennas) ‘on the Moon a ane element of a Moon-Earth Radio Interferometer (MERI) are described Difaction, interstellar scintillation, and Compton scattering are considered as processes that will influence the resclation of the imterferomneter. Compact cources with Mux density less than 30 milijanskys (my) can be observed atthe optimum, resolution of <30 microaresec for wavelengths <6 cm, With such a resolution, one could perform fundamental astcometry experiments Jeading to a much improved value for the Hubble constant, oF possibly map active regions on other stars and investigate with unprecedented linear resolution the nature of the “engine” at the center of the Milky Way and in active galaxies, INTRODUCTION The technique of radio interferometry and, in particular, Farth-Rotation Aperture synthesis has proven to be enormously successful for ground-based radio astronomy. Operating radio interferometers include the MERLIN and 5-krn Cambridge arrays in England, and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio telescope in the Netherlands, the most sophisticated aperture synthesis telescope is the Very Large Array (VLA) located in west-central New Mexico. It is composed of 27 individual antennas arranged in a Y-configuration (eg, Napier et al, 1983). Each pair of radio antennas samples a patticular Fourier component of the radio source brightness distribution at a given instant in time. As illustrated in Fig. 1, the tuming of the Earth on its axis effectively synthesizes an aperture with resolution conipiirable 16 a single antenna witit diameter equal to tlie maximum aseline between the outermost dishes. This is obviously a cheaper and more practical method for achieving, high resolution mapping of extraterrestrial radio sources. The Fourier components gathered during a typical 12-hour integration are Fourier inverted with a computer algorithm (typically a gridded FFT) to produce. map of the sky brightness distribution. The accuracy of this map will depend upon the density of points in the Fourier-transform.plane (ie, how ‘well the aperture was synthesized with the’ available antennas-and the: length’ of the integration). ‘Typical maximum resolution for a high declination radio. source using the VLA is 033 arcsec at 6 cm (35-km baseline) and the dynamic range (peak signal to RMS. noise) can be thousands 10.0ne. "This technique has been extended to even longer baselines, termed Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBD, with individual antennas separated by entite continents. Data are recorded at each antenna on high speed videotape with accurate time markers as determined by hydrogen maser clocks, All the tapes are later brought together at a central computer processor and the data ate correlated, Problems arise with the stability of the correlated phase due to differences in tropospheric and ionospheric refraction over the © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NAGA Astrophysics Data System 294 / Science on the Moon APERTURE SYNTHESIS, ‘Figure 1. The principle behind Earth rotation aperture synthesis in radio interferomety. Imagine that on observer is stationed above the North Pole of the Earth looking down upon a linear alignment of fie antennas. As the Earth rotates the line sweeps out portions of a filled aperture. In 12 hours, the line has synthestzed a circular aperture with diameter equal tothe maximum baseline betwocn the outermost antennas This is equivalent tw observing a radio source witha single very lange antenna. different telescope sites, and due to fluctuations in the local oscillator clocks. However, using closure phase and hybrid mapping techniques, it is now possible to recover an accurate map of the source brightness distribution and the relative positioning of radio features (eg, Pearson and Readhead, 1984). The accuracy and dynamic range depends upon the number and uniformity of antennas in the VLBI network. The proposed Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), to be operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, will consist of ten identical 25-m dishes located between Hawaii and Puerto Rico, and centered in New Mexico at the VLA. The resohition is expected to be at the submilliarcsecond level at centimeter wavelengths. ‘The maximum baseline for a ground-based VLBI is obviously limited to the diameter. of the Earth. Also, both the European VLBI network and the American VLBA are oriented in a predominantly East-West direction, producing poor sampling of Fourier components: in a North-South direction and poor sampling for southerly ‘decliviation ‘sources: An*” additional VLBI antenna in space could both increase the resolution and the image. restoration accuracy when linked to a ground-based array: Recently, a European- American collaboration has developed a proposal for such a space-based antenna, called QUASAT (quasar satellite, which would have’ an elliptical orbit with a semi-major axis of 10,000 km and inclined 45° with respect to the equator (Schilizzi et al, 1984). The resolution is expected to be about 360 mictoarcsec at 6 crn wavelength. In principle, there is no reason why this VLBI technique could not be applied to baselines ranging between the Earth and the Moon. The major difference would be the observational technique used to synthesize the aperture. For a Moon-Earth Radio © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System Bums: Moon-Barth Radlo Interferometer / 295 Interferometer (MERD, the Moon's revolution around the Earth would provide the mechanism for the synthesis. Observations would be scattered over two-week intervals rather than the typical 12-hour continuous integrations that are now performed with the VLA and for VLBI. A first-generation antenna on the Moon could be quite stople and inexpensive, unfolding like a flower or an umbrella from the cargo bay of a Moon shuttle craft. Such an antenna, operating at centimeter wavelengths and possibly 10 15 min diameter, will be needed almost immediately on the Moon for communications and data telemetry. Some time on this antenna could be initially “bootlegged” for tests ofthe MERI concept. This is an exciting prospect that is relatively inexpensive and promises to yield important new science. This paper examines the advantages of a telescope on the Moon as one element of a MERI, the practical considerations of wavelengths and receivers for setting up such an interferometer, and the scientific merits of this project. ADVANTAGES OF A MERI ‘The most obvious advance over previously existing interferometers would be the improvement in resolution. At 6-cm wavelength, the resolution is 30 microarcsec, a factor of ten better than that proposed for QUASAT, 30 times better than the VLBA, and 10,000 limes better than the VLA. More discussion on this point is given in the next section. ‘The thermal stability for an antenna on the Moon would be far better than that ofan Earth-orbiting satellite dish. The MERI antenna would experience constant illumination from the sun in two-week intervals. Such thermal stability would be desirable to maintain constant pointing accuracy during a synthesis observation. A larger antenna (say, 100 m) or a subarray of antennas on the Moon could be built out of relatively simple materials mined on the Moon. his is in keeping with the spirit of self-sufficiency for an advanced Moon colony. Once the mining and manufacturing techniques are developed, fabrication of dish antennas on the Moon will be far cheaper than transporting them frori Barth. Ei Finally, one expects a long lifetime for the antennas on the Moon-in comparison to that for a space satellite dish. ‘The main advantage will be easy access to the Moon antenna(s) for repair and, particularly, for cryogen resupply. The lack of weather and low gravity on the Moon should minimize maintenance of the structure of thé antennas, CONSTRAINTS ON MERT- Im considering the optimum wavelength at which the receivers wil operate and the” sensitivity required for interesting science, there are three constraints placed upon MERI. ‘The first is the diffraction limit of the interferometer, which is simply given by 8, = SATA a) where 0, is the FWHM point response function of the instrument (microaresec) and is the wavelength (centimeters). An average Earth-Moon baseline of 3.810" cm is assumed, © Lunar and Planetary Institute » Provided hy the NASA Astrephysies Data System 296 7 Sclence on the Moon ‘The second constraint, involving scintillation of the interstellar medium (ISM), will also limit the resolution of MERI. Turbulence in the ISM (a plasma) within our galaxy effectively scatters radio radiation from distant sources, broadening the radio “seeing” disk in a manner somewhat analogous to the “twinkling” of stars produced by the passage of optical light through the turbulent atmosphere of the Earth, The predicted amount of scattering depends ctitically upon the galactic latitude of the radio source and the assumed model for electron density fluctuations. For sources high above the galactic plane and assuming a simple power-law spectrum for the turbulence following Rickett (1977) and Cordes et al. (1984), the scattering angle is given by Bas = 0.6001" @) ‘where Oy is again measured in microarcsec and is the wavelength in centimeters. ‘The final constraint is a theoretical limit placed upon the intrinsic sizes of compact radio sources, sometimes referred to as the Compton catastrophe or 10 K brightness ‘temperature limitation. The emission mechanism for active galaxies and quasars is believed to be incoherent synchrotron radiation at radio wavelengths. For compact sources, the densities of relativistic electrons and synchrotron photons are high. Inverse Compton scattering of the photons by electrons is plausible in this environment. Within a limiting angular distance of the core, the optical depth for this Compton process is so high that few, if any, synchrotron photons will escape from this region, Therefore, no information on the structure within this scattering disk can be retrieved. This angle depends upon both the wavelength and the flux density, S (measured in milljanskys where 1 m) 10% watts/Hz/m?), such that brighter sources will have larger scattering disks, This limit is given by 2257 8 ‘This limit will not apply to extended, optically thin sources. A plot of these three effects is shown in Figure 2. One can see ftom the above ‘equations that the Compton catastrophe limit is equal to the diffraction limit for radio sources with flux densities of 30 mly. Furthermore, the ISM scintillation effects are negligible below a wavelength of about 6 cm. Therefore, to achieve the.ideal resolution (i, diffraction . limit), one would like to observe compact sources (for astrometry) of <30 mly at a ‘wavelength of 6 cm or below. ‘The fortuitous combination of baselines and wavelengths makes the 6-cm band ideal for MERI. (although one should not overlook the potential for operating at much shorter wavelengths). The 6-cm receivers currently available are some of the most sensitive used in radio astronomy, with system temeratures of <60 K. Such sensitivity will be very useful since we desire to observe relatively weak radio sources in the range of a few tens of mby. ‘As noted above, we can achieve the diffraction limit for sources at high galactic latitudes with flux densities <30 mly at 6 cm. This angular resolution of 30 microarcsec corresponds to the following lineat dimensions: © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System ‘uma: Moon-Earth Radlo Interferometer / 297 50 poreaee igure 2A plot of the minim FWHM resolution of MERI. weve- Tength. Note that the optimum resolution of 30 micoarcseconds coccursin the 6-cm band for compact sources of 30 my. 15M scattering effects are negligible for high galac- lic latitude sources observed at wavelengths <6 cn, {08 8 yercsee it £ § § oa Aer 1. Ata distance of 300 pc (-240 times the distance to the nearest star), the disk ofa solar-type star can be resolved. Studying active regions on such stars will be invaluable in understanding the solar-stellar connection. 2. Atthe distance of the Galactic center, the linear resolution will be 0.15 astronomical units (1 au = average Earth-sun distance = 1,510" cm). With such a resolution, one will be able to “look down the throat of the beast” that is responsible for prodigious amounts of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths. This linear dimension corresponds to 760 Schwarzschild radii for a 10 solar mass black hole, 7 3. At the distance of the nearest radio galaxy, Centaurus A, the linear resolution is 450 au Again one can seriously investigate the nature of the engine at the cores of active galaxies with such a resolution. Can we achieve the sensitivity necessary to observe sources of a few tens of mly? ‘The integration time needed to obtain a signal-to-noise ratio, S/N, with radio antennas of diameter D, antenna temperatures T, antenna efficiencies ¢, and bandwidths Av for ‘a source with flux density $ on a single Moon-Earth baseline is given by © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System. 298 / Sclence on the Moon Us) = 3.1X 10%(S/NP' TAT) (2aDAIS’ AUy @ Here, the subscript m refers to a Moon antenna and e to an Earth antenna, If we assume equal radio dishes on the Moon and the Earth, and S/N = 10, D = 25 meters (VLA and VLBA size dish), T = 50 K, « = 0.65 (at 6 cm), Ay = 30 Miz, and S = 30 my, the integration time is only 30 minutes. If the Moon radio telescope is linked to one of the ground-based VLBI arrays, the integration time can be further reduced by a factor of N(N-1)/2, where N is the total number of antennas in the network. in either case, the integration time is quite reasonable. To review, then, our analysis shows that the diffraction-limited resolution can be achieved for wavelengths less than 6 cm for compact sources at high galactic latitudes with flux densities <30 mly. This requires a moderate aperture radio antenna (~25 meters) linked to a VLBI array on Earth using a wide bandwidth system. It is important to note that no new technology is required for MERI as outlined above. However, ifaperture synthesis ‘mapping of radio sources is to be seriously attempted at these resolutions, then additional antennas should be placed in orbits between the Earth and Moon. SCIENTIFIC GOALS ‘There is a wealth of scientific data that could be collected with a MERI telescope that would significantly add to our knowledge of the local environment and the cosmos. ‘These goals are divided into two parts that will depend upon the number of elements in MERI: astrometry and synthesis mapping, Astrometry First, the unprecedented relative position accuracy of MERI could be used to improve the celestial coordinate system, thereby improving celestial navigation and astronomical timekeeping, Second, observations of point sources could potentially be used to accurately measure distances between the Earth and the Moon. In principle, baseline determinations with millimeter accuracy could improve by an order of magnitude thdse measured by laser ranging-Improved-stability maser clocks would be required, however, ~~ Third, it may be possible to search for dark companion stars (black holes and neutron stars) or even planets around radio: stars. One could simply look: for perturbations of the radio star proper motions produced by the gravitational pull of a dark binary ‘companion(s). The few tens of microarcsecond accuracy of MERI would allow very small perturbations (produced by planets of mass less than that of Jupiter) to be detected, Fourth, one of the most exciting aspects-of science with MERI is the fundamental cosmological experiments that could be performed. At present, the Hubble constant, which measures the rate of expansion of the universe at the current epoch, is not known to ‘within a factor of two. Moran (1984) has shown that HO masers in our galaxy can be used as independent distance measures using classical proper motion and statistical parallax techniques. The impressive power output of these radio sources at discrete © Lamar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System Dime Moon-Farth Radio Interferometer / 299 wavelengths makes them ideal for this purpose, The angular resolution of MERI could cnable astronomers to extend this technique to other galaxies and to accurately determine their distances independent of the other less rellable assumptions currently invoked (Reid, 1984). A measure of the Hubble constant would follow from a well-defined statistical sample, Similarly, proper motions of radio galaxies in clusters combined with redshift measurements could allow statistical determinations of cluster distances and, therefore, the Hubble constant Synthesis Mapping If a few radio antennas bebween the Earth and the Moon could be added to the initial single antenna on the Moon, then synthesis mapping at <30 microarcsec resolution becomes feasible, The following is a short list of the possible mapping projects in order of increasing distance and decreasing linear resolution, First, one could potentially locate and map radio burst regions on other stars. The primary limitation here is sensitivity. One would probably need a 100-m antenna on the Moon to make this feasible. Second, resolving regions in and around star formation nebulae would become possible with MERI, This could make significant impacts on our understanding of the early stages of star (and possible planetary) formation. The origins of the bipolar flows recently discovered in star formation zones could be explored. ‘Third, the center of the Milky Way contains a powerful source of electromagnetic energy. This energy, ~10" ergs/sec, emanates from a region of only a few light years across, Mapping this region at the resolution of MERI would almost certainly add new insights ifnot a definitive answer to our questions conceming the “engine.” Fourth, active galaxies and quasars are now known to possess “jets” of radio emission that appear to illuminate channels by which matter and energy aré transported between the engine at the core of the galaxy (or quasar) and extended structures hundreds of thousands of light years out in intergalactic space. We do not understand How r why the radio jets are colliminated as they are in two thin streams. The resolutions of current interferometers are simply too low to explore the nuclear regions where the initial collimation occurs. MERI will allow us to explore these regions in unprecedented detail Fifth, ina related ven the engines themselves are not understood. Are galactic sources. such as 58 433.and the Milky Way center simply scaled-down, versions of those in-the more powerful active galaxies? With’ MERI, we will be able to. map-the core régions at high enough resolution to address the nature of the engine, ‘Sixth, we could potentially test the fundamental physics of compact extragalactic sources. In particular, the Compton catastrophe predicts a minimum size for compact sources of a given flux density at a particular wavelength. We need to test this prediction. Observing compact sources at larger wavelengths and/or higher flux densities will provide the definitive test of this model. MERI offers us an opportunity for a major leap forward in radio astronomy, both in terms of technique and science. As 1 have noted, the costs of a single lunar antenna are minimal but the science could be potentially quite promising. Therefore, I would hope © Lunar anid Plunctary institute + Provided hy te NASA Astrophysics Data System 300 / Scleace.om the Moon that a single radio antenna linked as an interferometer to Earth-based radio telescopes ‘would be one of the first “flowers” planted on mankind's return to the Moon. Acknowledgments, _ I wish to thank Pat Crane, Bd Fomalont, Steve Gregory, Prazer Owen, Mare Priee, Peter Wilkinson, and Stan Zisk for useful input into the preparation of this paper. ! would also like to thank the Lunar and Planetary Institute for travel support to the Symposium. REFERENCES: (Cordes J. M, Ananthaksishnan 5, and Dennison B. (1964) Radio wave scattering in the galactic disk. Nature, 309,689. Moran JM. (1984) Masers in the nucel of galaxies. Nature, 310,270. Napier PJ, Thompson A. R, and Ekers RD. (1983) The Very Large Array: Design and performance of a modem symhesis radio telescope. Proc. LEE, 71, 1298. Pearson ‘J. and Readhead A. C. S. (1984) lmage formation by sel-calibration in radio astronomy. Ann. Rev. Astron Astrophys, 22,97. Reld MJ 1984) H,O masers and distance measurements: The impact of QUASAT. In QUASAT-—-a VLD Observatory in Space, p. 181. ESA Scientific Publication, The Netherlands, Rickett B,). A. (1977) Interstellar scattering and scintllation of radio sources. Ann. Rev. Aston. Astrophys, 18,479. Schiiezi RT, Burke BF, Booth RS, Preston R.A, Wilkinson RN, Jordan J. , Preuss E, and Roberts D. (1988) The QUASAT project. In VLBI and Compact Rado Sources (R Fanti, K. Keerman, and G. Seti, eds), .407, D. Reidel, Boston, © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided hy the NASA Astrophysics Data System 229 CELESTIAL SOURCES OF HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS AS VIEWED FROM A LUNAR OBSERVATORY Maurice M, Shapiro ‘Max-Planck Institut ftr Astrophysik, 8046 Garching bel Macher, West Germany Rein Silberberg Hulburt Center, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 “The detection of high-energy (HE) cosmic and Solar Hare neutrinos near the har surface would be feasible at energies much lower than for a terestial observatory. At these lower energies (= 10? eV) the nenttino background is drastically reduced below that generated by cosmic vays in the Earth's atmosphere. Because of the short mean fee path (< tm) of the progenitor pl and K mesons against nuclear interaction in nar rocks, the neutrino background would be quite low. At 1 CoV, less than 1% of the pions would decay, at 10 Ge, 0.1% would decay. Thus, I the nein Mux to be observed Is intense enough and ius spectrum is steep enough, then the signal-to-noise ratio is very favorable. The reduction in cross section at lower energies ‘would not cance the advantage of enfianced fx. The observation of HE neutrinos fiom solar fares would be dramaticaly enhanced, especialy at lower energes, since the Rare spectra are very steep. Detection of these neutvinas on Earth does not appear to be feasible. Moreover, higher-eneagy neutuinos (> 10" eV) that could, in principle, be dtocted are vitally absent fom solor fares, A remarkable featur of solar ares as Viewed in HE neues fom a lunar base is tht the cnlize surface ofthe sun would be "visble* Indeed, flares on the far side of the sun would be producing more neutrinos moving toward the detecter than those fon the nea side, ius sources of HE neutinos, such asthe galactic ise (especialy fom the galas centen, ‘would be detectable at eneries between say 107 and 10" eV On ath, they are swamped by the overwhelming atmosphic background, INTRODUCTION ‘The advantages of a lunar observatory for neutrino astronomy were discussed some years ago by F Reines (1965). Jn the present paper, we suggest that the investigation of neutrinos from astrophysical sites.at energies between 1 and 10° GeV can be better carried out on the Moon than on the Earth, In. the devise’ lunar: materials, competition between nuclear interactions of pions and their decay suppresses the frequency of decay. in the tenuous dipper atmosphere of the Earth, on the other hand, the decay of pions (and of their muon progeny} does generate neutrinos. Hence, the flux of neutrinos near. the surface of the Moon is about 10° of that on the Earth at energies between 1 and 10? GeV, and about 10 at 10° GeV, Only the background due to prompt neutrinos fom the decay of charmed particles in the atmosphere is not suppressed. ‘At energies below 1 Gey, however, the path length of pions against decay diminishes as the Lorentz factor approaches unity, and pion decay is no longer suppressed, even ‘on the Moon. Furthermore, due to the absence of magnetic shielding on the Moon, the © Lunar and Planetary Insfitate © ed by the NASA Astrophysles Data System 330 / Science on the Moon flux of low-energy cosmic rays incident on the lunar surface is much higher than the average ux at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere, This further enhances the low-energy neutrino intensity (E <1 GeV) on the Moon. [The suppression of neutrino background ‘was quantitatively explored by Cherry and Lande (1984) in a paper presented at this conference] ‘Accordingly, a lunar base is probably an unsuitable site for observing the low-energy neutrinos (-10 MeV) from stellar gravitational collapse. Moreover, it is not competitive for recording neutrinos at very high energies (E > 10° GeV); this can be done more readily with Cerenkov light detectors in a large volume of sea water (ome 10° m°) near the Dottom of the ocean. Such an array—DUMAND (@ Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector)—will be emplaced in the waters near Hawaii in the near future (Peterson, 1983). (CRITERIA FOR CANDIDATE NEUTRINO SOURCES TO BE EXPLORED ON THE MOON ‘What types of neutrino sources are likely to be observable between 1 and 10° GeV? This is the energy interval for optimum detection: by a neutrino observatory under the Junar surface (about 100 m below). The sources should emit neutrinos much more copiously above 1 GeV than above 1 TeV, so 2s to permit the construction of a neutrino observatory significantly smaller than DUMAND. An important constraint is imposed by the interaction cross section of neutrinos, which increases linearly with energy between 1 and 10° GeV. As a result, the observation of lower-energy neutrinos becomes more difficult. This cross section is given by yy = (07 OF 08) x 10 E, cm? ay and 03X10 cm? - 2) for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos, respectively. Let the energy spectrum of the neutrinos be 7 7 - : eee woe kes 3) ae aE, . : f ‘Then the event rate is proportional to el iM “aE JKES aE, ® % te, itis proportional to BS? ES? © Shapiro 6 Silberberg: High-Energy Neutrino Sources / $31 ‘Thus, one criterion for significant source strength in the energy interval between 1 and 10° GeV is a steep neutrino spectrum, with the exponent a appreciably greater than 2 SOME PROMISING CANDIDATE SOURCES: olar flares generate particles having steep energy spectra, with a = 4-7 at proton energies above 1 GeV. Erofeeva et al. (1983) explored the use of a deep underwater detector of 10° tons for observing neutrinos from solar flares. They did not investigate the neutrino background in their paper. We estimate that the background rate is about 10° per day. If the neutrinos are emitted in about 20 minutes, as are the gamma rays from a flare, then the background rate is down to 10 for the duration of the flare. If moreover, an angular resolution of | steradian is obtained, then the background is down to~1 event for the duration of the flare. For observation of neutrinos fom very large flares, such as occur about once per solar cycle, a ferrestrial underwater observatory of 10° tons seems adequate. However, for larger observatories, >10° tons, the neutrino background on Earth becomes prohibitive. ‘Thus, for observing fine-time structure or neutrino energy spectra of very large flares, or for recording somewhat smaller flares, a lunar observatory of >10° tons provides an opportunity to carry out studies of flares that are not possible on the Earth. Even flares on the remote side of the sun become observable, since neutrinos with energies <10” eV can traverse the solar diameter. In fact, for a given size of flare, neutrinos should reach the detector in greater numbers from the far side than from flares on the near side, This is due to the favorable rate of production of pions (hence, of daughter neuteinos) that move toward the observer, when the progenitor protons or other energetic nuclei on the far side—are directed toward the solar surface. ‘Another, more diffuse source of neutrinos with a fairly steep energy spectrum, a 7 is that from the central annulus of the galactic disk, + 60° in longitude and 4 5° in latitude about the galactic center, Stecker et al: (1979) explored the detectability ‘of these neutrinos at 10° GeV with a DUMAND array of 10° tons (having an effective detection volume of some 10" tons). The estimated rate of neutrino events to be expected was 130 per year, swamped by 1.8 x 10" background events per year. AL E> t GeV, the event rate is about 100 times higher, so that even-in-a ‘Smaller detector of -10" tons, the event rate is about’10 per year, with the signal exceeding the background in a lunar observatory. inaddition, there are many interesting discrete candidate sources of neutrinos: accreting neutron stars (including pulsars) in binary systems, active galactic nuclei with accretion disks from which maiter drifts into ultra-massive black -holes (Silberberg and Shapiro, 1979), and the expanding shells around young pulsars (Berezinsky, 1976; Shapiro and Silberberg, 1979). However, the energy spectra of neutrinos from these sources are as yet unknown. Presented here are the results of a sample calculation for $5433, which appears to be one of the most promising candidate sources in our galaxy, at a distance of about © Lumar und Phmetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Duta System 332 / Sclence on the Moon 3 Kpe. This object is probably an accreting black hole in a binary system; it has two relativistic jets and other remarkable features. Its estimated power output is 3 x 10° ergs/s (Grindlay et al, 1984), but values that are higher by an order of magnitude have also been proposed (Eichler, 1980). If we assume that a power input of 3 x 10” ergs/ 5 ylelds protons of energy = 10 GeV and that these protons suffer nuclear collisions, a detector of 10° tons would permit the observation of about 30 neutrino events per yeat, With 10” tons, several different sources of neutrinos become detectable. CONCLUSIONS ‘We conclude that a neutrino detector of = 10° tons on the Moon—ie,,one considerably more compact than the proposed DUMAND array—would open up a new window of neutrino astronomy, making possible the study of neutrinos at 1-10° GeV". The effort must probably await the establishment of a substantial lunar colony; because of its large size, the detector would probably have to be locally constructed, perhaps of glass fabricated from lunar materials. Acknowledgments. One ofthe authors (MMS) expresses his appredaion Wo Professors R Kippenaln ‘and W ilebranfor thelr hospltaliy atthe Max-Planck rsttu fr Asuophysikin Garching. He tanks Profesor 2 Reines for stimu bis intrest inthis problem, REFERENCES Berezinsky V. S. (1976) Ultra HE neutrinos and detection possibilities by DUMAND. In Proc. 1976 DUMAND Workshop (A. Rober, ed), pp. 229-256. Univ. Hawaii, Honolua ‘Chery } 1. and Lande K. (1985) Proposal for a neutrino telescope on the Moon (abstract) in Papers Presented 10 the Sympasium on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 2ist Century, p. 50. NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston Fichler D. (1980) 56433: A possible neutrino source, in Proc. of 1980 DUMAND Symposium, Vol 2, pp. 266= 271. Hawaii Dumand Center, Honchulu Erofteva I N, Lyotov 5. J, Murzin YS, Kolomeets EV, Albers J. and Ketzér P. (1983) Detection of solar are neutrines. In Proc’ 18Uh Intl Cosmic Ray Conf, pp. 104-107. Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Bombay, Ginaly E,nand D, Seward, Leaky D, Weshopt M,C, and Marshall FF (1968) The centr xray source in $8439, Ap f, 277, 286, Peterson ¥. (1989) Deep iindécwaier'maci and neitin® detection In. Coinpdton nd Onin of Cosmic Rays (M. M, Shapiro, ed), pp. 251-268. Reidel, Dordrecht. [Relnes F. (1965), as reported in Shapiro M. M. (1965) Galactic cosmic rays, NASA 1965 Summer Conference (an Lunar Exploration and Scence, pp. 317-330, NASA SP-88. NASA, Washinglon ‘Shopiro M. M. and SUbetberg R. (1979) Neutrinos from young supemova remnants In Proc. 16th Intl, Cosmic Ray Con, Vol. 10, pp: 963-366. Univ. Tokyo, Kyoto 7 ‘siberberg Rand Shapiro M. M, (1979) Neutrinos as @ probe for the nature of and process in active galactic ‘neutrinos, n Prec. 16th In. Cosmic Ray Conf, Vol. 10, pp.387-362. Univ. Tokyo, Kyota “Been @ smaller detector of 10" tons could detect a giant solor fare like that of Feb. 23, 1956. The pulse is Likely to be of such short duration (< 20 min that the atmespheric background would not degrade terrestrial ‘observation © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System Shapiro & Silberberg: Hilgh-knergy Neutrina Sources / 333 Stecker F. W, Shapiro M, M, and Silberberg R.(1979) Galactic and extra-galaclc HE neutrinos. In Proc 16th ‘Intl Cosmic Ray Conf, Wo. 10, pp. 246-361, Univ. Tokyo, Kyoto. © Lumar and Planetary Institute « Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System A LUNAR NEUTRINO DETECTOR M, Cherry and K, Lande Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelpha, PA 19104 “The major experimental difcuity in neutrino astronomy lies In the fact that expected event rales are ‘exceedingly small (ypcally 10 or fewer neutrinos per year per sr per ton of detector. detector must therefore be extremely massive and must be located in a very low background environment. Over the energy range 1 GeV-10 Tey, the neutrino background on the Moon is lower than om the Earth (at some energies Ly as much as 10-104). At both lower and higher energies, the lunar background is just as high as that on Earth, Dut in the proper energy range, the Moon may be the only possible site for neutrino astronomy. We review the properties of terestrial neuiino detectors located deep underground of underwater, discuss the calculated ‘and measured backgrounds, and demonstrate the improvement to be obtained with a hur location. In addition, ‘we briefly discuss a possible design for a 10° ton tunar neutrino detector. INTRODUCTION Neutrinos are produced as a result of collisions of cosmic rays with the ambient ‘matetial in astronomical sources, the Earth's atmosphere and surface, and the lunar surface. Neutrinos are produced directly when cosmic rays interact to produce secondary charmed mesons, when # and K mesons decay to je mesons and electrons, and when the mesons decay to elecirons. Gamma rays are produced from neutral 7° meson decays resulting from the same cosmic ray interactions, and the numerous satellite, balloon, and ground based measurements of astronomical gamma ray sources make it clear that such cosmic ray interactions occur in a great variety of sources and that large numbers of neutrinos must also be emitted. Neutrinos have 'a much greater interaction mean free path than do gamma rays, however (Ay, /Ay-10"" at 100 GeV), so that if the neutrinos can be detected, they can be used to probe to far greater depths in dense media. ‘the significance of astronomical neutrino observations and the relationship to gamma ray astronomy have een discussed previously by, among others, Berezinsky and Zatsepin (1970), Lande (1979), Fichtel (1979), Stecker (1979), Shapiro and Silberberg (1983), Silberberg and Shapiro-(1983), and Lee and Bludman (1985). 7 fi Due to the low detection rates and high terrestrial background, the Moon may provide the best (and perhaps the only} location for observations of astronomical neutrinos at enetgies 1 GeV-10 TeV. In the following section; we briefly review the estimates of neutrino detection rates from astronomical sources and the Earth's atmosphere. We list the existing large underground detectors and discuss some of the experimental difficulties associated with the low anticipated astronomical event rates and the high atmospheric background, In a later section, we describe the lower neutrino background expected for a detector on the Moon; in the last section, we discuss how a lunar neutrino detector might look. © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System 336 / Sclence onthe Moon PRESENT EXPERIMENTAL STATUS OF NEUTRINO ASTRONOMY If observed high energy gamma rays are primarily nuctoonic in origin (i.e, they result from cosmic ray interactions and the resulting «® meson decays) and if the bulk of the ‘emission originates in source regions whose thickness (tis small compared to the gamma ray attenuation length (ie, | < 10"g cm”), then the gamma ray and neutrino emission must be comparable, Unfortunately, since the neutrino interacts so weakly, it can be detected only very inefficiently. Fichtel (1979) has estimated neutrino detection rates based on observed garnma ray fitwxes; for the quasar 30273, the active galaxy Cen A, the central region of our own galaxy, y-ray pulsars, and the galactic y-ray source Cyg X~3, he finds expected interaction rates of only 3 x 10” detected neutrinos per yr per kiloton of detector above 1 TeV and 3 x 10" neutrinos per yr per kiloton above 10 TeV, corresponding to neutrino fluxes of 10" and 10cm” s, respectively. At lower energies, Cherry and Lande (unpublished data, 1985) expect rates of 10°° neutrinos ton yr srt from the Crab and 10% ton" ye" st" from the galactic center above 100 Mev. ‘These small rates of neutrinos interacting in a detector must be visible in the presence of a nearly isotropic background of neutrinos produced locally by cosmic rays interacting in the Earth’s atmosphere, The fluxes of atmospheric neutrinos have been calculated The recent analytic calculation of Dar (1983) and the detailed Monte Carlo calculation of Gaisser et al. (1983) are in substantial agreement with each other and with the measured {interaction rates in the underground IMB proton decay detector (Bionta ct al, 1983). In this and other large underground detectors, it is impossible to measure energies as high as 1 TeV; rather, one measures the integral flux of all neutrinos with energies above a telatively low threshold (~200 MeV for the IMB detector). The rates measured deep underground (107 T'yr!) are in substantial agreement with the calculated interaction rate of atmospheric neutrinos (Gaisser and Stanev, 1984), Gaisser and Stanev (1984) have also considered the case of neutrinos traveling upward through the Earth, interacting in the rock beneath the detector, and producing muons that then continue upward through the detector. if the detector is located sufficiently deep underground that the flux of penetrating downward-moving cosmic ray muons is, sharply reduced, then the small upward flux can be measured. The resulting measured upward fluxes (-2 - 7 x 10Mcnr? st st) are also in substantial agreement with the calculations of atmospheric background, It appears, then, that the atmospheric neutrino background is reasonably well understood, and one can compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino spectrum to predicted astronomical spectra. An example of stich a comparison Is shown In Fig. 1 ‘The neutrino flux from the Earth's atmosphere is based on the analytic approach described by Dar (1983). The line labeled “Galactic” gives an estimate of the diffuse neutrino flux expected from the region of the galactic center. This estimate agrees substantially with the detailed calculation of Stecker (1975). One can see that the atmospheric spectrum js steeper than the galactic spectrum and falls below the galactic spectrum for neutrino energies E < 10 TeV. It is for this reason that many previous discussions of neutrino astronomy have typically emphasized neutrino energles above several TeV. © Lunar and Planetary Institule + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System (Cherry & Lande: Lunar Neutrino Detector / 337 7 — r r NO GEOMAGNETIC CUTOFF HOMESTARE GOLD MINE ‘Figure 1. Flux of muon neutrinos dnd anti-nernos.‘The terrestrial Jiu is shown for the case of no ‘geomagnetic eld, for vertically downveardend upward neutrinesat eanri the Homestake and iB sles ord for downward neutrinos in India in the direction of - maximum geomagnetic shielding. The mer ‘ais caeulted ight ine) for and K meson decays the hwy tne takes into account the effect of low- nergy K" and hiph-energy charm 4 an GALACTIC. |_ CENTER, 5, i 5, £* FLUX (y's GeV'e 1 10 10?) 105) 10% Ey (Gev) ‘The detectors envisioned for these observations have typically been massive instruments located deep underground or underwater in order to reduce the background For example, the proposed DUMAND detector (Stenger, 1984) involves instrumenting a 50 Mt 5 x 107 m? volume of the Pacific Ocean at a depth of 4.7 km; the IMB detector is an 8 kT water detector at a depth of 600 m in the Morton Salt Mine near Cleveland, Ohio; and a 1-6 KT liquid scintillation detector (Cherry et al, 1983) is eventually planned at a depth of 1500 m in the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota. The largest ‘underground detector so far proposed is approximately 30 kT of water (A. Mann and ‘Table 1. Operating Underground Detectors, Detector Location, Mass (ons) pe <100 Tons ote 7 2 soudant Minnesota, US. 302 re calorimeter, 100-1000 Tons Kolar India 140 Fe Calorimeter Homestake South Dakota, US. 40 LUguid Scititlator NUSEX Naly-France 150. Fe Calorimeter Baksan USSR 330 Ligui Scintitatr. Frejus italy. France 800 Fe Calorimeter HW Uh, US. 800 ‘Water Cerenkov > 1000 Tons Karnioka Japan 3000 Water Cerenkov mas, Ohio, US. ‘8000 ‘Water Cerenkov © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 338 / Selence on the Moon B. Cortez, private communications, 1986). A list of existing large underground detectors is given in Table {. A number of detection techniques have been utilized and shown to be effective. in each case, though, the cost of the experiment is typically $1-5 million per kiloton. Unfortunately, even for massive detectors located deep underground where the remnant cosmic ray background fluxes are low, neutrino and neutrino-induced muon rates are still meager—both in terms of the absolute number of events per year and compared to the atmospheric background. As an example, the calculated rates of high- energy muons penetrating from the Earth's surface to a depth of 1500 m and the rate of lower-energy nentrino-induced muons at the same depth are shown in Fig. 2 for the case of the Homestake Large Area Scintilation Detector (Cherry et al., 1985). The penetrating muons must have a minimum energy of &, ~ 26 TeV at the Earth's surface in order to penetrate to the depth of the detector; the minimum energy detectable at the detector is E, ~ 2 GeV. By contrast with the rates of Fig. 2, the galactic center spectrum of Fig | would give 3 neutrino-induced muon events per year per st above 2 GeV and 2 yrtst! above 100 GeV. With such extremely low event rates, it is absolutely essential to minimize the background as much as possible. vo! an et “4 Muone In The Homestoke ti Depth =4.2x10° grem® wo L ae Mons e igure 2, Predicted muon flues in z he Homestake Gold Mine (Dar, F gat ‘writen communication, 1984) B ig ‘e g 3 wot a __.90 — sj, tndced sons E> 2GeV, Upword+ Downward 10-3 Lata Lat o © 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 Zenith Angle (agrees) © Lamar and Planetary Insfitnte * Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System Cherry & Lande: Lunar Neutrino Detector / 339 LUNAR AND TERRESTRIAL BACKGROUNDS, Over a large range of energies, the background problem can be alleviated by placing the detector above the atmosphere—for example, on the Moon. In the Earth's tenuous upper atmosphere, cosmic ray primaries have interaction lengths of 80g cm?; the secondary pion interaction lengths are 120 g cmv, The total thickness of the atmosphere (1020 g cm® from the top of the atmosphere down to sea level) is many interaction lengths, so that even the Earth's surface is exceptionally well shielded from the primary cosmic rays and the hadronic components of the cosmic ray showers. In order to obtain the same hadron shielding, a lunar detector should be buried at a depth of at least 10° em? or 3m. Once a s (or K) meson is produced in the Earth's upper atmosphere, it can either interact or decay. Neutrinos are produced from the decays in Table 2. If the initial meson interacts, then neutrinos are produced by the decays of later-generation mesons formed lower in the atmosphere, The contribution from these secondary interactions is relatively small, however (205). The meson decay length is a function of the meson energy E: Mey = Bycr = 7.8By m, where B = v/c is the pion velocity in units of the speed of light c, y = E/me? is the energy in units of the mass, and r is the pion lifetime at rest, By contrast, the pion interaction length is nearly independent of energy: "2 = 120 g em? (A™2 ~ 6 km in the Earth's upper atmosphere, Xf ~ 0.4 m in Junar Tock), The probability of decay depends on the relative values of AY and Ai* 6000 100, ster saa 7 EG, ~——«for the Earth ay 7eBy ~ Ejcey i: Ae a4 ) Taay ~1iDE ey Mr the Moon As long as this ratio is large, mesons will decay before they have a chance to interact, and the neutrino flux will be high. in the Earth’s tenuous upper atmosphere, a large fraction of the mesons below 100 GeV decay; above 100 GeV, the decreasing decay probability suppresses neutrino production. In the dense lunar (or terrestrial) rock, the interactions ‘occur long before the. mesons have a chance to decay, and at all energies above. 10 ‘Mev, neutrino production is highly suppressed, The ratio of lunar and terrestrial neutrino fluxes from decay is roughly NAA MOON) { 1/11 E, for E, < 100 Gev @ 6,"(Earth) Ded" Earth) 10* for E, 2 100 Gev We assume here that the production is the same in a lunar or terrestrial target of thickness 10° g cm; we ignore the extra neutrinos produced in the terrestrial rock, since few mesons penetrate through the entire atmosphere; and we let the terrestrial ratio XN © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System 340 / Sclence on the Moon ‘Table 2. Most Probable Neutrino-Producing Decay Modes of Non-charmned Mesons. wey Ke wei, Ty AY saturate at 1 for E, < 100 GeV, where essentially all terrestrial pions decay. The neutrino flux from K mesons is similarly suppressed on the Moon. ‘The ratio g, (Moon)/<, (Garth) due to the competition between w and K meson interactions and decays Is shown as the dashed curve in Fig, 3. At energies above 10 GeV the lunar suppression is reduced, however, by the effect of charmed meson production, ‘The energy dependence of charm production is not yet well understood, but at Fermilab energies Ball et al. (1984) found cross sections for pN + DDX and pN ~> ADX of 10- 2oyb/nucleon, about 10° times smaller than the coresponding pN + 1X cross-sections, ‘The lifetime of the charmed mesons is exceedingly short, however (rp... ~ 4-9 x 10 S, t. ~ 2 X 10" 5), so that all charmed mesons decay promptly either on Earth or on the Moon. The effect of the Moon is therefore to suppress only the neutrinos from rand K mesons. The maximum suppression is given by the ratio (R) of prompt neutrinos from charm decay to neutrinos from m and K meson decay: R~ 10° ~.10¢ Elbert ef al, 1981; Inazawa and Kobayakawa, 1983). Above 10 GeV; the relative neutrino flux from’ charmed and meson decays is given by the production ratio times the ratio of charmed meson to m meson decay probabilities: #5404000) gag 1. ElGeW) ,"(Moon) VWIIOE, 10, @) ‘The solid curve above 10 GeV shows this behavior. Below about 1 GeY, the terrestrial neutrino flux is reduced by the effects of the Earth's geomagnetic field, At geomagnetic latitude (4), zenith angle (0), and azimuthal angle (p) © Lumar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Asteophysies Data System ‘Cheny & Lande: Lunar Neutrino Detector / 341 Figure 3. Ratio of Iunar to terrestrial neutrino fluxes. versus ‘neutrino energy. (MOON) 4, (EARTHY + 108 1 108 E, (ev) from magnetic North, the Earth’s magnetic field effectively prevents primary cosmic rays with rigidity p< 6ocos's(+ Vi-rcos*asinosing )°GV @ from reaching the atmosphere, For downward-moving protons at the IMB and Homestake detectors, this cutoff is near 2 GV; at the Kolar Gold Fields in India, the cutoff is at 16 GV. This geomagnetic suppression does not apply to the Moon, so ¢,(Moon)/é,(Earth) increases at low energies; the details depend on the particular Jocation and direction ‘of cosmic ray iricidence on the Earth, but the qualitative effect is shown in Fig 3. Figure 1 shows the flux of neutrinos we calculate for the Earth without any geomagnetic fleld, for downward and upward trajectories at the Homestake detector, and for the direction of maximum cutoff rigidity (~60 GV) at the Kolar detector in India. ‘The dashed line is the lunar flux under 4 m of rock. The dotted line is the flux expected from cosmic ray- matter interactions near. the galactic center. The Moon offers-a major suppression of the neutrino background between about 1 GeV and I TeV and, in particular, may make it possible to see the very interesting galactic center source as well.as numerous other potential astronomical sources. LUNAR NEUTRINO DETECTOR Since neutrinos can escape from dense sources that are opaque to gamma rays, itis quite possible that actual neutrino fluxes may turn out to be much larger than those predicted on the basis of the observed -y-rays. If one is to embark on a project as complex and costly as a lunar neutrino detector, however, one must probably adopt extremely © Lumar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System 342 / Sclenceon the Moon LUNAR CALORIMETER WITH PROPORTIONAL COUNTER PLANES OR TUBES ACTIVE DETECTOR = Passive gure 4, Schematic diagram of a posible nar neusino detect, Consisting of ecthe detector panes Asibuted through @ lnge mass (ad ons of anrodk ‘conservative design criteria. In particular, one must probably start from the very low neutrino fluxes estimated from the y-ray measurements, For a flux level 10 tor!yrsr', one therefore needs a detector mass on the order of 10° tons. Since it is presumably unreasonable to transport 10° tons of water or liquid scintillator to the Moon, one must rather Use loca} lunar material for the main detector mass. For example, a block of lunar surface material 30 m high x. 100 m wide x 100 m long buried beneath several meters of soil would provide a well-shielded 900 kT neutrino target ‘The detector might be instrumented as a calorimeter with planes of gas-filled drift chambers set out through the detector volume, as in Fig. 4. If the detector planes are separated by 1 m, then the detector threshold is given by the minimum muon energy required to penetrate 2 detector layers—about 1 GeV. The 30-100 m dimensions of the detector make muon energy measurements possible up to 100 GeV for some cases. ‘The detector would presumably have to be fabricated in a lunar laboratory. Wire, Sling gas, and electronics could be supplied from Earth, but the main detector elements might be locally constructed gas-tight glass structures. Trenching, drilling, and digging of the detector volume would need to be done on site. Individual drift chamber dimensions © Lumar and Planetary Institute © Provided by the NASA Asteophysies Data System ‘Cherry & Lande: Lunar Neutrino Detector / 343 might be 3. m x 3 m x 3 cm, requiring 3 x 108 elements. Although the size of such a detector is certainly mammoth by terrestrial Standards, the electronic complexity is ‘comparable to other high energy experiments. ‘The logistical, engineering, and financial problems associated with a lunar neutrino detector would be enormous. From the observational point of view, however, the ow neutrino backgrounds would make lunar viewing conditions significantly better than anything possible on the Earth in the energy range 1-1000 GeV. Acknowledgments. Purding for the University of Pennlvania/Homestake program is provided by the United ‘States Department of Energy. We have benefited from many discussions with Drs.S. Bludman, A. Dar, 7. Gasser, HE Lee, and 7 Stanev. REFERENCES Ball R C.et a, (1964) Prompt muon-neutino production in a 400-GeV proton beamn-dump experiment, ys Ro Let, 51, 743-746. Derezinshy V.S. and Zatsepin 6. (1970) Cosmic neutnos of utah energy. Sow Nuch Phys. 11, 141= 114 BionfaR_M. ef af. (1989) Resuits (fom the IMB detector. n Fourth Workshop on Grand Unification (Hi. A ‘Weldon, P Langacker, and PJ Steinhardt, eds) pp. 46-68. Bikhauser, Boston ‘Cherry ML Davidson L Lande K. Lee C.K. Marshal E, Steinberg R 1, Cleveland 1, Davls R, and Lowenstein '. (1983) Physics opportunites with the Homestake large area scintillation detector ICOMAN 3: international Colloquium on Matter Non-Conservaton, p. 133-143. INFN, Rome. Cherry M1., Corbato 5. Kieda D. Lande K, Lee C.K, and Steinberg R.1. (1985) The Homestake large area scinilation detector and cosmic ray telescope. In Solar Neulrinos and Neutrino Astrenomy (8. 1. Chery, K Lande, and W. A. Fowler eds) pp. 32-49. American institute of Physics, New York Dar A. (1983) atmospheric neutines, astrophysical neutrinos, and proton decay experlments. Phys Rew Lett 51,227-231 Elbert), W, Gasser: K, and Stanev 7 (1981) Possible studies with DUMAND and a surface air shower detector. 1m DUMAND-80 (VJ. Stenger, ed), pp. 222-228, Hawaii DUMAND Center, Honolulu Fite! E.(1979) The significance of gamma-ray observations fr neuttino astconomiy. Proc. 1978 DUMAND ‘Summer Workshop (A. Roberts, ed) p. 289-312. DUMAND Scripps Inttute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA. Gaisser TK and Stanev TS, (1984) Interaction rates of almospherie neutrinos. In ICOBAN ‘84: International ‘colloquium on Baryon Non-Conservation (D. Cine, ed), Park City, UT. in Press Galsser T K, Stanev T, Bhudman S.A, and Lee H, (1983) Fhuc of atmospheric neutrinos. Phys Rev. Ltt, 62, 223-226 Inazawa H. and Kobayekawa K. (1983) The production of prompt cosmic ray muons and neutrinos. Prog. ‘Theor. Physics Japan) 69, 1196-1206, Lande K. (1979) Experimental neutrino astrophysics. Ann. Rey. Nucl and Part Sci, 29 0D. jackson, HE. Gove, and Schwitters, eds), pp. 396-410. Annual Review, Palo Ato, CA {ee H. and Bhadman S.A. (1985) Neutrino production from discrete high-energy gamma ray sources. Astrophys. ‘4,290, 28-32. ‘Shapiro M. M. and Siberberg R. (1983) Gamma rays and neutrinos as complementary probes in astrophysics. ‘Space Sl Revs, 36, 51-66. ‘Stberborg Rand Shapiro M, M. (1963) Sources of extragalactic cosmic rays: Photons and neutrinos as probes. Jn Compesiton and Origin of Casmic Rays (4. M. Shapiro, ed) pp. 231-244, Rekdel, Drdkecht. Stecker FW (1975) Diflse hues of cosmic high-energy neutrinos Astropiys J, 228, 919-927. Stenger VJ. (1984) The production of very high energy photons and neutrinos from cosmic proton sources. Astrophys J. 284, 810-816. © Lunar and P mnctary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System NEUTRINO MEASUREMENTS ON THE MOON Albert G. Petschek Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NB 87545 and ‘New Mexico institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM A720 1 Several posable neutrino experiments on the Moon are discussed in the lght of the expected backgroond rates, Observations of neutrino osciations may be feasible Grand unified thedries suggest a variety of novel physical processes, including nucleon decay, that is, the breakup of neutrons or protons into lighter particles, and neutrino oscillations, a process in which neutrinos with one type of weak interaction change back and forth into neutrinos with another interaction. In order to test these theories, a number ‘of very large proton decay detectors with masses between 0,14 and 3 K tons have been built on Earth, Protons are presumed to decay into various leptons and mesons, possibly e’ + n°, For a more complete list, see the review of patticle properties (Particle Data Group, 1984). ‘The detectors attempt to observe these decay products, or their daughters, by observing Cherenkov radiation in a large volume of water (Bionta et al, 1963) or fonization in gas-filled proportional tubes (Peterson, 1983; Krishnaswamy et al, 1983). A principal source of background in these detectors, none of which has observed a proton decay, is neutrino interactions. The neutrinos in question ate generated by the interaction of cosmic rays ith the upper almosphere, producing relativistic pions and other particles that decay to produce neutrinos of high (Doppler shifted) energy before they interact with another nucleus in the raréfied upper atmosphere. Naively, one might expect a substantially lower background on the Moon, since interactions with the solid lunar material would take place before decay. Accordingly, the Lunar Base Working Group (Duke etal, 1984) suggested that the Moon would be a suitable location for a proton decay detector sensitive to 10" or 10° years proton lifetime. Such a lifetime corresponds to between 006 and 0.006 decays per kiloton-year. if all the nucleons, including those bound in nuciei, are active and fewer decays otherwise, Thus, exposures of 100 to'more than 1000 K ton-years ‘would bé required, a massive undertaking on Earth, Iet alone on the Moon. ‘As is detailed by Cherry and Lande (1985) the neutrino background on the Moon is tess than that on the Earth only in a limited energy band, one that just begins at the 1 GeV proton decay energy. The total energy of proton decay, including the rest energy of the decay products is, of course, the proton rest energy of 938 Mev, less than that at which the background is reduced. Higher backgrounds mean poor experiments; poor experiments do not get funded, Hence, it is neither worthwhile nor possible to move proton decay experiments to the Moon, and it will not be possible to pigeyback neutrino detection on the huge decay detectors that would be required. Nevertheless, itis of interest © Lamar and P ctary Institute » Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System 346 / Sclence on the Moon to discuss what neutrino experiments might usefully be done on the Moon. Further discussion may be found in the paper by Shapiro and Silberberg (1985). ‘Another source of background, of interest in its own tight, is astrophysical neutrinos. ‘Their spectrum dominates atmospheric neutrinos even on Earth above 1000 GeV. These neutrinos originate in a variety of places. The ones with highest energy originate in interactions between cosmic rays and interstellar matter (Dar, 1983) or cosmic rays and the 3 K background radiation (Stecker, 1979). Lower energy neutrinos arise from stellar collapse (Burrows, 1984). This background should be the same on Earth as on the Moon, and the lower local background above 1 GeV will allow it to be studied to somewhat smaller energies on the Moon than on Earth. Neutrinos produced in the Earth's atmosphere will also reach the Moon. Since the Earth subtends a solid angle of 5 x 10° of 4ir at the Moon, the rate of interaction of atmospheric neutrinos with a lunar detector will be reduced from the terrestrial value cof 100 per k ton year (Gaisser and Stanev, 1983) to 5 X 10° k ton’ year. This is a few during the 100-1000 k ton years of exposure required in the proton-decay experiment, Ifa really large detector were to be built, it might be possible to detect neutrino oscillations in a new range of Am’, the difference in the squares of the masses of the two neutrinos, ‘The probability of transition to a second neutrino, for example, from the electron neutrino to the 1 or 7 neutrino, depends on the parameter Am? L/E (Boehm, 1983) where 1. is the fight path and E the neutrino energy. Experiments explore values of this parameter ~1 if Am? is in eV’, L is m, and E is MeV. Thus reactor experiments explore Am? = 1 eV? or a little less (L is a few m, E a few MeV). Accelerator experiments use much higher energies and larger flight paths, but still explore a similar range of Am’. Neutrinos have been observed from the sun at well below the expected rate (Bahcall et al, 1982). ‘Since the neutrinos emitted by the sun are electron neutrinos and the detection method (by the transmutation of Cl to An) detects only these same neutrinos, a possible explanation ‘of the discrepancy between theory and experiment is that an oscillation into another neutrino has taken place. With this assumption the solar neutrino experiment can be viewed as an oscillation experiment with E a few MeV and L = 1.5 10" m, corresponding to very small Am? Gaisser and Stanev (1984) have put limits on neutrino oscillations by observing the dependence of the intensity of upward-going neutrinos produced in the Earth's atmosphere ‘on angle, that is, on path length to the detector from the source (the. atmosphere). In this experiment the characteristic energy is 1000 MeV and the characteristic distance is an Earth diameter so that.Am? ~ 10“ eV? is explored, less than for accelerator or reactor experiments but much greater than for the solar experiment. If, as is suggested at the beginning of the preceding paragraph, these same neutrinos can be detected on the Moon, then another region of Am? can be explored. This region corresponds to mass differences much larger than those of the solar experiments but smaller than those of Gaisser and Stanev. in contrast to the experiment with solar neutrinos, which must rely on a calculation of the source, the experiment on the Moon would derive its neutrino source from terrestrial measurements such as those used by Gaisser and Stanev. © Lunar and Plinetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System Petschek: Neutrino Measurements / 343 In summary, a few interesting ncutrino experiments can be contemplated on the ‘Moon, but they require massive detectors. A body with no atmosphere but with a magnetic moment comparable to the Earth's to reduce the low energy neutrino background would be much more suitable. REFERENCES: Bahcal J. N, Huebner Wi K, Lubow SH, Patker 1D, and UNich KK. (1982) Standard solar models and the uncertainties in predicted captoe rates of solar neutrinos. Rew. Mod Phys, Sf, 767-800. Blonta RCs, etal (7983) Resolis ftom tn éetector. tn Fourth Workshop on Grand Unifcaion (A. Weldon, ,Langacker, and P).Steinhard, ods), pp. 46-68. Bkkhauser, Boston oehm & (1983) Neukino mass and neutrino asctations. in Fourth Workshop on Grand Unifeavon tH. A ‘Weldon 8 Langacker, and PJ. Steinhardt, es), pp. 163-173, Bletser, Boston. ‘uci A (1988) On detecting stellar collapse with neutrinos. Astrophys J, 283, 848-852. Chery Mand Lande K (1985) Proposal fr a neu telescope on the Mon. Tis volume: ‘Dar A. (1983) Atmosphere nvieios and astrophysical neutrinos a proton decay experiments. Fourth Workshop on Grand Unification 0, A, Weldon P. Langackes, and PJ. Steinhardt, eds), pp. 10-114. Bkkhauser, Boston Duke MB, Mendell WW, and Keaton P. W (1984) Report ofthe Lunar Base Working Group. LALP-64-43, ‘os Alanos National Laboratory, Los Alamos. 4) pp. Galisser. K. and Stanev T. (1983) Calbration with cosmic ray neutrinos. AIP Conference Proceedings #114 {M. Blecher and K, Gotow, eds), pp. 9-97, American institute of Physics, New York Caisse T. K. and Staney T. (1984) Neutino induced muon fx deep underground and search for neutrino ovcllations. Phys. ey. D 30, 85-990. xrichnaswamy MR, Menon M. G. K_ Mondal N. K, Narasinham VS, Sreckantan BV, Hayashi Y, 10 My Kawakaini S, and Miyake S. (1983) The KGR nuclear decay experiment In Fourth Workshop on Grand Unification (H.. Weldon, Langackes, and}. Stanhardl, eds), p. 25-34, Biker, Boston. Partie Data Group (1984) Review of Paice Propertes, Rev. Mod. Ps, 86, 81-5304, Peterson E. (1983) New results from the Soudan 1 detector. In Fourth Workshop on Grand Unification (tA. Weldon, P. Langacker, and PJ. Steinhardt, eds), pp. 35-46. Birkhauser, Boston, ‘Shapiro M. Mand SberbergR. (1985) High-encrgy neutrino astronomy ffom alana observatery. This volume, ‘Slecker FW. (1979) Die faxes of cosmic high-energy neutrinos Astrophys J, 228,919-927. © Lamar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 318, IRRADIATION OF THE MOON BY GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS AND OTHER PARTICLES James H. Adams, Jr. E. 0, Hulburt Center, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 Maurice M. Shapiro ‘Max Planck institat far Astrophysik, 8046 Garching bei Miinchen, Federal Republic of Germany ‘Men and sensitive instruments on a lunar base can be profoundly affected by the radiation environment ‘of the Moon. The fonizing radiation incident upon the lunar surface is comprised of the galactic casmic rays (GCR) and energetic particles accelerated in the solar neighborhood. The later consist mainly of solar energetic ppartcles (SEP) from flares and of other particles energized in the heliosphere. The cosmic radiation bombarding the Moon consists overwhelmingly of relativistic and nearreativstc atomic nucle ranging in energy from 10°10? cy, approximately 98.6% of which consists of hydrogen and helum. The remainder spans the rest (of the periodic table, with conspicuous peaks in abundance at C, 0, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. The GCR composition is roughly similar to that of the sun, with some notable differences. Differential energy spectra and composition ‘of cosmic rays us well as the Intensitles, compesition, and the spectra of SEP and paruiles accelerated in the heliosphere are reviewed, We also summarize the analytic models developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (08RL) group to describe the energy spectra and elemental compesitions of the various components, THE LUNAR RADIATION ENVIRONMENT ‘The Moon is constantly bombarded by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Figure 1 (dm ‘Simpson, 1983) shows a sampling of the data available on the differential energy spectra of the most prominent patticle types in galactic cosntic rays. The intensity of this highly penetrating particle radiation varies in response to-solar activity. In a way that is not yet fully understood (Fillius and Axford, 1985), the out-flowing solar wind modulates the cosmic ray intensity so that it is anti-correlated with the general level of solar activity. This causes the average intensity of cosmic rays with energies. greater than 10 MeV/- amu to increase 2.5 times. from the.maximum to the. minimum of the -LI-year solar activity cycle, Low energy cosmic rays are affected more strongly than the higher energy ones. Figure 2 (from Simpson, 1983) compares the. elemental compositions of galactic’ cosmic rays and the solar system, normalized at silicon. The two compositions are comparable for the most abundant elements. The-odd elements, in general, and Li, Be, B, F, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, and Mn, in. particular, are overabundant in-galactic cosmic rays. This difference is the result of the propagation of galactic cosmic rays through approximately 7 g/cm? of interstellar gas, on average, before reaching Earth (Shapiro and Silberberg, 1970), During periods of minimum solar activity, additional components can be observed ‘at low energy. One component is constantly present. This component, discovered by Garcia © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 816 / Sclence on the Moon ee itt s gure 1. The differentia energy spectra for the elements from the top) hyxdrogen (P), helium (a), carbon (©), anid jon (Fe). Also Bog shown Is the electron spectrum labeled e) The solid curve shows 10" -{ the ytrogen spectrum extrapolated to nierstelar space by unfotding the effects of modulation. The turn-up fof theheliua spectrum below about 60 MeV/nucleon is due 10 the ‘contribution of the anomalous ‘component of helitm. This figure Differential Flux (m? sr s MeV/Nucleon)! 10° \ ‘was taken fem Simpson (1983) 4 107 4, \ Hl Oy 10"; | + Ht 10% 4 Iba BE I Kinetic Energy (MeV/Nucleon) Munoz et al: (1973), is called the anomatous component because of its unusual nature. Figure 3 shows the spectra of H, He, C, and O in the:interplanetary medium. The anomalous component is the broad peak in the low energy oxygen spectrum and the absence of a dip in the helium spectrum at 10 MeV/amu that causes the helium flux to exceed the hydrogen flux in this energy range. A second component is sometimes accelerated in regions where fast and slow moving solar wind streams collide (GloecKler, 1979). These co-rotating energetic particles will sometimes cause modest increases in the 1-10 MeV/ fc = Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System: ‘Adams & Shapiro: tradiation by Galactic Cosmic Rays / 317 18 ETT TTT TT TTT Te TTT 108 ot o> Figure 2. The cosmic ray element abundances (He-N) measured at arth compared to the solar system ‘abundances. The two abundances ‘are normalized at silicon. the i ‘lamonds represen the solar system go abundances, while the open eles Z fre cosmic ray. measurements at 3 high energies in the 1000-2000 3 ‘Mevmucloon range Hydrogen, not a: shown, ts about 20 times more ‘abundant sn the solar system than w in cosmic rays, using sion as the Eo normalization. This figure was & ‘taken from Simpson (1983) a @ woe 3 wl g 3 wt 24 6 BW WR 2 20 24 26.28 NUCLEAR CHARGE NUMBER 7 amu hydrogen and helium fluxes bombarding the Moon. Because these components exceed the cosmic ray background only at low energies, their contribution to the total particle intensity bombarding the Moon is small ‘Occasionally there are major increases in the radiation intensity at the Moon due to solar energetic particle (SEP) events. These events last from hours to days and range in size from the limit of detection to an intensity more than 70,000 times that of galactic © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astcophysies Data System 318 / Sclence on the Moon 10° pore errr EY * Quiet Time Energy Spectre X I976-1977 Protons” 9, Uaryions/ Unies 9 MBE choo "cat ten | Protas: 0 ae Meum: 6 . Figure 3. Differential energy -speciraofiyirogen, helium, carbon, ‘and oxygen obscived in the Interplanetary medium near the Earth ring the solar simu in 1976-77 ducing quiet times. The ‘anomalous cosmic ray component ‘appears between 2 and 30 MeV/ -nueleon and is characterized by the Jarge overabundance of heliem and oxygen compared to hydrogen (protons) and carbon, respectively. This figure was taken jrom loecier (1979) carton , onygen: ’ "1972-13 Meoswenents - STER SEC MeV/Amu PARTICLES/M2 MeViAmu cosmic rays. So large are the largest of these events that they determine the particle fluence at-the lunar surface over a solar-cycle. It is usually true that half-the particles to strike the Moon in an 11-year solar cycle arrive in less than a day and are the result ‘of one, or at most a few, large SEP events. This striking feature will make a flare watch ‘an important part of any future lunar expedition, as it was during the Apolio program. McGuire et al, (1983) show the record-of SEP events for the last three solar cycles. ‘Their results are reproduced in Fig. 4. As this figure shows, the frequency of SEP events vaties with the overall level of solar activity as gauged by the smoothed Zurich sunspot number. McGuire et al. find the solar-cycle-averaged hydrogen fluxes above 10 MeV for cycles 19, 20, and 21 are 378, 93, and 65 particles/cm? s, These fluxes are 132, 33, and 23 times larger than the solar-cycle-averaged galactic cosmic ray hydrogen flux, respectively. pnd Pla ary Institute © Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System ‘Adams & Shapiro: Irradiation by Galactic Cosmic Rays / 319 1d! 50 < wh q § oe J200 3 = 5 & Bee 0g g 3 = = 108 {100 2 VE : é 3 : \ é : 7 ew 4508 5 108 ‘igure 4. Hydrogen fluences above 10 and 30 MeV in Solar Energotic Particle Events during solar cycles 19, 120, and 21. The solid cure represents Zurich smoothed sunspot numbers. This figure was taken from McGuire ‘etal. (3983), ‘The spectra of SEP events are much softer than the galactic cosmic ray spectrum. Even during the peak intensity of most SEP events, galactic cosmic rays are the principal source of particles above a few hundred MeV/amu. The largest observed flares have, at their peak, dominated the flux up to 10,000 MeV/amu, “The elemental composition of SEP events is very similar to thesolar system composition (shown in Fig. 2) on average but can be highly variable from one event to the next, ‘The composition even varies with particle energy in individual events (Chenette and Dietrich, 1984). SEP events that ate enriched in one heavy fon tend to be enriched in the others 2s well Dietich and simpson (1978) have shown that this ystematc enrichment increases strongly with atomic number. i THE NRL CREME MODEL ‘A procedure has been developed at Naval Research Laboratory to characterize cosmic. ray effects on microelectronics (CREMF) used in spacecraft and aircraft (see Adams et al, 1981; Adams et al, 1983; and Tsao et al, 1984). This procedure relies on a detailed numerical model of the near-Earth particle environment (Adams et al, 1961), which is directly applicable to characterizing the radiation environment on the Moon. A set of formulas describes the differential energy spectra of each of the clements in galactic cosmic rays and how these spectra are modified by the contributions from the anomalous © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 3207s lence on the Moon 1000 eae (von) vor ease, rat (; eee 4 109] ‘es an nn nee, vo Tea, 1 AND WERDER AND LEZMAK 7 l : Ce i sons Ee OR ene 3 g Ew? Fe cee Hee eee ‘ 4 i . KINETIC ENERGY (MoViews) Piguce 5. Hydrogen dlifferential energy spectra (taken from Adams et al, 1981) The data are selected for the ‘xtreme of solar maximum and solar minimum. The Zolid cares are ffom the formulas to fit the cosmic ray specica for solar minimum (upper curve) and solar maximum (lower curve). The dashed cure is rom a formula Constructed (0 give instantaneous flux levels so high at each energy that they are exceeded only 10% of the tine. component, co-rotating energetic particle streams, and from small flares. The model also contains formulas for the differential energy spectra of each of the clements in SEP events and formulas for calculating the probability of occurrence of such events, Galactic cosmic’ rays were modeled by using all the available data to determine the shapes of the differential energy spectra of hydrogen, helium, anc iron at-the extremes of solar maximum and solar minimurn. Figures 5, 6, and 7 show how the model (solid lines) fit the data for hydrogen, helium, and iton, respectively. The model spectra are for the extremes of solar maximum and minimum. Intermediate cases are interpolated with a sinusoidal solar modulation factor of sin[2 (t-t,)/10.9 years], where t, = 195056. ‘the other elemental spectra are obtained by multiplying either the helium or the iron spectrum by a constant of, in some cases, energy-dependent scale factor. By comparing © Lunar and Planetary Institute ~ Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data 8 ‘Adams & Shapiro: irradiation by Galactic Cosmic Rays / 321 X 90% WORST CASE: PYLE, 1981 PARTICLES/(m2 —ster — sec MeV/u) 2 3 10 10' lo KINETIC ENERGY (MeV/u) Figure 6 Helium diferential energy spectra (taken from Adams et ol, 1981). The solid curves are from the formulas (0 fit the cosmic ray spectra for solar mininwum (upper curve) and solar maximum (lower curve). The ‘dashed curve is from a formula constructed to give instantancous flux levels so high at each energy that they are exceeded only 10% ofthe time. this model with recent data, we find that it seems to predict the absolute cosmic ray flux to within a factor of two. The relative abundances are accurate to about 20%. The contributions at low energies from co-rotating particle streams and small SEP events were accounted for along with the overall uncertainty by the 90% worst-case ‘model, This model is shown as the dashed curves in Figs. 5-7. The contributions of the anomalous component to the helium, nitrogen, and oxygen spectra are modeled by Adams et al, (1981), who show how these may be combined with the-cosmic ray model. spectra to account for the contributions of the anomalous component atlow energies. Following the scheme of King (1974), Adams et al. (1981) divided all the large SEP events into ordinary large flares and anomalously large flares. A formula was fitted to the means of the log-normal distributions of the integral SEP flux above several energy Unresholds and then differentiated to obtain the mean hydrogen differential energy spectrum for ordinary large SEP events, This procedure was repeated using values 1,28 standard © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Pro by the NASA Astrophysies Data System 322 / Selence on the Moon 10% orien ere IRON Figure 7. ron differential energy spectra (taken fom Adams et al, 1981) The solid cures are fiom the Jormlastofitthe casmic ray spectra Jor solar sninimam (upper curve) ‘and solar maximum (lower curve ‘The dashed cunve is from a formula eonsiracted to give instantaneous fix levels 50 high at each energy that they are exceeded only 103 of thetine Thisdashed curve hasbeen ‘consirucied by comparison with Aelia, since iron dota to establish this curve directly are lacking. coe on deviations above the means of the log-normal distributions to obtain a spectrum. for the 9055 worst-case SEP event. Again, following King (1974), the SEP event-of August 4, 1972. was used as the model for anosnatously large events, These thtee model hydrogen spectra are shown in Fig. 8. ‘the composition of the SEP events is glven by Adams et al, (1981) as elemental abundances relative to hydrogen for both the mean heavy fon composition and a 90% ‘worst-case enrichment in the heavy elements, These two compositions, shown in Fig. 9; indicate the degree. Of variability in the SEP composition. Burrell distribution formulas ‘are also: provided by Adams et al, (1981) to calculate the probability of an SEP event uring any time period. i : RADIATION EFFECTS ON THE MOON If a large permanent base is established on the Moon, the 5 rem/y exposure limit for Earth-based radiation workers might be a more appropriate standard for radiation protection. As Silberberg et ai. (1985) show, adherence to this standard would make it necessary to bury a lunar habitat beneath several meters of lunar regolith and limit human activity on the lunar surface to “regular working hours,” ie, about 1800 hours (e » Proviiled by the NASA. Astrophysies Data System ‘Adams & Shapiro: radiation by Galactic Cosmic Rays / 323 wt Figure 8, Hydrogen differential 16! ‘energy spectra (taken from Adams et al, 1981). These spectra are for the peak intensities of three model solar energetic particle (SEP) events. ‘Thecunvelabefed Pm isfor themean 1? large SEP event cusing the definition (of King, 1974) A second model SEP event (curve Fw) has been constructed stich that only one SEP event in 10 will have @ peak Intensiy, at any energy, that Is PARTICLES=? see. ster. Mev on _greater than predicted by this ever. 0? the peak of the SEP event of August Fw i. severe SEP events ever observed. . j ENERGY (tev) per year inside-an-enclosed vehicle, Extravehicular activity would have to, be. restricted Even then, people -working on the surface would have to remain near the hal that they could rush to shelter in case. of a large SEP event. Long expeditions across the iunar surface would be risky unless shelters could be constructed a few hours travel time apart, ora means could be provided to. quickly rescue the.expedition and retum its members to the safety.of the buried Lunar habitat. ‘The lunar radiation environment affects.not only people, but electronic systems as ‘well. It has long been known that electronic components are affected by the total radiation dose they have accumulated. This radiation damage produces changes in conductivity or shifts in device thresholds that cause a malfunction of the electronic circuit. Electronic ‘components have been developed that can tolerate very large total doses, so that it is © Lamar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Duta System. 3h 7 Sclence on the Boon 10"! 1D mean 1 10% WORST CASE a. Feil eS CN OF NeNoMgALS PS Char k CoSeT V Gr MnFe Ci ‘igure 9. Elemental connposition of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events (taken fiom Adams and Gelman, 1964). ‘The meon SEP composition, normalized to hydrogen, is compared with a compesition (1085 worst case) constructed ‘0 that only one SEP event in 10 will be richer in any heavy ian. Comparing the two compositions we can ‘ee that thé iron to hydrogen ratio in a heay Jon-rich event miay exceed the oxygen (0 Hydrogen ratio for a pical event possible to design electronic systems for use.on the Moon with operational, lifetimes in excess of 10 years. : Recently, it has been discovered that single, intensely ionizing particles can produce a burst of hole-electron pairs so large that the resulting charge or current can change the logic state of a modern digital microcitcuit (Adams et al, 1981, 1983; Tsao et al, 1984), This change of state damages not the electronic circuitry but the information stored init. These events are therefore called "soft upsets.” “the operational impact of a soft upset depends on the microcircuit affected. If the microcircuit is in the program memory of a computer, the program will no longer be © Lumar and Planctary Institute © Provided hy the NASA Astophysies Data System ‘Adams & Shapiro: lradiatlon by Galactic Cosmic Rays / 325 operable and must be reloaded. fit is in the microprocessor’s address registers or program counter, the actions the computer takes will be unpredictable. Sof upsets in control circuitry can also result in unplanned events such as thruster firings, It is clear that a single sof upset could cause the loss of equipment and personnel. Unlike total dose sensitivity, soft upset susceptibility is a fundamental feature of modem large-scale integrated circuits, It appears unlikely that such compact circuits can be made immune to soft upsets, The problem has been attacked at the system level instead, with redundancy, fault tolerance, and software checking. These methods reduce, but do not eliminate, the risks posed by soft upsets, COSMIC RAY EXPERIMENTS FOR A LUNAR BASE ‘The Moon offers the possibility of doing cosmic ray experiments that would be difficult to carry out in Earth orbit. On the Moon, lunar regolith can be used for the massive absorbers needed in some large detector systems. The Moon also offers a site for the construction of large detector arrays beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. ‘Two possible experiments are discussed here. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays has been measured directly up to 1 TeV/nuc (Watson, 1975), The only direct measurement above this energy is due to Grigorov et ai, (1971), Therefore, most of what is known about cosmic rays above 1 Tev/nuc is based on indirect measurements that provide only total particle energy as determined from the shower of secondary particles produced in the atmosphere by an incident cosmic ray. Direct measurements at these higher energies will make it possible to establish the patticle's charge and, hence, its velocity and magnetic rigidity. The latter quantity can be compared with the available data on galactic magnetic fields to determine whether the particles at these high energies could have come from our galaxy or must be extra~ galactic. “The best device for measuring these high energies directly is an ionization calorimeter of the type developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (Balasubrahmanyan and Ormes, 1973). One square meter calorimeters could be constructed on the lunar surface, using regolith to replace the heavy iron plates in the Goddard design, A single calorimeter of this size would detect events up to 10,000 TeV/nuc in the first year of operation, and 100. such-units could extend the:spectrum.to.the interesting region above 100,000 ‘TeV/nue in’a fewyyears. A Secondary benefit of such an experiment might be the opportunity to study elementary particle interactions at energies well above those achieved at accelerators, Such investigations could lead to new discoveries pointing the way for new article physics experiments on Earth, Experiments employing NASAS Long Duration Exposure Facility, presently underway and planned for the near future, are expected, to. establish the flux of actinide nuclei jn galactic cosmic rays. This will tell us whether cosmic ray source material resembles the interstellar medium or is enriched in nuclei synthesized by the rapid neutron capture (t-) process. Whatever the nucleosynthetic origin of cosmic rays may turn out to be, these near-term experiments will not tell us how much time has elapsed since cosmic © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 326 / Sclence on the Moon, ray material was synthesized. ‘To answer this question, it will be necessary to measure the abundances of the individual actinide nuclei, The relative abundances of Th, U, Np, Pu, and Cm tell us the clapsed time since the nucleosynthesis of cosmic rays in the range of 10" to 10° years. To measure them would require 2000 m: ster. years of collecting. power. As suggested by Waddington (personal communication, 1984), this could be provided by a cylindrical array of scintillators 10 m in diameter and 10 m high. Such an apparatus could be placed on the lunar surface, and it would collect a suitable sample of events in less than § years. ‘The array would use time of flight across the cylinder to measure velocity, so that the scintillator signals could be corrected for velocity to obtain the particle's charge. CONCLUSIONS ‘The ionizing radiation environment on the kar surface poses a hazard to men ‘and sensitive instruments, Measures to protect crews from this environment can be expected to influence the design of lunar bases and the planning of lunar surface activities. ‘The lunar surface offers a site for large cosmic ray experiments to measure the abundances of rare clements and extremely high energy particles. The experiments that are possible on the Moon will provide new information on the origin of cosmic rays. and possibly on the interaction of ultra-high energy particles with matter. REFERENCES ‘Adams J. W. and Gelman A. (1984) The effects of solar flores on single event upset rates, ZEEE Trans. Nuc Sei, NS, V2N2-2G, ‘Adam J. H, Silberberg R, and Tsa0 C. H. (1981) Cosmic ray effects on microelectronics, Part: The Near ‘earth Parlce Environment, NRU Memorandum Report 4506, Naval Reseatch Laboratory, Washingtan, DC. 92 pp. ‘Adams Ji, Lolaw )R, anv Smart D. F. (1983) Casnic Ray Bfocts on Neroelecteonics, Part Il: The Geomagnetic: ‘Cutoff Efets. NRL Memeorandum Report 6099, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC. 45 pp Balasubrahmanyan V. K. and Ormes J. & (1973) Results on the eneigy dependence of cosmic-ray charge ‘composition Ap. J, 186, 109-122, ‘Chenette D. and Dietrich WF. (1964) The solar are heavy ion environment for single event upsets A summary of observation over the last solar cycle, 1973-1983. EEE Trans. Nucl Si, NS-31, 1217-1222. Dietrich WF and Simpson }. A, (1978) Prefreaial enhancements ofthe solar fare-accokerated vu to zinc from ~20-300 MeV nucleon, Ap. fy 225, TAT-LAS, = ‘its Wand Axford 1, (1988) Large scate solar modulation of 53500 MeV/Nucleon galactic cosmic raye seen fioin 11930 AU Geophys Res, 90, 917-690, Garcia-Munoz M, Mason G. M, and Simpson }.A. (1973) A new test for solar modulation theory: The 1972 ‘May-July iow energy glace cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra, Ap J, 182, 187-134, ‘loecker 6, (1979) Compositions of energetic patces populations in interplanetary space. few. Cophys Space Pins, 17, 569-862. Grigorov W. L, Gubin Yu V, Rapaport 1D, Savenko LA, Akimoy V. V, Nesterov V. E, and Yakovlev B, (0971) Energy spectrum of primary cosinic rays in the 10°10" eV energy range according to the data ‘0f proton-1V measurements, Proc. 12th ill Cosinic Ray Conf, 5, pp. 1746-1751. ing JH. (1974) Solar proton fucnces for 1977-1983 space missions. .Spacccrft Rockets 17, 401-408. carbon © Lunar and Plo tary Iastitute » Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System 307 LUNAR BASED GAMMA RAY ASTRONOMY Robert C, Haymes ‘Space Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University INTRODUCTION Gamma ray astronomy is the study of the universe through analysis of the information cartied by the highest energy electromagnetic radiation The energy of the photons it analyzes ranges upwards from about 0.1 MeV, the upper energy end of the x-ray band, through the MeV energies of nuclear transitions and radioactivity, up through the GeV energies of cosmic ray-matter interactions, to beyond the 10°TeV energies radiated by the highest energy galactic cosmic rays. The celestial sources where gamma ray emission Js a major fraction of the energy release are some of the most bizarre, energetic objects in the universe, including supernovae, neutron stars, black holes, galactic cores, and quasars. SIGNIFICANCE, If the gamma ray photon fluxes are above the sensitivity threshold, then a variety of phenomena may be studied through their measurement. We currently believe that nucleosynthesis of the heavier elements takes place in supernovae, stellar catastrophic explosions that each rival a whole galaxy of stars in brightness. Supernovae are expected to emit specific gamma ray. energy. spectra from which-the mode{s) of. nucleosynthesis may be deduced (Ramaty and Lingenfelter, 1982). Black holes are places where present-day physics is, at best, on shaky ground. Gamma ray astronomy permits us to study matter as it falls into a black hole, because the matter ‘becomes heated to gamma ray temperatures as it does so. ‘Active galaxies generate energies comparable with their relativistic self energy, but the nature of their energy source(s) ig: unknown. The various theoretical possibilities suggested thus far all predict different gamma ray spectra. ‘Quasars may each generate as much energy as do ten billion stars, but they appear somehow to do.it in a volume not much larger than that of only one star. Much of the quasar’s radiation is in the gamma ray band, and our most important clues to the phenomenon may therefore come from such astronomy. ‘The sources of cosmic rays have long been mysterious. Whatever and wherever they are, the sources are likely to generate high-energy gamma rays because of the acceleration of the charged-patticle cosmic rays. Because photons are uncharged and therefore travel in straight lines that are unaffected by magnetic fields en route, gamma ray astronomy nar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysles D: 308 / Science on the Moon ‘uniquely offers the opportunity of at Jong last Jocating and studying the sources of this ‘ubiquitous, extreme-energy particle radiation ‘Quantized cyclotron emission may already have been detected from the presumed direction of one neutron star. I€ confirmed, this evidence would provide for the existence of magnetic fields seven orders of magnitude more intense than any generated in the laboratory. Gamma ray bursters are possibly associated with neutron stars and have been known for over a decade, but their nature is as mysterious as ever. Also not understood is the nature of transient sources of cosmic gamma radiation. Over thirty steady sources of high energy gamma radiation have already been detected, sources that do not seem to have counterparts in other spectral bands (eg, the optical, radio, and x-ray). These sources therefore seem capable of somehow accelerating charged particles to the extreme energies required for gamma ray production, while also suppressing, the usually copious radiation of lower energy photons. 1n addition to acceleration of ultratelativistic charged particles, the gamma radiation is produced in several ways. These include radioactivity and nuclear de-excitation, matter- antimatter annihilation, decays of elementary particles, and some effects of relativity. ‘Through this branch of astronomy, qualitatively different and often uniquely available information will be acquired on the mechanisms, history, and sites of cosmic nucleosynthesis, the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way, the nature of pulsars, the sites and properties of intensely magnetized regions, the isotopic composition of the matter in the space surrounding black holes, the nature of the huge energy sources powering active galactic nuclei, and the universality, composition, and sources of very high-energy ‘matter throughout the universe. We already know that, at least in some of these phenomena, the emissions are most luminous in the gamma ray part of the spectrum. Full understanding, of these sources will require detailed study of their gamma radiation, in combination with study of the emissions in the other spectral bands. SENSITIVITY LIMITATIONS FOR GAMMA RAY ASTRONOMY In most situations, if a source radiates high-energy photons, it will radiate smaller fluxes of them than it will of lower energy photons. The sensitivity of observational gamma ray astronomy is limited by the small fluxes of gamma ray photons. from celestial sources. I is also limited by.the background. at - Gamma ray astrnomi¢al backgroiind’ appears: to lave WwWO-components. One ‘component is a sky (possibly cosmic) background, The other component has two sources, One arises from both ambient gamma radiation, and the other from radioactivity induced in the observing instrument by the particle radiation environment that exists in space: ‘Gamma ray astronomy is best conducted far from Earth, because. the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Energetic particles continually bombard the atmosphere. Examples of such particles include cosmnic rays and the high-energy protons that compose the Inner Van Allen belt; others are solar-flare accelerated ions. These particles produce gamma ray photons when they interact with the atmosphere. Some of the produced photons head out into space, forming a “gamma ray albedo.” The ambient gamma radiation. Haymes: Lunar Based Gamma Ray Astronomy / 309 comprising the albedo has an intensity that exceeds, by several orders of magnitude, the fluxes of gamma ray photons from even the brightest cosmic sources. Bombardment by high-energy patticles also activates the materials composing a gamma ray detector, making the instrument itself a source of the very radiation one is attempting to measure from the cosmos (eg, Paciesas et al., 1983). The brightness ofthis background component is dependent on the mass of target matter and the magnitude of the bombarding fluxes, It may be reduced to cosmic ray levels by observing from sites that are outside the geomagnetically trapped radiation and that are shielded from solar protons, GAMMA RAY ASTRONOMY OBSERVATIONS Earth's atmosphere is an absorber of cosmic gamma radiation. To avoid unacceptable attenuation of the small photon fluxes from celestial sources, gamma ray astronomy must therefore be conducted from outside most, if not all, of the atmosphere. Fragmentary data have been acquired with balloon flights near the top of our atmosphere. Almost all of the balloon flights have been restricted to durations of a day or less, and all were sporadic, Even though most of the major advances in understanding the phenomena encountered in other spectral bands were made when long-term measurements were undertaken, there has been litle systematic, long-term observational gamma ray astronomy. ‘The HEAO-1 and HEAO-3 satellites scanned the sky and undertook some short- uration observations of selected discrete gamma ray sources. The major long-term efforts thus far have been the European COS-B mission and the groundbased monitoring of Cerenkov pulses in Earth's atmosphere. For about six years in the 1970s, the low altitude COS-B (Mayer-Hasselwander et al, 1982) satellite carried a relatively small spark chamber, The chamber measured the arrival directions and the energies of gamma rays in approximately the 0.1-S GeV energy band. That mission has produced almost all of our present information on astronomical sources of garnima rays in that energy band, All of our information on emissions in the 1-1000 TeV energy band, which may be providing our first direct looks at the sources of galactic cosmic rays and which could tell us how high in energy particle acceleration goes in the nuclear regions of active galaxies, has corite from groundbased monitoring of nanosecond Cerenkov light pulses in the. atmosphere, Some ofthese, pulses are, due to. the. interaction of.very high energy “gamma ray photons with the atmosphere’ (Samorski and-Stamm, 1983). ‘The relative frequency of such pulses increases when the gamima ray. source transits. the observer's meridian, ‘These extreme-energy events are relatively rare in occurrence; several-year integration times. are necessary: for statistical validity.-Fot absolute flux information, it is necessary to distinguish those showers produced-by y-ray photons from those due to cosmic ray nuckei, Such a distinction is now made on the basis of relative p-meson richness in the showers. In 1988, NASA plans to launch the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the first full- fledged systematic investigation into gamma tay astronomy, into a low altitude orbit. ‘The three-axis stabilized spacecraft will operate for two years. Data will be collected © Lunar and Planetary Institute + Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Dats System 310 / Sclence on the Moon from selected targets for one to two weeks at a time, The GRO will cary four gamma ray astronomy experiments in the one-square-meter class, Described by Kniffen (written communication, 1981), each experiment has different scientific objectives. ‘One GRO experiment is a spark chamber. its collecting area for photons is about ten times greater than the chamber that flew on COS-B, and it will have about 1° angular resolution. Since the observing times will be comparable with the COS-B times, the spark chamber experiment, called EGRET, will therefore extend the sensitivity of the COS-B observations of 100 MeV-5 GeV cosmic sources and the gamma ray background, The second GRO experiment, called COMPTEL, is an imaging double Compton telescope for 1-30 MeV studies. Very litle is presently known about this spectral region, most of which lies above the energies of nuclear transitions and radioactivity but below the energy where decay of neutral «r-mesons into gamma rays is an important source of photons. Compton scattering is a major photon-matter interaction mechanism at these energies. Double Compton telescopes consist of two layers of scintillation counters. A gamma ray that interacts in the first layer generates a pulse. The recoil Compton photon, if its direction is suitable, jnteracts with the second layer. Delayed coincidence between the two layers is required for a given event to be accepted as due to a gamma ray in the direction of the instrumental cone of acceptance, The time between these two pulses is given by the ratio of the separation distance to the speed of the recoil, which is the speed of light. COMPTELS spacing is about 3 m,so the delay time is about 10 nanoseconds. This is an excellent way of rejecting background; particles and photons from other directions will not give the correct time signature, Double Compton experiments, however, are inefficient (the photon-detection efficiency is of order 10%), since the recoils have to be directed only in the direction of the second layer for an event to be counted. They also donot require total energy deposition, and reliance must therefore be placed on calculations. ‘of most probable energy loss as a function of energy, in order to convert the observed pulse-height spectrum to an energy spectrum. COMPTELS imaging will be crude at best, since its angular resolution is several degrees. 7 ‘Third {5 OSSE, the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment, which consists of four independently pointable, equal-atea actively collimated scintillation counters. Its ‘goal is to conduct astronomical spectroscopy in the 0.1-10 MeV.eneigy band. This band is characteristic of radioactivity and transitions of excited atomic nuclel: Actively collimated counters almost completely surround-the: photon ‘counter with athick collimator that consists of an efficient scintillation counter whose ouiput is connected inanticoincidence with the photon counter. Absence of coincidence between the scintillation and photon countersis requited for a photon-counter event to be accepted. Total deposition of energy in the photon counter is imposed by thisrequirement. The coincidence requirement also rejects counts due to charged particles; a particle that caused a count in the photon counter most likely had to traverse the scintillation counter-collimator in order to reach the photon counter, and it would have generated a pulse from the scintillation counter in order to do so. The magnitude of the field of view of such experiments is defined by the size of the opening in the “active collimator’ (.c, the surrounding scintillation © Lunar and Planetary Institate * Provided by the NASA Astrophysies Data System Haymes: Lunar Based Gamina Ray Astronomy / 311 counten, Although total energy-deposition is required and the photon-detection efficiency may be near 100%, activation of the crystals themselves by particle bombardment is a serious source of background. For example, the “collimator” is itself induced by the bombardment to become a radioactive source of gamma rays, which are not distinguished by the system from external cosmic gamma rays coming through the aperture, At high energies in the band, photon leakage through the finite thickness collimator is also a serious background source. To date, the noise (ic, background)-to-signal ratios of actively collimated astronomical experiments have typically been 10 or more, even for the brightest cosmic sources, The two brightest cosmic sources, the central region of the Galaxy and the Crab Nebula supernova remnant, have photon fluxes at 1 MeV that are of order 10* photons/cm*-s, OSSE will attempt to reduce background effects by simultaneously measuring source and background, using its independently targetable 2000 cm? modules. OSSE has an angular resolution of about one degree and an energy-dependent energy resolution that is about 0.05 MeV at 1 MeV. ‘The fourth experiment, called BATSE, is primarily intended to measure cosmic gamma ray bursts with a lower fluence threshold than heretofore available. Its very large photon collection area also makes it a very sensitive detector of rapidly varying existing gamma ray sources, such as pulsars. BATSE consists of six one-square-meter Scintillation counters that are each pointed in different directions from the stabilized spacecraft. They cover the entire hemisphere of sky. So far as is known, bursts seem to originate from all sky locations with equal probability, a burst that occurs anywhere on the hemisphere will itluminate all six counters differently. Each counter uses sodium iodide as the scintillator, for maximum light output and best energy resolution from a large-area detector. The ratios of their count rates will locate the burst on the sky to an accuracy of a degree or so. The time history of their count rates will measure the light curve of the event, and pulse height data ftom the six will provide some information on the energy spectrum of the emitted gamma radiation, Pulses from existing sources are part of BATSE’s data stream. Sources that Rave known “signatures” such as pulsars that have known periods, may be sorted out from the other-data and their energy dependence measured with good precision out to higher energies than previously done. ‘There can be litle doubt that, if successful, the GRO will add greatly to our meager knowledge of the universe at gamma ray wavelengths, But, the. two-year overall lifetime limits the time that may be devoted to.a-given source; variability. information, which may be crucial to a correct ‘understanding, will suffer: The low altitude orbit means that sensitivity will also suffer, since the materials composing the spacecraft and the instruments willbe subjected toa continuous regular bombardment by high energy particles, resulting in relatively high, time-varying backgrounds, THE FUTURE AND THE NEEDS OF THE SCIENCE Its vital, for progress in gamma ray astronomy, to establish small error boxes on the sky for the locations of the different sources. Good locations will make deep searches practical in other wavelength bands, such as the radio and the optical, for counterparts © Lunar and Planetary Institute * Provided by the NASA Astrophysics Duta System 312 / Sclence om the Moon of the gamma ray sources. with optical and other identifications made, progress in understanding the sources is likely. Good positional accuracy for staall-flux sources may be obtained with increased photon collecting atea, or by increased observing time, of by a combination of the two. The importance of long observing times for variability studies has already been noted. As the next step in the post-GRO cre, instruments in the 10- 100 m* class appear to be in order. For missions beyond the GRO, there is the low Earth orbit, long-duration space station. ‘The space station offers the opportunity to conduct first-time measurements of the variability of gamma ray sources. The low allitude orbit, however, also means that a sensitivity, limitation will again be imposed, because of the comparatively intense bombardment by Van Allen and South Atlantic Anomaly particles. ‘What is ileally needed for support of garnma ray astronomy conducted from within Earth's gravitational sphere of influence is an indefinite-duration observatory that is (@) capable of orienting large instruments; (b) located far from large masses; (c) at worst, bombarded by high energy particle fluxes no greater than cosmic ray fuxes; and (€) ‘operated such that its instrumentation may be updated as technology advances. ‘An observatory located at one of the Eatth-Moon Lagrangian Points best fits this ideal. If other considerations rule out such a location, it appears that the surface of the ‘Moon itself would be an acceptable alternative site, A LUNAR OBSERVATORY From Apollo data, the Moon's surface is already known to be a low radioactivity environment, compared with Eatth's surface or atmosphere. Background radiation fom the surroundings will be lower on the hunar surface than it will be in a satellite in orbit about Earth, ‘The Moon is a satellite orbiting at 60 Earth radii, Instruments on the Moon therefore are in orbits well beyond the regions where the geomagnetically trapped particles exist ‘There will be no activation by the intense particle fluxes encountered in the South Atlantic Anomaly. ‘The monthly passage of the Moon through the plasmas in the geomagnetic tail is unlikely to present a problem for gamma ray astronomy, because the energies of the plasma particles in the far tail are-all too low to generate gamma ray photons. shéulel a solar flare occur while the Moon crosses the tail and while Solar-flareions ‘with high energies travel back “upstream’ along the tail, the background will be increased. But the tail crossings are only about five days long, and the rest of each month should be free of such problems. ‘with certain modifications, gamma ray astronomy instrumentation resembling that of a scaled-up GRO payload is envisaged for the lunar observatory. In the context of gamma ray astronomy, a lunar observatory would have much the same goal as does GRO: increased sensitivity measurements over as wide an energy range as feasible. ‘One observatory instrument that would not require pointing Is a spark chamber. ima spark chamber, the incident gamma ray is converted into a positron-electron pair © Lunar and Planetary Institute © Provided by the NASA. Astrophysies Data System Haymes: Lunar Based Gamma Ray Astronomy / 313 of particles; the tracks of these two particles may be measured by the pattern of little sparks they cause as they move through high electric fields in the chamber's fill gas. ‘The length of the tracks yields energy information, and their direction yields directional information, Post-GRO progress would require a spark chamber whose total sensitive volume would be 15 m (diameter) x 3 m thick, filled to one-atmosphere pressure with an inert gas such as argon. Its overall weight is likely to be nearly 100 tons on Earth. Given a GRO-like observing time for a given source, the sensitivity would be improved by a factor of 10 over that of EGRET, Data processing with so large a chamber would become a serious problem, because the hundred-fold increase in gamma ray detection rate would correspondingly increase the rates of non-background (i¢,, non-single-track- events in the chambers volume) events. Each such non-background event requires measurement of the length and direction of the two visible tracks in the chamber. This may be done in principle by humans with photographs; itis more likely to be automatically done with digitized TV pictures and a computer, in the observatory, or done non- photographically, as in the GRO, but with a hundred-fold increase in data rate. Lunar observatory-large spark chamber data rates are therefore likely to be continuously over one Mbit/s, Continuous observations mean that gas leaks must be compensated for. A lunar observatory would requite some ability to store replacement filling gas for the chamber. Double Compton instruments also do not require active pointing; all sources on the visible sky would be simultaneously measured by a double Compton on the lunar surface. A scated-up GRO double Compton with a ten-meter diameter and three-meter height ‘would weigh perhaps 30 tons on Earth, It would have a sensitivity of 10 photons cnt? sec”, given one week of observing. Actively collimated astronomical instruments do require pointing, usually in an on- source, off-source sequence. Future instruments of this type are likely to need pointing accuracy and stability of one arcminute. A hypothetical instrument would have several square meters (total collecting area) forthe photon counter, ‘and the photon counter would be constructed of segmented hyperpure germanium solid-state radiation detectors for maximum energy resolution and lowest induced background. The active collimator used to define the field of view and impose a total energy deposition requirement and the active coded aperture used to define the angular. resolution, would most likely be comprised of thick scintilation counters,On Earth, the instrument would weigh, perhaps 10 tons. « . = Scitilation counters operate well at room temperature. ‘thei ‘hotcmuitplier tubes or photodiodes require temperature stabilization. Germanium gamma ray counters require an operating temperature of below 100.K. I radiative cooling is not practical, cryostats ‘will be necessary, requiring replenishment of the cryogen. The observatory must be able to resupply the cryogen (eg, liquid nitrogen or solid carbon dioxide) as needed. Finally, measurements of gamma ray bursts must be extended. The principal objective here is to attempt to identify the source(s) of the bursts. This means determining their positions on the celestial sphere with arcsecond accuracy, so that other wavelength identifications may be confidently made. Probably the most progress would not be made © Lunar and Phinetary Institute + Provided by the NAS: Astrophysics Data System 314 / Sclence on the Moon with a simple increase in the size of a BATSE derivative, but by significantly increasing the Iength of the baseline available: for measurements of position. A network of burst detectors, each not much larger than the BATSE instrument and that have good (ic,, microsecond or better) event timing accuracy over long times, should be operated simultaneously on the Moon and throughout as much of the solar system as feasible. Each instrument would be sensitive to photons from all directions. Therefore, none of the members of the network would require pointing. ‘The relative timing of the detection at the various sites of a given burst would provide high accuracy data on the angular coordinates of the burst site. Detectors located on the Moon and in tow orbit about Earth could form the beginning of such a network of detectors; these would give a baseline 60 Earth radii long. Such a two-station network could locate bursts with one arcsecond, accuracy (Chupp, 1976). Each detector should additionally have spectroscopic capabilities, at least in the 0.11.0 MeV spectral range and preferably beyond, Large area and long observing time will place severe demands on the dependability of all the instruments. Large instraments tend to be more complex; they are likely to composed of more modules, Long times without failure are difficult to achieve, technically. ‘The availability of a lunar observatory staffed with trained maintenance personnel makes this more practical. A not insignificant contribution to the increased practicality arises from the penetrating power of gamma radiation, Providing the walls of the observatory are at most a small fraction of a gamma ray mean free path in thickness, gamma ray astronomy instruments may be located inside a shittsleeve environment, which facilitates maintenance and calibration. At an energy of | MeY, the gamma ray mean path in aluminum, is 16 gm/cm’, and it is 40 gm/cm’ at 100 MeV photon energy. Long-term measurements could run the risk of instrument obsolescence, if the instruments were not upgraded. The availability of a well equipped observatory staffed with trained scientific personnel and in good communication with Earth obviates this problem. Because of the observatory, investments in large instruments may be cost effective; modifications and improvernents may be made as they develop. REFERENCES ‘Chupp £ 1. (1976) Gamma-ray Astronomy. D. Reide}, Boston. 195 pp. ‘Mayor-Hasselwander HA, Bennett K, Bignaral G. F, Buccheri R, Caraveo P. A, Hemsen W, Kanbach G, Lebrun F, Licht G G, Masnow JL, Paul J A,-Pinkau K, Sacco B, Scarsi L, Swanenburg B, N, and Wills RB. (1982) Large-scale distribution of galactic gamma radiation observed by COS-B, Astron. Astopliys, 105, 164, Paciesas W, Baker R, Bodet D, Brown S, Cline T, Costlow H, Durouchoux P, Ehrmann C, Gebvels N, Hameury J, Haymes R, Teegarden 8, and Tuer J. (1983) A balioon-born instrument for high-resolution astrophysical spectroscopy in the 20-6000 keV energy range, Nucl Instrum. Methods 215, 261-276, Ramaty Rand Lingenféker RF 1982) Gamma-ray astronomy. Annu. Rev. Nucl Part. Sci, 32, 236-269. ‘Samorski M, and Slam Vs. (1983) Detection of 2 x 10!°-2 x 10" eV gamma-rays from Cygnus X-3. Astrophys ‘Lett, 268,117. sav and Planetary Institate * Provided by the NASA Astrophysles Data System Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon: cosmic reionization and more By C.L.Carilli!, J.N. Hewitt?, A.Loeb? ‘National Radio Astr iy Observatory, Socorre, NM, USA. nd Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Cambridge, MA omy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA “XCavli Institute for Astrophysic *Departwment of Astro We discuss low frequency radio astronomy from the moon, predominantly in the context of stndying the neutral intergalactic medium during cosmic using the HI 2lem line of neutral hydrogen. The epoch of reionization is the next. frontier in observational cosmology, and HI 2iem studies are recognized as the mast direct. probe of this key epoch in cosmic structure formation, Current constraints on reionization indicate that the redshifted HI 2Lem signals will likely be in the range of 100 MHz to 180 MHz, with the pre-reionization signal going to as low as 10 MHz. The primary observational challenges to these studies are: + ionospheric phase fluctuations # terrestrial radio frequency interference { '* Galactic and extragalactic foregrommd radiation. Going to the far side of th t vo of these challenges. Moreover, a low frequency telescope will be relatively easy to deploy and maintain on the moon, at least compared to other, higher frequency telescopes. We discuss the potential 2lem siguals frum reionizition, and beyond, and the telescope specifications needed to measure these signals. We then describe ground-based projects enrrently underway to study the HJ 2lem signal from cosmie veionization We include a brief discussion of other very low frequeucy science enabled by being outside the ionosphere. near-term grotnd-based projects will act ns path-findons for a potential future low fro- fadio telescope on the moon, both in terins of initial scientific results on the HI 2lem - signal from costnic rion terins of the telescope design and observing techniques t required to meet the st y and dynamic range requirements. Ifit is found that the terrestrial interference environment, or ionospheric phase fnctuations, preclude ground-based studios of reionization, then it becomes imperative to locate future telescopes on the far side of the moon, Besides pursuing these path-finder reionization telescopes, we recoummend a number of near-term studies that conld help pave the way for low frequency astronomy on the moon noon removes U 1. Introduction ‘There is long standing interest in building a low freqnency radio telescope on the far side of the moon (Gorgolewski 1965; Burke 1985; Kuiper ot al. 1990; Burns & Asbell 1991; Woan ct al. 1997). The reasons are clear (section 2): no ionosphere, and sheilding from terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI). Two factors have acted to rekindle interest in low freanency radio astronomy from moon, First, scientifically, efforts to study cosmic reionization through the redshifted HI 2lem line have spurred mmerons ground-based low frequency projects (section 3). And second is the new NASA ini to the moon, and beyond. 1 Tn this paper we disenss the advantages of building a radio telescope on the far side | of the moon. We present the primary scientific driver in low frequency astronomy to- day, namely HI 2hem studi of the near-term | ground-based telescopes being designed for these studies. We also present other very low li frequency science programs that are enabled by going to the moon. We close with a 1 ive to return Man os of cosmic reionization, and disenss some ‘Ili, Howitt, Loch: Low frequency rudio astronomy from the moon few recommendations for near-term studies that anight prove useful for pkmning a low frequency hmar (elescope, 2. Why the moon for low frequency radio astronomy? We start with the main advantages for considering, the far side of the moon for a low frequency radio telescope. Low frequencies, in the context of this paper. means freqnen: cies, 7 < 200MHz (A > Lm). hn this regime it becomes cheaper, and possibly more offective, to bnild arrays of dipoles, which are clectronically steered through phasing of the dipole elements, as opposed to steerable parabolic reflectors © Tonospheric opacity: The plasina frequency of the Barth's ionosphere varies between roughly 10MHz and 20MHz, making the ionosphere optically thick af lower frequencies, For the reionization experiments diseussed in Section 3, the relevant frequency range is > 80 MHz, honce ionospheric opacity is not an issue. We discuss in Section 4 some very low frequency science, in the range 0.1 MHz and 10MHz, that are enabled by going to the moon, # Tonospherie phase errors: The fluctuating ionosphere also cause variations in elec (ronic path-length, which increase as 72. Hence. fluctuations in the electron content of the ionosphere will preclude low frequency imaging wi correc, tion can be made for electronic phase variations due to the varying ionosphere. Figure 1 n example of ionospheric phase errors ou source positions using VLA data at 74 Mz (Cotton ot al. 2004; Lane of al. 2004), Positions of five sources are shown for a series of snap shot images over 10 hours. A mumber of interesting phenomena can be seen. First, the sources are slowly moving in position over time, by £50" over timeseales of hours, ‘These position shifls reflect the changing clectronic pathlength due to the Aucinating ionosphere (ic. tilts in the incoming wavefront due fo propagation delay). Second, the in dividual sources move roughly independently. This is a demonstration of the ‘isophanatic patch’ problem, ie, the excess electrical path-length is different in different directions. At 74 MIz, the typical coherent p about. 3° to 4°, Celestial calibrators farther than this distance from a target source no longer give alid solution for the combined instramental and propagation delay term required to iimage the target. source, And third, at the ond of the observation there occurs an ionospheric storm, or traveling ionospheric disturbance, which effectively prechides coherent imaging during the event. New wide field self-calibration techniques, involving multiple phase solutions over the field, or a ‘rmbber screen’ phase model (Cotton et al. 2004; Hopkins et al. 2003), are being developed that should allow for self-calibration over wide ficlds. Again, the moon pe antage in this regard, being beyond the Earth’s ionosphere. © Terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI): Another problem facing low frequency vadio astronomy is terrestrial (man-made) interference. Frequencies < 200MHZ are not, protected bands, and commercial allocations include everything from broadcast radio and television, to fixed and mobile communications. At the lowest frequencies (< 1MHz) the Earth's auroral emission dominates. ‘Many gronps are parsing methods for RFT mitigation and excision (see ENingson 2004) ‘These include: (i) using a reference horn, or one beam of a phased array, for constant monitoring of known, strong, RFI signals, (ii) conversely, arranging interferometric phases to prodnce a mnll at the position of the RFT source, and (iii) real-time RFI excision using advanced filtering techniques in time and frequency, of digitized signals both pre- and post-correlation, The latter requires very high dynamic range (many bit sampling), and very high frequency and time resolution, Tn the end, the h synthesis arrays mile, show h size wents a clear advs go fo the remotest ( elfective means of reducing, interference is to Cavilli, Hewitt, Loch: Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon 3 Differential Wander in Virgo A Field Right Ascension Shifts for Five Background Objects 300 1 t - t 200+ 100F =100- Right Ascension Offset (arcseconds) +t -200/- 1 L L 0 rs 4 Hour Angle (Hr) 300 FIGURE 1. The positions of five sources iu the Virgo A field at 74 MHz observed with the VLA over 10 hows (Cotton et al. 2004; Lane et al. 2004). The souzce positions vary with time due to fluctuations in the electronic path-length through the ionosphere sites, A number of the near-term low frequency path-finder telescopes (sce have selected sit ection 4), es in remote regions of Western Anstralia and China, because of known low RFI environments Clearly the best location to avoid terrestrial interference is the far-side of the moon. Fignre 2 shows the effect of the hmar radio shadow on the RAE2 mar orbiter (Alexander ct al. 1975). This orbiter had a low frequency (< 10MHz) radio receiver. The figure shows complete blockage of the Earth's auroral emission during immersion. Note that this interference blockage is the key amgument for the fox side of the moon, ns opposed to a five-flying space radio telescope. © Ease of deployment and maintenance: While not as pointed out that a low frequency telescope may he the eas deploy and maintain on the moon. ‘The antenmas and clectronics are high tolerance, with wavelengths > 1.5m and system noise characteristies dominated by the Galactic foreground radiation. Deployment could be antomated, using cither javelin deployment (BADS/ASTRON), rollout of thin polyimide films with metalie deposits (ROLSS; Lazio ct al. 2006), inflatable dipoles (LUDAR: Corbin et al, 2005), or deployment by rovers. Likewise, being a phased array, low frequency telescopes are electronically steered, and hence have no moving parts. Lastly, there is no potential difficulty with Innar dust a feeting the optics, itifie rationale, it should be it astronomical facility to 4 Cavilli, Howitt, Loch: Low fiegueney ratio astronomy froma the moon. PAVERSOR: 2 i & 8 5 z = 5 # UNIVERSAL TIME 12 BEOFNAFR 17% Ficunr 2. Radio power received by the hmar orbiting radio astronomy explorer satellite in 1973 (RAB: Alex: cluring immersi jer of al. 1975). The power is dominated by the Earth’s auzoral emission except when the Earth is totally blacked by the aioon, 3. Cosmic Reionization Bil, The HI 2tem signal Cosmic reionization corresponds to the transition from n fully nentral intergalaetie medini (IGA) fo am. (almost) fully ionized IGM caused by the UV radiation from the first stan and blackholes. Reionization is a key benchmark in cosmic structure formation, indicat- ing the formation of the first Inminous objects. Reionization, and the preceding ‘dark ages’, represent the last of the major phases of cosmic evolution to explore, Recent ob- servations of the Gunn-Peterson effect, ie. Ly-a absorption by the nentral IGM, toward the most distant quasars (2 + 6), and the large seale polarization of the CMB, have set the first constraints on the epoch of reionization. These data, conpled with the study of high> galaxy populations and other observations, snggest that reionization was a co plex process, with significant variance in both space and time, starting perhaps as high as 2 ~- 14, with the last vestiges of the the neatral IGM being etched-away by 2 ~ 6 (Fan ch al. 20065, Ciardi & Ferrara 2005; Loch 2006). ‘The most direct. and incisive incans of studying cosmic reionization is through the 2tew line of nentral Hydrogen (Furlinetto et.al. 2006). ‘The study of Hi 2iem emission from cosmic reionization entails the study of large seale structime (LSS). During this epoch the entire IGM may be neutral, amd the LSS i question is not sbaply mass Clustering, but involves a combination of strncture in cosmic density, neutral fraction, Cavilli, Hewitt, Locb: Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon 5 (ih) * the - Left: Global (all sky) HI signal from reionization (Gnedin & Shaver 2003). The sh region shows the expected thermal noise in a carefully controlled experiment. Center: Predicte HI 21cm brightuess temperature power spectrum (in log bins) st redshifts 8 and 12 (Meq x1. 2006). ‘The thin black line shows the signal when density Huctuations dominate. The dashed green Tine shows the predicted signal for ionization fraction, Z; = 0.2 at 2 = 12, and a = 0.6 at 2 = 8, iu the Furlanetto et al. (2004) semi-analytic model. The thick blue line shows the Square Kilometer Array (SKA; Carilli & Rawlings 2004) sensitivity in 1000hns. The thiek red dot-dash show the sensitivity of the pathefinder experiment LOFAR. The cntoff at low k is set by the primary beam, Right: The simulated SKA spectrum of a radio continuum source at 2 = 10 (Catilli ot al, 2002), The straight line is the intrinsic power law (synchrotron) spectrums of th source, The noise curve shows the effect of the 2lem line in the neutral IGM, including noise expected for the SKA in a 100 hour integration and HI excitation temperature (Loch 2006). Hence, HI 21cm observations are potentially the ‘richest of all cosmological data sets’ (Loeb & Zaldarriaga 2004). Information about the physies of cosmology (involving the initial perturbations from inflation and the matter content of the universe) can be separated from the astronomical aspects (involving galaxy formation) through the line-of-sight anisotropy imprinted by peculiar velocities on the spectrum of 2lem brightness fluctuations (Barkana & Loch 2005a). We briefly 1¢ a fow of the potential HI 21cm signatures of cosmic reionization © Global signal: The left. panol in Figure 3 shows the latest predictions of the global (all sky) increase in the background temperature due to the HE 2icm line from the weutral IGM (Guedin & Shaver 2003). The predicted HI signal peaks at roughly 20 mix above the foreground at 2 ~ 10. At higher redshift, prior to IGM warming, the kinetic temperature of the IGM will be colder than the CMB temperature. In this case, Lye emission from the first Inminous objects can couple the gas kinetic temperature to the HI spin temperature through the nt scattering of Lya photons (Wonthnysen 19; Field 1959). In this case, the HI will be seen in absorption against. the CMB. Since this is an all sky signal, the sensitivity of the experiment is independent of telescope collecting, and the experiment can be done using small area telescopes at low frequency, with well controlled frequency response (Rogers & Bowman, in prep; Subrabmanyan, in prep). Note that the line signal is only ~ 10~4 that of the mean foreground continmmn eniission at ~ 150 MHz (sce Section 3.2). © Power spectra: The middle panel in Figure 3 shows the predicted power spectrum of spatial Quctuations in the sky brightness temperature due to the HI 2lem line (Mequinn ot al. 2006). For power spectral analyses the sensitivity is greatly enhanced relative to direct imaging due to the fret that th and hence one ean average the measurements in annul in the Fourier (uy) don universe is isotropi ain, ie. the statistics of flctuations 6 Cavilli, Hewitt, Loeb: Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon along an ammulns in the nveplane are eqnivalent. Morcover, imlike the CMB, HI line shudics provide spatial and redshift information, and hence the power spectral analysis ‘cm be performed in three dimensions. ‘The ris uctuations al 2 = 10 peak al about 10 mK rans on seals &~ 5000 (~ 24. @ Absorption toward discrete radio sources: A interesting alternative to emission stud ies is the possibility of stndying sinaller scale structure in the neutral IGM by looking, for HI 21¢m absorption toward the first radio-loud objects (AGN, star forming galaxies, GRBs) (Carilli ct al. 2002). The right pancl of Figure 3 shows the predieted HT 2lem absorption signal toward a high redshift radio source due to the ‘cosmic web’ prior to reionization, based on mumerical simulations. predict an average optical depth de to 21cm absorption of about. 1%, corresponding to the ‘radio Gunn-Peterson effect’, and about five narrow (few km/s) absorption lines per MHz with optical depths of a few to 10%. These latter lines are equivalent to the Ly @ forest. seen after veionization. Furlanetto & Loeb (2002) predict a similar HI 21cm absorption line density due to gas in minihalogi, as that expected for the 2lem fores ‘This absorption experiment: may be the easiest. of the HI 2lem probes of reionization to perform, since it entails absorption against a high brightness temperature object, and hence is less affected by 3D dynamic range issnes, and it can use loug baselines, which susceptable to interference. However, the experiment is predicated on the exis: tonce of at these during reionization. This question has been considered in detail by Carilli ct al. (2002), Haiman et al. (2004), and Jarvis & Rawlings (2005). They jow (hat current, models of radio-loud AGN evolution prediet between 0.05 and 1 radio sources per square degree at 2 > 6 with Sisonm, = 6 my, adequate for reionization HL 2iem absorption studies with the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) @ Tomography: Figure 4 shows the expected evolution of the HE 2tem signal diving reionization based on numerical simulations (Zaldarviaga et al. 2004). In this simulation, the HLL regions cansed by galxy formation are seen in the redshift range 2 ~ 8 to 10, ching scales up to 2! (frequency widths ~ 0.3 MHz ~ 0.5 Mpe physical size). ‘These regions appear as ‘holes in the sky’, with (negative) brightness temperatures up to 20 mk. ‘This corresponds to 5ydy beam™! in a 2" beam ab 140 MHz, Only a fll square Kilometer of collecting will be able to perform the 3D tomographic imaging of the typical strnctnres during reionization (Section 3.3) © Cosmic Stromgron spheres: While dixeet detection of the typical structure of HI and HIE regions may be ont of reach of the pathfinder telescopes (Section 3.2), there is a chance that even these first generation telescopes will be able to detect the rare, very large scale HIE regions associated with Iuuinons quasars near the cud of reionization. ‘The expected signal is ~ 20mK x ay) on scales ~ 10' to 154, with line widths ~ 1 to 2 MHz (\Wyithe et al. 2005), where zzry is the IGM neutral fraction, by volume. This corresponds to 0.5 x ayr) mJy beam”, for a 15! beam at 2 ~ 6 to 7. ‘or a source at 2 = 10, those sinmlations 3.2. Sensitivitics, foregrounds, and telescope requirements A munber of groups have caleulated the expected HI 2lem signals from cosmic reioniza. tion, including large bubbles associated with bright quasars, and clustering of star forming galaxies (Zaldarriagn ct al, 2004; Wyithe et al. 2005; Metlema et al. 2006; Madan et al. 1997). The larger structures will vary from a few to 15 aremin in size, with a depth of 20x ary77 KC. For demonstrative purposes, we assume a target signal for detection of 1OmK and 10’ in size at > = 8. This implies an observing frequoney of v= 158MHz, or | Gosmic mint-hatos are che fis Jeans mass ind collapse, ie, umsses betwe objects: with masses large quough to overcome the cositic n 10" Ma, and 10" M. Cavilli, Hewitt, Locb: Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon 7 y (aremin) “2-10 1 2 x (arcmin) x (arcmin) x (aremin) -1 oO a z log 6T, (mK) istribut 12, 9, 7 (left to right; Zaldarringa et al, 20 vue 4. ‘The simulated HI 21cm brightness: temperatun 2 1g reionization at M4). observing wavelength, = 1.9m, For reference, at z+ 8, 10/ = 3.2 Mpe physical size, or in co-moving coordinates 10° = 3.2/(1+ Mpe co-moving, and in terms of the Hubble expansion, 3.2 Mpe (physical) = 1.6 MHz. The angular size of 10" corresponds to a baseline length of 650m at: 158MH:, "Phe relationship between brightness temperature and flux density is given by: Suyo 13605 N K whore S, is the flux density in Jy, @ is the angular size, in areseconds, and 2 is the observing wavelength in centimeters. For reference, a 10mKX signal at X= 1.9m and @ = 10! corresponds to 73puly. Sensitivity: The sensitivity of a radio telescope is given by the radiometry equation: Taya NK where ¢ is the antenna efficioney, N is the number of antennas, A is the physical collecting area of each antenna, in m®, Av is the bandwidth (Hz), and t is the integration time (seconds). The system temperature, Tuya, is the sum of the receiver temperatnre, which we assume is of order 100 K, and the contribution from the sky foreground. Tho sky is about 90% diffuse Galactic emission, and 10% extragalactic radio sources. In the coldest regions, the sky contributes: (Av t)7¥? Jy Pet a eee tea Tay ~ 10055 5NiZ or about, 200K at 158MHz. In general, at low frequencies the sky brightness dominates the system temperature. Note that the expected signal is roughly 2 x 104 times weak than the diffuse foreground brightness temperature, even in the coldest. regions of the sky. What. collecting area is needed to detect the T3pdy signal at dor at 158MHz in 1000 8 Canilli, Howitt, Loch: Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon brs, asmnining a bandwidth of 1.6MHz and an efficiency of 60%? ‘The required area 3.4 x £0" n®, ‘This corresponds Lo roughly 9500 dipoles, assuming cach dipole collecting area is of order X2 ‘The path-finder arrays will likely not have the sensitivity to perform true 3D. "to mographic imaging’ of the HJ 2iem signal during reionization. "These ar designed to study the statistical signal, ie. the power speetrmm of brightness tensperatare fuciuations due to the structure of the neutral IGM, in a manner sisnilar to the COB statistical detection of CMB brightness temperature fluctnations (see section 3.1). The sensitivity for these near-term mrays to study the power spectrum of the neutral IGM during reionization is shown in Fignre 3. Dynamic range: Besides raw scusitivily, a significant challenge to wide field, low fre~ quency interferometsic hunging is dynamic range, set by residual calibration errors and incomplete Fouricr spacing coverage. Besides the diffuse Galactic foreground, every field will have bright extragalactic and Galactic cont As a rough estimate for the number of sources expected in a given ficld, we adopt a ficld size of 20° x 20°, corresponding to the field of view of a receptor ‘tile’ of 3x3 dipoles. Using the 3C catalog, the bright source counts at 1.9m follows rough rss are boing N(> $) = 0.29 877-55 dog™ where N is the number of sonrees: per deg”? brighter than $ in Jy, Hence, in a typical 100 deg? region, we expect one sonree brighter than 34 Jy at 158 Miz. ‘The dynamic rage requirement = (Peak in field) /(ems required). The mas required for a dor detection = 73/4 = 18 judy. Hence, the DNR = 34 Jy/18 jly = 1.9 x 10° Perley (1999; equ. 13-8) derives the dynamic range lhnit for a synthosis array assuming antenna based phase errors, Ad (in radians): N DNR ~ BRAS ain, N iy the number of elements in the array. Assuming 9500 dipoles grouped 3 tiles implies N = 1055 clements. ‘The requirement then on the phase calibration is: Ag < 0.023°. ‘There have been numerons studies on how to separate the HI 2lem signal from the foreground continuum emission at the required lovels. All these techniques rely on the spectral nature of the HI sign nd emission is synerotron radiation, and hence shows ai most gradual changes with frequency on scales of tens (o hundreds of MHz. ‘The Hl signal is a resonant spectral line, and will have kHz to a few MHz. A number of complimentary approaches have been presented for foreground removal (Morales, Bowman, & Howitt 2005). Guedin & Shaver (2003) and Wang ct al (2005) consider fitting smooth spectral models (power-laws or low order polynomials in log space) to the observed visibilities or images. Morales & Hewitt (2003) amd Morales (2004) present a 3D Fourier analysis of the measured visibilities, where the third dimension is frequency. The different symmetries in this 3D space for the signal arising from the noise-like HE emission, versus the smooth (in frequency) foreground comission, can be a powerful means of differentiating between foreground emission and the reioniation HI line signal. Santos ct al. (2005), Bharadwaj & Ali (2005), and Zaldarriaga et al. (2004) perform a similar analysis, only in the complementary Fourier space, meaning, cross correlation of spcetral channels. They show that the 2lan signal will effectively decorre! 1 MHz, while the foregrounds do not. The overall conelusion of these methods is that spectral decomposition should be adequate to separate fal. The foregrot ructure on seales of ic for chamel separations > Carilli, Hewitt, Locb: Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon 9 synchrotron foregrounds from the HI 2lem signal from reionization at the mK level, as Jong as residual, at least in the absence of residunl significant, frequency dependent calibration errors. 3.3. Telescopes Table 1 summarizes the current experiments under construction to study the HI 2lem signal from cosmic reionization. These experiments vary from single dipole antennas to ndy the all-sky signal, to 10,000 dipole arrays to perform the power spectral a s, and potentially to image the largest structures during reionization (eg. the qnasar Stromgren spheres). Most of the experimonts have a few to 10% of the collecting area of the SKA, and there are many common features. First, they all rely on some form of a wide-band dipole or spiral antenna, eg. log-periodie yagis, sleeve dipoles, or how-ties, with steering of the array throngh electronic phasing of the clements. Second, the front-end electronics are stem performance is dominated by the respon relatively simple (amplificr/balun), since the s sky brightness temperature. Third, most rely on a grouping of dipol ‘stations’, to decrease the field-of-view, and to decrease the data rate into the correlator to a managable level. And forth, the large number of array elements, and the need for wide-field, high dynamic range imaging over an octave, or more, of bandwidth, demand major computing resources, both for basic cross-correlation, and subsequent imaging and analysis. For example, assuming an array of 1000 tiles, a 100 MHz bandwidth, and 8 bit. sampling, the total data rate coming into the correlator is 1.6 Thit s~!. The LOFAR asvay is working with IBM to apply the 27.4 Tflop Blue Gene supercomputing technology to interferometric imaging (Falcke 2006). Figure 5 shows one array under construction. The 21cm Chinese Meter Array (21CMA) involves of order 10" Yagis in weston Chindil Pirst results from these path-finder tele- scopes are expected within the next few years. Experience from these observations in dealing with the interference, ionosphere, and wide-field imaging /dynamic range prob- Jems will provide critical information for future experiments, such as the Square Kilometer Array, or a low frequency radio telescope on the moon. into ‘tile or 3. A number of studies have considered the pre-reionization HI 21em signal (Loob & Zaldar- riaga 2004; Cen 2006; Barkana & Loch 2005b; Shethi 2005). ‘The HT 21cm measurements can explore this physical regime at z ~ 50 to 300, or redshifts 2 > 30. At these fre- quencies, going to the moon becomes more imperative, due to the rapidly increasing ionospheric opacity and phase effects. In this redshift regime the HI generally follows linear density fluctuations, and hence the experiments are as clean as CMB studies, and Tc < Tear, $0 a relatively strong absorption signal might be expected. Also, Silk damping, or photon diffusion, erase structures on scales € > 2000 in the CMB at recombination, corresponding to comoving scales = 22 Mpc, leaving the 21cm studies as the only current method capable of probing to very large € in the linear regime, The predicted rns brightness temperature Auctuations are 1 to 10 mK on scale: 10° to 10° (0.2° to 1”). These observations could provide the best tes janity of density fluctuations, and constrain the running power law: index of mass fluctutions to large ¢, providing important tests of inflationary strneture formation, Sethi (2005) also suggests that a large global signal, up to -0.05 K, might be expected for this redshift range. |. Pre-wionization signal: the difficulty with probing the “dark ages? of non-Ganss + http://eosmobao.ae.cn project. html Fiaure 5. The 2lem Chinese Meter Array (21CMA) in China (hittp://cosmo.bao.ac.cn/project. html), experiment site type vrange Area date goal MHz =m? fark 1" Australia spiral 100-200 fow 2007 All Sky M EDGES?’ — Australia, four-point 100-200 few 2007 All Sky GMRILY India parabola array 150-165 ded 2007 in PAPERS — Australia dipole array 110-190 1e8 2007 21cMat China dipole array 70-200 Let 2007 MWAd! —Australin aperture array 80-300 Jed 2008 LOFAR" — Netherlands aperture array 115-240 Led 2008 SKA’ ? aperture array 100-200 LeG 2015, TABLE 1, HI 2lem Cosmic Reionization Experiments “http://www.atntcsiro.au/news/newsletter/jun05/Cosmological re-ionizat ion, hun “http://www.haystack.mit.edu/ast /arrays/Edges/index.htul “http://eunt.acra.tifr.res.i0/! "GSS = cosmic Stromgren Spheres, PS = powor spectrum, Abs = absorption “Aattp: //astro. berkoley.cdu/~dbacker/EoR/, thttp:/ /cosmso.ao.ac.en/project.htal “http: Awww. haystackaniteda/ast /arrays/myva/’ “http://www. lofarorg/ Aittp://www.skat eloscope.org/ Carilli, Hewitt, Loeb: Low frequency rudio astronomy from the moon u The difficulty in this case is one of sensitivity. The sky temperaturcis > 10"K, and using the equations in section 3.2, it is casy to show that, oven if structures as bright at LOmKX on , it would require ~ 10 square kilometers of collecting area to detect them, For the more typical small scale structure being considered (ie. ~ 10”), the required collecting area increases to 3.6 x 10! m?, The dynamic range requirements: also become extreme, > 10°. It should also be kept in mind that the sky becomes highly {tered due to propagation throngh interstellar amd interplanetary plasma, with source sizes obeying: Onin ~ L(yyig) deg. Hence the all objects in the sky are smeared to > 4” for frequencies < 30 MHz seales of a few areminut 4. Very low frequency science (1 MHz to 10MHz) from the moon A new astronomical window is opened up by going outside the Earth’s ionosphere, between 1 MHz and 10MHz. The lower limit of 0.1 MHz is sct by a combination of the heliospheric plasma frequency, and Galietic free-free absorption. We briefly disenss some interesting science opportmities generated by opening up this window (see Bums this volume). This is clearly an incompletely jist, and a key point is that the most interesting discoveries that come from opening a new astronomical window are usually not predictable. * Coronal mass ejections (CME’s) and space weather: Solar magnetic activity gen crates ionized mass ejections which can severely affoct satellites, and other electronic equiptment, og. associated with a hmar base, These CME’s can be studied at low rai frequencies (Bastian 2006), both passively Unongh various plasma radiation processes, and through remote sensing (radar). A low frequency radio telescope could play an impor- tat role as part of a severe space weather “early warning system’, allowing for appropriate action to be taken for satellite and hmar base safety. * Phanctary radio emission: Bursts of low frequency emission from Jupiter were dis- covered carly-on by Franklin & Burke (1956), associated with the interaction between the Jo-driven ion torus and Jupiter's magnetic ficld. Many other low frequency emis n mechanisms exist for phmets, raging from aurural emission interaction of the solar wind and planetary magnetic fields, to lightening in planetary atmostpheres (Woan ot al. 1997), © Extrasolar planetary radio burst frequency and signal strength of Jupiter-burst type radio emis plancts Imown at the time, ba course relationship between planct mass and radio power (Figure 6). A low frequency radio telescope has the potential to be an effective planct-finding instrument through low frequency radio bursts at. the my level hetween Jand 100 MHz © Nentrino inte sociated with the Lazio ot al. (2004) has caleulated the expected m from all extrasolar ed ona mctions with the hmar regolith: High energy neutrinos passing through: the Innar regolith (from the far side), may interact with the regolith, genorating a shower of cnergetic particles which cmit a burst of beamed Cherenkov radiation. Attempts have been made to nse the moon as a neutrino detector through the resultant low frequency radio cission (Hankins et al. 2000). A set of local detectors on the moon could be used to study the emission in sir (Paleke 2006) © Synchrotron emission by intergalactic collisiouless shocks: The shocks produced by converging flows in the intergalactic modium accelerate a power-law tail of electrons. to relativistic energies. The synchrotron emission hy these electrons in the post-shock magnetic fields paints a cosmic web of radio emission md should be brightest at low frequencies (KKeshet et al. 2005). The emission is already seen in the accretion shocks around X-ray clusters (Bagchi et. al. 2006). B Cavilli, Howitt, Loch: Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon. PE ET OPP 100 1000 10 0.1 0.01 Fiavne 6, Predicted radio burst flux densities from all known extrasolar planets (Lazio ct al. 20014), with approximate indication of the sensitivity (blue dash-dot line) of a ground-based long-wavelength (eleseope like the Long Wavelongth Array (Kassin ot al. 2006), assuming a 15 mninute integration, 5. Near-term lunar investigations ‘There are a umber of ismes that could be investigated in preparation for a hmar implementation of a low frequency radio telescop: Lunar ionosphere: Studies in the 1970's using the LUNA himar orbitors, suggested that the moon may have a significant ionosphere, with a day side plasma frequency of about IMHz and a night side value of 0.2 MHz (Vyshlov 1974). ‘The origin, or even existence, of this ionosphere remains unclear (Bauer 1976), with possible sonrces being radionctivity on the moon, eapinre of the solar wind, and ionization by cosmic rays: Even if real, the plasma frequency is still at lonst. an order of magnitude below the arth's value, hence opacity is not an issue. However, the issne of electronic path-length variations dne to the Iunar ionosphere needs to be explored. Experiments are needed to test the existence of the Imnar ionesphere, and if real, determine if there are significant clocizonie path-length variations at freqnencies < 200 M. © Computing requirements and power consumption: We discussed in section 3.3 that the data rates for a full-up array to study reionization are extreme (1.6 Th/s). The station 1a cannot be transmitted dircetly to Earth, but need to correlated on the moon, The r LOFAR draws 0.15MW power consimption is significant, eg. the Bluc Gene correlator fe of power, Thi ss the potential requirement, of low power supercomputing, and design siudies are required (o address this issue. OF course, for an initial snall t the data rate may be managable, eg. 8 elements with 200 MHz/8 bit sampling implies: Int rate of only 12.8 Ghit s~!. On the timescales heing considered (~ 2020). Moore's Jaw for computing shoutd also provide significantly more capabilities Gum are currently available, ssh are Carilli, Hewitt, Loch: Low frequency radio astronomy from the moon 13 © RFI shielding: Given the power requirements above, it has been proposed to locate the array in a crater near the himar pole (Heidemann 2000; Woan ct al 1997). Within the crater there can be a region of pennanent shadowing from the Earth, and yet on the crater's rim there may be eternal sunlight, The question arises: how fur around the limb of the moon does the array have to be for adequate shiclding from terrestrial radio emission? © Current arrays: The current: arrays will be key path-finders in the study of cle- nent design, array design, foreground removal, wide-field imaging with large fraction bandwidths, correlation of many element interferometers, and related. ‘These arrays will also demonstrate whether the requisit very high dynamic range images (~ 10°) can be gencrated in the presence of large ionospheric phase distortions and strong terrestrial interference. If not, then the far side of the moon becomes imperative for future probes of this key epoch of cosmic evoluti * Form a lunar radio telescope working group, to help coordinate near-term studies related to a future lunar radio array, and provide finding for preliminary stndies related toa Innar radio telescopes. * Enforce ITU agreement 22.22, keeping the Inox far-side a radio quict zone on. c reionization is the next fronticr in observational cosmology. The HI 2lem signal at low frequencies from the neutral IGM during reionization is the most direct probe of the physical processes involved in reionization, A: number of low frequency, ground-based path-finder arrays are being planned to make the first detection of the neutral IGM during reionization. ‘The far-side of the moon presents the unique opportunities of being outside the Earth’s ionosphere, and shielded from terrestrial interference Beyond supporting the current gronnd-based efforts, we have proposed a number of design, environment, or technical studies that could be performed to pave the way to a hmar low frequency radio telescope. Lunar development could he staged, while providing results of scientific interest along the way. A simple experiment would be a single low frequency dipole to study the all-sky reioni ignal. The next phases could involve arrays of similar aperture to the enrrent ground-based arrays, to study the statistical signal, and other aspects, like absorption toward very high z radio sources. The final stage could entail a full square kilometer of collecting area to perform 3D tomographic, imaging of the ucutral intergalactic medium during cosmic reionization, We should point out that: the Enropeans are well along in planning for the first antomaated low frequency radio iglorore ‘on the moon, with a planned Ariane V lame sometime in the coming aceadd CC thanks the Max-Plauck-Gesclischaft and the Humboldt-Stiftung for partial sup- port through the Max-Plmck-Forschnngspreis. AL was supported in part by Harvard University and FQXi grants. We thank the authors of the papers referenced in the figure captions for pennission to reprodnee their figure, and J. Lazio for comments REFERENCES Alexander, J. K., Kaiser, M. L., Novaco, J. C., Grena, F, R., Weber, R. 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Ad, 57, 31-33 Zaldarrioga, M., Furlaetto, S., Hengnist, L. 2004, ApJ, 608, 622 This text file "mequinn.txt.gz" is available in "gzipped" format from: h/0702070v 1 New Astronomy from the Moon: A Lunar Based Very Low Frequency Radio Array Yuki David Takahashi Department of Phy Unive ies and Astronomy, ity of Glasgow Thesis submitted to the Univer of Glasgow for the degree of Master of July 2003 @Yuki David Takahashi, 2003 Acknowledgements L would like to thank Dr, Graham Woan for welcoming me to work toward Moon-based astronomy as a master’s researeb project and for beng a very approachable advisor Whenever | went. to his office, Graham always welcomed me to sit down and we discussed as long as we wanted to, Tapprec’ ‘ed his openness to let me do anything I was motivated todo, I thank him for being a good listener, respecting my ideas and opinions. Whenever [asked him a question, he gave me new insights. Also, his inputs on the simulation studies were very valuable. I wished I had learned to take even more advantage of his expertise instead of t for h As ng too Jong to solve things by myself. Finally, 1 thank him als patience. ‘Phanks to the rest of the friendly people of the A\ tronomy rophysics Group at the University of Glasgow. I would also like to thank Dr. Clandio Maccone for his encouragement. ‘There is not enough space to express how much J appreciate helpfinl answers and support from Dr, Kuré Weiler, Dr. Wendell Mendel, Dr. David Schrank, Burton Sharpe, Dave Doody, Phil Ventnrelli, Luis Armendariz, Chris Hirata, Josh Hale, Brad Zamft, and many others. Also, thanks to the US-UK. Pulbright Commission for fimding. ny UK I would like to dedicate this to all the people who have dreamed of doing astronomy valuable year in the James (especially at the new very low frequencies) from the Moon: Stan Gorgolewsk Donglas, late Harlan Smith, Jack Burns, John Basart, Stewart Johnson, Jeffrey . Michael Preston, Graham Woan, Jean-Lonis Bongeret, Neb Duric, Brian Dene nison, Michael Kaiser, Cl lor, Wendell Mendell, Kurt Weiler, Namir Kassim, Dayton Jones, Tom Kuiper Mahoney, Robert adio Maccone, and to all the additional people who will help make this happen. My wish is that this work contributes in any way to inspire peo- ple toward the Moon to learn about the miverse through the new, very low freqnen window, Finally, 1 dedicate this thesis to my Father and Mother who put their effort into raising me to he a hard worker. Declaration of Originality Except where specific reference is made to the work of others. this thesis has been composed by the author Abstract, to contribute toward a proposal to s up a very low frequency (VLF: < 30 Miz) radio observatory on the mar surface, ‘The primary motivation for s to learn about. our uni ral window this proposal i erse through a completely new spe in astronomy by taking advantage of the nique hmar environment. ‘he secondary motivation is to take on a challenge of building and operating a facility on the Moon, lly through international cooperation, and to inspire everyone who looks at the spec Moon. After canse, the the explaining these motivations and reviewing foregoing efforts toward this examines unsolved questions about the advantages of the hmar envi- ronment, proposes a preliminary observatory to be set up at the lunar south pole, and identifies desirable measurements to be made at the e: est opportunities, Chapter 1 describes the motivations for astronomy from the Moon, particularly at very low frequencies. ‘The Moon offers a unique environment that enables astronomical lar the Moon can be utilized as observations that, are otherwise impractical. In partic a shield against unwanted radiations and as a large stable platform. ‘These advantages are e and interference have ucial for VLF astronomy. ‘Thus far the Earth's ionosph prevented any detailed observations at frequencies below “30 MHz, keeping this VLF window the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum yet to be explored in astronomy. Accordingly the potential for imexpected discoveries is significant. ‘The himar far side may well be the only a cessible site that enables sensitive galactic and. extragalactic VLP observations. ‘Yo realize this idea, Chapter 2 reviews the extensive foregoing efforts toward a Moon- ed WLE ob and was advanced significantly during the 1980s, especially at a workshop dedicated to a lunar far side VLP array. In the 1990: Hughes Aircraft Company, the International Space University, and the European Spa‘ bas rvatory and identifies the next steps. ‘The idea began in the mid-1960s s, serious design studies were conducted by the Agency. Referring to all these work, this chapter presents a background on observational considerations and the ob ems to be that rvatory design. ‘The current NSEMSUS SC although an array on the far side of the Moon is seientifi cally ideal and technologi cally feasible, funding is unlikely until the far side access hecomes inexpensive. To accelerate and the pace for this proposal, the key is probably to raise people’s interest in this proj its significant discovery potential, Also, the necessity of the Moon should be reaffirmed VLE arva ‘y measurements (Chapter 3), an affordable preliminar should he proposed for an initial sky survey (Chapter 4), and neces should he made ut zing every opportnnity presented by the upcoming lunar missions (Chapter 5). Chapter 3 examines questions that nnst: he resolved to confirm the advantage of the Junar surface for a VLE observatory. We must verify that (1) the Moon can shield the interference sufficiently. (2) any hmar ionosphere does not limit the observations, and (3) the Tunar surface and subsurface do not disturb the observations, ‘To address various issues relevant to the VLF array project, a general tool was developed to simnlate the propagation of radio waves in the mar environment. ‘This tool was used to investigate (1) how radio waves penetrate into the Imiar surface for possible snbsurface reflections back np to the antermas, and (2) how well the Moon shields long wavelength radio interference, On the far side locations over half way (46 degrees) from the limb, the simulations seem to show that radio waves would be attenuated by at least 10 orders of magnitude, even at a very low frequency of 50 kHy, scale observatory on the hmar far side, a crucial s Prior to a full ‘ep now is to pro- pose a realistic preliminary version at a more accessible site on the Moon, examined in Chapter 4, It will be for conducting an initial sky survey and (esting an array on the Iunar surface. ‘The most economical method of deploying such lightweight antenna ° could be as a piggyback payload on some fimded lander, most likely to Uhe Inar sonth xo the s pole. ‘This wa e transportation, power, and comun- Wy, the project can utili nication systems required for further hinar development. A study was condneted to ing the 5-lan tall Malapert Mountain near the mar south explore the possibility of v pole as a shield against terrestrial radio interference. Simulations seem to indicate a several orders of magnitnde attemation over a region spanning ~50 km on the far side of Malapert Mountain, A preliminary concept is developed for the first mar VF array to be deployed in this shadowed region To he able to choc the site and design the observatory, Chapter 5 makes recom- measurements to be proposed for upcoming mis mendations for specific sions including SMART-1, LunarSat. and SELENE. It is sites and to determine the electron density profile above the hmar surf especially critical to obtain detailed topology at candidate at various times and locations, ‘The final chapter includes my vision for how an international effort can make this project happen, Suggestions are given for an orbiting precursor array by ~2010, a surface array near the hmar south pole by ~2015, aud ultimately a far side array after 2020. Many nations share similar ambitions toward the Moon, including the United State European Union, Japan, China, India, Camada, and Russia, Let us hegin seriously exploring how to tum: the individual objectives into a united proposal. 1 believe the Moon offers unique and significant opportmnities for inspiring and uniting, everyone on Kavth Contents Motivation 1.1 Why Moon?............ Seat 1.2 Why astronomy from the Moon? .... 6... 6 eee eee 1.3. Why very low freqneney astronomy from the Moon? . 1.3.1 New view of the unive 1.3.2. Need for the Moon .. . . 1.3.3. Feasible & urgent fi step Foregoing Effort and Next Step 21 22 23 24 25 2.6 27 Uistorical overview 2. Design studies... 0... Current consens Next steps toward real Confirmation of Lunar Advantage 31 32 33 34 (Qiiestions.¢o-tesolvet tad see eee eo epee tetera eat 3.1.1 Shielding of interference are a eee eb bet acetates 3.1.2 Lunar ionosphere... 20... Pe ee eebe sei pete 3.1.3 Lunar surface Studies using radio wave 3.2.1 Radio way 3.2.2 Lunar electrical properties 60.0. ee jimulation . 3.2.3 Lunar ionosphere Study I: Radio w. Study I: shielding by the Mom... eo. ee Sod Setup oe oreo 3.4.2 Results ve penetration into the hmar surface... 2... Interference Conclusions 20 4 Proposal for the Pirst Observatory 4.1 Aflordable option for initial snrvey ALL Realistic possibilities 4.1.2 Lamar south pole 12 udy HL: Interference shielding by Malapert Mountain, 1 Setup Results, 4.3 Concept for the first mar south polar VLE array ABA Reqnirements & constraints 1.3.2 Summary of options 3 Observatory site A.3A Array 4.3.5 Preliniumy con ep 3.6 Commmniention architecture / data dolivery ART Array deploy nent & operation 5 Recommendations for Precursor Measurements 5.1 Lamar environment characterization 6. oe es 5.1.1 Lamar ionosphere « 5.1.2 Barth interference 5.2 Site Selection 5.2.1 ‘Topology 5.2.2 Subsurface refloct 5.2.3 Magnetic field 5.24 Other criteria 5.25 Candidates 6 Vision and Prospect 611 6.1.1 Common Innar exploration scenario imoline . 6.1.2 Orbiter precursors ~2010 .. . . « 613 S 20102020 6.14 Lunar far side 2020~ face Avra; 6.2 Call for international cooperation . 6.3 Conelusion A Moon’s Physical Characteristics 60 Gl 2 2 (2 n a 1 72 2 3 u 7 Chapter 1 Motivation ‘The primary motivation for setting up a very low frequency (VLP) observatory on ¢ through a completely new spectral window the Moon is to learn about our univer in astronomy . The secondary motivation is to take on a challenge of building and operating a facility on the Moon, especially through international cooperation, and to inspi at the Moon. everyone who looks 1.1. Why Moon? ‘The Moon has a mique potential for inspiring and uniting everyone on Earth because it is the one common object, save the Sun, that virtually everyone regalarly. Human presence on the Moon would provide everyone with something permanent to look up to in the heavens for inspiration. ‘The astronants’ visits between 1969 and 1972 must have impacted billions of people around the world, but they were temporary and with primarily nationalistic motivation. Going there again and doing something fascinating, on such a universally familiar and visible heavenly body could inspire a new generation of people. Many may ‘ay “we've been there” or “the Moon is boring — there’s nothing there”, but such remarks must be based on no actual experience. While the potential for life on Mars is iting, roboti ploration may be initially sufficient. More people, incding children, can better relate to the Moon s imply because it is so much more visible and familiar We have additional reasons to go to the Moon, including seience [1], further explo- ration, and resource utilization. Studies of the Moon can teach us much about how the Solar System and the Earth formed. ‘The Moon also provides unique environment: for once ud astronomy, including high vacuum, small but finite gravity, and a stable surface. Being the closest and the most accessible body in onter spac e, it is the perfect first step for validating technology for further space exploration. yen for humans to In ce on the Moon will be valuable in minimizi g0 to Mars, gaining experi 1g the ris nudition, the presence of water ice af the hina south pole is promising for production of Tike propellant for farther exploration from the Moon, Finally, the Moon has resources Wie that may be brought back to arth to potentially serve the world’s cnorgy needs (2. Ont of the wmions possible activities on the Moon, astronomy ix probably the most sensitive to the 0 Jiqne Innor environment, 1.2 Why astronomy from the Moon? The ability to place telescopes above the Earth's obscnring atmosphere has revolntione ized the human view and mnderstanding of the universe (for example, the Cosinie Back gronud Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope). Placing teleseopes on the Moon presents: additional advantages in many cases. Cortain astronomical obsorvations are likely to become possible only from the lunar surface. In 1986, nearly 10M) scientists and engineers gathered for a workshop on Future Astio- nomical Observatories on the Moon, sponsored by the National Aeronantics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Astronomical Society {3}. ‘There the par Uicipants identified many advantages of the hmar surface over both earth-based and space-based locations for astronomy. ‘the Innar surface presents unique advantages in mainly Ure respects: shielding of mmwanted radiation, large stable platform, and ne- cossibility. Moon as a shield In free space, telescopes are constantly bombarded with radiation from the Sun and other relevant noise sources, ‘The Moon, being » large body unlike anything else in the nearby space, can shield unwanted radiation from intense sources like the Sun and Barth ‘The Sun is the rongest source, emitting all types of radiation and particles by means of solar wind, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In free space, the Sun interferes with astronomical observations almost continnonsly, while telescopes in orbit. go in and out of the solar influence frequently, ‘Telescopes ou the lunar surface can avoid all the radiation from the Sun during the two weeks of night. ‘The ighttime temperature on the Moon falls from ~100 K at “midnight” to ~90 K just before the sunrise, according to the Lanay Sonreebook [4]. Also, at a depth of 30 cm, the temperatnre is expected to be very stable ab ~260 K with only £3 K variation [4]. Equipment can be buried in the regolith for protection against thermal stress from temperature extremes on the surface, Perhaps the coldest: and the most thermally stable locations known are the permanently dark interiors of craters in the polar region: the temperatme is expected to he ~40 K and very stable [4]. ‘This allows passive cooling of thermal detectors with minimal noise for infrared observations, For cases in which the Earth is a large noise source, the far side of the Moon is the only accessible location that can avoid I] the radiation from Barth, including seattered light, thermal flux, and radio interfer Moon as a large stable platform In free space, high stability is difficnlt to achieve because orbits are not static. ‘T makes formation flights with long baselines for interferometry very difficult. On the Moon, a very large and very stable platform is available for maintaining astronomical ster facilities n permanently stable configurations. No thr or propellas sary for positioning or station keeping. ‘This stability level may be feasible only on the Moon due to difficulty in formation flying and vibration control in free space, Also, in free space, destabilizing or corrective forces induce motions. For example, coolers for detectors produce vibrations that can take a long time to damp ont in free space [5]. ‘Phe Moon is a large fixed platform to push against and to damp out vibration. Moon for lower risk ‘Telescope deployment. or any necessary constriction is much less risky on a solid platform with gravity (han in free space where everything needs to be kept track of (for example by tethering). Facilities on the Moon are accessible by humans for maintenance, especially with a nar base established nearby. Accessibility from a nearby Iuar base allows service and npgrades for never-ending contributions to astronomy. If there is a surface presence, maintenance and commissioning, as well as upgrades and expansion, are easier, resulting in longer lifetimes. Anything constructed on the Moon stays on the surface permanently, as opposed to in free space where the spacecraft lifetime is limited in various ways. Nearly real-time communieatic Moon (3 seconds ronnd trip). is possible between the Earth and the Applications: Astronomy from the Moon has been advocated since at least the mid-1960s as soon as the Moon became accessible. At least four major meetings have been dedieated to advance this idea: 1986 Future Astronomical Observatori s on the Moon (NASA Workshop) (3) from a Lunar Base (NASA Workshop) [6] 1990 Astrophysics from the Moon (NASA/AIP Workshop) {7} 1997 Astronomy from the Moon (LAU Joint: Discussion) [8] 1989 Physics and Astrophysi ‘Fhe lamar observatory concepls that have atizncted the greatest interest are the jimar far side very low frequency radio array and optical/infrared interferometer. For example, in 2002, NASA fimded a sindy to investigate the human- aided construction of large Innar telescopes, in which Duke ct al (5] considered an infrared telescope to be in a permanently shadowed oor of a crater near (he hinar south pole. 1.3 Why very low frequency astronomy from the Moon’? Each time a new part of the electromagnetic spectrim was used to observe the universe, humans made significant discoveries, many of them unexpected, ‘Thanks to the space progeams, the universe has been studied at all parts of the rum from gamma rays to radio waves, except the very low frequencies below «30 MHz. ‘The VLF radio waves are seattored and reflected by the Earth's ionosphere, malking astronomical observations practically impossible from the ground, Even from outer space, noise from the Rarth and the Sun turned out to be too overwhohni 1y observations outside the Solar ig for a System. ‘The only way to avoid this radio interference seems to be to use the Moon as a shield. For this reason, the hmar far side VLF axray has been the most seriously investigated concept for a Moon-based observatory, with the greatest number of papers written for it 1.3.1 New view of the universe ‘The part of the electromagnetic spectrnm below ~30 MLlz. remains the only unexplored window in tronomy. VLE astronomy therefore has a significant potential for even 1 discoveries. Outside the ionosphere ‘The Earth's ionosphere has largely prevented ground-based astronomy at frequencies below the phisma entoff of LD MHz, Evon at 10 MHz or above, the ionosphere setters the low frequency radio waves, worsening the angular resolution. For example, the best map of the radio sky to date at 10 MHz has a poor resolution of ~S° (Figure 1.1). ‘The upcoming ground-based Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is proposed to observe at down to 10 Miz, but no lower {9} frequen bother parts of the electromagnetic spectrum inaccessible from the Earth, observae tories were placed in onter space and have revolutionized the hnman view of the universe helow 10 Miz, the only view of the universe we have is from plover 2 (RAE-2) satellite in 1973 (Pigure 1.2). ‘This s rried only a pair of dipole antennas, so it had almost no angular resolving, power. At very low frequenci the Radio Astronomy ellite ci Without an appreciable angular resolution, this image provides almost no information 6 about what individual objects may constitute the intensity. ea ure 1.1: A 10 MHz map of the south- Figure 1.2: All image at “2 MA cm sky at ~5° resolution, by Cane & Er- from the Radio Astronomy Explorer 2 ickson in 2001 [10]. satellite in 1970s (11). Discovery potentials Outside the Karth’s ionosphere, the plasma cutoff for the local interplanetary medium is 30 kz: thus, nearly three new decades in frequencies can become available for astronomy. While this VLF range is conventionally included in the “radio” window of the clectromagnetie spectrum, itis as wide as amy other window in astronomy (Figure 1.3) rage wus mye my ‘waveength io* 10" 10" 16% 10° 10% 10° 70 0) 7 ! tregueney tH) 102, 10% 10% 108 ae Toy 10" 10" 10° 10 rian’ Hie ee “0 et oe ae EOE ish iis COE Peer ns Mtew ofthe 2 Figure 1.3: A new window for astronomy at very long wavelengths / very low frequencies, (All-sky maps oredits: NASA) and Observations at VLF will likely uncover new objec -w phenomena never seen before at higher frequencies. For example, new candidates for dark matter could be di covered. We can also look forward to totally unexpected discoveries. Opening up this new window may be compared to becoming able to see infrared radiation with our eyes: we can hardly imagine what we might discover about the world, We will be able to study phenomena not manifested in any other spectral band, in- cluding “low energy cosmic ray particles, thermal environments of discrete radio sources, and coherent radiation aris [12]. As James Douglas [13] statod, phenomena that ean best be studied at low freqnen- ng from collective plasma processes”, according, to Neb Durie cies include galactic synchrotron emission, absorption hy Hy regions, and intorstel- lar/interphmetary scattering: phenomena that can only be studied at Jow frequencies are planetary /so 1 non-thermal emission (plasma instabilities in comfigurali impos: sible to produce in Jab). He stresse that “the appearance of radio sky ak one degree resolution below 10 Miz still unknown”, and that “quite strong but. very steep spee- (rum sonrees ald exist al 1 Miz, unsuspected from any work done to date. Joba Basart et al (1997) stressed that “cosmic rays represent the most energetic form of matter and trace the highest encrgy phenomena,” and their origin is “perhaps the most fandamental question still remaining from the era of classieal phy Motivations Concrete scientific motivations for VLP astronomy are well desc reports by Wetler & Jones (1999) [15], the Enropean Space Agency (1997) [16], Bongeret. (1996) [17], BSA. (1992) [1], Weiler (1990) [18] and are simply ontlined here: Now phenomena, new objects, and now physies = Discover unusual phenomena, now classes of objects and processes. Discover new coherent, radio emitters, millisecond pulsars, and extrasolar planets. — Identify mechanisms of relativistic electron emission, injection, acceleration, diffusion, absorption, and evolution. Study puis’ coherent emission regions. ~ Study plasma effects (freo-free absorption, suppression of radiation by a cold plasma, synchrotron self-absorption, physics of electrically chargod dusty plasinas) Study diffusive shock a eration processes, ‘* Galaxy formation and evolution Detect. fossil radio galaxies, very high redshift radio galaxies and clusters. — Study cosmic ray diffusion times away from galactic disks (galaxy halo emiis- sion). Study magnetic fleld distributions in galaxies (galactic caster halos and in- torgalactic magnetic fields) ~ Measure intergalactic medium, - Map di ss and halos of nonmal galaxies, radio galaxies and qua ¢ Interstellar medium Map the distribntion of diffinse ionized hydrogen (jy), “the only major com ponent of the interstellar mediun that has not yet been surveyed” 19} ~ Sindy composition and disteibntion of thermal and non-thermal (ielativistie) ‘gases in the interstellar medium. ~ Stndy the origin of inters jollar plasma turbulence and the energy transport. © Origin of cosmic rays = Detect and image old galactic supernova and q-ray burst remnants to find possible cosmic ray acceleration sites, Map distributions of galact low-energy cosmic ray electrons to understand cosmic ray acceleration and transport. © Our solar systom ~ Sindy the plmetary /solar non-thermal radiation from plasma instabiliti in conditions impossible to produce in laboratory (only possible at VLF [13]) Observe interplanetary medium (solar wind turbulence), Sun: map the propagation of electron streams through the corona (Type UI forecast the bunsts) and propagation of coronal shock waves ('ype II burs arrival of coronal mass ejection ~ Jupiter: Determine the location of non-thermal emission in the magneto- sphere to understand the emission process. ~ Earth: Globally image terrestrial magnetosphere to study its interaction with the Sun, ~ Moon: Study its ionosphere and exosphi jolar wind: 1, response to varying conditions, and the ionized environment above the surface. "The first detailed observation at very low frequencies will mark history in astronomy. It could create revolution in human view of the universe, Venturing to open the window ito the unknown could return an timaginable reward, 1.3.2 Need for the Moon ‘To make all these discoveries, VLF astronomy will need to be based on the Moon for two main reasons: (1) the necessity to use the Moon as a shield against overwhelming radio interference from the Earth and the Sum, and (2) the requirement. for keeping the interferometric array elements in a stable configuration on a rigid structure like the hunar surface. Need for interference shielding In 1968, to make the first VLP inex roments (in @ frequeney range of 0.2 - 9.2 MHz), the Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 (RAE-1) satellite was lannched into an orbit 6000 kan high [20]. “This and other satellites like the Interplanetary Monitoring Platfoun (IMP) sevies [21] discovered that the Barth itself had often vory intense emissions ab rial emissions, both natural (auroral) and man-made, RAE-L also detected very low frequencies. Sich Lerre sorionsly interfered with attempts at astronomical observations, many Solar bursts ind emissions from Jovian phinets [22). Based on evidence collected ‘es encountered ontside from a number of spacceralt, Figures Ll aud 1.5 show the som the Barth's ionosphere, Ss 1 s & 3 4 overage flux density (Jy) 10724 0.01 0.10 4.00 10.00 100.00, frequency (MHz) Fignre 1: Flux densities of active radio sources in the 10 kil - 100 MHz range, from ice of 4 1997 ESA mport [16]. adapted from Zarka et al [23]. ‘This shows the siguific interference compared to the background. Ay is the effective aren of the antenna, All the galactic and ex objects to be discovered are hidden in the sky/galuctie background, ‘he Barth's auroral kilometsie radiation (AKR) and $ type 111 storms dominate the middle of the VLY spectral window. ‘The AKR is in a very ragalaet low freqoney range of 50~750 kHz, but very intense, Even emissions from Jupiter and ‘Satuen can be comparable to the galactic background, depending on the antenna’s effec- tive area and beam pattorn. Unless the Sun, arth, and the planets are the observation 0 10" 10 Flux Density (W/m*/Hz) 10° 10° MHz | Hho ahd tba ab lho KHZ Overview fhux spectra of the principal sources of noise in the terrestrial environment below 10 MHz, from Desch 1990 [24]. The flux densities of the Earth-based sonrces are as seen from almost half way to the Moon, While the spectral estimates may be relatively outdated, this plot shows the “Spherics”, including both man-made and lightning emissions, dominant above ~1 MHz. targets, all these are serions interference that is very variable in time (Figure 1.6) In addition to the AKR, terrestrial interference includes signals from communication transmitters both on the ground and in orbit. Above ~2 MHz, man-made transmissions nd have been recorded by the WIND/WAVES experiment ach as 4 orders of magnitnde stronger than the cosmic background even from leaks through the ionosph to be as a distance of half way to the Moon (Figure 1.7) [25]. As the wavelengths corresponding to very low frequencies are tens of metres to kilometres, astronomical observation requires an interferomotric array of dipole antennas: jgnre 2.2). Be from any visible source in the sky constitutes interference, In space, the Ea nse cach dipole antenna has very limited directivity, the noise th and Sun (as in are always visible, producing interference beyond a wauageable level for VLF astronomy, cxovee ee ee oan toons) Figure 1.6: Solar bursts, AKR, and Jupiter's emissions seen by the Radio Receiver Band 1 (RADI) of W. wwestigaitions on the WIND spacecraft [26} WIND/WAVES November 17, 1994 tert te Figure 1.7: Man-made vadio transmissions seen by RAD2 of WIND WAVES [2 ‘These interference sources are not only strong but also unpredictably variable in timo; therefore, subtracting them is i ical, Basart ct al [14] demonstrated how the intterference constrains sensitive imaging at low frequencies from space. They concluded that, terrestrial interference would always be a problem unless (1) the array is fur from the arth in solar orbit, (2) the array is on the far side of the Moon, or (3) sophisticated bandwidth selection techniques are used to avoid interfering signals. Solar oxbit will still be subject to the intense solar radiation. Bandwidth selection techniques will not help pet nm, as produced by natural sources. ‘Thns, is the Moon. A if the interference has a continuous § the only practical sbield against the very long wavelongth interforen VLF array amst be placed where the Moon blocks the Earth, In outer space, the only physical way to avoid such interference is to shield the antennas with something much larger than the wavelength of the Since the relevant wavelengths are up to kilometres, the only available shield large ‘enough nearby the arth is the Moon. Following the RAE-1 satellite, therefore, RAB-2 was launched in 1973 to an orbit around the Moon (Figure 1.8). 228-m UPPER V 37-m DIPOLE VELOCITY LIBRATION DAMPER, VECTOR 123-m {183-m LOWER V Figure 1.8: Radio Astronomy Explorer 2 satellite with its dipole antennas [20] tance of the eral from the d The terrestrial interference would he weaker in ge Moon and completely eliminated while on the other side of the Moon. Figure 1.9 shows how significant the terrestrial interference is even at the Moon and how it is eliminated behind the Moon, While the satellite was in the geometrical shadow of the Earth behind the Moon, the antenna temperatures dropped by a few orders of magnitude, ‘This was an enconraging result for the futnre of radio astronom ers MERSIN [ee UUNIVERSA TIME “12 DEstUGER 1973 Fignre 1.9: I mple of a hmar ocenitation of the Earth as obs srvedl with the npper-V burst ceceiver of the Imnar-orbiting RAE-2 satellite, from Alexander ot al [20]. ‘This shows the significance of the terrestrial noise even at the distaice of the Moon, and its elimination bebind the Moon. ‘To take advantage of the shielding by the Moon, therefore, the observatory nunst be ‘on the lnmar fars ‘ther on the surface or in Uhe orbit. Since the hwar far side always faces away from the Barth, an observatory on the far sid e surface will be permanently free from the terrestrial no .e. Indeed, it is the ouly location permanently free from the significant man-made and natural interference from the Earth. For this reason, the far side of the Moon has been considered the ultimate site for radio observations since the 1960s, whether for astronomy or for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. However, many thought that placing an observatory on a Innar orbit. wonld be a cheaper way of taking, advantage of the shielding effect: when on the far side of the Moon Need for stable platform for interferometry ‘As mentioned above, VLF astronomy requires: imterferometry involving many antennas hecanse of the very long wavelengths involved. While hmar orbiting observatories have been proposed to observe while on the far side of the Moon, the Imnar orbit is too unsta: ble for maintaining many more Han a few antennas in an array — gravity differentials uM constantly alter the relative positions of the antennas. Basart et al [14] disensses the difficalty of calibrating an array with eo sstantly changing baselines. Sensitive and de- tailed imaging at v 'y low frequencies will require many dozens of antennas separated by tens of kilometres. Dayton Jones admitted that the proposed hmar orbiting array of 4 or 5 antennas would unlikely be able to produce seientifie results that can capture the public interest [27] An alternative way of avoiding the terrestrial interference may be to place an obser- vatory on a more stable orbit far from the Barth. Even in a more stable orbit, however, the position of every element of an array needs to he monitored and controlled contin- uonsly. In contrast, the mar surface is a stable platform for interferometry with no such continuous calibration requirement. It can maintain any number of antennas in fixed positions with any desirable separations. Many more antenna elements are prac- tical than in a space-based array. Only then can long enough observations be made to achieve the sensitivity required for discovering even faint sources. Advantages of lunar surface over free space In 1998 a distinguished team proposed to NASA a I6-element VLF array on a distant, Earth orbit 2.6 tims the distance to the Moon (28). Being 2.6 times further would rednce the te estrial noise by a mere 1 order of magnitnde and the strong solar interference will still be present. Compared to any free-space locations, the hinar surface offers many ability. ‘The Sun's dominating radiation can be avoided during the 2 weeks of lunar night advantages in addition to the s (the Sum can be studied during the day). ‘The location ean avoid other strong varinble sources like Jupiter, simplifying mapping significantly. Only half the sky needs to be ppodd at a time, simplifying mapping and calibration, 3-dimensional imaging reqnived for space-based array is extremely complicated [14]. Finally, antennas on the Moon will remain there without expensive maintenance. ‘Phe observatory n therefore begin modestly and expand gradually over time, Maine tenance and upgrade would be possible, especially with a lunar base established, summary, the hmar far side is recognized as the best site of all for VLE radio astronomy. 1.3.3. Feasible & urgent first: step During the 1990s, three teams conducted design studies for VLF arrays and all have conchided that technology already exists for deploying the array on the Moon robotically, even on the far side, Radio antennas are robust against environmental conditions Tike dust, temperature extremes, and micrometeorites. An initial atray could be set up inexpensively with a mar lander equipped with a rover Phumers of lunar missions must choose Uhe equence of development carefully: shuce human activities will change the kmar environment irreversibly, For example, a better regulation of radio transmissions may have eased the pursnit of VLE astronomy. ‘This terrestrial intelligence. Compared to other is expecially important for searches for ex potential bmar activities, astronomy will be relatively hasmaless, while often sensitive, to tho Iutar environment. ‘The unique radio quiet environment on the Moon niay not last long once active development begins. ‘The Lunar Sourcebook notes that 10 Miz wave can propagate through the npper lnmar regolith with mininmm Joss, making it (he optiomim band for communication [4]. Yo secure the lnst hope for the VLF astronomy. this radio observatory project de- serves consideration in an early stage of hinar development. ‘The criticality of VLE astronomy was expressed by the Astronomy and Astrophy es Survey Committee of the National Research Council in 1991 [29], which recommended “.. that av orderly program. begin during the 1990's directed toward the development of low frequency radio astronomy techniques on the ground and in space, ultimately leading to the establishment of a low frequency, high resolution radio astronomy telescope on the Moon”. 6 Chapter 2 Foregoing Effort and Next Step ‘To make the VLF astronomy project happen, let us first review the extensive foregoing effort toward the Moon-based VLF observatory and identify the next steps to take. 2.1 Historical overview Initial ideas 1964: Gorgolewski ‘The advantage of the Moon for low-frequency astronomy was first brought up at the Lunar International Laboratory Discussion Panel in 1964, Stanis- Jaw Gorgolewski [30] pointed out that the lar far side would be the best for a radio astronomy observatory to avoid natural and man- made terrestrial interference. He also pointed out that the Innar night will open to view frequencies down to tens of kHz, but, that: farther study is required to find the lowest usable frequency during the day. At the First Lunar International Laboratory Symposium in 1965, he proposed an aperture synthesis system nsing one antenna on the surface and two on orbit [31] 1985: Douglas & Smith After the RAE observations (Section 1.3.2), more jos: considerations began when James Douglas and Harlm Smith [32] presented a very low frequency radio astronomy observatory on the Moon at the Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 2ist Century conference. In addition to the advantages of the Moon over free space, they considered the limiting factors, design, and the establishment. of the observatory. 1988: First workshop on hmar VLF array After Douglas and Smith presented their ideas at the 1986 workshop Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon {3}, the VLF array became clearly one of the most interesting and important observatory concepts [33]. In 1988, a workshop was held specifically to VW consieler this concept: A Lunar Fer-Side Very Low Frequency Array (34). ‘This meeting of 16 participants laid most of the foundations of this subject [12, 35, 36, 32, 38, 39, 13]. Jack Burns [33] pouted ont that the far-side VLE array would likely be a project for the second phase of NASAVS hinar base scenario (around 2007). but that planning for such Jange projects takes along time. As an example, he mentioned that it took almost , rom the first NASA-sponsored meetings on space telescopes im 1962, until the 1c Telescope wonld finally he a reality. s that the scientific motivation for ‘The meeting concluded with a general conser low fremency astronomy is potentially vory strong, bat James Donglas emphasized the neod to strengthen the case nmch further. ‘They also agreed that the hmar far side is the only viable location within the inner solar system for sensitive VLE astronomical observations and that a lunar axray is technically feasible. Bor further investigations, the consensiis was thal a design study should be conducted and precursor missions planned. 4990-1992: Observatory concepts in evolutio: ary sequence: Afler the workshop on the far side array, the effort was focused on more near-term, precursor inisyions. ‘These idens were presented at the international workshops on Low Frequency Astrophysics from Space {40} and Astrophysics from the Moon (7). ‘The in- vestigated concepts inehuded a hina orbiting observatory by Burns amet Basart (41, 42), a mar near side array by a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team {43, 44, 45), and a lonar far side array hy Basart and Burns (16, 47}. Dayton Jones [48] ontlinod an evolutionary seqnenee for low frequency astronomy analogons to the progression of infrared and X- ray astronomy missions. Smith [49] also envisioned similar development stages of Innar VLE observatory program, stressing that it can and should begin with the first Imar Inder, He also imagined the possibility of accessing the hack side observatory site by rovers from a Innar base near the litub. 1990: Design studies "Phe prospect for astronomy from the Moon was becoming increasingly promising. Dur- ing the 1990s, at least three groups conducted major design studies for the mar far side based VLP array concept. Equally relevant and perhaps the most detailed was the space- I Low Brequency Array (ALIA) proposal to NASA. on Astronomi 1992: Astronomical Lunar Low Frequency Array (Hughes) ‘The first serious design study of a Imar far side arvay was conducted by the Hughes Aireraft: Company (50). ‘This stndy Inded a detailed engineering design and nn 8-year schedule leading to a lamich by the year 2000 [51] Is 1993: International Lunar Farside Observatory and Science Station (ISU) ‘Phe next comprehensive design simdy was conducted by the International Space Uni- versity in a design project directed by Wendell Mendell {52]. ‘They proposed a phased approach including a precursor orbiter, preliminary S-element array, and a final 300- clement array. In addition, this study considered the political and legal aspects, organi- zation, management, cost, funding, marketing, and cost-benefit tades. 1997: Very Low Frequency Array on the Lunar Far Side (BSA) Based heavily on work by Jean-Louis Bougeret [17] and Graham Woan {53}, BSA sponsored a one-year design study by a team of nine experts [16]. ‘This was probably the most recent and ntifically comprehensive siudy to date, “Dhis study... showed the feasibility of the project within the framework of Phase ILI of the ESA Moon program: ‘science from the moon’. Before the mission can be started, however, a number of in-situ measurements need to be performed to confirm certain environmental conditions.” 1998: Astronomical Low Frequency Array (JPL, NRL, GSFC) In 1995 array in a distant orbit of the Earth was proposed to NASA for the Medium. sion (150M) [28]. ‘The proposal incuded useful details about data analysis and archiving, including the array configuration, eross-correlation, side-lobe / interference suppression, calibration, sensitivity, dynamic range, and imaging. Although very close, Int the proposal was not selected because the science was rated as only “very good not “excellent” and because NASA estimated the cost to be too high [27] Continuing effort and challenges Even while working on the free-flying ALFA, member of the proposal team continued sof the Moon and suggested “semi-hard” landings as inexpensive means of the antenna de- promoting the Moou-based concepts. Jones and Weiler [54] reiterated the ndvantag ployment. Basart et al examined important issues of sensitivity, interference constraints on imaging, baseline calibration, and mapping difficulties associated with wide-field imaging [14], and snggested how these issmes could be resolved as the VIP observa- tion evolves toward the hmar urface arrays {55]. At the conference on Space Based Radio Ohservations at. Long Wavelenglhs in 1998, Weiler {56} addressed some technic cal challenges of space- based and moon-ba wed radio array while Kniper and Jones [57] brought up some engineering challenges of mar surfai arrays. Woan (58, 59] reviewed the capabilities and limitations of spaco- based and moon-based observations at long, tical envi wavelengths and stressed the need to resolve the questions about lunar ele ronment. Investigations into VLF observatories on the Moon have also been conducted in Japan (60). 19 2.2 Observational considerations Figure 2.1 shows constraints imposed in radio astronomy Angular Resolution in Radioastronomy ave | a IN. et EE fe fe Toke Peet mie i cage cel H Nanboy : SS : $B : Nea 2 s at i Np un : | 3 ne >, sop & ae A g aH a} | __|_ Ng eset one sew ee woodKm 100K «Ok thm 100m 50m tm _ 1000 tem frequency wovelength Figure 21: Angular resolution as a function of radio frequency, inchiding dependence on interplanetary /interstellar scattering and interferometer baselines. From Bongeret (1996) (17) Low frequency limits The interplinetary plasma aronnd the Barth due to the solar wind has a ent-off frequency of 30 kllz, which will limit the lowest observable fre [16]. Another limiting factor may be the lunar ionosphere if it exists with enongh concentration, ‘Phe plasma cut-off frequency vp depends on the electron number density 20) ne: vp(MUz) © y/nefem)/100, As long as the electron number density in the lnnar ionosphere is < 100e~ /em®, the corresponding cut-off frequency would be lower than 100 Kx, Baseline length Figure 2.1 shows how interplanetary and interstellar seattering and the observatory baseline determine the achievable angular resolution at varions radio fre- quencies. Por example, interstellar scattering broadens an extragalactic point souree to 1/3° at 1 MHz. More serious is the interplanetary scattering that broadens an extrasolar point about 5 times more, Angular broadening due to the interplanetary medium (IPM) ‘and the interstellar medium (ISM), respectively, as a fnction of radio wave frequency y (in MHz) are, aceording to Woan Oovns ~ 100/rRy,eemnin Oisy ~ 22/02 y,00emin ‘The IPM scattering-limited resolution of a VLP array determines the maximom useful baseline D (at least for targets directly overhead): pw i000 —lan ~ 10pm vemnin/M ik Aonically, the moximun: useful baseline depends on the highest frequency to be observed at, ‘To achieve the highest possible resolution at the ionospheric ent-off of about 20 Mliz, the array should span a few 100 lan, but no more, Since the galaxy is al least partially opaque below 1 MHz (due to freo-free absorption), 1 MHz is about the lower limit for extragalactic and many galactic observations. Achieving the scattering-limited resolution of 142° at 1 Miz is desirable for significant advances in science: Scientific observation goals In relation to the observational limitations, practical seience goals of the VLF array can be defined. ‘The strong non-thermal galactic back ground makes the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) independent of receiver noise. Also, the inhomogeneous interstellar medium prevents lit wear polarization studies (except for the closest sources). A preenrsor all-sky survey at very low frequencies will guide ns signifi cantly in defining the scientific goals for the future. Possible research effort may be categorized as follows [12]: © 1-30 Milz: High-resolution all-sky survey el 3) Miz: Discrete sources (galactic, extragalactic) e~ 1 MHz: Interstellar medi 2m studies (absorption, scintillation) © $1 Mllz: Solar / planetary studies 2 Woan in the BSA study [16] specified the haselne reqnirements for all sky smvey at 0.16 Miz, Mapping, will take <2 weeks. Left: and right hand cirenlar polarizations shall be separately recorded, 2.3 Obs vatory design he first amray Donglas and Smith [32] proposed was merely short wires laid on the junar surface. ‘Phey envisioned that an early array may be a 18 lm x 30 kam ‘T-array 00 elements. ‘Chis could then evolve into a filled array of 100x100 elements. A with 3 denser array can be used for short wavelength operation An aperture synthesis array scans to he preferred over a seaming phased array hecanse, although imaging takes longer with aperture synthesis, if offers better beams with lower sidelobes, more flexibility in the array configuration with less mmmber of clements, uml simpler phasing, and more reliable operation (87]. Hlectrically short dipole antennas would besuf ent becanse the system temperatnre will be limited by the sky brightness. Dipoles antennas should be short compared to the observing wavelength to keep the antenna pattern generally similar with no sidelobes thronghout the entire frequency range [37]. For example, a L-metre dipole wonld be only rt and Burns [37] 1/10 the wavolength even at 30 Milz. ‘Ro improve the directivity, Bs suggested that dipole antennas could be grouped into 2x2 mi arrays in phase, Since polarization measnremenits are unnecessary for extrasolar observations, dipoles may be single or crossed. Fignre 2.2 shows an example of a crossed dipole antenna unit. According to Woan in the ESA stndy (16), S/N of abont 200 is achievable at 1 MHz ks). S/N of 200 is snficient and possibly the upper limit hecause of uncertainty in side- lobe levels. Woan with 300 clements after integrating over half the hinar day (~2 wi [53] proposed a spiral Y array for sampling the transform plane uniformly while keoping, the filing factor high for shorter baselines for higher frequencies, Douglas and Smith [32] expected that establishing such an array of many short dipoles would be extremely simple and economic with low power requirement, Each antenna (short wire) could weigh only 50 grams, with a total being only <0 kg. Relative positions of antennas need to be known to only a metre precision, Site Jeffrey ‘Taylor [38] identified several site selection criteria for the Moon-based, observatory: ¢ Lunar librations and diffraction of radio waves limits the ininimum distance from: the Innar limb. © For line-of-sight communications among the array elements and for deployment vehicles, smooth surface is required, Figure 2.2: A erossed-dipole a (enna in ESA's in a 25 em x 25 em x 25 em box design (16). Each element can be packaged © The observatory site should be at least 10~100 kan from active mining site avoid artificial atmosphere. # For viewing planets, polar sites are inappropriate hecanse all the planets will be near the horizon, © The large crater Tsiolkovsky (20°S, 130°) is an excellent candidate, with over 100 km of relatively smooth floor 2.4 Precursor missions ‘Taylor and Burns [39] suggested preliminary studies for precursor mission «© Measure the lunar ionosphore (with short tunable dipole antennas), # Survey the low-froqueney sky (0.5 - 30 MHz), ‘ Study signal propagation effects through the interstellar medium, Lunar Observer Radio Astronomy Experiment (LORAE) In 1990, Burns [41] proposed to put simple lightweight, low power crossed-dipole antenna on hoard the thon planned Lunar Observer orbiter aronnd the Moon, Such experiment would be valuable for conducting hmar occultation studies of the brightest: sources and a low-resolution alksky survey while on the far side. Lunar near side array A team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (43) proposed a compact array to be placed on the near side during the early Iunar expeditions. Such 23 project would be able to verify deployment and data handing, sindy the aunoral kilo inotric radiation and solar bursts during the day, and map the sky during the night. Deployment stages Douglas [13] suggested » possible seqnence of miss © Lumar orbiter receiver ¢ Barly landers with several elements 10 elements aver 5 ~ 10 km (robotic deployment tests) 100 elements over “20 lon © 1000 elements hard-landed 2.5 Design studies ‘Table 2.1 summarizes the major design studies deseribed above. ADL the mar array designs chose the Earth-Moon Lagrange point, L2 for relay satellite, L2 relay satellite would provide a contimons link with mindmon tracking requirement, {16}. 2.6 Current consensus ‘These design sindies and workshops, as well as other sindies at JPL and NR, have resulted int the following general consensus: © ‘The scientific case for VLP astronomy is established, but astronomers umst advo- cate interest. «# ‘The est approach is to map the sky by aperture synthesis nsing an array of short dipole antennas. ¢ Certain Imar environmental factors mnst be verified, including the absence of significant ionosphere. ¢ ‘Tsiolkovsky Crater seems to be the best. candidat for the far side array. © A Tmar far side anay is feasible with current technology, but it is unlikely to be fruded until access to the Innar far side becomes e: sior through other programs, © The VLE astronomy program should take a phased approach, beginning with less expensive inissions, 2 ‘Table 2.1: Summary of very Jow frequer ray designs 1992 1993, 1997, 1998 ALLPA [50] | ILPOSS [52] | VLPA (16) ALFA [23] Dhughes 1su ESA JPL.NRL,GSEC ‘Site Chaplygin "Tsiolkovsky ‘Tsiolkovsky | 108 km orbit (137 kam crater, | (100 km crater, | (100 km crater, | (2.6% further 5°S, 150°B) | 20°, 129°) | 20°, 129°) _| than Moon) elements 40 5 300 300 16 Aperture | 25km | 100m—i7km | 40km | 100km ‘| Layout Ellipse Gireular are Spiral Y Spherical Antenna 03m | tm | 4m | Sm crossed dipoles | single dipoles | crossed dipoles | crossed dipoles Frequency 0.1 -30MHz | 1, 3, 10, 30 MHz 0.5 - 16 MHz 0.3 - 30 MHz | Bandwidth || 100-1000 kHz | 50 kil 100 kil, ~ 195 kil Sensitivity | 20 Jy (day) “19dB | S/N =50~ 200] 50 Jy (hom) @ 10 Miz, cular - 2 ortho linear py 5 yenrs 2 years 1600 ke 400 kg, 1320 ke [Launch || 8200 kg s2500kg | 2720 kg Delta 7425 (tan TV) (Witan IV) (Ariane 5) Lander 4900 kg 1400 kez | Rover “750 ke i a Relay sat, 950 ke 2.7 Next steps toward realization What can we do now to bnild upon the foregoing effort md make the VLP astronomy from the Moon a reality? We shonld reinforce the scientific motivation, reaffirm the «d for the Moon (Chapter 3), propose an alfordable VLP array for an initial sky survey (Chapter 4), and ensure that. the necessary measurements will be made as early as possible to support the finst hmar array: proposal (Chapter 5). Since the root motivation for the VLF array scien we must arouse peop! rns (33) arguments for VLE interest in the significant discovery potential of a VLF study of the universe. 1 suggested that we should develop stronger quantitative theore! observations by working with theore ti Jans to make predictions with specific observa- he very instructive to model observations with a theoretical I signatures, It array. For this, an initial survey will be very valuable to find out what kinds of targots similar fo where at low freqnencies. VLF astronomy is at a slag aay and int astronomy was back in he 1970s. Canrently the low frequency radio astronomy community seems to be waiting for the ele. gonud based Low Erequeney Array (LOPAR) to revive the general inter LOKAR [9] will attempt to observe at frequencies as low as 10 MHz, and is planned to hogin operating aromud 2006 a Chapter 3 Confirmation of Lunar Advantage As stated above, the case for a lnnar VLF array can be strengthened by confirming the iveness as a shi advantages of the Moon, namely its effe id and a platform. ‘To verify the shielding of radio interference by the Moon, we must find out how much the VLF interference is attonmated at various locations on the Moon. ‘To validate the hinar surface as an acceptable platform for the VLF array, we must ensure that the lunar surface environment does not present any major disadvantages to VLF observations ‘The only way to definitely verify these is by placing antemmas on the mar surface to make direct measurements. A more economical alternative is to simulate these measurements with a computer using known or ‘To addres nated properties of the Moon, various issues relevant to the VLF astronomy project, a general finite- difference time-domain tool was developed to simulate electromagnetic wave propagation in the lunar environment. In addition to helping verily the advantages, the estimates from this simulation should be very informative and helpful in selecting the site for the VLF array. ‘The shielding offect is expected to depend on the location on the Moon, ‘Thus, this study will help choose a suitable site. It will also help specify required measurements for validating potential s stndy aims to help choose a site where the observatory can definitely take advantage of both the interference shielding and the lunar platform. ‘The simulation seemed to show that, even for a very low freqneney of 50 kz, radio waves are attennated by at least 12 orders of magnitude on the lunar surface further than ~30° behind the limb. Similar simulations at higher frequencies confirmed that the attemation improves at shorter wavelengths. to resolve 3.1 Questio ‘To verify definite advantage over free-flyer before developing a Moon-based array, the 1997 ESA report [16] listed several questions to be resolved about the Innar environment, especially at candidate sites: 7 Vorificntion of the Barth noise altemnation © Jonosphere (dlectron density, scale height) Magnetic ficld (its containing elfecis due to interaction with local plasux) © Snrface electrical properties (permittivity & conductivity — antenna beam shape) Subsurface reflections (sounding) Topology (0.5 an altitude resolution over L0-m grid size) 3.1.1 Shielding of interference “The most: important motivation for the Moon as a site for radio astronomy is iss ability to shield interference, as explained in Section 1.3.2. It is therefore critical to verify this effect. with a rigor in relation to the desired performance of VIP observations. We shall evaltate how radio observatory on the far side of the Moon will perforin in terms of the interfer nice from the terrestrial kilometric radiation and man-made signals, Althongh the Radio Astronomy Explorer 2 roughly verified the disappearance of terrestrial noise behind the Moon, some waves with very long wavelengths could diffract aronnd the Innar limb, Hor example, in the occultation experiments of both the Earth (Bigure 9) and th is observed near the beginning md the end nm (Figure 3.1), some interferen of the geometrical occultation, especially at lewer frequencies. ‘This may be not only 10 becanse of diffraction at longer wavelength nated by anich because of the larger source size bu For high sensitivity observations, the interference should be att n if the flix of diffe background noise level, an interferometer could pick up the noise if coherent, "To ensure it is erncial to find out quantitatively how much more than a few orders of magnitude. Iw ‘acted waves is below the that quired performance is feasib! the radio interference is attennated at varions locations on the Moon and depending on the radio frequency, We may then very ronghly constrain the allowable location for the observatory by comparing the attenuated noise to the galactic background level. Such information will help constrain the location of sufficient shielding, that is, how far into the far side to sitnate the observatory. The attenuation levels shall be examined at candidate sites, inching craters ‘Iiolkovsky, Aitken, and Daedal 3.1.2 Lunar ionosphere "Phe reason astronomers have not been able to explore the VILE range is the ionosphere of the Barth with a plisma cut-off frequeney of «10 MHz, ‘This ent-off corresponds to an. of ~10%/an4, If the Moon clectron mnunber den Iso has an “ionosphere”, it could prevent radio observations below a cortain ent-off frequeney and limit the resolution ae : S535 et SSSSe 9 INTENSITY (4B) VEAL 0 ‘SUN ‘SUN TIME (MIN) l20 Figure 3.1: An example of « lunar occultation of a solar storm, from Alexander et al (1975) [20] even at higher frequencies because of scattering. ‘The plasma cut-off frequency in MHz depends on the electron number density roughly hy: y)(MBz) « Ye (c 100) In 1971, measurements by the Apollo 14 Charged Particle Lunar Environment E periment (CPLEB) detected an electron concentration as high as 10"/em® over several Inundved metres in altitnde during the hinar day [61]. ‘This corresponds to a cut-off frequency as high as 1 MHz. During the hmar night, the surface potential was observed to become negative, shown in Figure 3.2, reducing the plasma density. During the mid-1970s, dual-frequeney radio occultation experiments by the Luna 19 and the Luna 22 orbiters were cond) ‘ted to infer the electron concentrations on. the sunlit side (Figure 3.3) [63, 64], ‘Their pretimina analysis showed peak electron concentrations above the sunlit surface of 500~1000 an’, ‘This could limit astronomical ‘observations to only abeve 0.3 MHz. Investigation of the ionosphere near the hmnar surface is critical and the most urgent in determining the lowest observable frequency at varions times of the hmar day and 29 HOTOELECTRON SHEATH jo 10 to 10° ELECTRONS/CM® ( TO { = ay [(% oe +) Bow +t -/ : ts At mcurswe + -b ee) | * LION SHEATH 7 # Fg 0.05 10N/eM? ~ tie reansient ~\ J Kg 280m lonosPHERE fe H=100 km + : tht ATMOSPHERIC 1ON SHEATH No «10°? to 10°8 10S cm! Ye» OM Figure 3.2: ‘The lunar ionosphere, based on the Apollo hmar surface experiments (62]. The negative surface potential in the night side would likely keep electrons away. night, It could be possible using lunar orbiter missions, if not ground-based observations, 3.1.3 Lunar surface So long as we take advantage of the lunar susface as an observatory phitform, we must. verify that the properties of the surface itself does not pose any significant disadvantages. Surface electrical properties Properties of the Innar surface that will direc Uy influence radio wave propagation are clectrie permittivity and conductivity. Compared to free spaeo, the humax snrfiee has relative permittivity ey. ranging 2610 and very low but finite electrical conductivity ranging 10°11 ~ 10° (4). ‘The difference in pennittivity between the vacuum and the surface results in some reflection of the incident wave. ‘Chis reflection should not be a problem for antenuas laid directly on the surface. Unlike on the Earth, the har surf 0 is w good insnlator so that the antennas ean lie on the ground and re 1c the electric field parallel to the surface. ‘The finite conductivity results in a slow loss of the transmitted wave with depth, "This loss is character l by the loss tangent 1, elefined as the ratio of the imaginary to the real part of the complex dicle: pittivity: 2000 a Luna 22 h soo Luna 19 1500+ 3) } B 14 May 1972 1000 500 electron number density (em height above lunar surface (km) Figure 3.3: Day-side lunar ionosphere profile, as inferred from the Luna 19 and 22 measure nts. The data point uncertainty is --200/cm®, ‘The apparent drop near the surface may not be statistically significant. From Vyshloy 1976 [63], adapted by Woan 2000 [59]. where w is the wave frequency and gp is the permittivity of free space. For the lunar surface, the loss tangent is found to be typically 0.001~0.1 [4]. "The vate of loss in the condnetive medium is charact od hy the skin depth 5, which is the depth at which, the field nmplitnde has decayed by a factor of e. Por L << 1, the skin depth is (53): a WEL oe where ) is the wavelength in vacunm, Subsurface reflections With Yé © 3 and L ranging 0.001~0.1 for the hmnar regolith, the low frequency radio waves would be able to penetrate into the Innar regolith to depths of the order 1~100 timos the wavelength before attemating much, Woan in the ESA study [16] pointed out that dipole antennas on the Inar surface conld pick up unwanted reflections off of 31 subsmifiace discontinuities. If there are any sharp discontinuities i electrical property below the surfnce, the penetrated waves could reflect off and be pieked up by the antennas from beneath as noise 3]. Dipole antennas with almost no directivity would not be able to distingnish sch subsurface reflections from the normal way es coming from above, We shonld therefore clioose a site free of significant snbsurface reflections by discontinnities such as the regolith-ernst bondary and mass concentrations. Large eraters ave the primary candidates for VLE arrays, but careful sonnding of subsurface structures is essential before selecting the exact site (soe Figure fine-grained, reworked REGOLITH ‘surface deposit “10m 2a balsticaly transported, LARGE SCALE uric gaan polymicl F ejecta anc comminut BUECTA mex sheets, sak loas oeal— py > STRUCTURALLY | materials displaced by. DISTURBED subsurlace movement conusT large blocks ek nnn n == be > 1 1 FRACTURED | crust Y (in situ) decreasing fracture density 25 4 wen eee ne INTACT LUNAR GRUST Fignye 3.4: ‘Typical upper hinar ernst st clues under a large crater [4]. ‘The observa tory site should be chosen to ensure that any subsurface structures do not disturb the observations by reflecting the penetrated waves back np to the antennas on the snefiace, In summary, this study ms to address the following questions: How much would the radio interference be attemated at various loca ons on the Innar far side (for varions wavelengths)? In particular, how much wonld the terrestrial interference be attenuated at candidate sites? @ As observed from candidate sites, what direction does the terrestrial interference come from, aud how coherent are they? 32 # Does the lunar “ionosphere” influence the observation + How might the subsurface structures reflect radio waves to affoct the observation? ¢ How well would a tall mountain shield the terrestrial interference? 3.2 Studies using radio wave simulation ‘To investigate the above issnes and other potential matters related to radio observations from the Moon, a numerical program was developed that can simulate wave propagation in any relevant media. ‘Chis section describes the approach used to simulate the wave propagation, Innar electrical properties, Innar ionosphere, and interferometric obser tions. 3.2.1 Radio wave simulation ‘The simulation of electromagnetic waves was based on the following laws for induction of electric (2) and magnetic (H) fields in static, linear, isotropic media: -VxB= sll (3.1) VxH=ch+cE (3.2) where 46% j¥ is the magnetic permeability, ¢ is the electric permittivity, and ¢ is the electric conductivity of the medium. Scalar wave simulation ‘Laking the curl of the first and the time derivative of the second and combining them, ) ‘| (3.3) pectively the magnetic permeability and electric ‘a wave equation is obtained: y =i (Bt, ViE-V(V-B)= 5 (FB +B where I/c? = jogo (jw and €o are 1 ivity of free space) and ¢; is the ro perr tive permittivity (dielectrie constant) For simplicity, simulation with a scalar field conld provide the roughest: approxima tion for propagation of unpolarized electromagnetic waves. In this ease, V+ B= 0 and the scalar wave equation is: 33. Kinite-difference time-domain method ‘this wave eqnation was solved mumert cally with 0. finite-difference method. Using the 2nd-order finite difference in time (with step size AZ), the temporal derivatives are: At) + Of At)? js _ Bl Ad) ~ 28(0) + BL AY Cg re eqquation, + OMA) A “This cam be solved to obtain an expression for updating the fiekd value: ge, (t+ At) (BSE) ee ans (# where VE can also be dis j WE At) — Be AN} a [P(E + Ad) ~ 280) 4 2 wetized hy finite differencing the spatial derivatives to 2nd order mnder a snitable coordinate system. With rectangular coordinate system in 2 dimensions, V2 = eqnal spatial step sizes (Ax = Ay = As), VE aE (Be + As,y) + Bay + Ay) — A.B, y) + He ~ Ax.y) + Bley — Ay) For investigation of the Moon's shielding effects, the terrestrial interference was siumlated as plane wave incident on a spherical Moon with radially symmetric electrical properties. ‘his problem has a cylindrical symmetry th respect to An axis parallel to the direction of the plane wave propagation. ‘Thus, the cylindrical coordinate system 1 poe pitial values of the ficld components were specified at every grid point, PE with a + SE 4 Be ith a (p.6, 2) was chosen, in which V?E = id After the an be evolved in time according to these equations. ‘The spatial step size was nnthal symmetry. the fields chosen to sample the simulated wave suificiently so that the intensity of the wave remains reasonably unedispersed while it propagates in free space, With the present algorithm, at least 6 spatial intervals per wavelength wore desived: As < 2/6, ‘The temporal step size was limited by the stability condition for 2-dimensional finite difference algorithm fC in {metye} and AP in [1 mete / 1t was chosen to be half of the spatial stop size in units where ¢ = 1: As 3.33564 nnnoseconds}. Also, € and je were treated s relative permittivity and selative permeability, mspectively, interpreting the values of clectric and magnetic fields accordingly. Plane wave source Forsimplicity, radio interference was initially simulated ns a plane wave ning from a certain direction. ‘To simnalate an incident. plane wave in vactum, an oscillatory excitation of unit amplitude, sin), was superposed into the field along oue of the edges of the computational zone throughont the period of simmlation. en Boundary As with auy simulation in a finite grid space, the computational boundary must simulate the rest of the space. ‘This program employs a damping zone in which the conductivity gradually ine: raves 80 that the waves are absorbed very gradually to ininimize reflections. Since our problem is cylindrically symmetric, only half of the eross- section of the Moon is required in the simnlation. ‘Phis half was put against the hottom of the grid space and a symmetric boundary was employed for that side. In the scalar wave sinmlation, the term in equation (3.3) with the gradient (VE) hhas no contribution, However, in a real veetor field, this term may not be negligible. i In source-free media, V - (B) = eV -E4+ B+ Ve = 03 V+ = ~18. Ve. At the Iunar surface Ve is vertical; thus, this term would be especially important for vertical component: of electric field, that is, for waves at grazing incidence [66] Vector wave simulation ‘To overcome the above concern and to ensure accuracy, a vector wave simulation was also developed. In terms of the veetor components, equations (3.1) and (3.2) are: i (2 _OByY OH dy ae or ( ( ally “Oe For simplicity, the transverse electri (TE) mode and the transverse magnetic (LM) mode were considered separately. For example, in ‘TE mode having only (Ey, Hy. Hz) components: ak, Ox’ OE, an, (3a) 35, Vinite-difference time-domain method With these equations. the propagation of ‘wave in time was sinmilated using the finite-difier ence time-domain method {67} in dimensions. See the “vacuum region of Figure 3.6 for the peculiar setup of a grid for the electric and magnetic field components. ‘The location of the fields within the grid in this method implicitly enforces the zero-divergene o of both: electric and magnetic fields in a sonree-free space [65]. ‘The notation 12"(,j), for example, is nsed for the value of the z-component. of magnetic field at position (2 = iAa,y = jAy) and time £ = At. where Aw and Ay ave spatial intervals between grid points in the st and y+ coordinates, respectively. and Af the temporal step size in the iteration. H(i, j) es iAw,y = jAy.t = nAt) Using this discretization, the temporal and spatial derivatives as well as the time average are: With Ax for updating each field value, with 2nd-order aenraey in sp Wes hie ens Se ey 1) = BEG) = ENG + 1) + BED) .s. the 3 equations for TE mode (3.4) can then turn into equations e and time: : 12 pon e4oAip2 fo eAt/2 pn * ee oAipe (Por terms on the right, only Lose indexes that differ from the indexes of the terms wo ag oe 1 BEG pas L BEGG + on the left: are labeled.) Details of this algorithm can be found online {65]. Here, the and should reflect the property of the medium at the lo values of ation of each grid point. In wa are much simpler. ‘Phe spatial and temporal 1m. («= 0), these equations step sizes were chosen as with the scalar wave simulation, to sample the simulated wave snfliciontly. Plane wave source ‘To sinmlate an incident plane wave in vacuum, an oscillatory excitation of unit amplitude, sin(wt). wa superposed into one of the electric field com. ponents By along one of the edges of the compntational zone (j = jo): n mt IE Gj) sinaty Be REM Gin 3) eG 36 PICs, Oya, OF) 7 nce 8s a6) nn,0,208—S, PAWL 7 O54) 0, OF » ~ PLD, 9, 04.085) PUL 43, O84 i) Pectect conductor Figure 3.5: Perfectly matched layer (PML) technique for the simmiation boundary {65}. Boundary ‘To climinate reflections at the computational boundary, the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique 68} was used (Fignre 3.5). In this teehnique, the elec- tric induction law is modified to include the “magnetic current density”, which is not physical but. will be useful in erenting computational boundaries -V x B= pH +o0*H, (3.5) where o* may be referred to as the “magnetic conductivity”. ‘This technique is based on the observation that no reflection occurs for a normally incident wave if the medinm’s Impedance matches that of vacmm, which requires: Ho Eo In transverse-clectrie (TE) mode components, the above equation 3.5 for electric - (28 a) Os on, Oe By PG For the boundary to be perfectly absorbing for any incident angle, this tochnique requires splitting the magnetic field within the absorbing layer surrounding the compu tational region (H, => Hee + Hey; see Figure 3.6) in such a way that: aby or: Olly ey. OR egy + Hy = “Sy [eri 1) ~ By (ERG +) — BSG) pam ermeAtfeo ya Hy BH “WEG + 5) = WEG a i LereAtfen a, 1 yeh 1 EP Git = agkg UE Gt 3) ~ HEE 3) Figure 3.6: The upper right corner of the finite-difference time-domain computational arid, with perfectly matched layer (PML) at the boundary [68] ‘Wo minimize numerical rofloctions, the conductivity in the absorbing layer increased onbward (o a maximum value: 7p) = oyax(p/6)", where p is the distance into the layer of thickness 5 and nis a power factor. In this study, a parabolic profite (21 = 2) was used. ‘Phe maximum valve of the conductivity (at the outermost edge) was chosen based on the acceptable amount of reflection. ‘The amplitude of the reflected wave depends on f2 o(p)dp = Gmmxd/(n-+ 1). ‘Che reflection coe 0 is then: cient for an incident angle setae cont RO) = thus requiring dns. to be: 2.3log R(0) “Zeosdd 38 ‘The same profile was nsed for all condnetivities: 20) _ THM) _ aul) _ ale) _ 210) Ho Ho £0 £0 0 Finally, the accuracy and reliability of these simulation programs were tested. by vorifying that they reproduce expected patterns of reflection, refraction, edge diffraction, and attenmation. Regarding acc racy, a finite difference method that. is 2nd-order in ace has not produced any space and time was used becanse going to Ath-order in spe visible difference in results. 3.2.2. Lunar electrical properties ‘Lo study the effect of the lunar clectrical properties on radio wave propagation, the body of the Moon was modeled in the simulation by referring to the Lumar Sourcebook (4) for electrical properties as functions of depth. Both the permittivity and the condnetivity of the hinar material depend strongly on the density, which in turn varies with depth. In the Junar regolith, to a depth of ~100 m, the density increases with depth 2 (in em) roughly as p(z) = 1.39 28 g/em* [4]. ‘This can be used to estimate the depth profiles of these electrical properties. For the relative permittivity, data compiled in the Lunar Soureebook {4} give the approximation: ¢,(p) = 1.9" where the density p is in g/em ‘The electrical condu ivity is muuch more diffienlt to specify because it varies signif. ieantly depending on the temperature aud the wave frequency. The electrical condue- tivity is related to the loss tangent L as: oo = we penk, where w is the wave frequene For the loss tangent, the data in the Lunar Sourcebook: [4] give an approximation: L = 10{0-!9-2.48) Eixtrapolating the density-depth approxims ion into the hmar crust, the depth pro files of relative permittivity and loss tangent were estimated (Figures 3.7 and 3.8). ‘These profiles were nsed to define the Moon in the finite-difference time-domain simulation, 3.2.3 Lunar ionosphere In a medinm with free Jectrons, the permittivity depends on the wave frequency 7 as é, © 1 —(vp/v)?, where vy is the plasma frequency. ‘The approximation 1,(MHz) = ingen 3) /100 gives: (3.6) In this study, a very simple linear profile was used for the electron number density, with the maximum at the smrface and linearly decreasing to roughly the local solar pl density of 5/em* at au altitude of 50 km. 39) relative permittivity eR a loss tangent Perrmittivity profile extrapolated into the lunar crust oy 0 10 depth (km) Figure 3.7: Depth profile of relative permittivity used in the simulation, Loss tangent profile extrapolated into the lunar crust 0.025 > poses ore 0.02 pete 0.015 | 0.01 0.005 ieee eee 0 2 4 6 8 10 depth (km) Figure 8.8: Depth profile of Joss tangent: used in the simulation. wo { 3.3 Study I: Radio wave penctration into the lunar surface As mentioned above, the observatory site should be free of subsurface structures that can reflect radio waves back up to disturb the observations. ‘To what. depth should we check for subsurface structures? ‘To answer this, a study was condueted to estimate how deep the very low frequency waves penetrate into the lunar regolith, ‘The goal is offectively to find the “skin depth” of the Moon for various radio wave frequencies. Setup With the vector wave simulation tool, a flat lunar surface was illuminated normally with a linearly polarized plane wave of unit amplitude until an equilibrium was reached Phe effec decreases with depth and fitting it with a profile expected for a homogeneous medium ive “skin depth” was estimated by measuring how the penetrated amplitude with » certain skin depth 6. In a homogencous medium, wave amplitude attennates with depth z as |B] ox e~*/®. By fitting the experimental profile to an exponential decay emve, a n effective skin depth was estimated. ‘The Inmnar surface was characterized by electrieal permittivity <(2) and loss tangent 1(2) with depth profiles as plotted in Fignres 3.7 and 38. ‘The study examined varions frequencies in the range 10 MHz - 30 kilz, corresponding to wavelength range of 30m - 10 kan in vacuum, Compntationally, a simple vertical I-dimensional setup was created (the compntation oundaries on the sides were connected, or wrapped around). Once equilibrium was reached, the wave amplitude was recorded as a function of depth. Results Figure 3.9 shows the result for a 0.5-MHz (0.6-km) wave. A fraction of the incident wave is reflected off the surfa tic the rest attemtates roughly exponentially. ‘The characteris attennation depth from the fit was defined to be the effective e: 3.74 kin for a 0.5-Miz (0.6-km) wave. depth? of the lunar su ‘This procedure was repeated for various frequene (wavelengths). The effective “skkin depth” is plotted against frequency (Fignve 3.10) and wavelength in vacuum (I we 3.11). For a homogeneous medium, skin depth is expected to increase linearly with wavelength. For the lunar regolith, however, the plot shows that longer wavelength waves do not penetrate as deeply as expected because the density inere h depth. ses wi In the wavelength range of interest, radio waves are expected to penetrate up to tens of kilometres deep, a set wide enongh to inchide the first diffraction miniamm to the side of the Moon, Hor the lowest relevant frequency of 30 kz, this corresponded bo 200 kam from thie edge: of the Moon. 4000 kn Pei >2000 kin igure 3.12: Simulation setup: radio waves were produced along the dotted line, ‘The space surronnding the Moon was filled with an electron density of 5/em? to si ulate the local plasma due to the solar wind. Even such tennons electron concentration will affect the propagation of very low frequency waves. “Phe wavelength increases: by vu km in the presence of this electron density (see equation (3.6)). Due to the interplane- , compared fo in vacuuat, For example, 2 30-1 wave has a waveleugth of 15 tary scattering, around 50 kllz is the lower limit for astronomical observations with any angular resolution from nearby Earth. Space and time ‘The simulation was rum long enough for the energy density distri bution to reach an equilibrium. ‘Lypica the Moon (3475 km / ¢ & 11.6 ms). ‘The incident wave was polarized in the transverse electric (TE) mode (only ly it took several times the transit time across perpendicular to the wave direction was excited). ‘his sotup simulates the diffraction aronnd an infinitely long cylinder, Since the problem is symmetric across the axis of the Moon parallel to the wave incidence, only one side was computed to hab he amount of computation, The boundary along the symmetry axis was made reflective to maintain the wave polarization Memory & speed ‘The simulation was limited by random access memory and compu- tational time, Even for a long wavelength of 10 km (near the local solar plasma cut-off), son the the simlation space is 200 x 400 wavelengths, requiring 2000 x 4000 poi grid to have a resolution of 10 points per wavelength if float (4 bytes) for the 3 TE vector components (E,, Hy. H) at every point, abont. 100 MB is required. Halving, the wavelength requires 4 times more memory. As we found in the previons experiment, radio wi 's penetuate signifienntly only to a certain depth depeuding on the wavelength. 4 ‘Phu in the central core of the Moon (where all. to reduce the computational time, point only very atiemnated waves reach) were not computed Sealar simulation ‘To estimate the difference in diffraction results between an infinite od s rectangular (infinite cylinder) and cylindrical (sphere) coordinates. Comparison was salar wave simulations in both cylinder and a more appropriate sphere, we cond salar andl vector wave simulations, as described below. also made bebwee 3.4.2 Results On the order of 100 vector and scalar simulations were run, each taking anywhere from several hours to a few days. Radio waves are definitely diffracted to the far side of the Moon. ‘Io find the amount of attenuation, the relative ergy den ¢ ficld values over two eycles WP) Due to the presence of plasma, the absolute energy density depends on the wavelength 4 by time-averaging the elect cx (IE Figures 3.13 and 3.14 are graphical examples of the simulation results. The energy density of the wave seems to be attenuated significantly on the far side. At a higher frequency (shorter wavelength), diffe expected, . Figure 3.13: Buergy density distribution igure 3.14: Energy density distribution around the Moon with a continuons 10- around the Moon with « continnons 5- kin (30-K1z) plane wave incident from the Jan (60-KIIz) plane wave incident from the lot. left 415 Radio frequency dependence in attenuation ‘Yo look at the amount of attenuation more quantitatively, the energy density relative to that of the incident wave was plotted (Figure 3.15). Since this simulation study is meant (o be extremely rongh, the munerical values are expected to be reasonable only to within an order of magnitnde or so. Also, due to the finite spatial resolution, attenmativn ab the hmar “snrface” means at somewhere within » fraction of the radio wavelengih above the actual sneface, Attenuation of radio interference at the lunar surface -100 -120 -140 -160 attenuation (dB) 10 kHz / 30 km ee 15 kHz / 20 km ae 30kHz/10km i 50 kHz /6 km Bee 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 angle from incidence (0=Nearside, 90=Limb, 180=Farside) Pignre 3.15 Attenuation of energy density on the mar surface at various angles aronnd the Moon relative to the incident wave, Even for a very low frequency of 30 kil, radio waves seem to be attenuated by as much as 80 dB on the far-side locations over 30 degrees from the limb. ‘The flattening in the attenuation levels beyond about 140° may be simply due to the imperfect com- patational houndary. At higher frequencies, the attennation only improves becanse the ‘waves do not diffract as mnch, Even in the polar region (90°), the terrestrial interference seems to be attennated hy 23 orders of agnitnde, The available computational resonrce limited the highest frequen -y to 60 Iz, which is barely above the local solar plasma cutoff, While this tells ns the minimum amonnt of attemation, it would be helpful to guess the result s for higher frequencies. ‘To do this, the simmlation was nm at still lower frequencies (15 kHz and 10 kil) to obtain data points in an attempt to extrapolate the results lo higher frequencies. ‘To make the Ai extrapolation more valid, solar plasma was ignored because its influence will be mel larger for lower frequencies (local plasina density of ~ Se~/cm? will not even let 15-kHz wave propagate at all). Figure 3.16 shows the result using data points at three locations and four different frequencies. ‘The attenuation level se \s to vary roughly exponentially with the ‘adio wave frequency for cach of the locations, although it is difficult to tell how high in frequency this relation can be extrapolated. attenuation as a function of frequency at various locations Q Poe 40 gs S 00 5 120 B “160 4125 - +175 200 Hy Eee o 1 2 30 40 50 60 7 80 90 frequency (kH2) Pignre 3.16: Simulation result: Attenuation as a fimction of frequency at the locations of the Daedalus crater (~175°), Tsiolkovsky crater (~125°), and at the pole (~90°). This 5 an orderof-magnitnde result Comparison between scalar and vector wave simulations As mentioned above, compari son in results was made between simulations using rect- angular and cylindrical coordinates. ‘The use of re ordinates simulates an infinitely long cylindrical Moon where jimulates a spherical Moon. Figure 3.17 is an example of the comparison, As expected, the cylindri- cal Moon seems to shield the interference slightly better; however, the difference is much Jess than the uncertainty associated with this rough order-of- magnitude simulation. Next, using rectangular coordinates, comparison was made between scalar au vector wave ninlations (Fignre 3.18). Also in this c , tho difference is negligible compared to the uncertaiuty in the simmlation, even near the poles where the waves woukd be at 7 Comparison between cylindrical and spherical moon 80 + -100 | spherical (orbit) cylindrical (orbit) -120 | spherical (surface) ee 149 L&vlindrical (surtace), i 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 angle from the Nearside (0=Nearside, 90=Limb, 180=Farside) attenuation (dB) Figure 3.17: Comparison in results bet cen cylindrical and spherical models for the Moon (at: 15 kif, 20 kim), ‘The “orbit data a surface. (1 re for altitude of 100 km above the h ringes are due bo diffraction.) grazing incidence, Comparison between scalar and vector simulations attenuation (dB) 30 kHz (scala 30 kHz (vector 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 angle from the Nearside (0=Nearside, 90=Limb, 180=Farside) Bigmre 3.18: Comparison in results between sealar and vector wave simulations, using rectangular coordinates (cylindrical Moon). Shielding in the orbit Yo see the amount. of attenuation as observed from a Innar orbit, the relative energy density was plotted at a 100-km altitnde as well. ‘This js relevant to orbiters for pr cursor micasurements or orbiting telescope. Attenuation of radio interference on the lunar orbit O faye Pt sla attenuation (dB) -100 } 10 kHz/30 km 15 kHz / 20 km -120 } 30 kHz/10 km 140 50 kHz /6 km 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 angle from incidence (0=Nearside, 90=Limb, 180=Farside) Figure 3.19: Attenuation of energy density on the Iinar orbit at various angles around the Moon relative to the ineident wave, ‘The result at the orbital altitude (Figure 3.19) indicates that, at these low frequen- ci an orbiting observatory ean tak advantage of the shielding by the Moon during a much smaller fraction of its orbit than expected from geometrical shadowing, Also, a precursor orbiter mission to verify the shielding effect of the Moon should keep in mind that attennation of the terrestrial interference on the far side is likely up to 4 order magnitude better on the snrface than in orbit. 3.5 Conclusions Even for a very low frequency of 50 kdl, radio waves seom to be attemated by at least: 12 orders of magnitude on the far de locations over half way (~45°) front the limb. At higher frequencies, the attenuation should improve because the waves will not be expected to diffract as umch. For observations at very low frequencies, the r to suggest that we should choose an observatory site at least 45 degrees from the limb. 49 Difference in attenuation between surface and orbit -100 -120 attenuation (dB) -140 | 50 kHz (orbit) ° too LSOKHZ surlace) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 angle from the Nearside (0=Nearside, 90=Limb, 180=Farside) Figure 3.20: Difference in attemation of energy density on the mar surfa 100-km hunar orbit (7 = 50 kHz, A = aud on a 6 km). (Because of tho finite spatial resolution, “innar surface” is somewhere in the 0-500 mn altitude range.) In a lunar orbit, an observatory would be able to take advantage of the shielding hy the Moon only during a much smaller fraction of its orbit than expected from geometrical shadowing becanse of di ecially at longer wavelengths. Also, when a pre~ emtsor orbiter mission mcasures the sh of the Moon, the stenniation of the herrestrial interfer ni the far side may be expected to be 16 orders of magnitude bet ter on the su from orbit. Chapter 4 Proposal for the First Observatory 4.1 Affordable option for initial survey ‘To get the project started, the first objective should be to devise a concept that is very inexpensive, and yet able to make initial dis at very low frequencies. As the should coveries universe at the: frequencies is still mexplored, the main goal of the first array s be to survey the sky. When the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) condueted an all- sky survey at 5° resolution in 1983, it discovered about 350,000 new objects, increasing by about 70% [69]. Similarly, the Réntgen covered over 150,000 X-ray sources from its sky survey during the the number of cataloged astronomical s atellite (ROSA'T) ai 1990s, even with a relatively poor resolution of 12" {70]. We can ex pure pect such sue from r survey at very low frequencies © to obs For the first observatory, the main requirements ve at frequencies below at least 2 MHz with at least a few degree resolution, sufficient signal over noise (S/N), ‘The and enough spatial frequency coverage (av-coverage) to detect various objec main constraint is the budget. Therefore, to make something happen, we must come up with the cheapest mean to gain new view of universe. 4.1.1 Realistic possibilities With cost being the major constraint, a dedicated mission to the Moon for VLF as- tronomy is unlikely, even though the potential rewards could justify it. A more realistic cenario for a lar array would be as a lightweight side project on some other mission to the Moon. A lunar far side array would therefore likely have to wait at least another couple decades since no other motivating plans exist for the far side. ‘Table 4.1 compares the vations options for the VLF observatory site and their relative advantages. ‘Che specifications for the Earth orbit case are based on the above-mentioned ALBA, which was proposed Lo orbit the Earth at 2.6 times the hutar distance [28]. While ALFA would he excellent for studying the Sun at very low frequencies, its potential for discoveries outside the Solar System is questionable hecanse of the significant and contimous interference from the Sin, Barth, and other planets like Jupiter, A Inmar orbiting aay could make some astronomical observations while both the Earth and the number of antenmas and the Sim are on the other side, but the orbital instability will limit the manageable nsitivity significantly, Ab the Itmar south pole, a sekm all Malapert, Mountain may be usee to shield radio interference, as explained below. ‘The lunar near side does not offer mc advantage over a polar site, and wonkd most ikely be more expensive, ‘The lunar far side is excellent but not affordable any time soon. h) conclusion, the Inmar south polar site is very appealing for an initial survey observatory, ‘Lable 4.1: Possibilities for the VLE observatory site arth Lamar Tamar | Lanar Lamar orbit orbit | South Pole | Near Side (ALFA) | vial -10dB | <0(when | ~0 1 Interference ® fa side) 4 lar 1 ~O(when | ~0 0 Interference ( dark side (night) | (aight) Platform “AL (~2018) | int (~2020) 1 ( With the growing recognition of the lunar south polar regio as an ideal site for a Inuar base, the next series of lande will most: likely concentrate there, Particularly promising is the prospec rial communication, solar power, and Inar base development [71]. If the of Malapert Mountain near the south pole as a central station for terres south polar region is an acceptable site for VLP astronomy, the Inmar array project conld utilize the transportation and communication systems of the main mission. ‘This way, it could possibly ft within the margin of the host mission while expanding its scientific vane significantly. ‘Phe deployment and operation of the VIP array could also serve as am ideal (echnology demonstration projeet for subsequent missions in the tanar doyelopment ‘The main constraint of & luar array mission is the budget. However, majority of the cost: would come from transportation (lameh, lander, rover) and communication systems (Figure 4.1). ‘Phe cost and the mass of the array itself is only a small fraction of the lolal, The most costeffective approach may Unerefore be lo deploy the array as a piggyback project on some lander mission to the Moon. ‘The next series of lunar landers ‘will most likely be on the south polar region because of its attraction as a prospective Innar base site. In particular, one of the earliest- may land on top of Malapert Mountain to establish communication and power systems for the rest of the operations in the south polar region. Malapert is a 5-km tall mountain located at. 0° longitude and 86°S latitude, 122 km from the south pole toward the Barth. Being so high, this mountain could shield terrestrial interference for an observatory situated on the opposite side of it from the Earth [71] One of the main advantages of the hmar surface as an astronomical si is its acces: sibility for maintenance and upgrades. The lunar observatory is easily accessible only if there are other activities nearby ESA VLFALF cost Pignse 4.1: Estimated cost of ESA's Very Low Preqnency Array on the Lunar Par Side project [16]. For cost estimates of the rover and the rolay satellite at L2, the ISU report. (62] was referred to. 4.1.2 Lamar south pole Chore have been VLF observatory concepts for the hmnar far side (including, 34}, (50). [52], [16]) and the near side {43}, but not yet for a polar location. ‘Phe pole hns not been considered probably because the sky coverage would be halved at the pole and it is not suitable for sindying the Smn or (he plmets. Stull, nearly all range of galactic coordinates would be accessible from the polar site, making it satisfactory for an initial sky survey at very low frequencies. ‘The polar site is much more accessible. In addition. no ionosphere is expected at the polar region according to Figure 3 One concern with the polar site as eo: pared to the far side is that radio gnietness will be compromised becanse the Barth and the Sim will always be near the horizon (Figure «.2). In particular, the Barth will always be in the same general direction moving horizontally by :k8° and vertically by 7° over a month due to libration. ‘Phe Sun will circle along the horizon every month, also moving vertically by d1.5°. ese 235° / - ; ae Lgl Ecliptic Plane — — 6.60° Equator cate an wv Plane of Earth Moon's Orbit Moon iagram by PaulSpuds) Figure 4.2: Orientation of the orbital and rotational axis of the Moon (72) Malapert Mountain Being ~5 km tall, Malapert Mountain near the har sonth pole conld shield radio interference. This mountain is at 4 degrees, or “120 km, from the south pole along the 0% longitude Tine towards the Barth (Pigure 4.3). One of the earliest. lmar missions may land at the summit to establish a conmmmication rc y station that would be essential for future operations in the sonth polar region, Such a mission would be ideal for deploying am array of simple dipole antennas along the far side of the mountain. At long wavelengths, we must check how well the interference will be shielded, 4.2 Study IE tain Interference shielding by Malapert Moun- Study I in Section 3.4 seemed to show thal the radio interference reaching the polar region may be attennated by about two ordons of magnitude, ‘This already atiomated bt foe Figure 4.3: ‘The hmar south polar region, imaged with Earth-based radar shining from the top by Margot et al [73]. Malapert. Monntain (at longitude 0 and latitude 86° $) shields radiation from the Earth and can provide a radio quiet environment. Fignre 4.4: ‘The same image as above, but indicating permanently dark areas both visible (white) and invisible (gray) to the Earth-based radar [73]. interference can be further reducod by siting the array it the radio shadow of Malaperi Mountain, ‘The simmlation tool developed above was used to estimate the additional attenuation provided by Malapert Monntain, 4.2.41 Setup Figure 4.5 shows a rongh setup of the simulation with Malapert Mountain located aé 86°S along, the 0°-longitude Ii 2. Again, the har surface was modelod using the depth profiles for electrical permittivity and loss tangent. ‘The vector wave sinmlation was: used in the 2-dimensional cross-section along the O°-longitnde, Incident waves in TE and ‘TM modes were separately examined, 200 han 50 kin >50km, Figure 4.5: Rongh sketch of the simmla tion setup, with the S-km tall Malapert Mountain, ‘on a surface sloped by 4? relative to the direction of Barth (left). Planc-wave radio interference was generated along the dashed line on the left. ‘The Inar sonth pole is to the right. ‘Yo mode! the mountain, the digital elevation data acquired by Margot et al {73] was used (Fignre 4.6). Data is missing on the far side of the monntain becanse it is invisible from Earth. However, there is clearly a basin or a erater there because the elevation drops to 4 kkm below the mean. As shown in the figure, a very simple emve was used to roughly mode} the elevation profile of the monntain and the hasin on its far side ‘The terrestrial interference was again simulated as a plane wave, incident from the direction of the Barth. Interfea of varions frequencies were examined. However, as mentioned in Section 2.2, the interplanetary scattering limits the lower end of the fo “1 MHz, At 1/2 MHz, the achievable resolution is reasonable observing frequene already limited to~ 7°. ‘Phe simnlation was run until equilibrium was reached, typically taking several times the transit time across the sinmlation space (200 km /¢% 0.7 ms), 56 topology around Malapert Mountain radar dala by Margot etal model used for simulation elevation (km) “210 “180 -150 120 -90 -60 “30 0 distance from the South Pole (km) Figure 4.6: Topology around Malapert Mountain, based on radar data hy Margot et al (73). 4.2.2 Results jgures 4.7 and 4.8 show the results at 0.5 Miz and 1 MHz, respectively. Figure 4.9 is a more gnantitative plot. Again, the mamerical values should be taken as only reasonable to within an order of magnitude or so. ‘The results showed no significant difference between ‘TE and ‘TM modes. Figure 4.7: Energy density distribution for 0.5-MHlz plane wave inci lent, on Malapert Mountain from the direction of the Earth (left) Figure 4.8: Energy density distribution for 1-MHz plane wave incident on Malapert Mountain from the direction of the Earth (left) In a ~50-km Jong region on the far side of the mountain, the alwady attermated wave seems to abiennate further by at least an additional 30 dB. Altogether, terrestaial g attenuation around Malapert Mountain 10 Sp —. attenuation (dB) “210 180 -150 120 -90 -60 -30 0 distance from South Pole (km) Figure 4.9: Shielding of interference (0.5 and 1.0 MHz) by Malapert: Mountain (peaked at abont 120 km from the sonth pote). ‘This is in addition to the 20.30 dB attenmation already experienced hy terrestrial radio waves in the polar region, based on the above simulation results, interferen¢ expected to he weakened by ab least § orders of magnitude. ‘Lhe shielding effect is even betier for higher frequencies, as evident from the sult: for 1.0 ME in Figure 4.9. ‘The far side of Malapert Mountain is a promising site for a radio observatory. 4.3 Concept for the first hinar south polar VLF array A Innar sonth polar array conkl be realized as a small part of one of the npcoming sori sof lunar landers. ‘These missions could be lannched within 10 ye ‘Thus, ib is essential to prepare a realistic and affordable proposal soon, Below are very preliminary considerations for a possible first step toward the first Innar VLP array. ‘Testing, the initial array on the Inmar surface will be valuable for designing an optimal observatory ‘eventually for the lunar far side. 1b could also help begin hmar development to contribute toward fnrther development, on the Moon and beyond, inchiding Mars. 4.3.1 Requirements & constraints ‘The objective is to set up an operating observatory that will open the new specteal wine dow by best taking advantage of the unique environment of the Moon. ‘The observatory should cover a spectral range of at Jeast 310 MHz, with an angular resolution better than a degyee. Spectral range mst include what is impossible from the new discoveries. Frequencies below ~3 MHz should be explored, up to the Barth's ic ospherie cut-off of ~10 MHz, ‘The solar wind plasma places the lower limit of ~30 kia. desired. Angular resolution must be better than RAE and at worst a few degrees or limited by the interplanetary and interstellar scattering. ‘Che resolution depends on the baseline D and the sine of the altitude in the sky. Temperature sensitivity must be high enough to achieve sufficient S/N = f¥Avr = “fy Avr, where f = filling factor of the interferometer, 2 = number of antenna elements, + integration time per beam (potentially unlimited), and Av is the bandwidth (limited by the data rate). The sensitivity will be limited by interference from the Earth, Sun, and planets near the horizon. Aperture (u,v) plane coverage affects the image quality, and is determined hy the number of antennas. Sky coverage must be enough to sample the universe sufficiently, proferably including all galacti latitudes. From the Innar south pole only ic latitudes is the southern celestial hemisphere is observable, but all range of galae essible, Duration must be long enough for alksky survey in a snfficient range of frequencies: at Jeast one year (preferably during a solar minimum). Lifetime may be limited hy the commmnieation system. Lamar advantage is erncial: the observation niust be impossible from elsewhere (orbits, libration points, hinar orbits). ‘The advantage of the lunar environment must be verified, Budget This project will have to be a small part of a funded Innar lander, for exemple a New Frontiers n ation and jon ($650M). Schedule of the International Space upcoming lunar missions will constrain when a suitable lander i proposed to piggyback on. ‘Phe first lander on the hinar south pole will likely be the South Pole Aitken Sample Return mission to be lnunchod around 2009-2013 [74]. Pace of developing launchers, ‘overs, and communication systems will constrain when a mission to Malapert Mountain ean be realized. 4.3.2 Summary of options in rows ‘Phe two conflicting areas of interest are performance and cost. Table 4.2 list the factors influencing performance or cost, and in columns the drivers of both. ‘These drivers are the options open for trades. ‘The maximum baseline (D) is the major driver determining the resi Iving power and influencing the deployment difficulty. ‘The mumber (n) of antenna elements in the ray is the major driver for spatial frequency coverage (influencing, image quality) and for the mass, volume, and deployment requirements. While a linear array would be simpler to deploy, we should leave open the option for a 2-dimensional layout able to take snapshot images for better calibration (improving the dynamic range). Also, the relative advantages of various locations should be weighed with respect to the interference level 59 ant deployment difficulty Fable 4.2: Factors influencing performance (top rows) and cost (bottom rows), and their DRIVERS" => High [[Mox basetine Layout Location frequency i Coverage Mass, volume - Deployment linear Power : “Por cach driver and the faetor it drives, the favorable option is indicated (Ce most important effects in bold), 4, 3 Observatory site ‘The site is proposed to be in the south polar region of the Moon, on the side of Malapert Mountain shadowed front the Earth's radio interference. When considering interference, libration must be acconnted for. Every month, the Barth would move up and down by. 7 30 km to hold the array. ‘The entire dark 6. Subsurface ‘The shadowed area should be at le and gray regions in Figure 4.4 are prospec flections should be checked. Based on the elevation data by Margot et al (73), the slope of the mountain on its fir side is expected to range 10° ~ 30°. ‘The slope of Malapert: Mountain may he too steep or mgged for a rover fo transverse. Topography data at 1/2-metre vertical resolution with a 10-metre are essential in designing a rover able to transverse pot si the terrain. ‘Phe terrain shonld also be smooth enough for the antenna elements to be able to communicate their data to some central station. Also, the abservability of all galactic latitudes as well as the galactie center would be very favorable. Por accessibility the site is better to be near a hmar base or close to the Malapert summit, On the other hand, the site must avoid radio interference from local activities, It is still an open «mestion whether or not some nearby craters conld offer an even better site. oo 4.3.4 Array ‘The polar site has the unique quality such that all the baselines of the interferometer rotate in a citele with the Moon itself, ‘Thu even a simple Linear anray will create a cirenlar aperture over the course of half a hmar rotation. For parts of the sky away from the zenith, the aperture plane is elliptical, becoming narrower hy the sine of the altitude. For example, at 30° above the horizo the angular resolution worsens by a factor of sin(30°) = 1/2 in the altitudinal direction. Compared to a 2-dimensional axay scattered over an area, a ronghily linear array will require the least number of antenna elements for a given maximnm baseline. It would be simpler to deploy. Because a linear array cannot take snapshot images, a novel method for calibration of flux density and fringe amplitude may need to be developed. For a linear coufigues ion, phase calibration only requires the knowledge of antenna positions; however, amplitude calibration requires further investigation. Maximum baseline ‘The array should span at Jeast 17 Jan to achieve 1? resolution or hotter at 1 MHz. "The max num baseline is the major driver determining, the resolving power at frequencies above 1 MHz and influencing the deployment complexity. At very Jow frequencies, interstellar and interplanetary scattering severely limits the hest possible angular resolution at an given frequency. ‘Thus, the maximum baseline needs to be no longer than ~200 km for most VLF imaging applications. An array size of 50 km is sufficient: to achieve the -attering, limited resolntion of 10° at 3 MHz. for the majority of th ky. ‘The simulation results above (Figure 4.9) indicate a reasonable shielding of terrestrial interference over a 50-kin region on the far side of Malapert Mountain, Number of elements: ‘Thi umber of antommas in the array is the major driver for spatial frequency coverage (influencing iamage quality) and for the mass, volume, and deployment requirements. ‘Che antennas should be arranged in a configuration that provides a uniform coverage in spatial frequency with mininmm redundancy of baselines. ‘Phis means having various intervals among the antenna elements, from short. to long, as depicted in Pigure 4.10. Densely packed! part of the array should be located near the basin where the attonnation of the terrestrial interference is expected to be the best. The number of antennas could range 10~300 or so. For a wide frequency range, filling factor depends strongly on the wavelength (16). ‘The instantancous and long-term synthetic aperture of « given configuration ean b ‘ndied using compnters [33]. Abont 150 elements should be able to cover a 60-km linear array with a minimam baseline on the order of the observing wavelength. Althongh the antomas may be orientated rane domly, aligning single dipoles toward Earth could reduce their sensitivities to terrestrial interference, ol Malapert Mountain 50 km Figure 4.10: A general view of the linear array setup in the Earth shadow of Malapert Mountain 4.3.5 Preliminary concept Asa preliminary haseline, a linear array is proposed with about 50 short: dipole antennas, over a distance of about 50 km ou the far side of Malapert Mountain It could be a fow hundred kilogram payload on a lander tnission to the Malapert summit, which thea could he deployed by a rover depositing the antennas as it tr vols down the slope, ‘Phe baseline of 50 lan will provide at 3 MHz the 10° resolution (which is the interplanetary scabtering limit), even at a0 degrees above the horizon. ‘The VLE array will map the entire visible sky through apertnre synthesis, one frequency hand at a time, Mapping at each band will tike 2 weeks (half a kunar rotation), or longer for better sensitivity. ‘This could be inexpensive if itis flown as an extra payload (of a fow hundred kilograms) on a hunar lander mmission whose primary purpose is (o establish a communication relay station between the south polar region and the Earth, Funding could also come as a teclmology demonstration or validation project for a Innar rover, remotely controlled robotic operations, and commmication infrastruetre 4.3.6 Communication architecture / data delivery Data from each antema would he delivered to a central station for correlation and relayed through a comumutieation ath, Data nay he delivered by cable connection, radio link, or infrared / optical link, Bandwidth vem at the Malapert summit to the Av should be higher for better sensitivity, but lower for eas or interference suppression. Data rate will likely be limited by the communication casts, 4.3.7 Array deployment & operation With towod ina box 25 em on each side ‘A's design [16], each antenna unit could be and weighing only 6 kg, With 50 antennas, the total mass wonld be on the order of a fow hundred kilograms. ‘The entire package could fit ina 1 m* vohume, Various options exist for method of deploying the array. Burns {83} thought that deployment robot would be the most difficnlt engineoring, hurdle. Ht will require a high 02 performance rover with robotic manipnlation, Detailed topology (contour maps) will he required to assess how trafficable the site is. An ideal mission to piggyback on would be a lander to the Malapert summit for establishing a communication link between Earth and the linar south polar region. A possible sequence for setting up the VLF array might. go as follow 1, Land on the Malapert summit; establish communication with Barth; tupa solar power system. 2s munication with any future activities in the et up the central station for c south polar region (including VLF astronomy). 3, Deploy a rover carry’ 4. Mi designated location and deposit an antenna unit; ensure communication link between ng the VLE array units (packaged in 1 mn!) neaver the rover down the far slope: stop at a convenient spot near a pre: the antenna unit and the central station. This operation might take about 1/2 hour per unit [16] 5. Move on down the slope to doposit the rest: of the antenna nnits in the linear array. The lo tion of each unit does not need to be exact, nor does the array need to he exactly in a line. 6. Where necessary, set up simple intermediate relay stations along the way. This could be an ideal technology validation project for rover transportation and robot ¢ deployment on the Moon, Once the rover deploys the array, we can calibrate the observatory by s ‘al station nding commands to each antenna unit throngh the cen at Malapert summit, Data from each antenna would be delivered back to a central station and relayed to the Barth. Assuming that this Malapert station can transmit data at a high correlations of signals from the antenmas may be performed on Earth. Operating the VLP observatory would be an excellent test of the communication system for the liar south pole before other missions arrive. Power requirements & storage An issue rema ining to be solved is powering of each antenna unit. According to the BSA design [16], each unit will require about 1/2 watt for olectronies and 1/2 watt for communications. Solar power at the observatory site is searce because it avoids radiation from not only the Earth but also the Sun most of the time, A power station on the Malapert summit could possibly distribute power to the antenna units through a eable or a wireless transmission, but neither of these possibilities appears simple. By the time this mission becomes a reality, very lightweight radioisotope thermoelectric generators (a few kilograms each) may become available. Any necessary batteries nmst be able to s ums operate at; very low temperatures. 63 Cost ‘Che following table lists the estimated costs from design stndios for hmnar VLE arrays, Tnble 4.3: Order-of | ions of $ or ESA acconnting tits) 1 Su* (farside) ESA? (farside) | 300 elements) 17 km | 300 elements/ 40 kent | 1200 : | 1SU* (nensside) 5 clements/ 100 m “Ground ‘TOTAL i 20 i993 US $ [52] 1 1987 BSA Accomting Unit (15) For the luna sonth polar array proposed here, the cost should be less than that of 1 dedicated near side system. Referring to the ESA cost estimates, the dipole antenna clements weighing a fow 100 kg total are expected to cost about S10M to design and 80.16M per unit to manufacture, With 50 antenna units, the total would be ~ $50M. ‘Transportation cost of the pigayback mission would be significantly less than if a whole Jamnch needed to be dedicated for the mission, Designing the rover modification for the array deployment would probably require the greatest effort and resources. In any case, the cost of this mission wonkd be less than that of one nice meal for an average tax payer. Moreover the money goes into providing jobs for people. ‘The cost per individual would be even less if this project is done as an international collaboration. 61 Chapter 5 Recommendations for Precursor Measurements ‘To progress further toward proposing and realizing the VLF astronomy from the Moon, we need to learn about the actual environment of the Moon and search the hinar surface for the best sites, It is ¢1 ncial to identify a prac to be ical site with definite advantages able to propose the first array in complete detail, To do this, we must make some dit measurements of the lunar environment. and the potential sites. Most of the required measurements would be of interest to hmar scientists (for ex- ial for har devel- ample, ionosphere, subsurface structures, and magnetic field) or cru opment in general (like topology). Much of the current Imowledge about the Moon is 1 to propose missions that will maximally s ed on data from the 1970s. Lunar scienti s and astronomer: ould work together isfy the common interest We mst propose and make necessary measurements to support the VLF observatory on the Moon, ‘To confirm the lunar advantage, we mus make direct measurements of the hmar environment. ‘fo choose a site and make a proposal for the first array, we must study the potential sites in detail. We should specify the required measurements so that, we can fully utilize the upcoming opportimities. Missions like SMART-1, LunarSat, and SELENE will be able to make many of these measur ments in this decade ~ it is important to make the most out of these opportunities by ensuring that these missions will make the desirable measurements. ions will not be able to make all of the desirable measurement therefore, we should make recommendations for further measurements to be considered in future missions. It is crucial to ensure that the space exploration community knows what. measurements are demanded in contrast to the existing data and why they are important. 65, 5.L Lunar environment characterization 5.1.1 Lunar ionosphere ‘Lhe feasibility of VL observations from the Moon relies on the absence of any sig- nificant electron density above the lmar surface. As mentioned earlier, the electron concentration set the lowest observable frequency So far, only day-time measurements from the 1970s are available, It is most impor tant to find the ent-off frequencies at various loc Lio regions and including the polar at varions times during the hmnar rotation, especially during the Iniar night. ‘This will require measuring the maximum electron density at the surface, that is, at altibides 2km. It will also be useful to s ndy refractive effects: even above the ent-olf fro- quency. Jy collaboration with iouospheric physicists, it may be useful to find the rue ionized fraction, scale height, variability, and correlation scales. ‘These measurements will require active sounding from the lunar orbit or surface, LunarSat will have a radar and plasma experiment with 5-metre dipoles able to operate at 0-5 MH» and study the ionosphere al 50-500 kiz. SEI Radio Science instrument will investigate the he nar Sionosphere”. Ht will be able to make dual-frequeney phase-lag, mi its Schand (2 GHz) and X-band (8 GHz) [75] 5.1.2 Barth interfe nee "Phe levels of interference should be measured at: yuzious locations on the Moon, including the far side of Malapert Mountain, in a frequency range 50 klix - 30 MHz and compared to the galactic background. The amount of attenuation may be compared with the simlation results above. ‘Phe effect of lunar libration (by 8°) shonld also be studied. Initially, the attenuation levels at the lanar orbit. can be used to deduce the levels on the BLENE's Lamar Radar surface based on the above simulation iesults. For exemple, $I Sounder will sindy spectrum of plasma waves as well as the solar and planetary radio waves in a wide frequency range of 10 Tz = 30 MMz {76}. It will observe plasma waves in the magnetosphere, the solar wind at the lunar distance, amd wave phenomena in the Tomar wake. Eventually, surface meastrements using dipole receivers will give definite measurements of the noise from the Rarth and the Sun in the lanar radio environment, 5.2 Site election In planning @ mission to seb np an observatory on the Moon, the choice of the site is a very influential factor that affects many clements of the mission design, inckuding communication architecture and deployment: method. ‘Pherefore, identifying candidate sites is a crucial first step for further progress. It is also imperative for planning precursor anissions to examine the candidate sites. 6 5.2.1 Topology ‘Phe site must be able to accommodate a long-baseline array sp inning 10s of kilometres, A larger site will permit expansion of the array to 100s of kilometres. The site must be flat enough for antennas to be in direct sight of a central receiver and smooth enough for safe landing and deployment. Basins and maria-filled craters are targets to investigate, ‘These include craters like Tsiolkovsky, Aitken, and Daedalus. So far, the highest resolution topology of the Moon has been obtained by Lunar Orbiter V with a horizontal resolution Axe = 2~20 rm depending on the location, by the Apollo 15 laser altimeter, by Clementine High Resolution Camera with Az = 20~30 m, and by Clementine Laser Altimeter with Aw = 100 m and a vertical resolution Az = 40 m. See Figure 5.1. Soon, SMAR'P-1 and LunarSat are planning to take images of the mar south polar region. For example, the LumarSat camera will he able to image the southern hemisphere with a 10-metre resolution, and the south polar region in particular with a horizontal resolution of 3.5 m or less. SELENE Terrain Camera and Laser Altimeter will make a global map of the Imnar surface with Ax = 10 m and Az = 5m. At the earliest opportunity, topological survey should be condueted by an orbiter with laser or radar sounding and high resolution imaging. A 1/2-metre resolution in altitude with a 10-metre grid size would be desirable [16]. Topography of the dark areas in the south polar region will be especially interesting. Wigure 5.1: ‘Lhe lunar south polar region, by Clementine probe [77] oT 5.2.2 Subsurface reflections “The site should be checked to ensure there are no disturbing reflections of radio waves off of any subsurface stimetures down to sevoral wavelengths (~10 kan), ‘Che only available data are from the Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment, Electyieal survey of candidate sites throngh detailed radar sounding at the smfuee woukd be necessary. hn the frequency raupe 50 kil 80 MH, a radar somder should measure Uhe reflected amplitudes and time delays. LunarSat's 5-netre dipoles will be able to conduct radar sounding ab 0-5 Milz, SELENE Lunar Radar Sounder, with two orthogonal 30-metre dipole antennas, will probe the hum: subsurface at 1.6 Miz to a depth of ~ 5 lan with a 100-metre vertical resolution (78) 5.2.3 Magnetic field ‘Che site should have a low magnetic field. lffects of the Moon's own weak magnetic jd romain unknown. Magnetic sua vey should be conducted from an orbiter, and then from the surface, Lumar and SELIENIE Lunar Magnetometer will make initial ineasurements. 5.2.4 Other criteria Before finalizing on the site, several additional factors should be checked. Visibility of dosirable parts of the sky is important. For example, being able to observe the Galactic center at. declination of -30° is a big advantage. ‘Phermal environment. should be studied ab the candidate siles for thermal control, Also, any potential interference from lunar should be eb orbiters or bas ‘ked. At the same time, accessibility for deployment and service is also important. 5.2.5 Candidates For the lunar far side VLF array, the current candidates are all large craters: Daedalus (Pignre 5.2), ‘Tsiolkov: (Figure 5.3), and Aitken (Figure 5.4). Por very low freqneney observations, Tsiolkovsky’s location may not be far enough behind (he limb to avoid the diffractod interference from the Barth. Ju smmmary, the most ncial measurement is probably high-resolutio topography. Kesitn measurements with dipole receivers will be extremely helpful in determining the plasma cut-off frequency and interference levels, and for testing observations. Planners of Innar niissions should keep in mind these interests (o make the most out of the missions, Many of the required measurements are the niteresting even for the sake of leaming abont oon. 68 Figure 5.3: ‘Usiolkovsky crater (100 km diameter, 20°S, 129°E) [80] 69 Figure 5.4: Aitken crater (50 km diameter, 17°S, 173°) [81]. Chapter 6 Vision and Prospect ‘This chapter pre nts a vision of how the VLF radio observatory on the Moon could be «d, especially through international cooperation. 6.1 Timeline ‘The timeline depends heavily on the schedule for the International Space Station and the development speed of launchers, landers, rovers, and communication satellites crucial for mar exploration and development. 6.1.1 Common lunar exploration scenario Space agencies of Europe, Japan, and China all share very similar visions for exploration of the Moon. In the 1990s, scenarios involving 4 phases (Figure 6.1). Both scenarios begin with an initial phase of ESA and Japan each laid ont similar lmar exploration robotic exploration of the Moon, followed by a 2nd phase of robotic operations on the surface. Missions like SMART-1, LunarSat, Lunar-A, and SELENE are under phase I. ‘The 3rd phase involves lunar resource utilization and preparation for human outpost envisioned for the final phase, ESA’s more recent Aurora program complements the original vision. In 2001, China also announced a 3-staged lunar exploration plan named the thang’e” program [83]. By 2005, China hopes to send a probe to the Moon to study its topography and resource distribution. By 2010, China plans to complote the first phase with hmar orbiters. The second phase involves soft-landing on the Moon and ying the lunar surface with rovers. ‘The 3rd phase is a sample return, Ultimately, s to the Moon. surve China intends to send huma: Within the context of this scenario, the VLF astronomy program may be envisioned to proceed as follows. 71 0 2s me amis 20 ams me ‘Vnneoed sstions | 1 | | | + pt a | SS ' j - auuneesesomeer || aman extent t | ee ~jatzaten | [ " . j 1 [Hobo | Pemmnen Ratti eee | Brploration | petnee i 7 | en-teadod | | pout Sapagian rood production tens sm owpos =| its Jen i lier odoin tans : | |e iy eg PRE Bross aston | - Hots eonsrucn ot, Memes. | manned eens ae | Pe Figure 6.1: Similar Imar exploration scenarios by BSA (top) and Japan (bottom) as of the mid-1990s [82] 6.1.2 Orbiter precursors ~2010 By 2007, SMART- about the lamar env « Lumar-A, LunarSat, and SELENE will have gathered nseful data ment aud some of them will hopefully have carried dipole an- tonnas to attempt astronomical observations while on the far side of the hnar orbit. Also around 2007, the Low Frequency Array (LOEAR) will begin to operate at frequencies as low as 10 MHz [9}. LO) TAR will be an ex cellent ground-based precursor to verify such things as dipole arrangement and computational algorithms. Lessons from these obser ons will be invaluable in propos g the hmar VLE array. ‘Then, by 2010 a har orbiting precursor arvay may be realized. For example, Bongeret. [17] smgyested a 2-clement orbiting interforometer with a radio spectrograph with an extensive freqnency coverage (0.5-16 MHz). Such a precursor could assess radio and plasma waves in the lunar environment (ionosphere) and make the first. aresecond- resohttion images of a few hundred brightest sources (1-2 aresee maps for high Galactic latitude sources) 6. 3 Surface arrays 2010~2020 From «2010, lunar linding missio s may become begin. Earlier landers would be exe Jent opportunities for testing VLE dipole observations from the Imar snrface, Aronnd 2009. the South Pole Aitken Sample Return mission is expected to be Iannchedl [7 With a mninimal cost, it could a couple of VLF receivers to quantify the a can of Imar and subsurface reflections. nosphere, external interference For Japan's SELENE-II lander, a proposal has heen put forward to inchide a very low frequency observation instrument to be tested on the surface [84]. ‘Lo observe at even lower frequencies, a VLF array near the Innar south pole could then be proposed and its intensive design started. By 2010, its development phase could bogin. If by then Innar missions are more common, a Innar orbiter or Lander could carry a fow VLE dipole antennas for preliminary observations. By 2015 or possibly earlier, a mission to the lunar south polar region could deploy the first surface array. Any hinar mission Uhat can include this very low frequency astronomy project will contribute to a significant milestone in human view of the universe. / SELENE 7” SPA-SR Launch & 7 LOFAR Development | Deploy! 2 TT 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Figure 6.2: Possible schedule for the Innar sonth polar VLE array project, 4 Lunar far side 2020~ s made by the initial survey could excite the public and prompt the space explorers to propose a full-scale lunar far side array for the most sonsitive studies of nowly discovered objects and phenomena, 6.2 Call for international cooperation We can achieve the maximum benefit from this project by carrying it out through international collaboration. By combining effort, more people will better enjoy the & International cooperation in missions nent of this new exploration of the nnive to onter space, especially to the Moon, conld have a significant impact on world peace, beyond scientifie or economic Many nations share similar ambitions toward the Moon, including the United States, European Union, Japan, China, India, Canada, and Russia, ‘The VEP observatory seems to be the one Moon-based telescope concept that NASA leadership continnes to he interested in, ESA has fimded a substantial design study for it and will likely play an integral role in this mission concept. Japanese space agency is also enthusiastic about astronomical observations from the Moon, During the past few years, dozens of scientists have gathered in Japan to investigate the very low frequency radio observations from the Moon [81]. Russia would also he able to make a valuable contribution to this mission porhaps in lmchers, India and Canada are planning joint: mission 10 the Moon aronnd 2007 [85}. ‘he vice administrator Sun Laiyan of Chinese National Spaco Administration sitid: “We plan to begin our research on exploration of the Moon in future, Wed like to operate in the acrospace field with all amiable counties in the world” [86]. China's vice chairman Song Jian said: °As a member of UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), Chinese government always supports all the activities that promote peaceful utilization of onter space, and strictly follows the provisions and spirit, of ‘he Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outor Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, ‘Taking into Partienlar Account the Needs of Developing Comntries. Chinese government is of the view to strengthen the exchange and cooperation with all the nations under the principles of equality, mmtual benefit. and co-development [87]. All these and other nations could mite forces toward a common purpose, 6.3 Conclusion Moon Being the most visible and familiar object in common for everyone on Barth, the Moon has a great potential to contribute toward inspiration and unifieation of hm- mankind, Eventually having a constant human presence there could help people relate themselves to something as far as the Moon and be inspired. Astronomy The Moon offers many opportunities; the study of the universe by taking advantages of the unique inar environment is one of the more peaceful and educational activities, Since astronomy is a science purely motivated from enriosity about the vast univer owe live in, astronomical missions may be an ideal kind for peaceful intornational cooperation. What could be more peaceful than people of various backgrounds working together toward the Moon to expand our views to onr tmiverse? In particnlar, study of the iniverse at very low frequeney is likely only possible from the Moon. Such observation could lead to amazing discoveries avd open a new field in astronomy. Realization To realize this dream, the first step is to begin building upon 40 years of foregoing effort. Chapter 2 attempted to cite most of the references on the idea of sto Moon-based very low frequency observatory, at least in English. ‘Lhe consens be that the Innar far side observatory wonld be the only way for sensitive astronomy and very low frequencies and that it is technically feasible. IM is crucial to raise the public interest to make this project. more attractive for the people, ‘To verify the advantage of setting up the observatory on the lunar surface, the simulation study estimated how inch the terres round the hinar rial interference may be attenuated at various locations farside, However, another general view was that the Innar far side observatory is unlikely fanded until fir side access hecomes easier and cheaper, Meanwhile, » concept for an affordable preliminary observatory was suggested to conduct an initial sky survey at very low frequencies, ‘The idea is to piggyback on a nar lander to the south polar region and using Malapert Mountain as a shield against terrestrial interference. ‘The simulation study seemed to show that the mo ntain can shield the interference promisingly well and landers Precursor measurements involving both lunar orbite will be required to ascertain the actual Innar environment. Astronomers, planetary scientists, and space explorers should cooperate for explo- ig an propose the very low frequency study of the universe. I believe the Moon offers unique ration of, on, and from the Moon. Let us begin form ternational team to and significant opportunities for inspiring and uniting everyone on Barth, Figure 6.3: http://sded.gsfenasa.gov/ESDCD/GRX / Earth. Moon gif 76 Appendix A Moon’s Physical Characteristics From http://nssde.gsfe.nasa.gov/planetary /factshect /moonfact. html : ‘Table A.1: Moon's bulk and environmental paramet Moon “Earth, ‘h ratio 378 km 1736 kn 6357 km 7.35 x10? kg a 3.350 g/m’ gravity 1.62 m/s? Equator 1 radius | 1738 km Polar radius Mas Mean density 11.2 km/s 10! particles / em 10°78 J /year Atmosphere Seismic energy ‘Table A.2: Moon’s orbital parameters (for orbit about: the Earth) Revolution period (sidereal) Synodic period Mean orhital velocity Inclination to eclipti 5.145 deg 18.28 - 28.58 di from Earth an apparent, diameter Apparent visual magnitude 7 ‘Table A.3: Major types of radiation in the Imnar environment |i} | Sotwr Wind | Solar cosmic rays | Galnetic cosmic mys 0.1 to >10 GeV <0.1-1 MeV “0.1 to >10 GeV 0 108 24 : [ype Energy per melon 1 to >100 MeV Energy per electron Fluxes (protons/em?see) Lunar penetration depths [[