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Period of Development Fact Sheet

Infancy and Toddlerhood

Physical: Infancy Visible signs of growth for an infant are changes of their overall
body size and these changes are faster than any time after their birth (Berk, 2013). Some
reflexes set the basis for complex motor skills that will develop over time, such as the
neck, stepping and the palmer grasp (Berk, 2013)
Toddlerhood Toddlers will walk in a more rhythmic way and begins walking in a hurry
which will change into running (Berk, 2013). Toddlers can jump, hop, throw, and catch a
ball with a rigid upper body (Berk, 2013). They can also push a riding toy with their feet
with little steering (Berk, 2013).
Language: Infancy At the start of infancy, babies make babbling sounds and cry for
their wants and needs. Between 6 to 8 months the vocal range grows drastically, by the
age of 10 to 12 months, the infants babbling began to have meaning such as bababs,
dadada or mamama is related to papa, mama, dada and nana (
Toddlerhood Most toddlers say their first two-word sentences around 18 24 months
and normally acquired between 50 and 500 words ( Children
typically name things such as food, pets, animals, family members, toys, vehicles and
clothing that a child can physically touch which is the same for different cultures
( Young children are able to speak more words (expressive) than
they actually able to comprehend (receptive) (Oswalt, 2008).
Cognitive: Infancy In the beginning when an infant is between 1- 4 months old, they
become aware of objects as a permanent fixture as well as being tangible. They also can
imitate an adults facial expression over a short period of time (Berk, 2010). By the ages
of 12 18 months, the infant is able to search different areas for objects that are hidden
such as when it is shown to them and taken out of their sight.
Toddlerhood Between the ages of 18 months 2 years old, a toddler tries to imitate
actions that adults have done in the past. Toddlers often imitate daily behaviors and
actions during make-believe or dramatic play (Berk, 2010).
Strategies that families can use to influence their childrens learning and development
during this period of development: Parents should always interact with their young
babies so that they can have some bonding time. It is a good idea to provide them with
soft stuff toys and age appropriate items that make different noises to help them more
alert and aware of the environment around they are in. Parents can strengthen their
infants neck muscles by placing them on their stomach which is typically called tummy

For toddlers, parents can provide materials that are easy for them to manipulate such as
toys that they can take apart easily and different types of blocks for building. These
items will assist with their fine motor skills which will strengthen their hand muscles and
build good hand and eye coordination. Parents can also provide the toddler with lots of
writing and drawing tools such as crayons, makers and colored pencils so that they can
learn how to hold these items correctly.

Berk, L. E. (2010). Infants, Children and Adolescents. Boston: Pearson Education
Berk, L.E. (2013). Child Development. Boston: Pearson Education Language
Development - Infancy, Toddlerhood, Preschool years: the two-year-old Early Childhood
Cognitive Development: Language Development

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