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B9l6f

FIRST GREEK

jfor i^t

(*ls

O^

oi

READER:

Bt^oah.

BY

AKci). H^BRYCE,

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.8.E.

RECTOA OF THX EDLNBtrBOH COLLEGIATE SCHOOL.

Cljirt ^Tiitiou.

T.

NELSON AND

LONDON:
PATERNOSTER ROW;

SONS,

EDISBURaH

AND NEW YORK.

IfDCCCLXXn.

Ik

"^xdRtt.

This volume

is

at once a

Grammar, a Header, an

Exercise-Book, and a Vocabulary.

Its

aim

is

two-

To give a complete view of the InNouns and Yerbs, with a careful regard
simplicity and clearness
and, Secondly, To supply

fold

First,

flexions of

to

a series of interesting and easy lessons in continuous


reading.

In the grammatical part of the work care has


been taken not to overload the text with minutisD

and

exceptions,

which serve only to confuse and

bewilder the beginner

but to afford merely the

amount of information considered necessary

The Nouns and Verbs

Course.

that each class of Inflexions


distinct

is

are so

in a First
arrancred,

kept separate and

and numerous Exercises follow each para-

digm, in order that the characteristics of one group

may be

fixed in the

attention

Third

is

mind

of the pupil before bis

invited to another

Declension

have been

The Nouns of the


classified

on

plan

PREFACE,

iv

which,

it is

hoped, will lead to a due appreciation of

the peculiarities belonging to that multiform division.


(See, especially,

Appendix,

The Verb has been

p,

and has been introduced as


earlier Exercises,

of teaching

it

160.)

set forth in one tabular view,


little

as possible in the

from the conviction that the method

piecemeal, and in a desultory manner,

without any regard to similarity of stem or of meanconfusion to the pupil and

ing, is certain to result in

disappointment to the master.


Adjectives should always be taught simultaneously

with Substantives, and each gender-form by


as suggested in the text (Section

but to afford

facilities for

II. 6,

and

itself,

III. 8)

comparing form with form,

and to gratify those Teachers who

may

prefer the

old mode^ paradigms have been printed in full declension at p. 43, sqq.

parison of Adjectives, a

In the section on the

new arrangement

Com-

has been

proposed, which aims at giving simplicity as well as

symmetry

to a chapter of

unnecessarily complicated,

Greek grammar hitherto

and devoid of unity

of

principle.

The Rules
simple,

of

Contraction will be found

and comprehensive.*

They have been

brief,

bor-

rowed, with the kind permission of the author, from


* It must be borne In mind, tliat in regard to the Rules of Contraction, of Euphony,
<fcc., as laid down in this first coni'se of Greek lessons, all the roinutiw
and exceptions are not glTen; the less common peculiarities belonR to a second
course, or to a systematic and complete Grammar. The principles set forth will- it
Is believed, be found to cover everything required in the use of this volume.

of Accent,

PREFACE.

a forthcoming Greek

Grammar by the

Rev.

I)r.

Bryce

of Belfost.

The Exercises of Part

are intended mainly as

I.

a praxis on the Inflexions, and to this end the strict


logical

arrangement of the Sjmtax has been entirely

subordinated.*

The Rules of Construction have

been introduced in such order, and to such an

fore

extent, as has been

sentences,

classical

consistent with the


to rapid progress.f

which by easy steps increase in

have been

culty,

deemed most

and most conducive

genei-al plan,

The

authors

selected, as far

as possible, from

much

restricted

peculiar features in the design of the work.

names

difli-

but the choice of words and of

appropriate phrases has been veiy

by

there-

The

and words of frequent

of familiar objects,

occurrence in general reading, claim a primary place


in the Vocabulary of elementary

a foreicrn lan2aias:e

works dealing with

and such have therefore been

chosen in preference to more rare and more dignified


terms.

They have been

Reading Lessons of Part

largely

II.,

ciple of frequent repetition

as possible

more
the

and

difficult

often

when

may have

as

much play

students arrive at the

task of unravelling complex sentences,

recurring faces of old friends

diminishing their

difficulties,

may, by

encourage them onward

A companion volume to the present is in preparation, which will assume the form
an Exercise-Book, and in which the Syntax will be the primary object of attentioa
A brief rtsitme of the Sj-ntaz of Simple Seatences win be foond in the Appendi:.

sf

that,

taken from the

in order that the prin-

PREFACE.

Sentences of an abstruse or philo-

in their labours.

sophical kind, such as too often form the staple of

Introductory Readers, have been avoided, as tending

The Eng-

rather to repel than to invite the young.


lish portions of

the Exercises are meant merely as

examples for imitative practice, and are not intended


supersede

to

the

use of a methodically arranged

Manual of Greek Composition.


not, for

"Vocabularies have

very obvious reasons, been attached to the

Exercises, but

have been supplied at a

different part

of the book, p. 164.


It

is

of the utmost consequence that, in studying

a foreign language, pupils should

make

daily,

and from the

very

first,

facts

which they learn from the Grammar.

pi-axis short

practical use of the principles

and easy clauses

are, in

and

For such

the earher stages,

indispensable, but it is possible to continue their use

an unnecessary extent, inasmuch as the power of

to

a boy to grapple with the


sentences

is

by no means

difficulties

of complex

in proportion to the time


It has therefore

spent in analysing simple sentences.

been deemed prudent to introduce promiscuous reading lessons as soon as the learner has fairly got over
the Parts of Speecli and their companion Exercises.

And

thus the Extracts forming Part

II.

have been

chosen with this view, that, while the pupil's ingenuity


is

exercised in the discrimination of

cal

mixed grammati-

forms and the analysis of compound sentences, his

PREFACE.

mind may

at the

Vfi

same time be

interested in the

subject-matter of his task, and his ambition not dis-

heartened by any great syntactical

some of the specimens, a


struction
less

is

little

In

difficulties.

irregularity of con-

occasionally observable

but this

is

of

consequence than at a more advanced stage in a


Poetry, and detached pieces of

youth's progress.

dry

historical detail, have, for

been excluded.

To Part

II.

very evident reasons,

a few brief Notes have

been added.

The Greek Vocabulary has been constructed on


the principle of giving the primary signification of

each word, even though the word be not found in


that sense in the Extracts ; and of tracing the derived

meanings so far as

is

necessary to illustrate the differ-

ent instances in which

it will

be met with.

Limited

space, however, has greatly restricted the carrying

out of this idea to an adequate length

more
as a

which

is

the

to be regretted, since the value of the process

mental exercise can scarcely be over-estimated.

The principal laws of Euphony and of Accentuation


have been given in an Appendix rather than in their
proper place, that the period and the
introduction

Teacher's

who have
more
place,

may

mode

the more distinctly be

discretion.

Those

charge of large

of their

left

to the

gentlemen, however,

much

classes, will find it

satisfactory to content themselv&s, in the first

with thorough driU in the Inflexions

and,


PREFACE.

when

these are once mastered, the doctrine of the

Accent and the principles of Euphony will be acquiped

with comparative
confusion in the

ease,

mind

and with

infinitely less of

of the young.

If the ear be

accustomed from the beginning to the proper accent,


the subsequent learning of the rules will be a very

easy task indeed.

HiOH School of EoiNBURan,


June, 1862.

NOTE.
In the first two editions of this work a slight deviation was made, in the
arrangement of the Cases of Nouns, from the order usually followed. The
change was determined on after mature deliberation, and after a highly satisfactory trial with a large class but at the urgent request of many Teachers
the Editor has been induced to revert in the present issue to the old estabThose, however, who prefer the new arrangement will find
lished order.
This is not the place to enter into the
the Nouns so printed at p. 223.
more subtile arguments, logical and philological, which may be advanced in
favour of the alteration
for a few of these the student of maturer years
;

is

referred to the preface of Professor Madvig's Latin

translation, second edition.

The

Grammar, Wood's

considerations which will weigli most

with Teachers in adopting the change are those of convenience and mnemonic utility. It may therefore be laid down, generally, that the more the
forms of Cases are reduced in number, or the more that like Cases are

grouped together, even though not reduced in number, the simpler does
Thus the forms of
the system of Declension become to the learner.
Neuter Nouns are acquired with much less difficulty, and retained with
much more ease, than those of Masculines and Feminines, from the fact
that they have really only three Cases,
fi'^X-ov, fjiijkov, /liiKt^: for it
mnst be remembered that "a Case is not the word used in a certain conBtrnctlon, but the word used in a certain form by virtue of the constmotion ;" and that, consequently, " there are no more Cases in a language

PREFACE.

IZ

than there are distinct forms of Cases." Again, in the Dual, in all
Declensions, the advantage of this arrangement is so obvious that it has

Bat if we fullow this


long since been adopted by common consent
gronping principle farther, we shall also find it of great service in the
Thns, in the First Declension,
Declension of Masculines and Feminines.
it b an invariable rule that the Vocative and Acctiatztive /oQow the Nomir
ue., i) and rp in the Nom. have if
natioe both in vowel and in quantity ;*
in the Voc. and i;f in the Accos. ; d has d and dp ; a and as have a and

or; and, accordingly, in such

Nouns

as

yX&rra and So^a we

shall find,

by themIn Nouns of the


Third Declension, like /jLorris and Tiix}n, in which the last vowel of the
stem is changed in the Nom., the three Cases (Nom., Voc, and Accus.)
which take ( and i; respectively, are brought together, and those (Gen.
and Dat.) which retain the last vowel of the stem are in like manner
brought together as, fidm-s, fjuijm, fidjrri-w; ftdjrre-tin, fidpre-i: *"^x''"*f
by

the

selves,

new arrangement, all


and those with

rj

the Cases with a (5^a, Sd^a, d6$iw)

(56|i7S,

Sifj)

by themsetves.

x^x""'; ''^^"'^j ^^"'- The large class of Adjectives in -vt


(as y\vK^) may be here noticed as adding strength to this argument, and
the two Irregular Adjectives, roXvi and /liyai in which, so arranged,
all the irregularities are set side by side, and are thus more easily
remembered. And here it will be remarked, that in the Nouns just
referred to, the beginner has only one change of vowel to recollect, since
the stem (juurre-, yXvKe-, toXX-, fieyaX-, &c) which appears in the Gen.
and Dat. continues throughout the Dual and Plural ; whereas his difiSculties are much increased if he is required to chop and change from one
to the other.
Syncopated Noims, as fi'^rip, &yfip, kvup, and also words
like ^Oi, ypaOs, and patrikeCs, supply similar arguments, which will be
rijxu,

readily appreciated.

Again, when the Teacher proceeds to inculcate the principles and rules
he will find that, by this arrangement of Cases, he will
save much labour both to himself and his pupils.
Thus, in words accented
of- Accentuation,

like

avX^ and <tkuL, the acuted Cases (Nom., Voc, and Accus.) come
and the circumflexed (Gen. and Dat.) together ; and in those
7\a>rra, 5ov\oi, H7J\oi>, and ivdfxitroi, the Cases similarly accented

together,
like

come

together, (with, of course, the slight exception in the plural.)

in the large classes

Notms represented by

So

and &tip (uc,


syncopated Nouns and those with dissyllabic Genitives and Datives),
the Cases (Nom., Voc, and Accus. of all Numbers) which retain the
accent on the radical syllable follow each other
and those, on the
contrary, which agree in throwing forward the accent on the inflexion
(i.e., the Genitives and Datives of all Numbers) follow each other in
immediate sequence.
of

fiifrrip

* Except, of course, those three claaBes of


Vocatire in i.

tlie

Noans

fai

ms.

Section IL

6,

which bare

PREFACE.

Many

other arguments, deduced from special cases, might be brought

forward, but
for himself,

it is

unnecessary.

The observant student will note such


will supply him with many similar

and the Latin language

reasons.

One practical objection may be urged against the proposed change,


namely, that as Lexicons and Dictionaries give the Genitive Case, confusion will be caused to boys between it and the Accusative.
But it will
be at once acknowledged that this objection has force only in the case of
those

who have

not thoroughly mastpred the Inflexions,

there should be none.

and of such

%l

anUntii*

PART

I.

THE PABTS OF SPEECH.


Fmb

SBOTun

L The
IL

First

Letters and their Divisions,

...

Declension Examples and Exercises,

IIL Second Declension

The

Examples and

Article,

Attic Second

I.

...

...

...

...

...

IJ

18

...

...

.~

...

..

...

21

...

21

28

Declension Examples and Exercises,

IV. Third Declension,

Class

Exercises,
...

...

...

...

...

...

Of Nonns Examples and Exercises,


Present Indicatire Active of Verb,

Class

n. Of Nonns Examples and

Class V.

Accus., Gen.,

Class

n's,

...

The Relative Pronoun,

VL

24
25
27

...

...

30

...

...

31

...

..

...

33

...

...

...

33

Proper Meaning

of; ...

33

...

...

35
37

and Dat. Cases

GassVIL Of NounsExamples and


of,

...
...

VL Of NoonsExamples and Exercises,

V. Contraction, Rules

23

...

Of Nouns Examples and Exercises,


Interrogative Pronoun,

...

...

Nonns

Indefinite Pronoun, t,

...

...

Exercises,

Examples and Exercises,


Class IV. Of Nouns Examples and Exercises,
Class III. Of

...
...

Exercises,

...

...

...

...

...

...

39

...

...

...

...

41

...

...

...

...

...

42

Class

I.,

...

...

~.

...

...

Class

II.,

...

...

...

...

...

...

47

...

...

...

...

...

...

47

...

...

...

48

...

...

...

53

...

...

...

54

...

...

...

67

~.

~.

...

60

Adjective Nounc,

Class ni.,

VTL Comparison

of Adjectives, with Exercises,

niL The Numerals,


IX- The Prononns

...

...

Examples and

...

Exercises

The Dative CaseVarious Uses o^


X. The Vert,

...

...

...

CONTENTS.

Xii
Bbctiok

Class

XI. Pure Verbs

I.,

XIL Mute VerbsClass

with Exercises,

II.,

XIII. Liquid Verbs-Class

with Exercises,

III.,

with Exercises,

...

-..

...

...

...

7J

...

...

...

79

87

XIV. Passive Voice, Middle Voice, and Deponent Verbs, with Exercises,
Miscellaneous Exercises,

XV. Verbs

in

-/xi,

...

with Exercises,

XVI. Irregular Verbs

in

..

-j.i,

...

...

...

...

...

...

89

...

...

100

II.

EXTRACTS FOR READING,


Witticisms (of Hierocles),

85

...

PART
L The

Taom
68

...

...

..."

n. Anecdotes of Philosophers, Statesmen, and Kings,

&c.
...

...

107

..

...

110

...

...

...

...

...

...

116

rv. Dialogues of Lucian,

...

...

...

...

...

123

III.

Fables of

iliiop,

NOTES TO PART H.
L To

To the Anecdotes,

II.

...

...

...

...

141

...

...

...

...

...

148

...

...

...

...

..

144

...

...

...

.a

...

146

158

the Witticisms (of Hierocles),


.

III.

To the Fables

IV.

To the Dialogues of Lucian,

of .sop,

APPENDIX.
EuphonyRules

of,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

154

...

...

...

...

156

Third Declension in Latin and in Greek Compared,


Contracted Verbs, Table

Rules

Accents

of,

Syntax of Simple Sentences

Synopsis

of,

Vocabularies to the Exercises,

General Vocabulary Greek,


General Vocabulary Enqush,

The

DfiOLRNsioNS, etc.,

of,

...

...

...

160

...

...

...

...

...

161

...

...

...

...

...

164

...

...

.>

..

178

...

...

...

...

216

...

288

with tub Casks ts ak Altebkd Oedra,

Sxigcjtstions to ^tRc^txB WisiriQ

1.

The Masculine Nouns

learned
2.

till

gxrok.

tfeis

of the First Declension should not be

the inflexions of the Second Declension are well known.

The Attic Second Declension wiU be

common forms

better omitted until the

of all the declensions are thoroughly mastered.

Let Adjectives be learned simultaneously with Substantives,


itself, the pupil being always required to
name the substantive-paradigm whose inflexions are found in the
3.

and each gender-form by

If the three genders are learned all together, the pupil

adjective.
is

confused in the multiplicity of forms, and the declension of an

adjective becomes to

which must

The

all

him

little

more than the

repetition of a rhyme,

be gone over before the required part

practice of declining an adjective along with

is

produced.

a noun

is

very

useful.
4.

Since the Exercises on the Verbs are purposely less full than

those on the other parts of si^eech,


as the

Nouns

it will

of the verb Xi5 be prescribed daily,


familiar to the student.
it is

be advisable that, so soon

of the Third Declension are learned, a small portion

The Verb

till

is

the whole Active Voice

therefore of the utmost consequence that

and impressed very

gradually,

best results follow,

if,

surely.

is

the great puzzle to boys, and


it

be learned very

The Teacher

will find the

in declining verbs, the pupils are

made

to

append an accusative or other appropriate case to each form ; as,


Xi'w rbp iir-rop, I unyoke the horse; XiJeis rhv Ixtop: xuTTei/w r^
ifyeijubn, I trust to the guide ; xurrevofup r^ Tjyefiivt, we trust to the
guide,
5.

&c

The

List of

p. 164, seq.)

Words belonging

to each Exercise (see Api)endix,

should be thoroughly learned and frequently repeated

and when the

class

has reached the connected readings of Part IL

the Teacher should continue this vocabulary-practice, by giving to


his pupils,

with shut books,

now

the English, and

now

the Greek

words of every lesson, requiring in reply the corresponding terms

BTTGGBSTIONS TO TEACHEES.

XIV
6.

And

should not only employ each reading lesson as

Jie

it

as to

examine upou
the incidents mentioned, just as he would question on a

vocabulary, but he should also, with books

still

closed,

section of history.

From these

last

two devices, which should as often as possible be

practised even in the highest classes, the most gratifying results

have been found to flow

a large

stock of vocables and phrases

is

soon acquired, making each succeeding paragraph more easily construed,

and providing ready materials

powers of observation are very

much

heedless compelled to attend to

sentiments of the author

for

Greek composition

the

what he

reads,

and

to analyse the

the lazy and the careless, the prepared

and the unprepared, are at once discovered, and the


simply appKed.

sharpened, and even the most

requisite check


%S

FIRST GREEK READER.

PART

I.

THE PARTS OF SPEECH.


SECTION

I.

THE LETTERS.
The Greek Alphabet

1.

letters
U|i(iais.

consists of twenty-four

Small
leuen.

ProonncUtion.

KasM.

Ckpiuk.

Alpha.

/3

Beta.

Gamma.

Delta.

E-psilon.

Zeta.

Eta.

A
E
Z

SiiulU
letten.

th

Theta.

T
Y

Iota.

<J>

Kappa.

K
A

Lambda.

<fr

/*

Mil

datiou.

Name.

Nu.

Xi

0-micron.

PI

Rho.

1-^

p
2

Pronan-

o-or? s

Sigma.

Tau.

U-psilon.

ph

Phi.

ch

Chi.

ps

Psi.

(1)

0-mega,

<P

ihr

;;

FIRST GREEK READER.

10
2.

The

two

letters are of

Vowels and

classes,

CoTir

sonants.
3.

The Vowels

are seven

viz.

always short

t]

ft)

always long

variable,

representing either

i.e.,

short or long sounds.


4.

5.

(1.)

Consonants are either


(1.)

Semivowels,* X,

(2.)

Mutes,

TT,

The Mutes admit

cj);

/c,

a/,

/o,

7,

or,

^' ^

'^

of a double classification

According to the organ by which they are pro-

nounced; and

(2.)

employed in

their utterance

TT

jS

4*
6.

According to the degree of breathing


LINGUAL

PALATALS.

LABIALS.

7.

thus,

DUSITTALS.

Light or sharp.

7
X

Intermediate.

Bough

or

flat.

^ are double consonants, being equal

"^5 ^5
\|/'

to

TT?, /??,

to

/C9,

(pronounced as

<p9

tt?).

7?, x? (pronounced as ks).

^ to S9 or

yu,

crS.

Diphthongs are composed of two vowels com-

A vowel sound

has two characteristics :

When it

First, It

comes freely in pronunciation

can be prolonged. The SciBivowe)s possess


this second property, and hence their name of " ?ial/ vowels." The Semivowels A, /tt,
and, Secondly,

is

once fonned

it

p are also called '^Liquids," vypd, t.e., the watery letters, from the facility with
which they change their position in a word without essentially altering the word, or

V,

diiiguising the proper


$.ra-<TKii>),

has

its

In Scotch, t>-ur-nl

tl28)

stem

thus, O-ap-aos

2 Aorist i6-av-ov

and

b-ru-nt.

is

also written 9-pa-a-o<;

fi'om t-re-s, in Latin,

Compare

we have

in English cent-re

and

9-vi^-<TKia

t-er

and

cent-er.

(Doric,

t-er-<us;

GBEEK EEAUKR.

FIBST

11

bined together in pronunciation.

They are

Improper,

otherwise

and

of

two

Proper
Genuine and Spurious. The first vowel of a Diphthong is called the Prepositive, the second the

kinds,

called

Subjunctive.

Genuine

ev

et

ov

oi

n^

rt

cov

(f>

In the Genuine Diphthongs

8.

av

ai

Spurious

and

[rjv)

both vowels are

and are therefore of eqvxil weight; but in the


Spurious the first is long, and therefore in pronuncia-

short,

the succeeding short,

overbalances

tion

consequence,

is

a Spuiious Diphthong

panion vowel

(i

capital letters;

9.

When

not heard
is

it is

i,

subscript),

as,

j?,

(not

iji),

written bel<nv

its

com-

except in the case of

but

'Ht.

vowel at the beginning of a word

with a breathing.

which, in

the Subjunctive of

The rough breathing

is

marked

(sjriritus

made thus denotes that the vowel sound is


to be preceded by the sound of the English h; as,
iiTTo = hupo.
The smooth breathing (spiHtiis lenis),
merely indicates the absence of the
made thus

asper),

',

*,

rough;

as, air 6

= apo.

The breathing is marked over the second


vowel of a Diphthong as, avXtj.
1 1
The letter v at the beginning of a word has
always the rough breathing; and p, though a consonant, is similarly marked, as, p^Tcop = rhetor.
10.

* Observe that the Spurious Diphthongs are made from the Genume by siicply
lengthening tha short Prepositine into

and

01,

e|> ;

(128)

ev, rfu,

and

ov,

its

corresponding long; thns,

uu

becomes

p,

; ;,

FIRST GREEK ERADEK.

12

Numbers

12. There are three Genders


nine, Neuter.
1 3.

of one,

of

There are three

the Singular, used

two and no

the Dual, of

Masculine, Femi-

two or more.

mon'e,

the Plural,

Nominative,

14. There are five Cases

Vocative,

Accusative, Genitive, and Dative.


15.
to

There are three Declensions.

which a noun belongs

is

The

known by

declension

the inflexion

of the genitive singular.


16. There are eight Parts of Speech
SECLINABLB.

INBBOLIBABLB.

Substantive (Noun)

Adverb

Adjective (Noun), in-

Preposition

cluding Article

Interjection

Pronoun

Conjunction.

Verb.

SECTION

II.

FIRST DECLENSION.
1

The nouns

of this declension end, in the nomi-

native singular, in one of the four terminations,


T]i,

ap.

Nouns

in

tj

t],

a,

and a are feminine; those in

tjg

and ay are masculine.*


Eyery declinable word may be divided into two parts, the slem and the inThe stem is that part which remains unaltered throughout all the cases
and numbers, as avX- in auX-^ the inflexion is that part which suffers change, as,
-T), -rjs, -a, -OH', -lav, <fec.
The Stem of a noun may be ascertained by taking away
the inflexion of the genitive singular, e.^., from -<rict-as take away -as, and aKv
*

flexion.

retnaiiu as the stem

from avA-^s take away

-i)s,

and aOA- remains.


FIRST GREEK READER.
BIKOPLAB.
(1.)

N.

PLURAL.

DtTAI..

avk-i^,

avK-a,

avX-ali

a court.

rwoconrta.

courts.

avK-alv,

G. aiJX-^y,

D.

13

two

of a court.

of

av\-rj.

avX-aiVf

to or for a court.

to or for

av\-oiv^
of courts.

courts.

two

ai/X-af?,
courts.

to or for courts.

av\-a,

avK-a^,

a court.

two

courts.

avX-rj,

avK-a,

A.

avK-riVf

V.

courts.

two

court.

avX-aly
courts.

courts.

Those nouns which end in a (Alpha) preceded


by a vowel or p, retain a in all the inflexions.; e.g.
2.

DUAL.

PLURAL.

CTKl-aj

tTKl-OLi

(TKl-aiy

a shadow.

two shadows

shadows.

G.

(T/ci-af,

(TKl-aiVy

of a shadow.

of two shadows.

CTKl-WV,
of shadows

D.

<JKL-S,

(TKl-aiVf

(TKi-al^,

to or for a shjidow.

to or for

(TKL-av,

(TKl-a,

(TKi-ai,

two shadows.

shadows.

SINOULAK.

V.

A.

a shadow.

In like manner

is

two shadows.

to or for

shadows

declined (rcpdip-a, a ball.

3. But if final a of the nominative be preceded


by a consonant,
appears instead of a in the inrj

flexion of the genitive

and dative singular

(3.)

N. kY*y\oyTT-a{oT
t(or)
'yXtc (r(r-o)
-o),

G.

-.

'

a tongue.

two tongues.

tongues.

y\(jyTT-r]^,

yXdoTT-aiv,

yXoyrr-wy,

of a tongue.

of

to or for a fOiigue.

A. yXwTT-av,
a tongue.

The

as,
PLURAL.

D. yXcoTT-rj,

DUAL,

SINGULAR.

Attica preferred tt to

two tongue*.

tongues.

y\wTT-aiVf

yXwTT-aiq,

to or for two tongues,

to or for

yXwTT-a,

yXcoTT-a^,

two tongues.

tongues.

aa in words

like the above.

tongue*


14

FIRST GREEK REA.DER.

Masculine nouns

4.

in

;;9

and

make

as

theii

genitive^in -ov, but in all other cases are declined


like feminines in

t]

and

the

a,

of the nominative

being dropped in the vocative singular

(4.)

N.

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

Te\u)V-r]g,

T\u)V-a,

two

toll collector.

G. Te\(iov-ov

PLURAL,

TeXwj/-at,

toll collectors.

toll collectors.

Te\(i)v-aLV

TeXft)J/-CtiJ/

D.

TeKdov-r]

TeXdov-aiv

reXtoi'-atf

A.

TeXcov-rjv

re\wv-a

reXtoP'-a?

V.

Te\wv-ri

rekodv-a

Te\wv-ai

N.

veavl-as,

veavl-a.

veavl-aif

a young man.

two young men

young men.

G. veavi-qv

veavl-aiv

veavi-wv

D. veavl-a

veavl-aiv

veavl-ais

A. veavi-ay

veavl-a

veavl-as

V.

veavl-a

veavl-ai

veavl-a,

But

5.

the following, though ending in -^s in the

nominative, have the vocative singular in -a:

(1.)

Nouns

(2.)

National names, as

(3.)

Verbal nouns (compounded of a substantive

in

as vavT-t]s, voc. vavr-a.

-tj/?,

T,Kv6-t]s, voc.

J^KvO-a.

and verb) which are formed by

adding

-tjs

to the last consonant of the

verb, as aproTrcoX-fis,

a degler

i/n

bread:

voc, aproTTooX-a, from aproTrcoX-eco.


6.

The feminine forms

of adjectives, in

-ij

or -a,

are declined like the substantives given above


kXsiv^,

famous,

like

No.

Tracra, all, every, like

No.

3.

as,

ayla, holy, like No. 2


FIKST GREEK EEADEB.

(Syntax) Rule

7.
its

own

as,

ay 109

among

and

ayiai Qeai.

(Syntax) Rule

8.

adjective agrees with

in gender, number, and case

substaTitive

Oeog

An

I.

15

The prepositions,

II.

avv, together

iv,

in,

with (Latin, cum), govern

the dative.

EXERCISE L

irvXai.

t^?

crvv rrj

Koprj.

rp

ev

'TTvXaig.

pvfx(pai9.

f^otyjl'

Tas Mz/i^a?.

(ra) aSeXcpd.
(2.)

TOO (to) 6ea.

jrapeid.

Trjs

Twv ayKvpwv.
Trpwpa.

(reXj/fi/y.

tuiv Kopaiv.

tui^ Kopaig.

crvv

Qtikij.

rj

ttjv o-^ei/-

^^

Taig ^tjXai^.

eu

rp

CXrj.

ev

ev Tai^

avv ral^

t^? aSeXcprj^.

rrjg ifirj^ ae\(prjg.

(rxiai.

TaU

Trapeiai^.

tu^

ai dupai.

fivca.

rrji'

t^v ^aa-iXeiav.

t^9 Ovpa?.

ttiu irfipav.

OTpaTia.

i^opri,

Tu>v KOpo)u.

TO) (ra) fivla.

fjLvia.

T^

avKri<s-

TOO {Ta)'f QrjKa.

ai

S6vr]v.

rrj (TKtjv^.

ro)

T^9

T^i/* na-^rjv.

(1.)

Ta<s Kopa^.

cripaipa^.

\atav.

to)

Ta^ Ovpa?.

{to.)

avv

Trj

ev oe^ia.

iv Trj oe^ia.

t^? crcbaipa^.

ev rj/

Taiv Qvpaiv.

The maidena The (two) maidens.


With the fly. With the (two) flies.
The moon {accus.)
A ball The ball The (two)
balls.
With the balls. In the ball. Of the doors.
The doors.
The door's.
The doors'.
The two
In the cottages.
cottages.
The two queens. For
the queens.
queen
Of the army. In the armies.
Of the

In the

battle.

sling.

For the Inflexion of the Article, see under Second Declension

and

for its usca,

consult Appendix, p. 156.

t The

Attics generally

article tw,

and not

to.

make

tbe nominative and accuaotire dnal feminine of

tlie

FIRST GREEK EEADER.

16

EXERCISE
(3.)

r^9

rj

yXooTTrj^.

Trjs

(to) luaTa.

TO)

6 vavTf]?.

vavrt]?,

To^v vavTcov.

avv
ot

2/ci;0d.
(Tvv

2/c(vOa.-f-

TToiXlTa.

CO

top

Tiepcrri.

vavrai.

-JToklTOW.

MoJcrj;.

t^

(rvv

tpair item's.

iroirjTriv.

co

ev

oea-TTOTa?.

Toi/s

Troirjra.

01 ZjKvuai.

w Wepaa.

ev

Tlepcrri.*

^KvOa.

vavra.

tco vavra.

TOV oeCTTrOTOV.

TOO TToXiTa.

TOi? TToX/rat?.

TOV vavTOV. TWV


CO

tw

rj?

ev

So^av.

Ttjv

Twv yXooTTMV.

TO) TTOirjTa.

T(p vavTt].

TOis ^KvOai?.
TO)

avv

ev rat?

fiat^MV.

TU3 (to) ToaTreca.

y\u)TTr].
(4.)

aKavQav.

Trjv

uKavOai.

ai

jmatav.

T^/^'

rwv

rai<i Xeaivaig.
Trj

ykwTTav.

Trjv

cLKavOrjg,

^ TpaireXa.

TpaireXa.

OLKavOai.

oLKUvBa.

rpaTre^rj.

II.

to

TToXlTd.

Of a thorn. Of the thorn. Of the two thoma


The two Persians.
The two thorns. The thorns.
Of the poets. Of the Scythian.
For the sailors.
Of (king) Parses. With (king) Perses. With the
Persian.
Of the citizen. The citizens (accus.) The
For the two
The two citizens.
sailors (accus.)
O
O master
citizens.
Along with the masters.
!

masters

The table
The Muses.
The cakes.

Ye

sailors

poets

Among the poets.

The thorns (accus.) Of glory.


O Muses Ye Muses For the lionesses.
Of the lioness. The two
In the cake.

(accus.)

lionesses.
* Observe that Ilepo-a is the vocative of tlie national name, a Persian; and Utfxni,
name, Perses.

of the individual
f*

In the vocative of masculines

and vocative dual

is

long.

is

short, but

in the nominative, accnaativOi


FIRST GREEK READER.

(Syntax) Rule

9.

subject

in number

verb agrees with

is;

elai (8fZ plur.),

earov (3d dual), they two are.

11.

(Syntax) Rule

One

IV.

substantive go-

verns in the genitive another signifying


thing ; as,

fj

rrji

ear]

viKtj

evpeta.

tj

kXcivi^.

(tt\

ecTTi

T]

viai.

(TCpaipa

f]

vXij

e<m

ev

r^

ai

aKavOai eiai

evpe'ia

Tpayeia.
rj

Qvpa.

ev Ttj

ecnriv

^*]pai.

<rvv

al

tj

ei(ri

al aKavOal

jJ

raig

<TKt]vai

Tpayeia

Trt'ipa ccttl Kevrj.

eicri fivTai.

ireSr] ecrri a-Kkrjpa.

Qvpa

at Oeai eicri crefivai.

al irapeiat Ttjg Kopr]^

Tai9 vXais TToXXa/

fj

^ Oupa Ttj^ avXrjg ecrriv

to) w/J.(pa ecrrov aefxva.

ecm

Xeia.

irrjpa (TTi Kevrj.

T]

^avd^.

(pavepa.

Kopai^ Tat^ KoXais.


elcri

Oed eorTiv ayla.

Qvpa t^? auX^?.

TrJ9 Kopr]^ KOfJ-rj

aeXi^vr]

rj

nL

ai Ovpai i<r\v evpeiai.

evpeia.
rj

different

avX^i Oupa.

XSCIS
^

its

as, vUij ecrri, Oeou ela-i.

means

10. earl (3(Z sing.)

are

III.

arid person;

17

vXrj.

Ttjg Koprj^

\eiai.

ev

eicriv o^eiai.

to) ireBa ecrrov <rK\t]pd.

rj

e/xri

aSeXcpT] AfaX7 ecrnv.

The wood is dense. The


The two goddesses are wise. The
balls are smooth.
The
The table is beautiful
sailoTS are foolish.
The poet's purse is
master's table is beautiful
empty.
The saUors' wallets are empty. The tongue
The cakes are on the table.
of the lioness is parched.
The flies are smaU. The queen's cheeks are pale. The
The tongue

is

long.

FIRST GREEK READER.

18
lioness is in the

Persian (king)
Perses
gates

is

tent.

in the wood.

in the wood.

The army of the


The army of (king)
Perses, the army is at the

ploughman's

is

Persian,

lioness

in

is

the cottage

Sailors! the anchor is in the fore-part-of-the-ship.

SECTION

III.

SECOND DECLENSION.
1.

Nouns

of this declension end in the nomina-

tive singular in either -o^ or -ov.

Those in

-os are

masculine or feminine; those in -ov are neuter.

Neuter nouns have the nominative,


accusative, and vocative, alike in all the numbers,
and in the plural these cases end in a.
2.

N.B.

SIHOOLAE.

N. SovX-09, masc.

(1.)

DUAIi.
,

a slave.

SovX-oi,

two

slaves.

slaves.

G. Sou\-ov

OOvK-OLV

oi)X-uiv

D. oov\-o)

Sov\-oiv

SovX-oi^

A. Sov\-ov

SovX-u)

SovX-ov<}

V. Sod\-

SovX-oo

SovX-oi

SINGULAR.

DUAL.

(2.)N.A.&V. m\-ou,}aeut.,

3.

-09

/xi?X-a),

PLURAL.

mX-u,

an apple.

two apples.

apples.

G.

luriX-ov

jUi^X-oiv

/U^X-tOJ/

D.

IxrjX-w

fJ-rfX-oiv

liii^X-ois

Adjectives whose masculine and neuter end in

and

tives

PLURAL.

^ovk-w.

-ov, respectively, are

of this declension.

declined like substan-

The masculine

in -09 haa


FIRST GREEK READER.

19

the same inflexions as ^01^09; and the neuter, the


The feminine of such adjectives,
same as /i^Xov.
in

-T]

or -a, belongs to the First Declension, as already

remarked

in Art. 6 of preceding Section.

EXERCISE

Tou aerov.

(1.)

Tov oovKov.

SovXe.
linrov.

01

KoXoi

TOiv Sov\oiv.

Tw

Geu).

nrXolov,
(Tvv

(o

tw

fi^Xoi^.

TrXola.

Toh ^vpoh-

tov k^ttov
TOU?

tTTTTOl/?

T019 XevKoig aerots.

Oew.

tco

Oeog*

a>

Seiirvw.

t()

Ta ^vpa.

^vpco.

do

tov

tu>v oovXwv.
"nr-irov.

ACaXo) /C^TTW.

Swpov.

fjLtjXa.

Toh

^yXXa.

tm

avv

deip.

Ta

H^Xa.

KrJTTOl.

Toii aerocg.

TO Swpov.

(2.)

Tta oaicTvXu).

linrui.

tov Xcvkov

SouXoi.

01

01 KrJTTOl.

tw
tw

IV.

SoktvXo}.

TOiv ^vpoiv.

to

/j.i]\ov.

cowv.

to

tov Swpov.

twv

w Xo/o). tw TrXoto). twv oenrvcov.


^v Tw irXoiffi.
avv T019 /jlj^Xoi^. avv

TOtV TtXoLOIV.

The two eagles. With the two horses. Of the


horse.
Of the horses. For the eagles. In the gardens. The egga The two apples. The white horse.
The small boat. The white eggs. The eagle's eggs.
The eagles' white egg& The gods (accus.) For the
In the apple.

slave.
4.

aloDg
5.

(Syntax)
;

and

eis,

Rule
into,

At

(ev

avTi, in front of

iirl)

dinner.

The prepositions avdi

V.

govern

(Stntax) Rule VI.

without

or

tJie

The prepositions
;

uj)

accusative.

a-jro,

away from

avev,

k {or

' 0ot (like Deus in Latin) has the Tocatire tbe same as the nominatiTe ; so aisc

^Otx, often, but not alwaya.


20

FIEST GREEK BEADEB.

e^) out

of

from the midst of;

of, i.e.,

and

epcKa,

on account

govern the genitive.


(Syntax) Rule VII.
The conjunction

6.

irpo, before,

Kal,

and clauses co-ordinatively.


(Syntax) Rule VIII. Since two singulars are

and, connects words


7.

equal to a plural, two singular subjects connected by

a co-ordinative conjunction

(kui, &c.) have a verb


or adjective in the plural; as, 6 tTrxo? koL 6 ovoq
yjirja-iixol eiari.

EXERCISE

V.

o oouXof Tov yecopyov euTi

Tw TOV larpov
i(Ti.

rj

yvaOos

T>]s Koprj^ icTTi

Kvpiov

elcriv ev tvj vXrj.

pcofios

TOV deov

eicri.

6 jnoa"^og <ttiv ev

Ta

laTpov

KTjTTW

Twv

TW

ava

ava

ITTTTOg Kai bvog ev

iTTTTOi

KUt ovoi.
aTTO TOV

cLva

rj

'Ittttov

-^aiTt]

^t]pd.

tw t^?

Ttjv oSov.

Tag

et?

tov

ea-TOV.

juaKpai

tov

Ittttov

tw aypSr
ev tw tov
Koptjg 6(b-

Tag ^A.6^va^.

^A^Orjvag oSov.

crvv

ava Tovg aypovg twv yewp-

TW

Ta

KrjTTW

Trjg

KTJTTOV.

iTTTTog ev Tt] avXrj ei(n.

Ttjv

vaw.

Trjv elg

TOV apoTov.

ywv.

KrjTTOV.

tw

aiyeipos ccttl XevKi^.

A.6r]vwv.

iTTTTw

ki^tto)

al yvdOoi Ttjs

(pvXXa ecrrt*

Tfjg oacpvi]^

OaXfiw ecTTOv yXavKw.


eK

tw

ftiKpol

ot linroi

6 Kvpios cruv to?9 SovXoig ev

e<TTi oacrela.
ecTTi.

tov avOpcoTrov

fxaXoK^.

to) ovca ev

ecTTLv lepos.

ol opoi eicrlv iv

ttictto^.

ol Sa.KTv\oi

/cj/tto),

elcTI..

ITTTTW KOI OVW.

ck tov

alyelpov (pvXXa.

CK

Tft)l/

eig uXi/i/

(bvXXwV.

Kai

OV09 KOI

eig cTKrjv^v.

ayvidv.

* In Greek, neuter plurals usually take the verb in the lingular.

KaTa


FIEST

The ass and the


bandman is foolish.

GREEK READER

21

The husThe gods

lioness are in the hut.

The garden

is

smalL

The poplar tree is smooth.


The eyes of the girl are small. The slave's wallet is
empty.
The husbandman's tables are smooth. The
The girl's voice is
queen's palace {court) is empty.
sweet.
The girls and their brothers are in the garThe doctor's horse is in the
den of the farmer.
The two doctors are in the
citizen's court-yard,
are venerable {reverend).

house of the

Out of the
hut
8.
tive,

The
and

Into the citizen's court-yard.

citizen.

Away

poet's hut.

article o,

from the ploughman's

to, the or this,

jJ,

an adjec-

is

differs

but slightly from the regular in-

It has

no vocative, and in the masculine

flexions.

and feminine of the nominative singular and plural

omits the

of the stem.
Neut

Masc

PLURAL

DlTAl.

8INOT71AR.

Masc Fem.

It is declined as follows
Neut

Fem.

Vaac.

Fem.

Nent.

ai

TO

fj

TO

G. TOV

T79

TOV TOIV

TOIV

TOIV

TWV TWV

D.

Trj

T(C

TOIV

TOIV

TOIV

T019 Ta?9 T019

TJ/I/

TO

TU>

TU) (to)

tw

TOU9 Tay

N. 6

Tft)

A. TOV

TO)

*TCO (to) T(a

This form of declension


of the more

in

-cov,

tSjv

Ta

THE ATTIC SECOND DECLENSION.

9.

The nouns

01

common

is

merely a modification

inflexion, as

given in SovXos.

in -wy are masculine or feminine; those

neuter.
See uote

t,

page

15.

FIRST GREEK EEADER.

22

8IN0ULAB.

&

N.

V. Xay-wf, masc,

&

PLURAL.
Xa'y-ftj,*

two hares.

hares.

G. \ay-u)

Xay-ftJi/

Xay-wv

D. Xay-w

\ay-wv

\ay-Sg

A. Xay-torj*

\ay-(o

Xay-tof

a hare.

N. A.

DUAL.

Xay-co,

V. avooye-wVfiieut.

avcioye-oo

avcoye-w

G. avdoye-oD

avooye-wp

avwye-wv

D. avwye-w

avcoye-cpv

avcioye-Me

The masculine and feminine of

adjectives in -ws

are declined like Xayco?, and the neuter like avMyecov

as tXewy,

propitious.

tXecoj/,

EXERCISE
\ay(p ev

OL

v TO)

TO

av(ay(t)v.

avwyew

ev
r]

Taw
Tft)

ayp/p

e/c

tov avwyeca.
ol

ea-Ti fxiKpa.

luiKpai

koXw

aw

ev Trj a\(p ecTTOv.

TOV Qeov vew

tov \ayw

elai.

rj

KepKO^ /3pa-^eia

et'y

to

elcrl.

at KecpaXai

ccttiv ev toIs avcoyecps.

to?? raw?,

ol TroXiTai

ovpa tov Taw XafXTrpa

ecrTi.

ecrTi.

bers of the house are empty.

are

in the garden.

The upper chamHares are swift. The

The cables are in the fore part


The anchor and the cables are in the

cables are old

(of the ship).

* Observe that wherever there


SovAo9, there

is

an

Attic declension
t

tw Xayrn

toiu avwyeutv.

vioi

The peacocks and the hares


The sailor is in the upper room.
two

crvv

ava top koXwv.


e/c

6 Xedo^

i<ri.

Tawg

eiai.

Tov TToXtrov avcoyeo) ean.

Twv XayZv
TU)

tw

VI.

The

is

iota subscript in

an

iota in the inflexion of the

the Attic form

common

form, like

thos, nominative plural -oi, in

o>.

V of tlie accusative

is

frequently drojjped, especially in proper namep.

23

FIRST OKEK EEADEE.

The peacocks axe in the fanner's thrashingThe citizen and the poet are in the upper
floor.
chamber of the house. Hares' scuts {i.e., tails) are
prow.

short.

SECTION

IV.

THIRD DECLENSION.
In the First and Second Declensions the stem
of a noun may be easily distinguished even in the
nominative; but in the Third Declension it is so
J

by

disguised,

modification

that

of vowels,

known

cannot be

it

the

or

omission of consonants

the

The
without reference to one of the oblique* cases.
following classification groups the nouns of this
declension according to the change which takes place

on

the stem

in the nominative.^

The First Class contains those nouns


which Jiave the pure stem in the nominative; as,
(I.)

2.

N.

&

V.

Xeifxwv, masc.,

\eifxo)v-,

a meadow.

two meadows.

meadows.

Xeifjicov-Oiv

Xeifidov-wv

G.

Xet/iftJi/-op

D.

XeifjLoyv-i

A. \eifjLwv-a
*

Tlie accusative, genitive,

independent cases, or casus

recti,

Xct/ift>j/-ev,

Xeifiwv-otv

Xei/jLoo-ail.

Xeifiwp-e

Xeifxwv-a^

called obiique, or dependent cases, because

and dative are

subject to the government of other words

f-

PLURAL.

DEAL,

SINGULAR.

the nominative and vocative are called

because they are not liable to such regimen.

In reading a Greek author, the problem which a

quently called upon to solve, in regard to nouns, i^


oblique case," and not rice versa; and

it is

"To

young student
find the

is

most

fre-

nominative from an

hoped that the arrangement of nouns

adopted In the text will render this a comparatively easy task.


X

The dative

plural ought to be, in

not allowed to stand before


carefully itoted, as

s,

full,

and thus

it

Ksiiiatv-ui.

but the letters

becomes Aeijxwu

examples of it are constantly recurring.

t, S, B,

v w^ere

This principle must ba


FIRST GREEK READER.

24

BUAIi.

PLURAL.

Onp-e,

Oijp-ee,

SINGULAR.

N.

&

V. 6vp, raasc,

two wild

a wild beast.

G. Or]p-6s

D.

Qrjp-oov

dtjp-oiu

drip-trl

Onp-e

Otjp-ai

drip-l

A. Qrip-a

(Syntax) Rule IX.

3.

wild beasts.

beasts.

Qrip-olv

Transitive verbs govern

the accusative; as, 6 irais rhv crcpaipav pcirrei.

The present

4.

indicative active of a

declined as follows

is

XeiTT-eis,

XeLTT-ei,

thou leavest.

he

XeiTT-eTOV,

XeiTT-erov,

you two

tliey

Singular, XeiTT-oo,
I leave.

Dual,
XeiTr-ofxeVi
we leave.

Plural,

^^j/ap.

Sio^Kei

Tovi -y^vas.

01

Orjpog.

Ta9

they leave

leave.

^(fjvoov.

XeifJiiavl

elcTL.

(7VV

TOts

oi

Orjpcn. ev

may become

elaL

tou

oiu>kov(ti.

O^pes

oi

vXri.

ot O^pes ev T<p

oiwKOVcri

tov Qrjpa ck tov

jutjves

lepot

tm

Xeifxoovi

singular subject followed, as here, by

verb, 90 that <7ti

Qrjpe.

too

^ Koprj SidoKei tol^ x^J'ay.

^(fjvai'

T0U9 avdpwnrov^ ev r^

6 -^v

have.

VII.

oicoKovQ-t.

XeijULoovos.

e^co,

Toov

ol SovXoi

leave.

you

vavrai tovs )(^vag

fitjvei;.

two

XecTT-ovaiy

EXERCISE

Tou

leave.

leaves.

XeiTT-ere,

In like mauner decline

Orjpog.

Greek verb

<ruV,

T(vv

eiai.

ecrri.*

with a noun,

Oriptjov.

aTVO tov

may have

a plural

26

JXRST GRFTKK BEADEB.

^ Kopij SiwKei fiviav

\e//xco/oy.

Tofy XeifiuxTi TToXXal

am

lov

Xeifiiaia.

it

6 laTpos top Xayoav

elcri juviai.

The head of the goose. The wild beast's taiL


The tails of the two wild beasts. The saUor hunts
The lioness pursues
the wild beast into the hut.
The Greeks pursue the
the goose into the court
Persians into the forest.
The meadow is smooth.
We are hunting the peacock up the garden of the

We

Greek.

hunt lionesses in the

the

The

girl.

forests

Scythian! the wild beast

Scythians.

bull pursues the

is

of the

pursuing

farmer along the

road.

5.

(II.)

To

Second Class belong

the

which in the nominative add


J7joa)-y,

^pio-og.

In

those nouns

to the pure stem, as

many nouns

the final

y is

com-

bined with the preceding consonant into one of the

double consonants, ^ or

\|r,

as Kopa^ for Kopcucg, yvy^f

for yvTTs.
BIXOULAR.

N.

N.

&

&

DUAL.

PLUKAk

V.

VpO}-9,
a hero.

two heroes.

heroes.

G.

r]pu)-o^

f]pU)-OlV

rjpu>-(jov

D.

tjpw-i

A.

yjpoo-a

tjpco-e

^pQ}-S

fipw-oiv

^p(0-(Tl

ijpoy-e

j]pa}-as

V. yv\ir

yvTT-e

yvTT-es

G.

yvT-olv

yvir-wv

D. yvT-l

yvir-olv

<yir\|/-/

A. yvTT-a

yuTT-e

yvir-a^

yuTT-os

ijpa)

26

FIRST QEEEK READER.

The accusative

6.

sion

singular of the Third Declen-

usually ends in a: but

ends in

OS, Ki^, kIv\

i')(Ov^i

SINGDLAE.

N.

the nominative

instead of a;

jSoi/?,

fish.

PLtJRAIi.

i)(6u-e,

ixOv-es

two

fishes.

fishes.

G.

i-)(6v-os

l-^Qv-OLV

D.

l-^Ov-L

I)^6v-01V

l-^Ov-cri

A. l-^Qv-v

l-^Ov-e

lyQv-a^

V. ixOu

i-^Ov-e

iy(6v-S

N.

masc.

imv-e,
a moose.

On

^ovv.

No. 18.

DUAL.

masc,

i)(6v-s,

takes

ly6vv\ vav^, va\jv\

this last example, see p. 37,

(3.)

when

-avg, or -ovg, it

-i?, -1/9,

ix^vSf

l-^Ou-oov

fiV-,

fiv-es

two mice.

mice.

= i^^vy
= c-)^6us
fivs

G.

IUiV-69

fJiV-OlV

fXV-WV

D.

fJLV-i

fJLV-OlV

fjLV-cri

A.

/ilU-V

fiv-e

fxv-as

V.

fiO

fxv-e

UV-S

= imvs
= fivs

twv

Odocov.

EXERCISE Vni.

Tov

Tov

r]p(i)09.

uvKT^pe^ TOV

6(00?.

ev TU) Xeifxcovt

eicri.

Ktjina eicri.

ecTTi,

(Tvv

^pvocov

KopuKa? *
!

* This

is

aw

^avOal

eicri.

01 yvire<s
01

(Tva?.

01

o 6u>g Kai o

Kai

cry? ev

Tfj avXrj eicri.

6 i)(6v? ev

rj

Ttj

OoXoltti^

Kopatce? ev Ttj vXtj

01

/ut.vpjUL}]Ke9

malam partem: Abi

julvo?.

yXuiTTa tov yvTrog Tpayeid

elcri

cro(^oi.

in tnalam

crucem

elarl.

eig

at TTTepvyes tov

a kind of imprecation, like our " Go, be lianged."

phrases, Abi in

tw tov lUTpov

T0I9 vavTai? ev
eicri.

01

^^ve? tov yewpyov

ava tovs juvKTijpai tov

T019 fivai.

yuTrep crKXrjpoi
(TTi.

Tovs

01 ijpcoe?

Twv

at KOjuai

TO) ijpooe.

Sfxooa.

Compare the Latin

Paste corvM.

27

FIKST GREEK. READKB.

KopaK09 Kal at rov yviro?

Tov (TKvXaKog

Jackals are

The

fierce.

Two

out of the garden.

elai.

ficucpai

ol

eiai Kevcu.

ai

(pXe^e^

vavrai /xa-^aipa^ e^ovai.

hunts the jackal

citizen

vultiu-es are chasing the

The girl is chasing a mouse


hunt wild beasts in the
He crops the vulture's wings. The girls are
foresta
The two
chasiDg the flies away from the bread
geese

up the meadow.

We

throuo-h the court.

gh-ls are cutting

pursuing

the

a jackal

{King) Perses

wings.

flies'

the

in

forest.

daughter leaves the bread in the hut.


eating

the loaves.

The

is

The farmer's
The mice are

citizens are pursuing the

thief.

(III.)

In the Thied Class are included those

7.

nouns wliich have the


ened in the nominative

final
;

vowel of the stem lengthfrom stem

as, ttoijul^v,

iroifxev-

as found in the genitive, Troi/nev-os.


SINGULAR.

N.

&V.

iroifXTjv,

masc,

DVJlL.

PL1TKAL.

TTOifjLev'e,

iroiixev-e^t

two shepherds.

a shepherd.

shepherds.

G.

TTOLfieV-O^

-KOifiev-oiv

iroifxev-Wi/

D.

7roifJ.ev-t

TTOlfXeV-OlV

TTOifie-a-t

A.

TTOifiiv-a

TTOifxev-e

irot/xev-as

Note.

But

nouns that have not the accent on

the last syUable of the nominative have the

pure stem in
Salfiov
(128)

the vocative
pnrop.

prjToop, VOC.

as,

Sai/juov,

voc.


FmST GREEK READER.

28

To

8.

traTrip,

this

class

which
but

in

the

genitive

In the dative plural a

dative singular.

tuted for

belong syncopated nouns like

throw out
is

and

substi-

is

placed after the p, and not before

it:DUAL.

8iirauL4.B.

PlitJRAL.

N.

^i.r]Trip,

firjTp-

lurjTep-e^

a mother.

two mothers.

mothers.

G.

lut.t]Tp-6s {f^OT /J.r]Tep-os)

firjTep-otv

HirjTep-wv

D.

fjLt]Tp-L

IXr}Tp-OlV

/ULr]Tp(X-(Tl

(for fxrjrep-i)

A. fxrjrep-a

fJir]Tep-

jxrjrep-a^

V. ixrirep

/J.t}Tp-

fitjrep-e^

N. avrip* masc,
a

man =

avSpe,
two men.

Latin, vir.

avSp-oiv

G. av-S-p6i
D. av-S-pl

A. au-S-pa
V.

(for

avepa)

avep

In

Kvcov,

occurs in

men.

6.vSp-S)V

avSp-oiv

avSpd-a-i

avSp-e

avSp-ag

avSp-e

avSp-ei

masculine or feminine, a dog, the syncope

all

the cases except the nominative and

vocative singular

N.

avSp-i,

SINQULAR.

DUAIi.

PLURAL.

KVCOV,

Kvv-e

KVV-S

two dogs.

dogs.

a dog.

G. Kvv-6s

KVV-OIV

KVV-0)V

D. KVV-i
A. Kvv-a

KVV-olv

KV-<Tl

Kvp-e

Kvv-ag

V. KVOV

Kvv-e

Kvv-es

* It often happens that /ii or v


brought Into contact with another

is,

by the omission or transposition of a rowel,


Such a combination of sounds was very

liquid.

disagreeable to a Greek ear, and to avoid

two concuiTlng

liquids

was

it,

a consonant kindred to the

inserted, for the sake of euphony.

first

of the

Thus, after the labia]

FneST GBEEK KEASER.

Some nouns combine

9.

and

II.

the peculiarities of classes

thus, aiSwg, gen.

III.;

39

stem

aiS6-og,

aiSo-,

sense of shame, both adds -9 to the stem, like ^jpw^,

and

also lengthens the last

vowel in the nominative,

So likewise aXojTri/^ {i.e., oXcaTrTjKs),


gen. aXw-n-eK-og, stem aXwTre/c-, a fox; and all adjeclike

iroiiJ.rjv.

tives in

as

->7?,

<Ta(pT]g, aXriOrj^,

EXEECISE
o Tov avSpoi

av-^i]v /raXoy

TTijpav

avyeva BavixaXoo.
piTTTei.

to. /ULrjXa

TToi/meveg

01

avv Toig Kva\ ev

6 Kvcov SicoKei

IJ.VV

^aaiXelag ev

tw

vij-mal

oaaeid eari.

/uevos

a-Kr]vr]

Kioveg

eiai

^ dxcvr/ Ttji atjSo-

eh

Ttjv

tm tov

ttoXXoi.

eaTi.

r]

tm

ev

to)

Kr/iru) eicrt.

KaXrj TpiT]prjg Ttjq

al tov avSpog Kopai

avv Taig

/J.rjTpda-i
rj

dXwTreKe ev

elai).

tP]?

Troi/ULevog

ecrri.

SecroTov

Oav/JLatovai.
too

earov (or

tov

tov

avv T019 yeiToai

tt]v y^iova.

Xifxevi

^eXioova's

to.'}

aXu)TreKO(f

ava

at Kopai

elcTi.

iraTpaai

e<m.

6 TOV TTOifxevo^ kvwv crocbog

\ei/ij/i eicTi.

TTOijueve

IX.

6 yir^ t^v ar]S6va SiwKei.

vog ^Seid (TTi.


Kopt]?

&c.

ev

tw

koi

toIs

KepKog T^y

Ttj

tov

iroi-

^A.6T]vdg

veco

6 tov ttoXitov yeiTcov dXtjO^s

earn (piXog.

The shepherds admire the pillars in the temple of


the god.
The shepherd's daughters persuade their
(i.e., the) father.
The swallows leave the house.
The queen admires the beautiful triremes. There
ft, iS,

another

labial,

was inserted;

while after the lingual

v, S,

as, yofi-t-po^, yofi-poi,

another lingual, was used;

yofi-^poi,

3l

ton-in-latu

as, av-i-poi, iv-poi,

avS-pof.

So from num-e-r-ui, the French nom-b-rt and our num-&-<r; from ^ren-e-r-M (from
yentu) the French gtn-r-t and our gtn-d-tr.


30

FIRST GREEK READER.

two beautiful triremes in the liarbour. In Athena


was a beautiful temple to Athena. The girl
writes in the snow with a rod.
The poet writes
letters.
The girl throws apples into the poet's
cottage.
The shepherd wonders at the bushy tail
of the fox.
The two shepherds are shearing the
sheep.
The dogs are hunting mice in the farmer's
are

there

garden.

10.

(IV.)

The Fourth Class

which drop the

Most members of

native.

neuter

last letter of the

stem in the nomi-

this class

end in

a,

and are

SIKQULAR.

N.

includes those nouns

&y.

Hevo(poov,

PLURAL.

PXTAL.

masc,

Xenophon.

G.

^evoipoivT-o?

D. ^VO(pU)VT-i
A.

N. A.

11.

&

^vod)U)VT-a

V. cTMiua, neut.,

crco/jLar-e,

(TWfiaT-af

a body.

two

G.

(TCOjUaT-OS

CrC0/UL(XT-OlV

aQ)fidT-ooi>

D.

o-co/uaT-i

crcojudr-oiv

(Tco/xa-cri

Some nouns combine

classes IV.

and

drops the final

III.

bodies.

the

bodies.

peculiarities

of

thus, Xecou, gen- Xeo'j/ro?, both

of the stem, like lEevocpwu,

lengthens the last vowel, like

ttolixtjv

and

also

stem Xeovr-,

with T dropped, Xeov-, and with o lengthened to w,


Xeoow

GREEK READER.

FIRST

DUAL.

PLURAL.

Xe'ovT-e

\eovT-e(!

SIKSULAR.

N.

Xecov,
a

two

lion.

lions.

lions.

\eovT-<av

\e6vT-oiv

G. Xeojn--09

D. Xeorr-i
\eovT-a

A-

31

XeovT-oiv

Xeov-ai*

\eovT-e

\iovT-aq

V. Xeov

\iovT-e

So

and

also adjectives

\eOVT-S

participles

like

rvTrrcoVf

except that tvittoov and other participles have the


vocative in

-foi',

like the nominative.

EXEECISE Z.

TO Tov
apfiaro^.

ei'y

ITTl.

(rcofia

ev

tm

apfxa.

to.

t^? ^aXoTTi;? KvfiaTa fxaxpa

/cuj/oy

to

TOl<S

irorafiw

T^? BoKaTTrj^

tw

TToKi/ Kal fieXi ev

t^ tou TLepcrqv

')(aiTt]

VTTtjpeTa ev

tw

ap/xaTi

eicri

TOV apyovT09 apfxarl

ev T(p

tw vaw
tco

eicri.

?,

to,

and a

is

eicri

eari.

ai

tou ap-^ovTog

tw

(or ecrrov).

VTrrjpera

elai.

(ij,

u, a,

<tc.),

liquid) follow a vowel naturally short.

the datire plural, Xiovr-ai, the second syllable,


before

ava

yepovre^

icrri.

A syllable is called long, either when itivcncel is naturally long


consonant* (not being a mule

in itself)

"yaXa

ecrri.

(TKrjv^ eicri.

ap'^ovTO'i iStj/ma ev

Twv yepovToov XevKai

Kofxai

TOV XeovTOi Saareid

TO TOV

ripoL

tvco

oikw tov iroirp-ov

tou vaov.

j8i7/iaTa
rj

flieVO(pWVTO<S

KVfXa(TL.

ayaXfjLa kuXov ev

k tov

ecrri.

followed by three consonants;

-ovro--, is long,

or when

Thus, in

since o (though short

but as neither t nor v can stand

both of them are thrown out, and the word

is

reduced to

Aeo<rt.

In this

which
changed into Its kindred diphthong -ow,
so that Ae'ocrc becomes Aov<ru Similarly, nouns whose stem ends in -t make their
dative plural in -<i<Tt; and those in -avr in -a<Ti^ Tlie same change is seen in
i&nk, a tooth, from stem hiovr- and icTet'?, a comb, from stem icrev- and in participles

form, however, the syllable (-orro--), formerly long, has been reduced to
is

short ; and, to compensate for this, the o

is

in -is, as

Tiflet's

for

rifle'iTs.

This principle of compensation

occurrence in Greek, and the application of


cizplicable.

-oo--,

it

explains

many

is

of very frequent

forms otherwise

in-

FIRST GREEK READER,

32

The men leave the bodies of the lions in the


The queen admires the lion's mane. The
woods.
The steps of the
mane of the lion is shaggy.
The boy eats much bread and
altar are steep.
The tents of the Scythians are white.
honey.
Xenophon leaves the land of the Persians. The
The girl eats
master orders his {i.e., the) servants.
The Scythians eat much
bread without honey.
Because of the

honey.
of the

girl.

(V.)

12.

You admire

the nominative;

&

PLURAL.

DUAL.

XajUTTcig, fem.,

Xaixird^-e^

XajULirdS-e,
two

Xa/uiTrdS-og

\afi7rdS-oiv

Xa/inrd-u)v

D. XajU7rdS-i

\a/ii7rdS-oiv

Xa/ULTrd-cri

A. \a/ii7rdS-a

XafXTrdS-e

XajUTrdS-ag

opviO-e

opvid-es,

V.

opvi<;,

m. or f

a bird or fowl

two

torches.

torches.

birds.

birds.

G.

Opvld-09

opviO-oiv

SpvlO-cov

D.

opuid-i

opvi6-oiv

opvi-cri

A.

opvi6-a,oropviv* opviO-e

13. Masculine adjectives, like


participles
*

s in

yiya^

a torch.

G.

N.

or more, before

(r, S, 6, v),

SINGULAR.

V.

the nightingale's voice.

as, iraig (for 7rai-S-s), iraiSo^',

(for yiya-vT-^), ylyavro's

&

admire the eyes

To the Fifth Class belong those nouns

which drop one dental

N.

We

lion.

in

-ay

Words which end

in a dental

not on the last syllable; but

one form, iunrCSa, not

and

acnriv.

-eis,

opn6-as
/txeXa?,

belong to

black,

this

have two forms of the accusative

if it be,

aa in aanrii,

shield,

if

and

class

the accent

ia

the accusative has onl;

FIBST GREKE EEADEB.

pronoun

r/?,

one; and the interrogative

t/?,

also the indefinite

any

a certain one:

Fem.

DUAL.

SINGtlXAR.
Masc.

a certain

one,

who, which, what.

Indefinite pronoun, t/?, t/?, t/,

N. r/y

33

Kent

Masc

Fem.

Neut

Ti

TlV-

TIV^

TlV-e

G.

TlV-Oii

TlV-6<i

Tl V-O'5

TIV-OIV

TIV-OIV

TIV-OIV

D.

TlV-l

TlV-l

TlV-l

TIV-OCV

TlV-OlV

Tiv-oiv

TlV-

TlV-e

TlV-

A. Tiv-a

Tl

PLURAL.

NeuL

Masc

Fem.

Tiv-eg

TlV-i'i

G.

Tiv-<av

TIV-U)V

TLV-WV

D.

Tl-<Tl

Ticr-i

Tl(T-L

Tiv-as

Tiv-a

N.

A. Tiv-a?

Tiv-a

Interrogative pronoun, r/p, who, which,


SINGULAR.

Kent

Fem.

Masc.

N. t/?

Masc.

Fem.

Neat.

TI9

TlV-e

G.

Tiv-09

TlV-09

D.

TlV-C

TlV-l

A. Tiv-a

what

DUAL.

TlV-e

TLV-O^
TIV-OIV

Tiv-a

TlV-

Tiv-e

riv-

PLURAL.

Max.

Fem.

N. TtVe?
G.

Tiv-e^

Neut

Tiv-a

TIV-WV

D. Ti-ai
A. Tiv-a^
14.

It

may

Tiv-af

be stated, generally and

the accusative case

is

used to

loosely, that

indicate

raovement

FIRST GREEK READER.

34

towards, or movement along; the genitive, to express

or nearness, or jiucta-

Hence the preposition

position.

and the

or jplace whence;

or origin,

the source,

dative, to denote proximity,

Trapd, beside, or by

the side of,

When

(a)

governing the accusative,

motion towards

parallel to);

i.e.,

of,

(to the

side

signifies

or by the side

of,

Trapa tov Kiova, (mov-

as,

ing) towards (the side of) the pillar

TOP

TTOTa/uiov,

When

(b)

tion

governing the genitive,

from

irapa

along by (the side of) the river.

mofrom

signifies

beside; as, irapa tov Kiovog,

beside the pillar.


(c)

When

governing the dative,

T(p Kiovi, (in

15.

The

signifies

along,

governing the genitive,


16. ^u

as,

Trapa

po.sition) beside the pillar.

preposition Kara,

accusative,

signifies rest at

with (apud);

the side of, near, or

or

when governing the


down along; when

down from.

means I luas;

or he, she,

it

was.

^(xav

means they were.


EXERCISE

XI.

cv To5 Xe^rjTi fieXi ^v yXvKu.*

XafiTrpot
rj

T acnrh Koi

rj

Kopv^ tov

TrdSei <Tvv roig Xe/Srjcri ev


T-aFf
U)6v

TOV avuKTOs

ev

T^9 opviOoi iv
*

On

ol Xe^tjre^

tw

oXKaSet TroXXai ev

rjcrav.

rjpooo^ viai elcri.

tw tov

KpiTOv

tw tov yiyavTO^

Trj dcnrlSi ^v.

tou

I'eo)

Xtfievi ^crav.

at Xafi-

Sojulw ^crav.

airrpo)

^u.

to

at pive^ to)v TraiSoov

the declension of v^vfus see next

class,

VI.

FIRST GREEK READER.


fiiKoai

Twv Ileocrwf KoXal

Tpij3(DV^ fiiXaves

eicrt.

aSeXcbac^, ev

odoirreg XevKol
K^TTip

SovXo^ T/y nvv

Trapaoelacp

Troifxeves

Sea-TTOTrjs T19

Tive^.

ol

/Salvei.

irapa tov

ttoWovS'

e-^ei

ttoi/ rjcrav

tov avaKTog

crcbaipa irapa Tta

rj

SovXov^

T^ov eia-iv ol ai/a/cre?

iravreq

tw tov avaKTOs

Tiva tov Kiova /SXexe/?;

eaTiv 6 avT]p\

at

twv oovKoov

SiooKei.

eicri.

Kopa? Tivag ev

irapa tov vew

fiXeTTOfJLev.

KLOvi ecTTi.

Trai"?

tw

fjcrav.

Kiova ^aivovcTL

piTrrovcri.

ol

fjaav.

at Kopai, avv roi^ Trarpaa-c koi

01 TracSe?, /cat nracrai

rai"?

(r(paipav

riveg

iraiSe?

ei(Ti.

vXaiuLvSei

35

Ti'y

ttov ecrriv 6

ol Xe^tjTeg

Tii'ag TTOifxevag Xiyeis',

From -beside
The

temple.

the

To-the-side-of

temple.

slaves have black cloaka

judge had (xe) two faithful slaves.

certain

In the temple

What

of a certain god there were beautiful caldrons.

The

Whose

you speak of ?

poet do

girls are plaiting their hair.

with*

his slave

some-kind

(xi?)

his shield.

asses

the slave?
ball are the

Persians
sail for

The master

From what
?

Who

of-

He

Which key has

shield has the warrior?

boys throwing

strikes

are sailing into the harbour.

What

Greece

do you see

Two merchant-men

sees a (ceiiain) torch in the court.

the

is

What

king of the

port do the merchantmen

The king

is

hunting a hare along

the sea (shore).

(VI.)
*

WWi

thanoxm.

is

17.

The Sixth Class embraces those nouns

not to be translated here by aw, but by the datire (iiutraniental) of

36

FIRST GREEK READER.

which the

in

vowel of the stem

final

the nominative ;

as,

changed

is

in

rer^o-f for rei-^e-?, gen. re/ye-o?;

The substan-

yXvKv-s for yXvKe-?, gen. ^Xv/ce-o?.


tives in -09 of this class are neuter.
SINGULAR,

N.
G.

PLURAl.

DTTAl.

iu.dvTi-9,

raasc,

a prophet or

8eer.

/xdvre-e,

juavTe-eg

two prophets.

fiavre-OLV

fxavre-uiv

/mavre-oiv

fidvre-cn

A. fiavTC-v

fiairre-e

fiavre-a^

V. fxavri

fiavre-e

fxavre-e^

yuai/re-ft)?*

D, frnvre-i

jULavrei

SINGULAR.

N. A.&V.

TeZ;>^o -9,

= ixdvrei^
= [xavreis

DUAL.

neut.,

rel-^e-e
two

a wall.

= Tel-^ovg
= Tcl-^ei

rei-^t],

walls.

G. Ti'^e-09

rei-^e-OLv

D.

Tei-^e-oiv

Tel-ye-L

fidvreii,

prophets.

=
=

Teiyolv
rei'^oiv

PLURAL.

N, A.

&

V. relye-a

re/p^?/

walls.

G.

rei-^e-wv

D.

Ti^-cri

Tei-^wv

EXERCISE Xn.
o

TreXe/ff?

ofxev.

Tov

o^v^ ecm.

top jSapvv

Tu>v TraXaiwu fxdvrecov Seipij ^v

fxavreo)^

Trcoycova

Kelpovcn.

to

TreXeicvv Oav/uidtrj

Svvafiig.

alfxa

tov

kutu tov

Xeiov TreXcKVv pet.

TO
^aivei

Tfj(f

TToXecog Tec'^oi fiaKpov ^v.

TTOljULiJU

Kei 6 cro(picrTt}9*

TOV TOV

Kara tov opovs

'^PO<p(i}VTOS

vlov SlSdcT'

ava to tov vaov Tciy^os

/fop^Xta? Tig

Tig.

Substantives of this kind usually take the Attic genitive in -vk, bat a^Jectires

retain the simple -ot, as r)S4-ot.


FIRST GREEK READER.
eoTrei

to aarrv

eig

/J-epo^ ti Ttj<s TroXeoo^

TaiSei.

oi

TO fiaxpov arrjOos tov avBpwTrov Oavfiatei

SrjXov ^v.

6 oyXoj.

Tiva ava to opo^ epirovra

TTOifxriv 6d>iv

vaov Tivo? tov

SXcTrei.

^7ri 6

TTOifii^v.

opocpov ev

TO

^i(p09

TOV Kiouo^ (bevyei 6 Xayoog.


irapa to) klovi Xenrovci.
irapa tov

Kiova SiwKei,

(VII.) 1 8.

rj

the final

tov opeog

Ttj

Bapv

Traioe^

oi

(ttc.

TTapo.

Tas acpalpa^

6 kvoov ttjv opviBa (or opviv)


Se

eh oikov Tiva

(pevyei.

In the Seventh Class are ranged those

nouns which have the diphthong

ocpiv Tiva he

(pevyei 6 navTi<;.

Tov acrreog SiwKOva-iv

Kopv(hi]

87

represents the obsolete letter


thus, ^ovg for ^oFs,

av,

ei/,

or ov, before

The v of the diphthong


F (Digamma) vocalized;

of the nominative.

Hke Latin

bos for bovs,

h6v-is.

In declension the v disappears before vowels, but


retained before consonants,

word

thus

BmOXTLAJU

N. ^ovq, m. or ,

VVAL.

^0-6,

an ox or cow.

two oxen.

^o-6^ (bd-v-is)

pitnuL.

ySo-ey

(^ovi)y

oxen.

fio-olv

^0-S)V

D. ^o-t (bd-v-i)

^O-OIV

^ov-o-'l

A. ^ovv

/8o-e

(fi6-a<s) /8ou9

V. ^ov

B6-

^6-e<i

N. ^aariX-evi, masc..

^acri\e-.

/Satr/Xe-ey, -e/y.

G.

a king.

twoUnga.

(fiovi)

kings.

^a(TiXe-oiv

^aariXe-iev

^aa-iXe-oiv

^atTiXeva-i

A. ^a(ri\e-d

3a(riXe-e

/3ao"tXe-dp, -e??

V.

/SatrtXe-e

/8ao-/Xe-ey, -cfj

G. ^acriXe-w^

D.

I3aa-i\e-ii ^a(Ti\ei

8acri\-v

ia

and at the end of the

FIRST GREEK READER.

38
1

9.

In the Third

N.B.

Declension, the a of the ac-

cusative singular, and the -a? of the accusative plural,


are short ; but in nouns in -evs they are generally long.

means not.
means where, interi'ogative.

20. ou or ovK
TTov

Tov, with acute,

or

without accent, means

somewhere, anywhere, indefinite.

means there.
ivOdSe means here.

Kei

6 ^aa-iXevg

6 vofxeug

evOaoe

01 vofxei^

ei*?

Tw

ecrriv

t^j ypaoi

(^acriXeifi)

Kopr]

>j

Krj-

6av-

tov ^acriXea eTricrroXriv ypdcbei.


f]

tov ^acriXecos

^ovv aypiov

Xijuen.

Kopt] eKei ecxTi.

oi vofxei^ SicaKOvcriP ei^

6 POfievs

Trjv

fx.ya\t]v

crvu

ecrTi.

vavg

tois ^ovcri

^ovv

tov^ yoviaq (yovecs) euOdSe

Kepara tov ^oos juuKpa

rj

Tovg nrireag

Kei r/crav ol iTnreis.

TTOV ^u.

v tS> \ei^u)vl
fj

tw

tov^* ^aaiXea^

ivOdSe Xelirei 6 CTTparijyo^.

Xecav.

^aaiXev, ttov

TOV jueyav ^ovu Oav/ndtei ^ ypav^.

TTjv v\t]V.

ev

i<ri.

TTOV elcriv ol lepetg',

riv

(refivo^.

icm

at Tlepcrai

^(rav.

fxd^ovcri.

OVK

Xm.

6 vofiev^ koi 6 lepevs ev

^acrlXeca'^
TTft)

EXEECISE

ea-Qiei

XeiTrei.

tu

oi a-TpaTiwTai Ttjv ye-

(bvpav (pvXaTTOvcn.

Old-woman

why

do you run to the city

shepherd pursues a gazelle into the wood.


habit

is

great.

The horseman's

old-woman writes a

The

their.

letter to

article is often equal to the possessive

chest

is

The

Tlie

force of

broad.

The

her daughter's child.


pronoun, so hero

we

translate tov?

PIBST GBEEK RKAOWR.

Wliere are the eavah^

Thft barber shaves the king.

The

of the king 1

39

king's ship

here in the harbour.

is

The horseman pursues the shepherd out of the city


The prophet sees a cei-tain
towards the mountain.
Where were the boy's parents 1
portion of the city.
The two priests are somewhere in the city. The two
boys are throwing balls down the mountain.
The
giant stalks down fi-om the mountain towards the
sea.
A certain man had a black dog.
21. Besides the seven classes above enumerated,

there are a few in-egular nouns, which cannot be re-

any class.
They will be found in the
Grammar, or will be met with in the course of

duced to
reading.

SEGTiON

V.

CONTRACTION.
1.

When two

vowels

(belonging

to

different

meet ip the same word, they are usually


the Attic dialect) combined either into a diph-

syllables)
(in

This

thong or a long vowel.

is

called Contraction.

The meeting of two vowels is called a concursus.


2. Gekeral Rule.
The foi^raer Tneniber of

concursiis absorbs
cucwv; TifJ-Tjev

tJie

latter;

as,

ap

(1.)

Two

vowels that can form a

diphthong are contracted by synceresis,

iral's

Tifx.t}V.

Exceptions.

i.e.,

the

^p; aeKwv

by simply removing the

A.tp-01.

Traisi ^aa-iXii

diccresis; as,

jSaaiXei

Ai/roi'


dO

FIRST GREEK READER.

Two

(2.)

short

vowels,

if

identical,

are con-

tracted into their kindred diphthong;


into -ov;

not,

ai6o9

XoCTe

3.

Tijuaco

Special Rule.

(^tAco; Tt/uidofxev

When

TlJUI.doifA.1

its

of

subjunctive with
Tifxdeig

as,

rifias;

(1.) ov after

a drops

= Ti/ii(iocra',

its

subjunctive

Tifxdou(n = TifX(io(ri.

diphthong expels the preposiand unites with the subjunctive; as,

o before a

tive

orjXoei
6

ot]Xoi

StjXor]

StjXoi.

before a diphthong disappears;

Xeei?
Xerjg

4.

Tifiw-

TllXWfXl.

as, Tijui.aov(Ta

(3.)

St]-

prepositivef unites

its

being subscribed;

Exceptions.

(2.)

member

the latter

with the former member, and


the result,

(piXovinev ;

TifiS),

a diphthong,

the concursus is

if

= ^aa-iXeis;*

and a before o orw, reverse the

to,

rule; as, (piXeoo


jitev;

^acnXe-eg

= aiSovs; (jyiXio/Jiev ~
= 6r]\0VT.

before

(3.)

as,

=
=

(jyiXecs

(piXiovaa

as,

= (piXovaa

(pi-

(pi-

(piXrj^.

In the Third Declension


(1.)

Nouns

like i-x9v9 (Class II.) contract in the

nominative, vocative, and accusative plural.


(2.)

Nouns

contract in the

like niavris (VI.)

dative singular, and nominative, vocative^

and accusative
* But <e sometimes

make

>).

plural.
t

See Section

I., 7.

41

FIRST GBEBK READEE.

contract

in

(3.)

Nouns

(4.)

where two vowels meet.


Nouns like iSaaiXevg (VII.) contmct in the

rei^og

like

(VI.)

all

cases

dative singular, and nominative, vocative,

and accusative

plural.

(VII.) contract in the

Nouns like l3ovs

(5.)

and accusative

native, vocative,

5.
its

(Syntax) Kule

relative agrees with

antecedent in gender, number, and person.

The

relative pronoun, o?,


SINGULAR

XTThe

nomi-

plural.

Neut

Fem.

Masc.

Masc.

DUAL.
Fem.

G.

9
OV

D.

CO

OV
/pi

A. OV

(JO

rjv

which, thai:

Masc

PLURAL.
Fem.

Nent
rf

If

rf

CO

CO

Ol

at

OIV
f
OIV
n

aiv

OIV
T
OIV

cov

cov

wv

aiv
rf

ai?

ef

et

?
Of?

Ol<!

ef

60

o, ivho,

Neut

rf

rr

N.

^7,

a?

01/9

EXEECISE XIV.
TO,

Trjg

iroXecog Tei-^rj v^^riKa

Kara

oprj XeiTTovcn.

rrjg

ecTTiv.

tov opov^

oi

o(pei<s

TTOifxiveg.

at /ewe? o^f /SXeTrei? \ayoi)v ava

Siu)KOV(Tiv.

Tw

tw

pel, /3\eirov(riv ol TraiSes.

veavlag

eo-Ti.

ng

it 1b

o? ava
tjv

aXarj

ttoWoi.

to aX<ro?

pnrTeig yjivari

ra

')(eiXr]

TreXe/cu?.

o jSacriXevg toi/? fxavreig*

t^?

-^vaoi
ireidei.

plural of the Third Declension contracts like the nominativo

plural, contrary to the

Uale, bat

acpaipa

yjivawg ioTiv 6

xeXe/ca?.

The accusative

iroTafiw,
rj

ttoWo. ^eXrj e^ei.

Koprji oi}jQ)d ecTTLV.


eicriv 01

ra

opi, o Oau/xct^ere, 6(pis eial

i\6vs Tiva^ /caXof? ev

ra

Kopvcprj^ Oeovcriv ol

Rule

thus /lojTtas should become

actoallj contracted into /laKtcit.

/tamp

bjr

the Generiil

FIKST GKEEK READER,

42

Ta fi^Xa a
6 oovXos.
Kvoiv

ToO yeoopyoO

Toijg

rod -^oprov

eK

toO aXiJovs

ea-Oio/mev ev /nepiji tlvi

/Sovg

re tois

ev

SiooKei.

6 tov

evplcxKei

yeiTovog

aXa-ecri

koi

BaOecri tcov vXoou avQrj eari iroXXa.

Some

The weapons
The parents of the boy

parts of the city are visible.

of the soldiers are bright.

The

write to the king.

He

admires the white

lips of

the girl are white.

the infant.

lips of

The

slave

The horsemen who

shaves the horseman's beard.

are descending from the mountain are throwing their


javelins against the lines of infantry in the plaiiL

There are

many wicked men

SECTION

in the city.

VI.

ADJECTIVE NOUNS.
Adjectives
(1

.)

may

be divided into three

Those which have three forms, one for each


gender;

as,

cre/jLvov,

neut.

evpv, iieut.

masc;
evpvg, masc;

arefxvog,
:

To

a-ejULv^,

fern.;

evpela, fern.;

this class belong all par-

ticiples.

(2.)

classes:

Those which have two forms

one

for the

masculine and feminine in common, and

one for the neuter


auxppoou, fern.

masc;
(3.)

as,

<Tw<ppov,

aXtjOrj?, fern.;

a-uxppoov,

neut.

Tnasc;
aXt]6>i9,

aXtjOes, ne-ut.

Those which have only one form for


genders

as,

apTra^,

masc

all

apira^, fern.

FISST

43

GREEK KEADEB.

apTra^, newt.: ixaKap^Tnasc.; fiwcap, fern.;


IxaKapt

neut

In adjectives of three forms, the feminine

2.

declined like substantives of the First Declension

is

and

the masculine and neuter like those of the Second or


Third, according to termination. Thus,
is

declined like SovXo9

and

o-e/xi/jj

"TTtix^^i

or

^apv^

{fern,.)

44)

(p.

evpeia,

evpu (neut.) like acrru {neut), or

3.

o-e/x/os

{thosc.)

like avXri

and

evpv^ (masc.) is declined

{neut.) like ^l^Xo^:

cre/jLvov

like

^apv

like
(p.

<TKid.

44).

Adjectives of two forms, and those of one form,

generally belong to the Third Declension

such as end (1 .)

and

Xaycog,

in

-0)9,

'iXeoov

as tXewy {masc.

like avuyyecov

aXoyo^ (77iasc.and/em.) like


like /u^Xoi'.

But participles

I.

like

or (2.) in -oy, as

and a\oyov{neut.)

to the Third Declension;

the feminine, re-rvcpvia,

CLASS

except

in -w?, as rervcpcog (masc.)

and rervcpo^ {neut), belong


while

^oi/Xo?,

and fern.)

belongs to the First

THREE FORMS.
8INGUJLAR.

Masc.

4.

N.

cr/j.v-6s,

Fern.

Neut

a-e/jLV-^

(renv-ov

<Tefxv-ov

Tenerable.

G.

(Tenv-ov

crejULv-tj^

D.

(refjiv-w

arefjLv-^

(Tefiv-w

A.

<T/J.V-6v

(Tefiv-^v

(Tefxv-6v

V.

a-efiv-e

a-e/Mv-^

aefiv-ov

DUAL.

N. A.
G.
(128)

& V.
&D.

(re/JLv-u)

aeixv-a

crefiv-w

(re/xv-oiv

(refxv-aiv

<TJULV-OlV

FIRST GREEK READER.

44

PLURAL.

N.

&

Keui

Fem.

Masc.

V.

crefiv-ol

(TflV-ai
(TejULV-SlV

G.

crejuv-wv

D.

a-efjt.v-0i9

A.

aejULv-ovs

ae/JLv-a

(j-e/xv-a

SINGULAR.
Fem.

Neut

^ap- eia

jSap'V

Masa

N.
heavy.

G. /8ajO-eo9*

jSap-elas

^ap-eo9

D. ^ap-ei,

(3ap-eca

^ap-e'i, -ei

-i

A. ^ap-vv

^ap-eiav

/3ap-v

V. ^ap-v

^ap-eia

fiap-v

DUAL.

^ap-ie

^ap-eia

I3ap-ee

G.

& V.
&D.

^ap-ioiv

jSap-eiaiu

^ap-eoiv

N.

&V.

(3ap-eg, -eis

N. A.

PLURAL.

I3ap-iai

^ap-ea

G. ^ap-eoou

^ap-eiwv

jSap-cMv

D. ^ap-ecrc

^ap-elaig

/3ap-icri

^ap-elag

^ap-ea

^ap-ea^i

-ei^

BINOULAR,
Fem.

Masc.

N. ^apieig

Neut.

(for

^apteacr-a

^aplev

G. ^aplevT-os

)^apie(r(T-r]i

yaplevT-09

D. ^apieuT-i

^apieacr-rj

^apievT-i

A. ^aplevT-a

)(ap[ecrcr-av

y(apiv

V. yaplev

yaplecrcr-a

^apiev

|^

XaplevTs)f f
beautlAiL

Adjectives have the genitive in

however, Mice
t

ao-rv,

-eos,

but substantives, as jrijxWi 'n

very seldom take -ewj.

See note to declension of Aewv,

p. 31.

-bs.

Neutera

^"

FEBST GBEEK RKADKR.

G.

&
&

Kent

Fem.

Masc.

N. A.

45

yapiecrcr-d

V. ^aplevT-e
D. -^apievT-oiv

-^apiecTCT-axv

^apievT-oiv

PUJRAL.

N.

&

V. ^ap/evT-ey

^aplecra-aL

^apiVT-a

G. ^apievT-wv

j(api(ra-a)v

^aptevT-wv

D.

^apiecrcr-ai^

^aplecr-i

yapLe(T(T-a<s

^aplevT-a

-^aplecr-i

A. yaplevT-a^
5.
-?flro,

Like y^apUi^ are declined


-V]

all participles

In participles the vocative masculine


the nominative

and

(2.)

in

-e/y,

riOev; except that (1.)

as, TiOeiSi TiOeicra,

The dative

is

the same as

plural has -eicru

not ecri*
SIHGULAR.
Masc.

N.

&

V.

Neat

Fenj.

Tray,

iraar-a

Trav

every, alL

G.

jravT-oy

jracr-i/y

iravT-o^

D.

iravT-L

7ra(7-ij

iravT-l

Tracr-av

Trav

A. iravT-a

DUAL.

N. A.

&;

V. TravT-e

G.

&D.

iravT-oiv

N.

&

TTctirr-ey

nrdcT-a

TrdvT-e

irdcr-aiv

irdvT-oiv

PLURAL.

V.

Tratr-ax

iravT-a

G. iravT-wv

7ra<T-<ov

TrdvT-wv

D.

7racr-aig

iracrt

irdo'-as

TavT-a

Tracri

A. xaiT-ay

participles in -ay, -aa-a, -av

as, o-ray,

See note to declension of Xagv,

p.

3L

aracra, crrav

FIRST QEBEK KEADER.

4G

ru\^ucra, Tu\j/av.

Tu'xp-a?,

The masculine belongs

to

Class V. (Third Declension), the neuter to Class IV.,

and the feminine

The

to the First Declension, like aaavOa.

adjectives ttoXv^,

much, and

nieyas, great, are

irregular in the nominative, accusative,


singular, masculine

and vocative

and neuter.
SINQULAR.

Masc

Fem.

Nent.

N.

TTOX-I/?,

TToXX-^

TTOX-J

G.

TTOXX-OV

TToXX-rji

xoXX-ou

much, many.

D. TTOW-W

TToXX-fj

TTOXX-W

A. TTOX-VV

TToXX-l^U

TToX-U

TTOXX-I?

TToX-V

V. TToX-U

PLURAI..

N.

&

V. TToXX-ol

TToXX-al

TToXX-d

G. 7roXX-S)p

TTOXX-WP

TToXX-ftJJ/

D. TTOXX-OIS

TToXX-aig

TTOXX-OIS

A. TTOXX-OVS

TToXX-as

TToXX-a

SINGULAR.
Masc.

N.

fiey-as,

Fem.

fjieydX-ri

Neut

fiey-a

great, large.

G. jueyaX-ov

[j.eydX-ri<i

fieydX-ov

D. fieydX-w

fieydX-rj

fxeydX-w

A. fxey-av

fieyaX-rjp

fxiy-a

V. fiey-a

fieydX-t]

uey-a

PLURAL.

N.

&

V. fieydX-oi

fxeyaX-ai

fieydX-a

G. fxeydX-cov

jueyaX-cou

fieyaX-cop

D. fieydX-ois

fieyaX-ais

fxeyaX-oii

A. fiyaX-ovs

lULcydX-as

[xeydX-a

47

FIKST GREEK HEADER.

CLASS

TWO FORMS.

II.

SINGULAR.

Kent

Ma3C. and Fern.

7.

a\t]6-i

N.
true, genuine.

G.

a\r]6-eo9, -ovg

a\T]6-09, -ovg

D.

a\r]6-i, -i

aXt]6-i, -t

A. aXtjO-ea,

a\t]d-s

-rj

aXt]6-S

V.
DUAL.

G.

& V.
&D.

aXrjO-eoiv, -oip

N.

&V.

a\t]6-S, -IS

a\t]6-a,

G.

a\r]6-ecov, -wv

aXr]6-0)v, -wv

N. A.

a\r]6-ee,

aXtjO-eCf

-rj

->}

a\j]B-ioiv, -oiv

PLURAL.

D. a\r}6-eai

a\t]0-ai

A.

aXt]6-af

aXrjO-eai, -eii

and feminine, as substantives of Class


and their neuter in -ov,

(Third Declension)

I.

Those in

of other terminations

may

AH

are

those

be easily referred to their

classes.

CLASS IIL

may

like

-09, -ov,

of the Second Declension, and are regular.

proper

III.

acocppov, as those of Class

9.

-rj

Adjectives like cruxppwv are declined, in ma.s-

8.

culine

They

-t]

The

ONE FORM.

adjectives of this class require

are almost all of the Third

be readily referred to their proper

IxoKap, fxaKap-og, belongs to Class

I.

no paradigm.

Declension, and
classes.

Thus

of substantives;

48

FIRST GREEK READER.

The great majority

(pvyds, cpvydSo9, to Class V.

of

one-form adjectives have no neuter.

SECTION

VII.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
Genekal Kule.

1.

and

To

form the comparative


add -repos and -raTo?, re-

superlative degrees

spectively, to the simple

stem of the positive;

as,

COMPARATIVE.

SUPERLATIVE.

fxaKup

fJLaKap-Tepo9

fiaKap-Taroi

fieXas (stem fxeXav)

fieXdv-Tepos

/JLeXdv-raToq

<piX-os*

<plX-Tpoi

(piX-Taroi

yepai-o?

yepal-repos

yepal-Tarog

POSITIVK.

2.

Exception.

But

adjectives in -vs retain the

substituted vowel of the nominative^f*


V instead of

VI.

of

as,

yXvKv-i

e,

{i.e.,

as in yXvK-e-og; see Class

substantives,
(for

Third

'yXv/cey),

Declension^)

yXvKv-repo^

yXvKV-TaTOS.
3.

Some

adjectives insert a euphonic or strength-

ening syllable between the stem and the comparative


termination
(a)

oj

inserted

is

when

the

the stem of the positive


* *iAos

lias four

forms

last
is

(^lAwrepos, (jiiKaCnpo^, ^iXuav,

syllable

long

of

as,

and that given above.

t Most of the peculiarities wliich are observable in the addition of the comparative

terminations to the radical syllable of the adjective are also found in the formation
of

we have yAvK-ii-repo?, and not ykvK-e-repoi, so we And


and aar-v-vonoc not aor-e-vo/itos. See following notes.
) Compare the compounds pi^-o-rdjMOf, \oy-o-yp6.<f>os, Air-d-ra{tt, &C.
compound words

thus, as

W-v-Aoyos, not rjSe-Koyoi

FEBST GREEK READER.

49

KOV(p-0^

KOV(p-6-Tep09

K0V(p-6-VaT0S

(re/jLv-69

(re/j.v-6-Tepo^

(refiv-o-raTO^

(/8)

w*

inserted

is

stem

is

when

the last syllable of the

short; as,

(ro<p-6s

(ro(^-w-Tpo^

<ro(p-w-TaTOs

a^i-os

a^i-w-Tpos

a^i-d>-TaTOs

eTTivapi^, (stem

eTTi-^apiT-w-Tepoi

eiriyapiT-to-TOTOi

7rop(pvpOSi

TTopcpvpe-fo-Tepos,

Tropcpvpe-w-raTO^,

contracted

contracted

>

'

Topcpvpovs
(y)

iropcpvp-uhTaros

TTopcpvp-co-Tepo^

aif

is

inserted; as,

^err-os

fiecr-ai-Tepos

^lea-al-TO.TO'i

(plX-os

(piX-ai-Tepos

(piX-ai-Taros

^orn^-oy

^av)^-al-Tpos

(S)

few insert

s,

or

-e?,

-19

or

-,1

as,

aXtjQe-cr-TaTO^

a\r]6i^9

aXijOe-tr-Tepoi

(Twcppaiv

(TUXppou-ecr-Tepog

a(a<ppov-i(r-raT09

a(pOov-ecr-Tpo?y

a(p6ov-(r-TaTOs,

a<p6ov-os

XdX-og
*
t
X

bnt also

bat also

acpOov-co-Tcpo^

acpOov-co-TaTOs

X(i\-i<r-Tepos

XaX-tV-TaTO?

Compare the componnds bpt-u-KOfio^, Kpe-a-vuXrii.


Compare the compoands ^i<r-<u-in>Aios, iutXax-ai-itov%.
Compare the compounds <jaxt-<r-ij>6poi, ipi-a-fiioi, opi-a-rtpoi, Oi-a-^xtns,

Kau-a-annoi,

<})<o-a-^>6poi,

consider the -at- and

-co--

^xp-cV-^UK,

\i.it-T-rivu(>,

oix-'-^TTS-

in snch forms as iiev-ai-rtpot

and

Some

scholars

<rwf>f>ov-&r--nf>o^ to

he

double comparatives, and they think the germs of these syllables are readily fbtmd
In Sanscrit (see Jelf s

how a comparative

Greek Grammar, L

p. 130).

Bat

it

is

not easy to explain

compoand
Whatever the oriyiit of the syllables -atand CO'- may be, it seems evident that they were used in the compound* and the
tamparatna for the uune purpcte. The objections to the Sanscrit theory are numy,
or snperlatiTe termination coald find a place in sach

noons as those given

bat this

is

in the notes above.

not the place to advance them.

FIRST GREEK READER.

50
Also,

-^aplei^

and compensation

makes

-^aplevT^,

j(apie-(r-TaT09, the v

yapie-(r-Tepoit

and t being thrown out before

in the dative plural (see declension of ^^apieig, pp.

and

Some

adjectives

add

-iwv

the comparative and superlative;

form

-la-rog to

as,

aia")(-lo3V

aicr-^-KTrog

KaX-69

KaX\-i(i}u

KoW-ia-TOi,

last the final

mode

Tliis

tliese

and

aia"v-p6s

which

6.

44

45).

4.

in

?,

81) being neglected, as

(see note, p.

of comparison

is

X of the stem

is

doubled.

used principally by adjectives in vt; but

many

of

hare also the other terminations, -repov and -Taro?.

The comparative and superlative notions are


by joining the adverbs fxaXKov (magia),

6.

also expressed

and

fjLaXiarTa

(maadme), with the simple adjective;

more liable to death.


The following list contains those irregular
comparatives and superlatives which most frequently

as, 6vt]T09

juaXXov,

7.

occur

COMPARATltE.
/ afJLeivcov, neut. a/xeivov,

SUPERLATIVE.

cpicrrog
/SeXTfCTTO?

070^09, nood,

'\

KpanerTog

^Xi(i}cav

Xwcrro?

KaKiwv

KaKicrrog

"^epeicov,

KOKog, had,

t)<rau)V,

or ^eipcev

or tjTTWv

fiaKporepog

HOKpog, long,

yelpioTog
rjKKTTOg

juaKpoTaTOi

jjLr]Kioov,

or

/JL)]<r(T(au

fiVKKrrov


FIRST GEEEK BEADER.

51
SrPKRLATIVB.

OOHPARATITB.

fiiKporaTos

{ juiKpoTepos

fiiKpoi,

iXdacrwv

eAa^fCTTOS'

I fieidiv

much,

TToiXvs,

TrXeioov,

paSio9, easy,

pacDv

patrro?

fieyag, great,

/JLel^oou

fieyicTTO?

The preposition

8.

and

dative,

Rule

XI.

governs the genitive of the

parison is instituted;

of,

but in prose, most usually the accusative.

(Syntax)

9.

means on both sides

a/ticpl

It governs the accusative, genitive,

around, about.

TrXeFcTTO?

or TrXetov

as,

The comparative degree


object with which com-

yXvKicov fxiXiros, sweeter

than honey.
EXERCISE XV.
^ Kopt] kuXXkav

o vlog fxeitoov ecrr) tov irarpo^.


ecTTt

T^9

fXT}Tp6g.

Ttjp

K()C)fMt]V

can TOV
eVOVCTlV.

opt]

lfpK09

Ttjs

XeovTog.

ecrrf

Kvveg

tj

Ttjs

Tpoi

Tft)

kj/ttw

6 Xecov OapcrvTcpog

cocbdoTepoi

fj

ooos

ay picoTepa
eicri

icrriv.

yXvKVTaTO. icmv.

aXt]6eaTa.Tt]

eCTTlV.

evpvTepa
sctti

tov

Ta

Ta

tw

jutjXa

ev

iv Trj vXrj,

t^

Tig eaTi

TroTepog ecrrt crocpwTepos',

earlv.

T}

twv ^owv.

TTora/xw, TrXeFcTTat ^arav cuyeipoi.

cro<pu)TaTog ttolvtoov
(jyi^imt]

a/ui(pi

ooov.

Xeaiva

TOV laTpov ^vpa oPvTUTa


TOV ^aaiXewg

eoTi

ra

TOV TQU) XajHTTpOTaTT]

yeSvpag.
01

TXrj/ULOvetTTaTt]

crejULvoTarr] ecrrtv.

oprvyeg rag ovpas ^payyraTag

ol

yecbvpa evpvrepa
ecrrl

6ea

rj

vyp-tjXoTaTa ecrrtv.

Oooog.
rj

^acrlXeta

ri

iracrwv yvvaiKwv.

6 iraig XaXlcrraTog

rj

ecrriv,

FIRST GREEK READER.

62
crroXai.

ai

Xwcre

Tfjs

firp-po^

ejutis

yapiea-TaTal

eicriv.

SeiXoraTOi

^aOvTarog virvo^ t^Slctto? ea-riv.


^pa-^Tepa Trpos to acrrv oSo^.

pacou t/?

elcriv.

icjTi KOI

Through* the

My

river.

Which

to

Sco/fjOares/ fieXdvraroi oi ^IvSol Koi

city there flows a very beautiful ]-

father

has some

of the rivers

is

very ferocious dogs.

the deepest

are striking at the largest ball.

All the boys

The army

The waves of the


was very great.
The slaves carry very light
long.

of Cjirus

sea were very


wallets.

The

are lighter than those of his

wallets of the slave

The army is guarding a very narrow


The
bridge.
The crane has a very long neck.
wine is very old.
The master is teaching a very
ignorant boy.
The boys and the dogs are pursuing
master.

a very savage bear into the thickest part of the


forest.

SECTION

VIII.

THE NUMERALS.
The Numerals

1.

two

principal

Ordinals.

from

are in reality adjectives.

classes

are

the

Cardinals

The

and the

The first four Cardinals are declinable, but


100 they are all indeclinable.
The

to

Ordinals, however, are

regular adjectives of three

forms.
*

Ala, through, gorerns sometimes the accusatire, but

In this case use the genitive.


t

Use the superlative degree.

more usually the

genitive.

FIRST

ova. TWO.

eU, ONE.
Neat

Maae.

Fern.

eig

/JLia

A" a?

V-6g

I*

N.

G. ev-69

D.

ev-l

A. va

53

GREEK READKE.

Sv-o (for all genders)


Sv-oiv

fiia

V-l

Su-oiv

ixlav

ev

Sv-o

rpeti ,

THREE.
Fern.

Neat

N. Tpeiq

Tjoefy

rpla

G.

TpiWV

TpiSiV

D. TpKTL

Tpia-i

Tpicri

A.

Tpeig

Tpla

UasG.

TjOtftJl'

Tjoer?

Tetraapeg, FOtTR.

N. Teacrapeg

Tecrcrapeg

reaaapa

G. Tecrtra^v

recra-apwv

Teacrapwv

D. ria-aapcri

riacrapa-i

rea-crapa-i

A. Te(T(rapas

T<T(rapas

reacrapa

Like
fitjSelif

elf

are declined its compounds, oy^e/y and

no-one.
ORDIKAIfl,

CAKDI5AL3.

MTJLTIl'LICATlTBS.

nrpurrog,

1.

e!?, Ai/a, ev,


one:

flnL

2.

^u'o

Sevrepos

once.

8lg

3,

T/3e?y, T/ae??,

TpiTog,

rplg

4.

TecTcrapeq

Teraprog

TerpoKis

0.

irivre

TrefiTTTog

TrevTOKig

Tpla

6.

?f

e/CToy

e^OLKlS

7-

cxTa

e^Sofiog

eTTTOKig

8.

O/CTfO

oySoog

OKTOKig

9.

evvea

twarog

iweoKtg

^eicaroy

SacoKii

10. ^eica

FIRST GREEK READER.

54
OABDIKALS.

ORDINALS.

evScKa

evSeKUTOg

1 2.

ScoScKa

SdoSeKUTOS

SooSeKOLKCi

20.

e'lKocri

eiKOCTTOi

eiKOcraKis

eKaTocrroi

sKaTovaKi^

11

100. eKarou

1000. x'^'ot
10,000.

MtTLTIPLIOATIVBa

evScKOiKii

^iXiocTTog
fxvpiaKi^

fivpiocrroi

Atu^iot

For the intermediate numbers,

see

Greek Gram-

mar.
SECTION

IX.

PRONOUNS.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
DUAL.

SINOULAR.

1.

N.

iyu),

VU)f
Ire

I [ego].

G.

ifiov,

or fXOV,

of me.

D.

ifioif

A.

e/ue,

or

to or for

fiol,

ma

or

fxiy

me.

0-y,

we.

^yttWP,

of us two.

OfUSL

V(fV,

fifllV,

to or for us two.

VUI,

us two.

BINGULAH.

N.

twa

1/60 1/,

PLUKAL.

^M^h,

DUAIi.
er(f)(o.

to or for UB.

tjfMaSy
na.

PLtriUL.

vfxeii,

you two.

you.

G. aov

(Tcbtav

vfiijov

D.

(rot

crdywv

VjUlV

ere

ar(pco

thou

A.

[tu}.

SINQITLAR.

DUAL.

PLURAL.

N.

(TCpeig

G. ov [sui]

acbcov

D. oT
A.

[sibi\
[se]

(r(pl(ri

(r(pas

FIRST

The

2,

parts

GEEZK READER,

/xov,

ixe,

/xol^

ere,

55
crou,

croi,

oi,

are enclitics (see Appendix, on Accents)

(r(p[<Ti,

and
but

the emphatic forms, efiov, &c., retain their accent.


ov

and

are non-Attic, at least in prose.

The pronoun

3,

(Tfiv6s (p.

43)

airro? is a regular adjective like

except that

The nominative and

(1.)

accusative neuter end in -o, not -ov (see oy, p. 41)

and

(2.)

The vocative

is

wanting,

avTos serves as

the adjunctive pronoun ipse, in the nominative case,

and when joined in agreement with a substantive

when

but

it

stands alone

a substantive)

it

{i.e.,

answers to

without the
ea,

is,

ai'ticle

6 avro^

id.

or
is

equal to idenn.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
4,

The

personals,
(p.

possessive pronouns are formed from the

and are regular adjectives

like

a-eixvoi

43).
PLURAI

SINQXn.AR.

i*

Masc.

Fem,

Neat

Masc

Fem.

Neat,

ifXO^,

efxri,

fx6v,

^liiTp-09,

-a,

-OV,

arj,

(TOV,

v/xerep-o?.

-a,

-OV,

-a,

-ov.

mjr,

miue.

fo'?,

our.

thy, thine

your.

n
(S^,*

OV,)

<T(peTep-09,

his.

their.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS,
0.

tives

These pronouns are compounded of the accusasingular of the

personal

oblique cases of avros

{self).

pronouns and the

From

their peculiar

meaning and use they can have no nominative,


* The genitive of avros

is

gensrally used instead of

tliis

possessive.

66

FIRST GREEK READER.


SINGULAR.

G.

PLUEAL.

Masc

Fem.

efiavT-ov,

-m

of myself.

Masc.

Fem.
-1

of ourselves.

D. efxavr-w

'^

fj/xlv

avT-ois

A. e/xavT-ov

-rjv

jjyua?

avT-ov^

G. a-eavTov,

-^?j

ofthysel

D.

creauTft)

Masc

Fem.

G.
herselt

eauTft)

A. eauTov

Observe,

-ar?

i^^cf'i'

-rjv

vfxag avT-ovg

Neut

Masc

-a?
FCTH.

Neut

eauT-cot'

-cov

-ft)!/

itselt

-V

-ft)

eavT-oIs

-aFy

-oFf

-nv

-O

eauT-ovs

-ay

-a

(1.)

That the

no neuter; and,

two words.

(2.)

first

two

reflexives

have

That theu- plurals are made up


and eavrov in their several

(TtavTov

cases often abbreviate into


6.

-ft) J/

avT-ois

-V

-ov
orhimselt

of

Fem.

vjuoov avT-oov,
of yonrselvea

A. creavTov

D.

-a?

Masc

Fem.

Masc.

-aJ"?

aavrov and avrov, &c.

The EECIPROCAL PRONOUN, aWrjXov^, 0716 anno singular and no nominative case.

other, has

DUAL,

Masc

PLUEAL.
Fem.

Neut.

Masc

Fem.

aW^Xoiv

-aiv

-OIV

oXkrfKuiv

-ft)l/

-ft)!*

D. aXKr]koiv

-aiv

-OIV

aXKrfKoL^

-ai<s

-CIS

A.

-a

-ft)

aXkrjkovs

-as

-a

G.

aXXjjAft)

Neut

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
7.

The demonstrative pronouns

are,

ovtos (gener-

ally equal to iste), oSe, ^Se, roSe (equal to hie),

and

FIEST GEEEK READER.


eKeivo?,

o (equal to

r],

demonstrative

originally a

TorrovTog

article o, ^,

avrog

= tantus ;

TOiog, roiovrog

Fem.

Kent

aUTl]

TOVTO

= talis,

SVAL.
Fem.

SISGXTLAB.

Masc

to waa

sometimes

is

Masc.

Besides these, there are too-o?,

demonstrative.
ov,

The

ille).

67

&c.
Neat

(TaVTO.)

TOVTW

G. TOVTOV TaVTTJS TOVTOV TOVTOIV

TOVTaiV

TOVTOlh

TOVTOIV

TOVTaiV

TOUTOlh

TOVTCO

(ravTo)

tovtco

N. OVTOg^

TOVTtp

TaVTrj

D. TOVTO)

TOVTCO

A. TOVTOV TavTTJU TOVTO

FLUBAL.

8.
p.

Neut

Fem.

Masc

Tavra

N. WTOl

avTai

G. TOVTCOV

TOVTCOV

TOVTOfV

D. T0VT019

TavTaig

TOVT019

A. TOVTOVS

TouVa?

Tavra

For the

and

and interrogative

indefinite

33

9.

The Dative

tis

see

for the relative 09, see p, 41.

case denotes,

individual

(person

The

(1.)

which anything

is

or

thing)

to

given or communi-

cated.

The individual (person or

(2.)

is
* Learned
that the

men

differ as to the oriein of this

part of

thing) which

any way.

benefited or injured in

the article

pronoun, but one thing seems plain,

It will be observed, that, like the


t in the nominatire singular and plural, masculine and feminine
and that whererer the article has the rowels o, w, or the diphthong ov (in the masfirst

it

is

6, ^, to.

article, it loses

culine

and neuter forms),

the article has a,


first

syllable

which has

as,

ij,

this

pronoun has -ov

in its first syllable

and that wherever

or the diphthong at (in the feminine forms), oStos has -ou in

tok {aceus.), tovtov

Tr)v,

rauTrpr.

The only part

its

of the feminine

tovt-, as its first syllable, is the genitive p'ural, because the genitive plural

fcminine of the article

is

tvv, not ray or

rijv.

FIRST GREEK READER.

58
C3,)

The cause why something is done the


manner or circumstances in which it
is done
the instrument by which it
is done, or the agent by whom it is
;

done.
(4.)

Belief in, or obedience

(6.)

Intercourse with,

to.

whether friendly or

the opposite.
(6.)

Likeness, or eijuality, or coincidence.

(7.)

The place where.


The time when.

(8.)

10.

When

pronoun,

it is

the subject of a verb

a personal

is

seldom expressed, except when particu-

larly emphatic, as

when one

individual

to

is

be put

in strong contrast to another.


11. fxev

the

first

place;
his,

(which in derivation

numeral,

(2.),

On

one hand

the

&c.) part.

It

is

is

means,

eT?, iJ.la, 'iv)

connected with

In the first
For my {thy,

(1.),

(3.),

answered by (connected

with the second numeral, Svo); which means,


the second plxice

my

(2,),

On

the other

hand ;

(1.),
(3.),

In

On

(thy, his, &c.) part.

EXERCISE XVI.
ejia juev (pevyco, crh Se StooKet^.
/j.ev

QaviJ.aCpiJ.ev

SovXoi

TTjv

eavTov

Trarepa

avrov,

Kofitjv

fxoi

<TTi\

Ke'ipei.

eTriCTToXrjv

aXXijXoi'? KeXeuovcriv.

TOVTO

vju-ei^

Tavra

ere

Oaufidtco.

ov Oavjudt^re.

<5e

iri/j.-jrei.

veavia?
ol

^uei^

Trpos tov

cTTparicoTai

6 Tralg irevre imrjXa e\e'.


/mev cru Oavjiidteis, CKelva oe

ti

eyw

59

FIRST GREEK READER.

t]

01

Tavrt]

Kopr] (jTecbavov riva eavrrj TrXe'/cet.

6 /cXeVT79 tov

"EXX^yi/e? rag 'AdTjvag ov Xeiirovaiv.

vpvaov

Tp

(TTCipavov

Tw

avTov Se

vXj7 KpvTTTei.

^a(ri\ei

ou.

irXeKOva-iv.

^fia^

fiev

ireiOeif

oioaarKei.

ra 'EXX^ywica

ypafifia-

tov*

Teacrapa Kai

indeed (Jot

eroy?.

eiKocrt.

my part)

The boy

{does) not.

The

TToXiTcu KciKov Tiva

01

ravra T019 avrov fxaOrjrai?

SdoSeKci eicri finve^


TO. eiai

rt] tjfJ-epa

slave strikes the

admire him

but

my father

strikes the ball with his hand.

dog with a large

stone.

These

The soldier wounds himself


On the same day the Persians send
with his swordThe wild-beast bites the
ambassadors to Athens.
boy with his teeth. The master hasf twenty-five
In the tenth month he writes a letter to
slaves.
the king.
On the third day the king sends ten
ambassadors to Athens. The farmer catches twentyfive hares in one day.
The farmer has seven horses,
and nine asses.
The king is friendly to us.
I perWith these
suade my dear father with my words.
words the daughter persuades her mother.
We two
are guarding our father's house.
The two of us are
plaiting a wreath for our mother.
The slave is
things are beautiful.

hiding our slings for

My

us.

father

is

friendly to

the good. J
The article

is

often used in a distribuiive sense; as, toC

fXTjvot,

by the month toC erovs, every year, ie., in each year.


t Or, There are to the master twenty-five slaves the verb

erery mo/UK,

ie.,

tile datire,

t The substantive

is

being used

witli

often omitted in Greek, as in Latin, the adjective standing

alone.

(128)

ccfu'

as turn in Latin.


FIEST GKEEK EEADEK.

60

SECTION

X.

THE VERB.
1.

There are two Conjugations of Greek Verbs


First, in which the first singular present

The

(1.),

indicative ends in
in

-to;

(2.),

The Second, which ends

-/XL.

Verbs in -w are divided into three

2.

classes

Pure, Mute, and Liquid, according as the last letter


of their stem
liquid.

and

is

a vowel, a mute consonant, or a

Thus, Xv-oo

/xeV-co,

is

called

liquid.

pure; Xey-w,

Tfiute;

The Greek Verb has three Voices the Active,


The middle voice has
the Passive, and the Middle.
always reference to self, signifying what one does,
3.

or gets done, for or in reference to himself.

holds a TYiiddle position between the active

It thus

and the

passive.
4.

There are six Tenses, three of which (the Pre-

sent,

Future, and Perfect) are called principal or

leading tenses; and three (the Imperfect, Aorist,


and Pluperfect) are called secondary or historical
tenses.
5.

It will

be noticed that each leading tense has


secondary, which takes the same

corresponding

stem, and

Thus

has

a certain

connection in meaning.*

:~

* The more advanced student should consult on this subject Donaldson's " Cratylus," p. 662, second edition.

MBST GKEEK

KK^VDEE.

61

IXADISQ.

ypady-u)

ypdy^-co

yeypa(p-a

(jpresenl).

(future).

(perfeeO.

SECONDARY.

e-ypay^-a

e-ypa(p-ov
(imptrfecf).

There are jive Moods

6.

i-yeypa<p-eiin.
{pluperfect).

{aorist).

the Indicative, Svh-

jinidive, Optative, Imperative,

Infinitive.

Singular, Dual, and

There are three Numbers

7.

and

Plural.

In conjugating a Greek verb, three kinds of

8.

must be attended to
(1.) The termination is

ciianges

varied.

(2.)

In the secondary tenses a prefix

(3.)

In

certain

tenses

the

is

added.

vowel

radical

is

modified.

The first and third of these changes are best


by practice in conjugation but the second,

9.

learned

Mhich

is

called

the augment,

requires

detailed

explanation.

10.
follows

The

principal

of

varieties

augment are

as

(1.)

When

a verb begins with a consonant,

prefixed;

and as

this letter

e is

forms a

syllable in itself, it is called the syllabic

augment;
(2.)

When

as, ypdcp-oo,

-ypa<p-ov.

a verb begins with a short vowel,

the initial letter

is

corresponding long

changed into its


and as the time

(tempus) or quantity of the syllable

is

thus lengthened, this kind of increase

62

FIRST GREEK READER.

the temporal augment;

called

is

Exception.

But

e-^^w,

have,

other verbs, change e into

as,

and some
i\

a.s,

im-

perfect eiyov.
(3.)

When

a verb begins with a proper or

genuiTie

diphthong,

made by changing
thong into
as,

Note.

its

the

augment

the proper

is

diph-

corresponding improper;

alrew, ^reou (^tovp).

When a verb

begins with a long

vowel, or an improper diphthong, no

change takes place.*

Verbs beginning with a single consonant, or


with two consonants {provided they are a mute and
a liquid, with the mute first), take, in the perfect
1 1

and

pluperfect, the initial consonant, together with

the usual syllabic augment;

as,

ye-ypacp-a.

This

is

called reduplication.

Note.

But

if

a verb begin with an aspirate,

the corresponding Light

is

reduplication;

Tre-cplXtjKa,

as,

cpiXeo),

used in the

not

(pecpiXrjKa.
* There are numerous peculiarities In the verbal augment, which will be found at I
one view in any Greek Grammar, and which will be introduced in the afler-part of

tUa work, as occasion may

require.

FIRST GREEK READER.

SECTION

6S

XI.

CLASS I.-PURE VERBS.


Pure Yerbs are the most simple

1.

jugation.
[erfect.
(1.)

They have no second


But observe,
That most
first

pure

aorist,

nor second

verbs insert
perfect,

aorist,

their con-

in

and

in

the

pluperfect

passive.
(2.)

That those in -aw,


current

vowels

imperfect.

But

contract only ee
TrXe-ei^,

xXeZ?.

not contracted
(3.)

That those in
in

-r]<ra>',

But

-em, -ow, contract con-

in

the

and

present

dissyllabic verbs in -ecu

and eei into et as,


The concursus eo is
;

as, TrXeojuev.

-eoj and -aco make the future


and those in -ow, in -uktoo.

there are

many

exceptiona

iJbserve (1.) That the indicative adopts short vowels in its inflexions,
while the snbjunctive takes long ones, and the optative diphthongs ; as,
\v--T< (indicative), Xv-ij-toj' (subjunctive), XiJ-ot-TOP (optative.)
(2.) That each leading tense and its corresponding secondary have a
stem peculiar to themselves.
The letter pointing out the tense, and
ending this tecondary stem, is called the " tense characteristic ;" thus, it is

future, "KChC-u, and of the first aorist,


and k (or in some verbs d) of the perfect and pluperfect. While
Xu- is the stem proper of the whole verb, \v(t- may be taken as a second'
wry stem of the future and aorist 1, and XeXur- of the perfect
(3.) There is also a special termination for each person ; and thus we
have several elements in one verbal form, e.g., in "Kv-ff-oj-ftep (first aorist
subjunctive), Xi/- is the stem, ff the tense characteristic, <o the modal (mood)
owel, and fiep the person ending. A careful distinction of these will

the tense characteristic of the


i-\v-c-a,

be of

much

service to the student in learning the

Greek verb.

FIRST GREEK READER.

64

PURE
The student will observe that Xu-, the
marked.
The double

radical syllable
line indicates

ACTIVE
INDICATIVE.
Pres.

(I

am

SUBJUNCTIVE.

loosing,

XiJ-w,

P.

\ij-ou.ev, -ere, -ovcri

\v-eTov, -erov

Imperf. (I was loosing,

P.

{htj-ofief, -ere, -ou

may
-{IS,

loose, Ac.)

(I

Fat. (I

\i-oiTOP, -oLttjv

Xtj-w/iev, -rfre, -oxri

\i-omev,

wanting

wanting

shall or will loose,

(I

Ac.)

D.

P.

\i(T-ofj,fj>,

might be about

wanting

-ere, -ovai
loosed, &C.)

D.

P.

i\(i(T-afiev, -are,

-av

"Kiicr-oiTov, -olrtjv

\Ccr-oifJ.ev, -oire, -oiey


(I

may have

Xvff-a,

iS.i(T-aTov, -drrip

-jis,

loosed, <fec)

(I

might have loosed,

\{ff-ai/ii,

-1)

-ete,

'S.i(T-7]T0P,

-rjTov

Xixr-u/iev, -rp-e,

-uai

Perf. (I have

loosed,

XeXi/zc-aroj',

&c)

(I

may have loosed,

XeXvAC-w, -ys,

-arou

P. XeXijK-afjLev, -are, -dci

<fcc.)

--q

\e\vK-7p-ov, -rjTOP

\e\vK-(a/iep, -rp-e, -wet

Plup. (T had

loosed,

D.

&c)

-eis, -ei

^XeXi5K-etro', -elrrjv

P. iXeX^K-ei/iev,
ap, or -eaav

-etre, -eta-

wanting

<fec)

(-aij,)

\v<T-aiTov, -alT7]y
-aire,

{-aifv)

(I might have loosed, <fcc.)


\e\vK-oi/u, -ois, -01

XeXvK-oiTov, -oIttjp

XeXvK - oi/iV,
-oiev

S. i-Xe-XvK-eiv,

-etas,

f-at)

Xvcr-atfiev,
-eiav,

S. \4-\vK-a, -as, -e

to

(fee.)

Xvff-Olfll, -ots, -01

Ma-erof, -erov

Aor. (I

D.

-oire, -oiev

loose,

S. i-\v<T-a, -as, -e

loose, <fcc)

OdJ-fTov, -inriv

S. \vff-u, -s,
,

might

Xi^otcu, -oty, -01

-rj

\v-r)TOV, -T]TOP

&c.)

S. i-\v-ov, -es, -6

D.

(I

<fcc.)

S. \v-ia, -eis, -ei

D.

OPTATIVE.

-oire,

65

STRST GBEEK BEADDB.

VERBS.
of Xu-co, is long in some tenses and short in others, aa
change of stem. See Section X. 4, 5.

VOICE.
INFINITIVE.

IMPERATIVE.
(Be thou loosing,
-, XO-e,

(To be loosing,

<fcc)

-ho}

<fec)

XiJ-etp

(Loosing,
XiJ-wj',

(fca)

gtn. -om-oi

\iu-ovffa, gen. -otjcnji

-, \v-erov, -iTCiiv

-bvrwv

-, Xu-cre,

PARTICIPLE.

\v-ov, gen. -ovtos

(or

-krutaav)

wanting

wanting

wanting

(To be aboat to loose,

(About to

loose,

&c)

&C.)

wanting

\v(T-wv, gen. -ovtos


\vff-ov<ra, gen. -oiiffrji
\\jiT-ov,

(Loose

(To loose,

tliou, Ac.)

-dru

-,

"kva-ov,

-,

\v(r-arov,

-,

Xicr-are,

<fec)

XO(r-at

-druv
-Avrwv

gen. -ovtos

(Having loosed, <fec.)


gen. -avros

Xi5(r-ay,

Xi5(7-a<ra,

gen.

-iff-qi

\v<T-av, gen. -avros

(or

-a.T(3j<Ta.v)

(Have thou

loosed,

&c)

\i\vK-e, -4tu
-, \e\vK-erov, -iruv
-,

(To have loosed, &c.)


\e\vK-^vai

(Having loosed, Ac.)


\e\vK-d)S, gen. -6tos

\eKvK-vTa, gen. -vlas


\eKvK-6s, gen. -6ros

-, XeXuAC-ere, -iruxrav

(found only in those


verbs whose perfect is
used as a present.)

wanting

wanting

wanting

GREEK RBADER.

FIRST

66

PURE VERBS
PASSIVE

am

(1

OPTATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDICATIVE.
Pres.

loosed, or set

(I

may

be set

free,

<fcc.)

might be

(I

set free, &c.)

Ac)

free,

S. \v-o-fiat,,

(or

-ei

-p),

\6-w-txai,

-ri,

-rj-rai

\v-0l-fJi7]V, -Ot-O,

-Ot-TO

-e-rai

D.\v-6-/j.6ov,

-e-ff0ov,

\v-d>-fi6ov,

P.

-r}-<x6ov,

\v-6-fie0a, -e-ffde,

-ovrat

oL-ff6r]v

\v-iJ>-fi0a, -Tj-aOe, --

was being

(I

-ot-ffde,

\v-ol-iJLe9a,

-oi-vro

vrai,

Imperf.

-oi-adov,

Xv-ol-fieOov,

rj-ffOov

-e-adov

set

free, <fcc)

S. i-Xv-b-fxriv, -ov, -e-ro

D. iXv-S-fieBov,

-e-adov,

wanting

wanting

-i-aOrjv

P. ^v-6-fie6a, -e-a6e,-o-VTo

Fut. (I

shall or will
free,

be

(I

set

might be about

S. \vO^(r-o-n,ai,

(or

\v9r)(T-ol-fir)v,

]?),

D. 'Kv6r](r-6-;x6ov, -e-aOov,

wanting

\v6r]<T-ol-ixe0ov,

aOov,

-e-ffdov

-e-ade,

P. 'Kvdr)(T-6-fJLe6a,

was

set free,

-T}s,

&c)

(I

may be

\v$-w,

-7]

i\vd-7)-T0V, -fl-t7}V

iXiLid-r)-fiey,-r)-Te,-r]-ffav

set free, <tc.)

(I

might be

(I

have been

\v9-7J-TOV, -^-TOV

\vd-G)-fuv, -ij-Te, -w-ffi

set free, (I

may have been

S. \i\v-/xai, -cat, -rot

\\.v-ft,iyoi

D. \e\v-jj,e9oP, -cdov, <t0ov

(S,

set free.

-<r9e,

-vrot

^j,

\\v-/iivu, ^TOV,

'SeKv-/j.4voi (S/xep, rjre,


tScrt

Plup.

(I

had been

(I

might have been

\e\v-/j.^yoi,

-ffo,

-TO

P. i\e\v-fif6a, -aOe, -vro

wanting

set

etrjs,

\\v-/j.ivu, et-.p-ov,

\\\in.ivoi, etrjfiev,
r)Te,

tUv

set free,

D. i\e\v-fifdoy,-(r0ov,-<r6r]v

etrjv,

el-flTt]v

Ac.)

S. ^-XeXC-/ijv,

-el-r]Te,

{-el-Tjaav]

free, &c.)

^TOV
V. "KeXv-fxeOa,

<fcc.)

,'Kv0-el-ryrov,-i-rp-T]

\v0-l-rj/jLeu,

&C.)

&c.)

set free,

\v0-el-r]v, -e/-7?j, -el-r]

-ys, -y

-elev,

Perf.

oi-a0,

Ot-VTO

S. i-\vO-yiv,

P.

-ot-

-ol-<y97)v

Xv0ricr-ol-iJ.0a,

-o-vrai

D.

-oio,

Ol-TO

-e-rai

Aor. (I

to ba

set free, <ta)

<fcc.)

wanting

et-

(or el7}(rav)

FIKST GREEK READER,

67

continued.
VOICE.
IMPERATIVE.
(Be tbon set

fixe,

IKFINITITK.
(To be set

ifcc.)

free,

Ac)

PARTICIPLK.
(Being set

free,

Ac)

\6-ov, -i-aOu

Xu-h-iians, gen. -ov

\6-t-a6ov, -i-adb)v

\v-o-fUyri, gen.

\v-(aOe, -i-ffOwp (of

wanting

(ranting

-i;f

\v-6-/ia>w, gen.

-w

wanting

(To be about to be set


free,

(About to be

Ac)

set free,

Ac)
\v9rjc-6-/Jieyoi, gen.

wanting

\v07]c-o-fiiyj], gen. -i;j

\v&T]ff'6-fJLa'ot>,

(Be thou set

(To be set

free, Ac.)

free,

Ac)

,
,

XvO-Tj-TOV, --^Tuv

(Be thou set

free,

4c)

(To have been set

-cOu

\ikv-ffo,

\i\v-a6op, -ffOup

\4\v-a$e,

wanting

-aOitip

-eltrris

\v0-ip, gen. -hrroi

free,

(Having been

Ac)

Ac)

XvO-eiaa, gen.

-At-CiW (or

\v0-7i-T,

(Set free,

gen. -ov

XvO-tli, gen. -ivros

\vd-ri-vai

-w

set free,

Ac)
\e\v-fjJvos, gen. -ov
\e\v-/jjfn], gen. -tjs

XeXv-fiivoy, gen. -ov

(or

wanting

wanting

FIBST GREEK READER.

68

PURE VERBS
PASSIVE VOICE
INDICATIVE.

SDBJUNOTIVE.

OPTATIVE.

Fut. III. or Fut. Perf. (I


shall have been set free, &&)
S. \e\va--o-fMU, -ei (or

(I

to

be set

free,

<fcc.)

XeXvff-ol-fJirjv, -oi-q

-j/j,

oi-

TO

-e-Ttti

D.

might have been about

T^eXvcr-S-fieOov, -e-ffOop,

e-adov
P. \e\vff-6-fie6a,

wanting

\e\v<T-ol-fjLe6op,

-ot-

<t9op, -ol-aOriv

\e\v(r-oi-/ieda, -oi-aOe,

-e-ffOe,

-o-vrai

-Ol-VTO

MIDDLE
SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDIOATIVK.
Pres.

(I loose for

OPTATIVE.

myself;

Ac.)

S. \i-o-fiai,-i{or-'g),-eTai,

Imperf.

(I

was loosing

myself,

S. i-\v-6-iJL7]v,

Fut.

Xi-U/JMl, &C.

\v-0l-H7l,

wanting

wanting

&C.

same as Pres. Pass.

&c.,

for

<fec.)

&c.

(I shall

myself,

loose for

<fea)

S. \ija-o-/jLai,

-ei

(or

Xva-ol-fi-qv, -oL-o, -oi-To

-g),

-erai
-e-aOov,

D.Xvcr-d-fiedov,

wanting

Xv<T-ol-iie9ov,

-e-adov

P. \v(7-b-iieda,

-e-ffOe,

Xvcr-ol-fieda,

-o-

(I

-oi-cde,

Ot-UTO

irrai

Aor.

-oi-crOov,

-ol-<x6-r}v

loosed for myself,


Ac.)

S. i-Xvff-d-fitjv, -w, -a-To

Xiff-w-fiai, -y, -r}-Tai

Xva-ol-fiifv, -at-o,-ew-To

D. i\va-d-fit0ov,

Xvff-dj-fiedov, -rj-aOov,

Xv<T-al-fie6ov, -ai-a&ov,

-a-adov,

P. iXv<T-d-fi6a,

a-rro

-ai-<Tdr)v

-ri-a6ov

-d-ffOrjv

-a-aOe,

Xv<r-u-fie0a,

y)-aOe,

Verial Adjectives:

Xv-t6s,

Xv(T-(d-fj.eda.,

-ai-aOe,

-ai-VTO

(ihvrai.

-ti},

-rSv, loosed, or capable of

NoteThe Fut,

Aor., and Perf. Paaa

FIRST GREEK READER.

continued.

continued.
IMPEKATIVB.

I5FIX1TITE.

PARTICIPLE.

CTo have been about to be (Haring been abont to be


set free, tie)
set free, Ac.)

\eXva'6-tupos, gen. -<w

wanting

"kiKuc-o-nivTi, gen. -171

"Kekva-lhfUErm, gen. -ov

VOICE.
IMPEEATITE.

XjJ-ow,

&c

wanting

ISFIBITIVB.

PARTICIPLK.

&C.

\6-e-adai

\v-b-iievoi,

wanting

wanting

\6c-e-ffOai

Xva-d-fiaxn, gen. -ov

wanting

-rj,

-OP,

\vff-o-fUrri, gen. -ip


Xvff-d-fieyop, gen. -ov

\v<r-ai^ -d-ffOu

\u<r-a-ffOot>,

\v(r-a-ff6e, -i-<r9wy (or

\6ir-a'a0iu

-d-aOup

"kva-i-fuvK, gen. -ov


\u<r-a-fUnj, gen.

-6.-aduaa.v)

being loosed

Xv-rioi, -ria, -riow, deserving to

are often used in a Middle sense.

-ris

\va--d-fiepov, gen. -ov

be loosed,


FIRST GREEK READER.

70

Rule XII. Time when is put in


and soTnetimes in the dative.

the genitive,

EXERCISE xvn.
o oovXoi Tov ovov T(p

SecTTroTr] \vi.

Xayosi Kai eXacpovs eQrjpevov.


Toi*

cKeXevae.

tov

tovs

KeXeucrojuiev

Trjv

Trjv

aKOveiv

UKOveiP.

i-ov

tI

Koprjv

Trjv

TOV

'ttXoiov

to

Seivov

TraiSlov

KaXcov XeXvKC.

'iTTTTOV

KpiQrjv

Tt)V

KpiOrjV

Trjv

eTTCoXei*

TOV

^TTTTOV,

ovo Traioe OTrraTOV^ /co^X/af.


(JoTTTae).
(cOTTTaOv').

We

Ti

Tt]v

clkovoo.

Tpocbov
6 vavTtjs

6 KvjSepv^Trj^ tov?

i'ttttokoiuos Trjv

l^rjTeiTe

koi

ITTTTOKO/ULe,
rrraig

evprjcreTe.

fXf]

TrdoXei.'f

Ttf KO'^^iag toiTTa

6 Traig Kai ^ Koprj KoyXLa(} iroXXovs cotttcov

TOVS OcOV^ KGKXrjKC 6

/ULaVTl?.

We

ordered our servants.

servant to loose (aorist) the horse.


horses.

6 Yivpio^

yovei^ cKaXeaav.

vavTai TOV koXwv Xvcrai cKeXevcre.

TOV

e/ceXeu(ra.

yewpyoi Tovg

ol

aKOveii\

eOeXoo.

at Kopai Tovq

KaXei.

KeXevcrei.

oLKovcraTe iravTe^.

TOV Kuxpou yXooTTav eXvae.

oovXov^ KeXevarovai.

TraiSlov

6 irarrjp tov vlov

dvyaTepa

eavTrjs

iroiixeva^.

TravTag o OavaToi Xvcfei.

to

6 iraig.

Krjirov edi^pevae.

jui^Ti^p

r]

Sova^i irapa

ev TOig

TTOTafiov bprvyas Orjpeuei

/uLeXiTTav ava

avOpcoiroi

01

The

shall order

Do

sailors are letting-go the cable.

king desired his groom not to

The father wishes

his

ruled with prudence.

sell

is

The king

calling on the gods?

Contracted for iiruKee, imperf.


Sec liules of Contraction, p. 39.
t n<iAi, contracted for Trainee, imperative pre*,
t Contracted for bnTacTov,

The

the horse's barley.

son to be good.

Who

the

not loose the

FIEST

The two

GREEK READEB.

71

Death has

have let-go the rope.

sailors

The
The deaf do not hear.
queen
and
the
The
king
counsel
kings are taking
Wliy do you not believe? The
were consulting.
groom is riding along the road, in company with his
The two grooms were riding towards the
master.
The farmer rode to the town by night.
bridge.
set free the

slave.

EXEEasE xvm.
o ovog
vXijv viro

vTTo

Tw

TOV KOKov

Sovapi Trapa
6

Traig

X^erai.

J^upiu)

Tov Traioo^

tw

Trapa

iTnTOKofJiov

SecnroTij ekveaQrjv.
oi

aei

rj

tov

Trora/ULw

evpia-Kerai.

to) lttttw vtto

iroifxriv

iralSe^ Trapa

tw

tov

to

iTTTTOi,

VTTO

ev toI^

k'lovl

Twv aTpaTKDTwv

oi

tiriroi

evplcTKovTai.

eXvOtjfiev.

e^

ittttoko/j-ov T<a

eOeXei Tovg Kvvag

ttXoiov KoXto^ VTTO Ta'v vavTwv XiXirrai.

SovXoi.

ittttov KpiOrj

e-TTCoXeiTO.

irorafiw eOrjpevovro oprvye^ iroKKoi.

T<p

ap/jLOLTCOv e\v6t](rav.

Orjvai.

/xeXirrat Tive^ ai^a ttjv

eQrjpiiOr](rav.

Xi/-

6 Toi

XiXvvrai oi
XvO^creaOe,

^ apfiaTO^.

The servants were desired by their masters to unhorses.


The slave was set free by death.
The nurse was called by the child. The two children
were found near the temple of Athena.
The tongue
All slaves
of the dumb man was loosed by the Lord.
will be liberated by death.
The two slaves are about
to be set free by their master.
The snails were
being roasted by the boys and the girls. The apples
were roasted (aor. 1 ) by the child's nurse.
Slaves
yoke the

you have been

set free!

FIRST GKEEK READER.

72

SECTION
The simple stem

of ti^tttw

is tvtt-,

which

is

XII.

strengthened in the Pres.

and it is only in these tenses that the pure stem occurs,


running through tJiat tense, hy attaching the first letter of the terPerf. II.,

has TUTTT-, the Fut. and Aor.

ti/^-, the Perf. Tv<f>; or

Terwp-, as

ACTIVE
INDICATIVE.

Pres. (I
S. T(5irT-w,

same

strike,
-ety,

SUBJUNCTIVE.
<fcc.)

&c.,

-et,

Tl^TTT-W,

-|;S,

-7],

&c.

T&irT-oini, -ois,

-01,

&c.

as in Xi5w.

Imperf, (I was strikln g, &c.)


&c.

wanting

wanting

&c)
&c.

wanting

TJi^-OlfU, -OIJ, -01,

Tij^-u, -ys, -y, &c.

T^-^-aifu,

S. l-TVTTT-ov, -es, -e,

Fut. (I

shall strike,

S. Ti5^-co, -ets, -ei,

Aor.

I.

&c.

S. i-Tv\}/-a, -ay, -e,

-eias

-eie (-at),

Perf. I. (I have struck,


S. Ti-Tv<p-a, -as, -e

P.

D.

(-ati),

&c.

<fcc)

TTi<p-aTov,-aTov

&c.

&c.)

(I stiTick,

rer^cp-a/xeu, -are, -dcri

TTV(f>-b), -T/S,

-y

Tenj<p-oifii, -ois, -01

,TeTicf)-r)Tov, -rp-ou

TeT}j<f>-uiJ.ev, -TjTe,

TT6(p-0lT0P, -oLtTJ*

-win rericp-OLiiev, -oire, -oiev

Plup. I. (I had struck, &c.)


S. i-Te-Tij(p-iv, -ets, -et

D.

P.

ireTij<p-ei,fJiev,

h-er^Kp-ei/rov, -eiryv

wanting

wanting

-eire,

-eicrai' (or -ecrai')

Aor, II.

(I

struck, &c.)

S. l-TVTT-ov, -es, -e

P.

D.

irijTr-eTov,

irvTr-o/j.ei',

-dryv

T&T-w, -ys, &c., like


the Present.

T&ir-oi/ii,

-ois,

&c.,

like the Present.

-ere, -ov

Perf. II. (I have struck, &c.)


S. ri-Tvir-a, -as, -e

P.
D.

Teriiw-aTov, -arov

rerijir-u),

Perfect

&c.,
I.

like

TeTi5ir-ot/u,

fect I.

TeTiTr-a/iev, -are, -aai

Plup. II. (I had struck, &c.)


S. ^-Te-Ti^TF-etv, -ets, -et

D.

ireT&rr-eiTov, -etryv

P. iTT^Tr-l/JLP,

-eiaav (or

-eiT,

-ecraj/)

wanting

wanting

like

Per-

FIBST GBEEK

KKAJ>^

73

MUTE VERBS.
by the insertion of

Each of the other


mination,

i.e.,

t.

tenses,

The

verb, therefore, forms

however,

may be

an Aor.

the tense characteristie, to the simple stem

secondary stems

and

II.

assigned a icrondary stem,

and so in XiJw and other verbs.

thas the Pres.

(See p. 63, Obs. 2.)

VOICE.
IMPERATIVE.

ISFI>ITIVB.

&c.

PARTICIPLB.

TjJT-eU

T&WT-Uy,
&C.

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

T{np-t

nJ^-aw, -ovca,

-on,

&c.

TVTp-at

riyp-as, -aaa, -of,

&c.

TVTrr-e, -iru),

Ti\jf-ow, -drcj,

rinxfhe,

&c

-h-u>,

&c,

TCTVift-ivCU

like the Preiient.

-01/(70,

-ov,

reru^wj, gen. -Atos


rerxxfy-ma, gen. -viai
TeTv<t>-6s, gen. -&tos

wanting

Ti5x-e, -iru,

&c^

like

wanting

wanting

Tvr-tip

Twr-ifir, -ovcro,

Tervr-itKu

reruT-ibs,

wanting

wanting

-6i',

&c.

the Present.

Ttnnr-, &c., like Per-

fect

I.

wanting

-wo,
-6s,
&c., like Perfect I.


FIKST GREEK READER,

74

MUTE VERBS
PASSIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDIOATITK.

OPTATIVE.

Pres. (I am beingstruck, Ac)


S. T&irr-o-fJMi -et (or

T&KT-W-fiai.,

-tj},

-TI-TCU

-J},

D.

TVTrT-ol-firii>,

-010, -01-

TO

-e-rat
TVTT-d)-fj.e9ov, -7)- a9ov,

--<y9ov,

TVjrr-6-fj.e6ov,

-e-ffdov

-e-aOe,

TVirT-w-fJ.e9a,

-q-a9e,

-w-vTai

-o-j^at

rvirT-ol-fj.e9ov, -oi-cr9ov,
-0l-ff97}V

T]-(r9ov

P. TVTrT-6-fieda,

Tvirr-ol-/jLe9a,

-oi-ffde,

-Ol-VTO

Imperf. (I was being struck,


.fee.)

S. i-TVirT-b-fj.7}v, -ov, -e-ro

D. h-vn-T-b-ixeOov, -e-aOov,

wanting

wanting

-i-adriv

P. irvirT-b-fjLeOa,

-e-aOe,

-O-VTO

Fut. I. (I shall be struck, Ac.)


-64

S. Tv<p9'^<x-o-/j,ai,

(or

-Ol-TO

D. Tv^9T)cr-6-iJ.e6ov,-e-ff6ov, wanting

TV<})9r}(T-ol-fu9ov,

-e-ffdov

Aor. I. (I was
S. i-T^<p0-riP,
,

-01-

(t9ov, -oL-(r9rjv

P. TV(p0Ti<T-6-fit9a,
o-vrai

D.

-oi-o.

TV(j>9t)ff-ol-fJiriv,

-e-TM

-rj),

(r9e,

struck,

-ijs,

TV<})9T)<T-ol-fie9a,

-e-(79e,

<fcc.)

TV<p9-Cj,

-7)

M^9--n-Tov,

-ot-

-oivTo

--^-Trjv

-jjs,

-y

TV(f)9-el-7)v, -el-rfi, -eiij

TV<j>9-riT0V, 'T]-TOV

TV(/)9-el-7p-ov, -et-ij-

TTjV

P. iTi<}>9-7)-nev,

-17-Te,

TV<p9 d-fiev,

-ri-(xav

-rj-Te,

TV<p9

el-tffiev,

-el-rjTe, -eiTe,

-Co-ffi,

-eifiev,
{-ei-rf-

<rav), -elev

Perf.

(I

have been struck.

Ac)
rerv^ai,

TeTVfj.-ft.ivoi, t3, ^y, ^,

TtTVfi-fLivos, etrjv, &C.,

as in Perf. Pass, of

D.

TeTiifi.-fx.e9ov, TiTV<t>-9ov,

I'erf.
&c., as in
Pass. oi'Kvofxa.i

P.

TeTifx,-/jLe9a,

S. ri-rvfi-nai,
TTVTr-Tai.

\ijofJ.ai

TiTV<f>9ov
TiTV<f>-9e,

TeTyfi-fxivoi. (at, a),

Plup. (I had been


8. i-Te-TifJL-fi-rfv,

ehl

strack, Ac.)

irhvipo,

iThw-TO.

D. irer^n-fieOov, iThv^dop,

FEBST

G&EEK

76

RaJ>EL

continued.

yoiCK
IMPERATIVE.

-l-cdu

TlJTrT-OV,

Hnrr-e-aOop, -i-a6u9

rin-t-aOe, -i-aOucoo'

INFINITIVE.

PAKTIGIPLE.

TvvT-e-ff6ai
-ihfievov

(or -i-ffOuv)

waii.ting

wanting

wanting

TiKpdT^-e-aBcu

rwf>0Ti<T '6-/Mevos,

TwpO-rj-vai

TxxpO-eU, -etffo, -i*

Tcriip-Oai

rervfi-fiivos,

-o-

wantiDg

Ti<p&-t)-Ti, -i}-rw

Tvip6-7}-Toy, --ff-TWV

-f^ri),

-liivov

rh-v<p-6ov, Tenj<p-0wv

rh-vip-ffe, TeTi<f>-0u(r(w

(or -Ouv)

irfT{nf>-07}P.

(12S)

P. erervfi-fieOa, h-irvip-Oe, TervufJiivoi

(at, a),

^cu>

FIRST GREEK READER.

76

MUTE VERBS
PASSIVE VOICE
SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDICATIVE.
Aor. II. (I was
S. i-Tvir-T}v,

Aorist
Fut. II.-{1

struck,

I.

-
like

&.C.,

-y),

TVT-w, -ys, &c., like


Aorist I.

Tvir-el-r]v,

wanting

Tvirrja-ol-firiv,

-el-7]s,

&c.,

like Aorist 1.

be struck, &c.)

shall

S. TVTTT^ff-o-fiai,

ture

<fcc)

&c., like

-r]s,

OPTATIVE.

(or

Fu-

-oi-o,

&c., like Future

1.

I.

Put. in. -{I

have been

shall

stnick,

<fcc.)

S. TTC\fi-o/jMi, -i (or

erai, &c.,
ture I.

like

--g),

wanting

TiTv^-ol-H-qv, -oi-o, -oi

Fu-

TO,

&c.,

ture

I.

Fu-

like

MIDDLE
SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDICATIVE.
Pres.

myself, &c.)

(I strike

TijirT-o-fiai,

Imperf.

&c. as in Pass.
(I -vas

myself,

r&K-T-u/juu, as in Pass. TVTTT-oifitjp, as in Pass.

striking

<fcc.)

^-ri;7rr-6-yui;i',&c.

Fut.

OPTATIVE.

asinPass.

(I shall strike

wanting

wanting

wanting

Tv^p-ol-ftr^v, -ot-o,

myself

Ac.)

S. T^xp-o/Mi,

-et

(or

-|;),

Aor.I.

S. i-rv\p

(I

&c.,

as in Pres. Pass.

&c., as in Pres. Pass.


strack myself, Ac.)

a.-fi.7}v,

D. irvxp-d-fiedov,

-w, -a-TO

-a-adov,

TUL

TV\p-ai-iJ.7]v,-ai-o,-a.iTo

TV\I/ u: /xedov, -tf-adov,

TV\p-ai-/x6ov, -ai cdov,

T{l1p-(l)-IXai,

-T],

-7]

-Tjadov

-dff67]v

P. irvrp-d-fieda,

-a <T6e,

a-vTo

TV\l/-d) /xeffa,

-aL-adr)v
-rj-aOe,

rv\j/-al-fj.eda,

-ai-ffde,

-ai-vTo

-uj-vrai

Aor. II. (I struck myself,


&c.)

S. i-TVir-d-fiiji',

-ov, --T0,

&c., as in Imperf. Pass.

Tiir-0}-/jLai, -y,

Pres. Pass.

&c. as
,

TVir-ol-firiP, -ot-o,

^c,

as in Pres. Pass.

Verbal A(^eclive3;

FIRST GREEK READER.

77

continued.
contimied.
IMPERATIVE.

-^ToSf &c.,

rinr-Tj-Oi,

like Aorist

PARTICIPLE.

INFINITIVE.

Txrw-Tf-foi

Twr-e/j, -eiaa, -iv

T\nri}c-e-ad(u

Tvrr}<r-6-fievos,-o-fii^,

I.

wanting

-6-fupw

reri^-e-irOcu

rantiiig

VOICE.
IMPERATIVE.

Tvrr-ov

INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

TinTT--<xO<u

TinrT-o-nvoi, &c.

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

Ti\p-<T0<lL

TV^-6-fievos,

-o-fx^rr],

-it-fievov

ri\j/-<u, -d-ffffu

Ti)yp-a-ffdov, -d-ffOuv

Hnp-a-ffOe,

Ti^-a-a0au
-d-liofw

-d-cOuaav

(or -d-crtfw*)

rinr-oO, -4-adw, &c.,


as in Pres. Pass.

Tw-TOt and

Tinr-rios.

Txnr-i-adat,

Tvr-6-/Jun'0i,
-6-fifvo

o-fiirri,

;:

FIRST GREEK READER.

78

N.B.

In

forming the future of Mute Verbs,

must be remembered,
(1.) That T, S, 6, and

v are

rejected before

it

as, avvT-co, fut. avv-aca.

(2.)

That

or

TT, /S,

v|/-

XeiV-ft),

as,

when

(^,

Tjo//3-ft),

united with

fut.

Xely^w

9,

forms

(XeiTr-crft))

fut. Tply\r(a (rpl^-crbS)

ypoKp-co,

ypdy^oo (ypacp-crooy
(3.)

That

^
XIII.

united with

as, 7rXe/c-ft), irXe^o) (7rXe/c-<ro))

Xea)

Rule

when

or ^,

K, 7,

(Xe'-y-crco):

Time how

apy^-oo,

ap^co

forms

9,
:

Xe-y-w,

(ap-^-crco).

long is put in the accusa-

tive.

EXERCISE XIX.
iTTTroKojULOi

Tive^ roup Tov /3a(TtXeft)9 Ittttovs

fj/xepai erpi^ov.

Tpicpei.

fj

KpiOfj

TO Kpuos Toi'9 o<pis eVy^e.


Kopa Tag KOfxat iracrav t^v

(peii',

TO)

ovari.

TOVTO TO

ToXag TToWai

jSi/SXlov

Tovg

irpog

<TKr]vr]
lit]

ol Kvveg.

XeXonre.

jxe Kpv^ri<i

Trpos

raura rpe-

rjixepav KTevlT-

Trejuy^u).

eirKT-

yeypacpe 6

iracs.

ere

yove'i'i

ti

tov yepovTa kol

TavTO. eXepav 01 yepovTeg.

eSmPav

TroLfirjv

Trjv

ypavv

TOV9 avTOv Kvvas ev t^

ava to ireolov tovs Qrjpag

TavTa.*

Tracra?

Tovg lttttov^ Kai tov? ovovs

ioloo^a.

eKpv^e to apToO yevog.

Kopai iravTa TavTU Tovg yoveis 'iKpv^av.

al

^juag

Ta

Bi/SXla Tpicbei.

The wicked groom

sells

the horse's barley.

The

many letters

to her

daughter of the king has written

* Verbs of concealing govern two accusatiTes one of the person, the other of the
thing concealed.


FIRST GREEK READEE.

79

Why did the


Who wrote the
Why do you strike

"WTiat did the poet write

mother.

judge write this

these things)?

(i.e.,

The ball hit my head.


The shepherds hunted the wolf into the
The boys have left the balls in the garden.
river.
Two husbandmen were pursuing a hare through the
fields.
Why did the shepherd pursue the two boys 1
letter

the

dog

SECTION

CLASS
1

XIII.

III. LIQUID

In reference to Liquid Yerbs,


(1.)

o)
)

must be noted

it

That they have no ? in the inflexion of the


future and aorist, and that the termination

(2.

VERBS.

{i.e. -ecrco)

-eo)

contracted into

is

as, fxepco, fut. fjLev-e{a)Q), fxevw.

That they shorten the penult in the future


(when possible), by omitting the second
of

two

vowels

a^iXKuif

consonants;

or

(rreXa)

fut.

(nreipoo,

as,

fut.

aTrepu).
(3.)

That they lengthen the penult of the


aorist,
(pr]va:

into
e

17

into

or d;

ei;

(palvw,

ecrTreipa:

Kplvw,

KpXvw,

cKplva:

ajULuvco,

ajuvvw, fj/Mva.

first

(pavoo,

(nreipco,

as,

aor.

(TTrepcoy

(4.)

fut.

into

t;

as,

into

u;

as,

That many of them change the vowel


the stem in the perfect;
'perf. e(TT-a-Xica.

of

as, crr-e-XXo),


FIRST GREEK HEADER.

80

LIQUID
ACTIVE
INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Pres. (I report, &c)


dYyiKX-w, -en, -et, &c.

S.

dyyi\\-w,

-jji, -tj,

OPTATIVE.

&c.

d77A\-ot-ptt,

-oty,

&c.

Imperf.
&c.

wanting

wanting

i.yyeX-f'iTov, -eiTov

wanting

dyyeX-OLTov,

-oi-rr]*

dyye\-o?/Mev,

-oire,

S. ijyyeXK-ov, -ej, -e,

Fut.
S. (i77eX-w, -eis, -ei

P. d77eXoO/te>',
D.

dyyeX-oifMi.,'^ -oty, -ot


,

-eire,

-ovcri

Aor.

-diev

1.

S. iJYyetX-a, -ay,

&c.

-e,

dyyeCX-u),

-rjs,

^,

&C.

d77e/\-ot/i:, -aty,

-at,

&c.

Perf.S. IjyyeXK-a, -ay, -e,

&c.

^77A/c-w,

&c.

"Tjy,

rjyyiXK-oifii, -oty,

&c.

Plup.&C.

S. 7]ryyfKK-lV, -y,

Aor.

wanting

wanting

n.
&C.

S. ijyye\-ov, -ey, -f,

* In

477A-W,

-Tjy,

&c.

dyy^X-oifM,

Liquid Verbs, Pure Verbs, and Verbs in

-/it,

-oty,

&c.

the Optative

PASSIVE

S. dyy0<-o-fiai,

OPTATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDICATIVE.

Pres. (lam reported

of,

--g,

Ac.)

&c.

dyyAX-w-yttat,

-|;,

&c.

dyyeW-ol-nr]P,
&c.

-oto,

Imperf.
S. rjyyeW-d-fiTiv, -ov, &c.

Fut.

wanting

wanting

wanting

dyy\07j<T-ol-iXTiv, - oi-o,

I.

S. dyye\6-^<T-(h/icu,

--q,

&c.

&c.
Aor. I.s.

irn^o-w, -vh &c.

iyyeXO-d,

-^s,

&c.

iyye\6-el-7]v,-l-i]s,&.C.

FIRST GREEK READER.

81

VERBS.
VOICK
INFIMTIVK.

IMPERATIVE.

AyyeXX-e, h'os, &c.

PARTICIPLE.

d-yyAX-etv

d77AX-<i>i', -owra, -ov

wanting

wanting

iyYek-eiv

d7^eX-wv, -ovaa,
gen. -ovrrm

-ovr,

ayyeiXai

ayyeiK-as, -aaa,

av

wanting

riYyt^K-ivai

^-,7eXjc-ws, -via, -6s

wanting

wanting

wanting

dTVeX-fii'

d-p/eX-a-v, owra, -6v

wanting

wanting

is

dyyeiX-ov, -d-rw, &c.

8.yye\-e, -iru, &c.

frequently

made

in

-oiriv, -oirji,

&c., instead of -oifu, &c.

VOICE.
IMPERATIVE.

dTvAXoV, -^-(T^W,

ISFI5ITIVE.

&C

dyyAX-e-ff^ot

PARTICIPLE.

irfyiKX-b-ixevoi,
fidtnf,

-o-

-6-nevov

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

irf^/iXBriff-e-ffdai.

dy>fX5i7r-6-/xo'os,

-o-

fUvT], -6-/ieyov

iyyikOri-Ti, -^03, &c.

ayyeXO-Tivat,

dyyeXd-eit,

-elffa, -iv

FIRST GBEEK READER.

82

LIQUID VERBS
PASSIVE VOICE
INDICATIVE.

8UBJ0NOTIVK.

OPTATIVE.

Perf.
-aai,

S. ijyyeX-/j.ai.,

-Tai,

&c.

rjyyeX-pLivos
c3,

^s,

Tjf

(-7?,

-ov),

&c.

riyy\-iJ.h>oi
etrjv,

-ov),

{-v,

&c.

etrjs,

Plup.
S. -firyyiX-tiriv, -ffo, -to,

&C.

wanting

wanting

II.

Aor.

S. 7iyyi\-r]P,

-tjs,

&c.

d77eX-tD,

-^jj,

&c.

dyyeX-el-riP,

-el-ris,

&c.

Fut. II.S. dyyeX-^a-o-fiai,

-et

(or

wanting

-oi-o,

dyy\Tjff-ol-/j.r)P,

V), &c.

&c.

in.

Fut.

wanting

wanting

wanting

MIDDLE

sliall

OPTATIVE.

StJBJUNCtltE.

INDICATIVE.

Fut. (I

report myself,

Ac.)

dyyeX-ol-ixrjp,

S. dyye\-ov-iJ.ai,-et{or-'S]i

D.

dyye\-oij-fJLedov,

-oi-o,

ol-TO

-eirai
-et-

wanting

dyyeX-ol-fieOop,

-ci-

(tOop, -ol-<rdr]v

ffOoV, -1-<70OP

P. dyye\-oij-/jLe6a, -ei-aOe,
-ov-pfai

dyyeX-oL-fieOa, -dl-ade,
-0I-PT0

Aor. I-.
S. TfyyCK-d-ft.7}P, -w, -a-ro,

&c.
Aor.

dyyeC\-w-iJ.ai,

-j?,

-t}-

rai, &c.

dyyeiX-al-firiv,
-ai-TO,

-ai-o,

&c.

n.-

S. fiyy\-&-iJ.r}P, -oVf-e-TO,

&c.

dyyO\.-oyfiai,

TOt, &c.

-11,

-t)-

dyyeX-ol-firiP,
-oiro,

-oi-o,

&c.

Verbal Adjectives

FIRST GREEK READEK,

83

contimtid.

'

0}itimied.

IMPERATIVE.

1jryye\-ffo, -0w,

IHFINITIYK.

&c.

PARTICIPLE.

^Oi-0ai
-fj.evov

wanting

trantiog

dYyOi.-r}-6i,

-^rw, &c. ayyeX-rj vai

wanting

d77eX-e(s,

-etffo,

iranting

iyyeX-fyr-e-ff Oai

dyycXijff-^/iCToj

wanting

wanting

wanting

-h

VOICE.
IMPERATIVB.

IJfFINITITE.

PARTICIPLE.

d77eX-ct-(r^cu

dyye\-o6-nepot,

-ou-

ayy[\-a-a6ai

ayyfi^-d-nevoi,

-a-

wanting

iy^eCkai, -d-a$ta,

&c

/iivT],

iyyi\-ov, -i-aOu, &c.

iyyeX-^-aOtu

-d-fievop

dyye\-6-fuPos, -o-fUnh
-o-pLevm

iyyt\-r6s and dyyeX-r^oj.

84

FIRST GREEK READER.

EXEECISE XX.

ajKvpav

oi vavrai Trjv

rrjv cr<paipav

01

els rr]V

Tov avTOv vlov

TOiinrjv

TracSeg

/BaWo).

OdXaTrav ^dWovari

ig fia-^r]v ecrreiXe.

irpog ere

Tt]i^

e^aWov.

tov^ ocpei^ \i6oii

TOV XvKOV ^aKTrjplai^ e/SaXov.

Tw

ejueivav

Kr/TTO)

SovXov

1^ (pvXaKrjv

^aXXcTe
rijiiepa

/ce/cXt/ce.

to

',

Tr]v

ot

Sea-irorijs

Sia

ev

tov kukov

XiOcp e'ySaXe?;

t'l /me

vooop.

ere

Troifieveg

oXrjv Tt]V ^fiepav

^e^XijKe.

Tci^ (r(paipa^ e<V

yap rjStj
OaXuTTUv (pavei

f]

al Kopai.

irpo^

acpaipav ^a\w.

fieivov fieff ^fioov,

r/? fxoi Trjv oSov irpog Ttjv

Ked)aXr]v fiov TeT/xtjKa^ XiOip

TOV oovXov, 09 TOV

efjiov

^i^XrjKev 6

TToXXou? Twv TToXefiioov diroKTevov'

fiev.

KpiTTj^.

e/cXe\|/^e,

ei?

cbvXaKrjt

al yvvaiKeg tu^ tov yipovTog Kofiag eTiXXov.

Tag TOV KpiTov Kojuag


fir]

lirirov

fit]

Kcipe.

rap tov KpiTov Kofiai

Keiptjg.

Do
sailors

not throw the anchor into the

were casting an anchor into the

sea.

man with

balls into the

dog with

air.

sticks.

a stone.

Do

The shepherds

My

Two

Mothers!

Some one has

do not send your sons to the war.


struck the old

sea.

not throw the

will strike the

father has put his slave in

The boys will stay the livelong day in the


wood Boys do not remain all day in the forest.
The shepherds sent their
Stay with us, my friend.
Tlie two boys were throwing
sons to the war.
Sailors
stones into the sea.
do not throw the dog
prison.

into the sea.


prison.

We

I shall

shall cast the

wicked thieves into

remain the livelong day in the temple.

BTEST GREEK READER.

SECTION

86

XIV.

PASSIVE VOICK
EXEECISE XXI.
Xvovrai

01 ovoi

airo tcov kiovcov.

Tov ycwpyov Kvvwv.

VTTO Tcov

ol koXu) XeKvvrai viro

eKvOrjcrav.

oi

Xayw

ol nrnroi ck

^peOfjcrap

tov apfiUTog

twv vavrwv.

KO')(\iai

TToXXoi VTTO TOiv ovolu iralooiv TOV linroKOfiov wttt^Orjcrav.

rj

Kaiovrat.
oiKiai^.

oiKia

Kolerai.

ixa-)^aipai
01

apert]?.

ol Xayo)

VTTO TU)V

(Tocpol

rrj oiKia
eiri

oiKiai
KwfjLrji

twv crrpaTiwruiv

^ap^apwv Tayy
ol

OaVfJLa^eTai

eoiaxovTO.

ol iTTTTOi oia TOV

TifjiojvTai,

770i'r]poi

KWfiri

TWV TToXlTWV

VTTO

ijXavvTO.

r^

ev

TToXiToi TrioTevovrai viro

Z.VO(pU)V

(jKtjvTj

cu

evpicTKOvrai ev Tai<i r^y

Se

fj

eKalero.

to.

vTroTvyia

TTeolov i^XavuovTO.

alcr-^oi

T^S

ov

Tificovrai.

ol

ol

apyvpa* icvTreXXa ev
twv apicmav Tlepawv TralSeq

ovK a^ioi iai (ptXelcrOai.


evpKTKeTai.

oi

Tais paaiXecos Ovpai^ iraioevovTai.

TOV avTov oioacrKaXov

eiraioev6r](rav.

TOV avTOv dioa(rKaXov eTraidevO^Trjv.

TWV

VKa

tov '^evocpcovTOi

TroXcTU)V aK0V(r6fl(Tt],

u>

ol iraiSeg viro
tu>

Kopa viro

inro

irdvTWv

ptJTop.

Some swords were found in the citizen's garden.


The farmer's horses have been unyoked from the
waggon.
The boys have been educated by their
own father. The soldiers' tents were quickly burned
In the

First and Second Declensions, e before o^ of the dual and plnral, and i
anything but a diort rowel, rererse tlie i^eneral role of contraction (see p
S9); aa, oiTTni, oora; tarkn), StrAq; Sia-Ao^i, Stz-Ay.

More

PIKST GEEEK KEADER.

86

A silver cup was found in the shepThe serpents were struck by the boys
with sticks.
The worthless slave was cast into
Many of the enemy were
prison by his master.
The majority of the enemy were slain by tlie
slain.
by the enemy.

herd's tent.

My

Greeks.

for

stone.

from his province by his brother,

The poet was admired

Artaxerxes.

account

cut with

head has been

Cyrus was sent

for

{i.e.,

on

of) his learning.

MIDDLE YOICE AND DEPONENT VERBS.

Rule XIV.
accusative;

Measure

as,

of distance is

put in

the

cnre^ei SeKa araSlov^, it is ten stadia

distant.

EXERCISE XXII.
ol

aTpanwraL

airo

fxeTaireiXTreraL
eTTOirjcre

Ttjg

crrpaTriyov

koi

ap'^rj^,

oe

oaroi eig J^acTTOciXov TreSlov

6 K.vpos

eTrJ

e^ovXevaaro

irepi

(rcortjpias

Trepl

^ovXevoo/neOa Trepl T^p

r^?

apj^rj^.

TOV epyov

twv ttoXitwv

^ovXovrai.

avSpa

^ovXevrrai.

airoKpLval

TTOiTjTi^u',

01

[jlol,

ev

tm

t^? TrarpiSoi fxa-^wfieOa.

avrov, a7ro7re/uxet

ev

arpa-

Troieirai roov '^Wrjvoov

r]

Se fx^rtjp,

eiri Ttjv ap-^tjv.

Travre^

y^jpij

eis fJi-a-^v

irpo

yevaacrQai

Tifitjs

tivos evcKa

a-rparcwTai

Ajora-

(TcoTrjpias.

^ep^t]^ (TvXXa/ui^dvei J^vpov, w? cnroKTevuiv'


ePaiTTjcraixevrj

01

6 ^aaiXevg

jmeraTrefxyp^ovrai.

r^g

vvKra<i.

fxea-a^

avrou (yaTpairriv

aQpolXpvTai.

rpiTW a-TaO/xw J^vpos e^eraaiv


irep\

^9

avrov onreoei^e Travrcov

Tov aSeXtpou ecrrpareveTO.

ayyeXovs

Tfjyol TOL'9

Aapeio^ J^vpov

avSpeioog e/md-^ovro.

6aviJ.oul^eiv

era^avro.

FTEST GREEK READER.

The king

senfc-for his

The king reviewed

Artaxerxes.

of Cyrus begged

away

let

us carefully delib-

All of us wish to taste liberty.

erate.

against

field

his soldiers about

Let us consult about the safety of the

Before (we take) action

city.

to send for her son

Cyrus took the

from his province.


midnight.

brother from his government

The queen wishes

(province).

87

him

off (for herself),

The

to his province.

selves for battle.

citizens

The mother
and sent him

arranged them-

Do

Let us beg off our friends.

not send for (to yourselves) the wicked citizens.

MISCELLANEOUS SENTENCES.
Prepositions,

when compounded with

generally their proper signification;


airo e^eiv, to keep
to

go up,

Le.,

from,

i.e.,

to

Verbs, retain

as, aTre-^eiv,

for

refrain; ava ^alvw^

ascend, mount.

EXCIS yynrr,

ore

ai oiKiai eKaiovro,

ol TroXiTai

airechevyov.

Kyyoo? e^eXavvei Sta t^? AvSiag crraOfxov^ Toei?.


iroXiTai TrXoIa ovk ei-^ov.

ra

AOrjvai eKaiovro ol TToXiTai


a(p iirirov eOi^peve 6
J7

iTTTTov

twv alar-^wv

avapaivei 6 veavia^.

povXeva-crai.

ore al

ra irXoca ave^aivov.

Tlep(Tt](;.

oiKia avuyyeo} e-^ei iroXXa.

TOi'9 Xaydog.

Orjpla CTpe-vev.

eTrt

6
ol

fxr]

fjSovijov

^ucoKere,
cnre-vov.

iraiSeg,
eir).

to}^

6 ttoXitti^ tov aSeX<p6v

ol TroXiTai ^ovXeva-ovrai.

Aapto(!, 6

88

FIRST GREEK BEADER.

aoeXipo^, Tov J^vpov fierairefx^eTai airo t^? apvjj^.


TToXe/iiioi

01

TToXiTai

oi

TOV

7n

(TTpaTrjyo? (Tvv

TOV

earpaTevaavro.

I3acri\ia

T019 (TTpaTKVTai? eOvcre

KXeaoYOf

eTTeiaav.

KpiTrjv

MeVcov e tov

oe^iov Kepoog ^yeiTai,

fxev

tov

evoovvjuov.

nrTTOKOfio^ KaTeirrjorjtjev airo tov apjuaTO?.

Ta

(TU)fJi.aTa,

fxaKpav TLKTei

iroXXaKi^

iraiSeg.

co

Xinrrjv.

^AO^vd.

rtj

yv/j-vaYeTe

jSpaveia

irluTeve toI? awcbpocn.

r/Sovi]

J^vpog

CKoXecre tovs (pvyaoa^, ku] eKeXevaev avTOv^ aTpuTeve-

a9at

ol fiev ovv avev

(Tvv avTca.

oe ev TOts ^[(pecri TTLTrTOVcn'


fia-^ovTai-

Kal

ava Se

to.

KOI fieXcov

St]

opr]

fxeprj.

ol

kcitui
rj

(jaKwv (beuyovcrr ol
eTi

S"

e/c

^L(pt]

Nf^op

twv

re,

fxev,

Tei-vwh

koI eyvr]^

TropOfxev^

airoXcoXev

>]or],

Kai ovoev i^J^o? eVi Xolttov avTijs' airo-

Qvr](jKovai

yap

Kal at vroXeif, uxrirep avBpwvroi.

The

Two

soldiers

were fleeing without their

shields.

swords were found in the shepherd's hut.

The

farmers have found two silver cups in the slave's

The master sent for his servant from the


The slaves wished to taste liberty.
The
begged his son off, and sent him away to the
The generals reviewed the soldiers about midThe citizens are about to take the field

cottage.
field.

father

war.
night.

against the enemies of their king.

the boy from the wood.


fleeing

with

their

The

fathers'

Do

not send for

soldiers' children

shields.

The

are

king's

generals

review the soldiers in the garden of the

palace.

The two shepherds

night in the snow.

will

remain the livelong

FIBST GBEEK RKAPKR.

SECTION

89

XV.

SECOND CONJUGATION VERBS IN


Verbs in

1.

than verbs in

more ancient formation


less numerous. They

are of a

-/xi

but are much

-co,

from verbs in

differ in inflexion

-w, in the Present,

and Middle), and Aorist

Im|erfect (Active, Passive,


II.

-fJH-

(Active and Middle).

The stems which adopt

2.

mode

this

tion end in one of the vowels, a,

e,

of conjuga-

or

o,

Present and Imperfect a reduplication

In the

v.

prefixed,

is

consisting of the initial consonant of the stem, with

stem

thus, the

So-,

give, is lengthened

which, with the person ending,

-fxi,

this again, with the redupKcation,

lengthened into

(See p.

ri-Orj-iai.

Sco-jni,

and

So

0e-,

6r}-/xi,

and

Si-Soi)-iJ.i.

with person ending,

6r]-,

with reduplication,

makes

i\

into Sw-,

62,

11,

on

Reduplication.)
If the stem

3.

vowel,

person

'and
-era,

thus,

ending,

^-(m]-fjLi.

4.

reduplication

the

aspirated

a-rrj-fjn,

sto

an aspirated

the singular.

prefixing

lengthened

and

and

or

made by

is

crra-,

cr,

with

(rrrj-,

with

reduplication

si-sto, in Latin.

verbs, tIQthjh,

I place,

SiSw/xi,

I give,

send, have the inflexion -ku, instead of

in the first aorist indicative active

eSoDKa, T]Ka

ties,

stem

Compare

The three
tifjii,

begin with

but

this

form

is

For these and other minor

consult the paradigms.

as, edrjKay

used almost solely

in

peculiari-

FIRST GEEEK EEADER.

90

VERBS
The

remember

student will

that the stem of tffrrifu

that of the inflexion, as, Ti.6wfiep for

The

declension.

is (ttH-

Ti0i-wfj.ev,

of rlOrifu,

0e-,'

the hyphen has

parts not here given are regularly declined, like

ACTIVE
INDICATIVE.

Pres.
S.

D.

(I set

up

or erect,

SUBJUNCTIVE.
<fcc.)

t(rr-r]fu, -rji, -rjcri

iffT-arop,

-arov

P. tar-a/jLev, -are,

OPTATIVE.

-5.(n{p)

IffT-u, -ys, -5

IffT-al-qp, -alrji, -air]

laT-rJTOP, -rJTOP

lffT-Q/ji,P, -Tjre,

-W(n(v)

,laT-alTjTOP,-airin]v*

lar-aLrj/xep,
(-alTjffav),

-alijTe,

-aiep

Imperf. (I was erecting, (fcc.)


S.

D.
P.

X<rr-7)P, -7?y, -i;

tor- arov, -<krrip

Aor. II. (I
S.

fOT-TjV,

wanting

stood, &C.)

-77J,

-;

(TT-tD,

D.

P.

i<rr-rifiP, -Tire, -riffap

wanting

-are, -aaap

trr-S.ft.tP,

iar-yp'OP,

ffTf^p

-ys,

ffT-alvp, -alfjs, -al-q

(TT-TJTOP, -rJTOP

(j-T-w/iep, -ijre, -W(n{p)

-af^rjv

ffr-alr]TOP,

ar-airinep, -airire, {-airjffav)

-aUp

MIDDLE
Pres. (I

erect myself, or

stand,

<fcc.)

S.

XaT-afiai, -atrat, -arai

IcTT-wfiai, -y, -rJTai

l<TT-alfiriP, -aio,

D.

IcTT-dfiedoP,

loT-difieOov,

l<TT-alfie6ov,

-affdop,

-acrOop

IffT-thfieda,

PTai
(I

-atro

-aitrOoP,

-alffdyv

-TJffOoP

P. la-T-dfi6a,-a(r0,-aPTai
Imperf.^

-rjffdop,

-rtaOe,

-u-

l(TT-alfi0a, -aicde, -ai-

PTO

was erecting

myself,

<fec.)

lar-AfiriP, -aero,

D.

IffT-d/J-eOop,

-aro

S.

-a(x6op,

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

-dffOrjP

P. lar-dfieOa, -avOe, -avro

Aor.

II.

wanting

* The Dual and Plural Optative are usually

FIBST

IN

GREEK READER.

91

-^n.

and of SlS<aiu, So- : bat since the Towd of the stem is often nnited with
been placed with a r^ard, not to the pnre stem, bat to conrenienee of
XiJw; as,fuL a-Hfiu; aor. i<miaa\ perf. tarriKa, &C.
(See p. 96.)

VOICE.
HCPKRATITE.

nfPIKITIVB.

i0T-a>u

,
,

IffT-SiTOV,

Irr-di, -dirroi

-I^UP

Xar-OTi, -ivTujp

PARTICIPLB.

Itrr-cura, -dtrns

loT-dM, -dm-oi

[-t-

aav)

wanting

rr-rfii,

OT-TJfTOf, -ijrtint

--Ifrta

ffT-TTc,

-cuTwr

wanting

wanting

ar-r^iu.

ar-ds, -drrot
ffT-wTCif -dtnis

ar-dp, -djrroi

(or

VOICE.

EoT-w

-daOu
-daOwv

Xar-iiaOai

lirr-iffo*,

Xar-affdop,

XoT-aaOe, -daOitr

loT-ofkiyth -a/jLirrp

loT-dfUKm, -o/Upov

(-<-

wanting

wanting^

lar-dfuroi, -ofjJrov

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

oootracted into -vuror, -aiTTjv, Sec.


(128)

92

FIBST ORK HEADER.

VERBS IN

-Ml

ACTIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDICATIVE.

Pres. {I
S. t16-7]/m,

P.
D.

place,

-jjs,

.fee.)

-770-4

TlO-erov, -erov

rld-efiev, -ere, -iaai[v),

and

TiO-elijv, -elrjs, -drj

Tld-TJTOP, -TJTOV

Tid-diiev, -rjre, -Gxnly)

TiO-elriTov, -ei-qrt})'*

Tid-elr}fuv, -eirjTe,

-r]s,

-et-

{-elr)(rav)

-r?

h-iO-erov, -irriv

wanting

wanting

irlO-efiev, -ere, -effUP

Aor. (I

piaceii,

ifec.)

S. id-q-Ka, -Kas, -K

D.

was placing, &c.)

(I

S. iTid-riv,

Tid-Si, -Js, -%

-ei<7i.[p)

Imperf.
D.
P.

OPTATIVE.

^-erov, -injv

P. id-efiev, -ere, -e<xav, or

d-d, -ps, -S
,

6-elr]v, -elrjs, -elr)

d-7JT0V, -TJTOV

O-Q^ev,

-lyre, -tDo-t(y)

d-eliyrov, -nrjryjv
-eirjTe,

9-elrifxei>,

-eUp

[-dt}(Tav)

MIDDLE
Pres.

place myself, &c.)

(I

S. Tld-efiai, -eacu, -eroi


-effdop,

D.Ti.d-4/j.edop,

-ecrdov

Tid-Qnai, -,

-^oif

Tid-iifie6ov,

-rjadov,

Tid-fl/xrju,

-no, -etro

rid-eifieOov,

-eurOoi',

-eladr)v

-TjcrOov

P. Tid-ifJLeda, -eade, -ei^ai TiO ii}/j.9a,,-^ade,-wVTai ri6-el/jLeda,-et.cr9,-iyTO

Imperf.

(I

was placing my-

self,

Ac.)

S. irid-i/ifiv, -effo, -era

D.

irid-iixidov,

wanting

wanting

-eadov,

P. irid-ifj-eda, -eade, -evro

Aor. II.

(I

placed myself,

.fee)

(0OV{-ffo), -T0

S.

id-^/JLTlV,

D.

iO-ip-edov, -eaOoy, -iaO-qv

9-CifMi, -, -ijrcu
6-(bfjie6op,

-fjcOov,

O-elfi-qv, -eto,
-)-

6-elpLedov,

-e?ro
-eicf^ov,

a-dov

P. id-ineda, -eade, -evro

0-d)/xe6a, -T)cr0e,

-wrrai 6-dfie6a, -elade, -eivro

* These forms are usually contracted

f Otherwise

accented,
1.

riBSX

GRKEK READKK.

93

continued.

VOICE.
IMPERATIVE.

-hu

ISFIHITITK.

PARTICIPL8.

Tid-iyai

Ti$-ei [Tie-idi],

Tid-erov, -irojv

TiB-eiffo, -elffiji

rld-ere, -ivrwv {-h-ta-

Tid-iv, -irros

cav]

wanting

-, e-h

wanting

(for OiOi),

-h-u

wanting

d-firat

O-irof, -irup

O-eiffOi,

d-ere, -irrvp [-iruaop)

e-ip, -4vTos

-eLffrjs

VOICE.

rld-ov {(orTideffoj.-iffOu)

rlO-caOai

Ttd-ifiepos, -ffjL^ov

TiS-efUmj,

Tl$-ea0e, -icOuv [-ia-

TtB-ifuvov,

-euiinr\s

-^ivov

Ouxrav]

wanting

-loOu

0-o\j (for Qiao),

9-icdow, -iaQup

e-icOe, -iaOur

{-Muh

ffav)

into -eiTov, -Ln]i>, See.

wanting

wanting

e-4c0ai

0-iftevot, -fUvov

9-ifiePOf, -fih>ov

FmST GE READER.

94

VERBS IN

-fii

ACTIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDICATIVB.

Pres. (I

5t5-w,

S. Sld-w/j.1, -wj, -W(Ti

D.

did-OTOP, -oTov

OPTATIVE.

Rive, &c.)

P. U8-ofiv, -ore,

-6d(ri(v)

-(ps,

Si5-o[r]P,

-(p

SlS-wtop, -Qtop

StS-ufiep, -Gire, -w(Ti[p)

-olri

Si5-oi7]fiP, -olrp'e, -oiep

(or 5i5-o0o-i)

{ol7](rap)

Iinperf. (I was giving, &c.)


S. iSld-icv, -wr, -w
D.
iSlS-orov, -bryip

-olrjs,

diS-oli}TOP, -oirp-riP

wanting

wanting

V. iSid-o/Mev, -ore, -ocrap

Aor. II. (I gave, &c.)


S. I5w-/ca, -Kas, -Ke

U.

5-w,

IS-OTOV, -6t7jv

P. iS-ofiep, -ore, -oaav, or

-<?s,

5-oiTjP, -olr]!,

-V

8-Qtop, -wtop

5-wpLep, -GiTe,

-w(rt(>')

-olrp-e,

8-ol7]fiep,

^SUKCW

-oIt]

b-oitfrop, -oirp-r]p
-oiei>

{olt](Tap)

MIDDLE
Pres. (I

give myself;

S. SlS-onai, -0(7oi,

D.

<fcc)

-oral

-oadop,

Sid-6/xedop,

-o-

-urai

Sld-olflTJP, -010,

-Qffdop,

diS-olfiedop,

-wcOop

ffdoP

P.

(f,

dt-d-di/jLeOop

5id-6/J.9a, -oade, -ovrai

SiS-difieda,

-waOe,

5iS-oiiJ,e9a,

-WPTdl

Imperf. (I was
myself,

-OITO

-oiadop,

-oiad-qp

-otade,

-OiPTO

giving

<fcc)

S. ibiZ-bfi-qp, -OV

{-0(T0),

D. idid-6nedov,

-OTO

-offdop,

wanting

wanting

-bce-qp

P. i8i8-b)xeea,
Aor. II.

(I

-o<r6e,

-opto

gave myself;

Ac)
S.

iS-6fJ.r)p,

-OV,

{-oao),

S-UfJMI., -<p

-G)Tai

olfj.r]P, t-dio,

-olro

OTO

D. id-6^e6op,

-oadop,

-6-

c6t]P

P. iS-6/ieda, -oaOe, -opto

S-iti/xeOop,

Qadop,

-G>-

S-dfieOa,

d-olfiedop,

-oi<T0op,

-olaO-qp

ffOop

-QaOt,

-u>-

5-olfj.eOa, -oiaBe, -oZVre

PTai

FIBST

GREEK HEABfiB.

95

continued.

70ICK
INHNITITE.

IMPBRATITK.

5i5-ou (5/5-o^i), -irw

5/5-orov, -irrujv
5t5-OTe,

5t3-6vot

PARTICIPLK.

Sid-ovs, -6VT0S
Sid-ovffa, -0VCT1JS

-bvTwv (-6^a^

8iS-6v, -6vTos

wanting

wantiDg

wanting

SoOvcu

5-6tov, -6tii)p

d&re,

Sovffa, Sovar]S

-bvrav

S6v, S6irros

[-&Tia-

aav]

VOICE.

-6<t9w

5/5-ou

dlS-oaOoy, -b<jQwv

5/8-00-^6,

{-<xTo),

-baOusv

.,

8o0

(36cro),

loodu)

S6c0ov, SixrOuv
hbcBe,

SScOuv

Si5-6fievoi, -0/j.ivov

StS-6fuyov, -o/xipov

(-6-

wanting

SlS-oa0ai

wanting

wanting

86ff0aA

56fievoi, Sofi4vov

So/xhrrj, So/ji^rrjs

56-

SSfievov,

hofihav

96

FIRST GREEK READER.

VERBS IN

-fxi

ACTIVE
INDICATIVB.
Pres.

(I

SUBJUNOTIVH.

show, &c.)

S. SelKPv-fu, -y, -<n

Seiiani-(i),

-jfc &C.,
regularly

-jis,

(formed

D.

OPTATIVE.

from

SelKvv-Tov, -TOP

P. SelKvv-ixev, -re,

8eiKvi-oi/xif

-otj,

&c.,

(from SeiKPvu)

deiKPiJw)

-dffi[i')

[or SiKvvffi{v]]

Imperf.

(I

was showing,

S. iSelKvv-v, -s, iSelKvv

D.

wanting

iSeiKvv-Tov, -TTJv

wanting

P. iSeiKuv-nev, -re, -(rap

MIDDLE
Pres. (I show

myself, &c.)

S. delKPv/JUii, -ffai, -rai

SeiKv^-ufiai,

&c.,

-77,

deiKPV-olfirjp, -010,

(from SeiKP^u)

&c.,

(from SetJwiJw)

D. SeiKvi-fieOop,-aOop,-a0op
P. deiKvv-neda,

-vtm

-ff$e,

Imperf. (I was showing


myself,

<fcc.)

S. iSeiKPv-/J,r]P, -(TO, -TO

D. ideiKprj-fieOov,

wanting

-cdop,

wanting

-(rOrjp

P. i8eiKpA-/ie9a,

The

-(rde,

parts of these

-rro

Verbs which do not appear

in the foregoing

Tables are

ACTIVE.
Pres.

Imperf. Put. |Aor.

1.

Aor.n,

Plup.

Perf.

Pres.

Imperf.

T[&Tr)fii

tcrrriP

(jT'^(ri))

T[d7]/M

h-ie-nv

di)(r<i}

5lScj}fii

i5i5(i)V

Scrrrjcra ?CrT7]P

SelKvvfit ldlicvvp,Sel((i) i^Set^a

t(jTafiai

tffTafiriv

rideiK(vh-^6elKea> rtOefiai

\id7}Ka

(ISwv)

Slbo/J-at

iSiSdfit^p

d^Seixd iSeSelxeiP, SelKPVfiai iSeiKPiJuriP


'


FTBST GREEK BEADES.

97

continued.

VOICE.

PARTICIPLE.

INFISITIVE.

IMPEBATITE.

ielKvv [hflicvvBC], SeiK-

Seucpv-pcu

Seucyi-i, -rros

PVTU
,

deiKW-TOP, -TOW

SelKvv-Te,

SetKPiHTa, -aifi
SeiKvi-f) -pros

-vrwv {-rv-

ffav)

wHnting

wanting

wanting

VOICE.

,
,

SeiKvii-ffo, -(tOw

StlKWV-ffBcU

SelKW-ffOov, -adwv
idKvu-ffde, -ffOwv

ittKwv-ftim}, -/limji
SeiKvi-fjieyoy, -/livov

[-ffObi-

aap)

wanting

wanting

declined regularly.

wanting

All the Tenses are seen in the following scheme:

MIDDLK

PASSIVE.
Fut.

Aor.

I.

Pert

iridriv

ridft/iai,

iod-^ffofiai

i560T]v

S^dofiai

Aor.

Pres. and

0ra6-fyToiiai icrridtpi Ifarafiai

Ttd^ffo/juu

Fut.

Plup.

iredel/jLijv

Imperf.

same
iSedeiyfirjv

$-f)<rofuu

\idinyiv

as in SdlCOfJLCU

\iS6fJLT]P

Passive.


FIRST GREEK READER.

98

ACTIVE VOICE.
EXERCISE XXIV.
Tpoiraiov

crrpariMTai

ol

ayaOa

roi^ auOpcoTTOig Geo? iroXXa

ayaOa

iravra to.
fivpiov^

SapeiKovS'

KLvrjaoo.

S6t

SiSovaa

j/u/fTo?.

Tovs

rjixiv

KardOeg

oo^

irov

TO. ^i<pr}.

fj

koi

(ttu),

apyovre^

T01/9

tois Sov\oi(i.

oTi eKaa-Ttp tcov (piXoov

The

oTi ovk aTroSoiev

vo/nov^

u/xei"?

cro^coraTOf

^v.

vfiiu

stand? (2 aor. suhj.)

Lycurgus,

crTpaTrjyol

ovk e^w

evrv^eiv Sotev ol Qeol.

aor.) the

(1

given Cyrus ten thousand

me

ol
(ttu).

irapa tov vaov ypafx/xaTa eyovcra.

father gave

Athenians.

TcOeiKdcnv.

tou? ^ A.9rjvaLOV^

ovk e^ecrnv dvSp). Qtj^aio)

r^w.

Give the shepherd his staff again.*

opt.)

tov Koajmov

A^VKOvpyog, 6 Oe^s A-aKeSaijuovioig

cKQelvai TraiSlov.

CTTriXri ecTTriKe

ol Oeol

(palverai irvp ava-

vrjCTO^

emcrare Ta fiaKpa a-Trjcfai Tel-^.


dOXa Tots (rrpaTiu)Tai<! eOecrav. TTtj

vojuovg,

ol

J^Xedp-^w

eSooKe

ol TToXefxioi eTirov,

fxicrOov

aor.)

(1

riOrjcriu.

K.vpo9

SiSoda-i.

ol

vcKpovs.

e(TTrj(rav

Trapa l^Xeap-^ov ecmja-av (2 aor.)

)(i\iovs

iTTTrei^ etf

(I

soldiers.

The

book to his son.


The Greeks have

Where

shall

we

island revolted from the

pray that) God would grant (2 aor.


friends.
We very much admire

faithful

who made

2 aor. part,

act.)

(lit.

the person having made,

Ye

laws for the Lacedaemonians.

some part of your goods to the poor. The


general has given thirty* days' pay (say, the pay of

rich! give

tliirty

days) to the soldiers.

* Use aTToit'Sufu

when

the

meaning

is to

give back, or to givt what

is

dm,

Aa

FIKST

99

GEEEK READKB.

I
MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE&
EXEECISE XXV.
crrpaTiurrai

01

/j.T]Seva

t6t

Tavrag

him)

ixrjvwv

Twv orpaTiurrwv

K.vpo9, Trpos jSacriXea

Trpo<i

(rrecparo^ yjtova-ov^ SeooTai.

Sdcpvr],

Svo Taura K

to re

oi

(to

Ticr(Ta(ppyr]P

t]

oOev koi to ovo/xa eXa^ev.

^AplcTTnnrov eiVe,

Ka\ ^(Xa/uLvSa eu (popelv koi pdxo^.

Xicrra,

SoOtjuai

rj^lov

fiaWov

Aa(pviv tov ^ovkoXov Xeyovai Te^-

ap-^iv avTwv.

Oivra KTeBrjvai ev
YlXaTcov

r^ (rrpaTin

J^vpov aireSoOt].

viro

TrefXTrwv,

TroXeig,

tci^

KaOlcrravTo.

<TirovSrj

aTpaTtjyov.

6i/j.r]v

Terrdpoou

/ulktOo^

Ka<TTU)

iroXK^

<tvv

Koxov av

(roi

ixovcp

SeSoTai

YivQayopa^ TXeye,

twv Oewv TOiy dvBpwiroi^ SeSoaOai koXaXtjOeveiv koi to evepyereh.


6 oJvo^ et'?

Tt]v larpiKtjv -^rjcri/uLwTaTos, "ttoXXoki^

yap

Tofj iroTOis

(papfiaK0i9 Kepavi/irrai.

His own cutlass was returned to the


silver
clays'

The
fall

crown was given to each of the


pay was given by Tissaphemes to

soldiers of

say {vmjperf) that

many

by the gods to men.

him only

A
Six

his soldiers.

{King) Perses post themselves

into position) in great haste.

high mountain.

sailor.

slaves.

{i.e.,

Socrates used-to-

blessings have been given

The infant was exposed on a

Plato used-to-say to Aristippus that

had been granted to wear becomingly


both the robe-of-wealth (;^Xa/iu?) and the-garment-of-

to

it

poverty {poKo^).
with great haste.

The

soldiers

were put in position


FIKST GREEK HEADER.

100

SECTION XVI.
The

following Irregular Verbs in -lu are those most frequently met

Grammar, and Buttmann's or Veitch's ' Irregular


The compounds, i,<pl-qiu, &c., are more
ridijiu.

consult the Greek

from

in its inflexions

compounds.

ACTIVE
SUBJUNCTIVE.

INDIOATITB.

Pres. (I throw,
S. t-rjfu,

3d

or send,

-171, -T/ffi,

OPTATIVE.

&c)

&c., [the

l-Q, -s, -f,

&c.

l-el7], -elrfi, -el-q,

&c

pi. is l-a<n[v)]

Imperf.
or

S. X-ovv*

-s,

-t]

or

-ijj

-eiv,

or

-etov,

-ei,

wanting

wanting

wanting

Wanting

&c.

-irr^v,

Fut.S. ri-ffu,

&c.

Aor.
S. y]Ka,\ yJKa^, rJKe

P.

elftev, et-T,

c5,

, V,

&c-

et-t]y,

-Tis,

-n,

&c.

el-aav

Perf.
S. el Ka, -Ktts,

&e.

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

Plup.
S. et-KlV, -KIS,

&c.

* tow,

as in d^lovv, or

ij<t>lovv

and Ua>, as

in

PASSIVE
Pres. (I am
S. t-efuu,

sent,

-Cffai

&c)

or

-{},

t-w/iai,

&c.

l-elfitip,

&c. or

&c.

-erai,

Imperf.
8.

l-ifJ-v^,

-ero,

-fffo

(or

-on),

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

&c.

Perf.
S. tt-fuu, -aai, &c.

-olfi-qf

FIRST GBEE KEADEB.

IRREGULAR VERBS IN
with in the coarse of

Greek Verbs."

The

fij/u

-fxi.

For the

reading.

verb

(stem

fireqnentlj used than the simple verb.

101

I],

Many

others,

the learner most

throw, differs but slightly

of the parts occur only in

VOICE.
IMPERATIVE.

X-ei,

-4tu, -tov,

ISFI5ITIVK.

&c

PARTICIPLE.

l-th, -tiaa, -4v

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

wantinir

tl-^tu.

fU, ttaa,

?-,

-TW, -TOP, &C.

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

1)<plea>, Tpctteof.

f See

aorist active of

rWiutu

VOICE.

l-co (or -ow), -laOd),

i-eaOax

-17,

-Of

wanting

wanting

elaBiu

elfjJp-os, -T),

-w

Ufiei^-os,

&c.

wanting

(l-CO,

&c.

FIRST Gr.EBK READER.

103

IRREGULAR VERBS
PASSIVE VOICE
OPTATIVE.

SUBJUKOTIVB.

INDICATIVE.

Plup.S. ei-fi7]Pf

Fut.

&c.

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

L-

S. keiia-ofiJiii,

Aor. I.S. eX-e-qv or

&c.

iO-nv,

&c.

i'0u>,

&c.

e-Oel-rjv,

&c.

MIDDLE
Fut.
S.

&c.

ij-ffofiai,

Aor.

wanting

ij-crolfjitiv,

watititig

wanting

&c.

I.

S. {T]-Kd/l7]V, &c.)

Aor. II.S. ei-fM)v (or

?/*??'),

&c.

wanting

&c.

(L/iai,

Verbal Adjectives

EIMI,
Some

of the forms of

dfil,

I am, which

is

defective, differ

from

tliose

Pres.
S. el-nl,

D.

i<T-rt{u)

eT,

^-J,

<S,

ia-rSv, -t6v

ef-ijp,

^-TOy, -TOV

-ijs,

-17

el-tyrov or

P. i(T-iih, -t4,

l-ffl{v)

(S-fiev,

rpe,

(2-<Tl{t>)

Imperf.
S. 1j-v (^), -(rOa, -V
D.
i^-rov) Tja-tov, (^,

wanting

wanting

rT}v), ijff-triu

P.

^-fj.ev,

-re or -<rte, -(rav

Fut.S. fff-ofiai,

D.

- or

ia-6fJLedof>,

-e-

o-^ov

P. i<T-6/ie0a,

ioolfii}P, Ste.

-5, -tttt

-eaOov,
-e<rOe,

-ovrai

wanting

elroi',

or etTjjv
dijixiv or eT/iei', efT/rc
or etre, el-i)<Tav, eXep
-)^;i'


FIRST GREEK READEB.

IN

103

continued.

-/*'

continued.
INFINITIVE.

IMPERATIVE.

PARTICIPLE.

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

i-6yivai

i-eels,

wanting

TJ-aeadat

wanting

wanting

wanting

wanting

t-adai

i-fifvos,

VeTTTi, &c.

&c.

VOICE.

-, 6v, iffdu

i-rdi

and

-rj,

-OP

e-rios.

I am.
of Itjpu only in the breathing.

iff-Tw

iff-di,

iff-TOV, -TCxTV

(<r-Te, -Tuffav,

wanting

wanting

virdpx<^, &c.,

supply the parts deficient

el-yai

UP, oSiTO, OP

wanting

wanting

lae(r6ai

icbfup-0%,

-ruv

-Tj,

-or


FIBST GREEK RBA.DEB.

104

IRREGULAR VERBS
Etfu (stem

has a Future meaning,

t),

Like

shall go.

elfd,

by
SUBJUNCTIVB.

INDICATIVE.

Pres (I
D.

P.

t-ix.v,

t-U,

er-iTt(i')

t-TOV,

it

is

accent, or

OPTATIVE.

&c)

shall go,

S. et-fu, et,

I am,

tlie

-TOV

-re, -d(n(^

-7JS,

--0

t-oi/uorl-olrip, t-ois, -oi

{1-7]T0V),

t-ufiev, -7)7$,

(-r]TOV)

-(i)crL{v)

t-oifiiv, -ovre, -oii>

(^o^TOJ'),

[1-oIti}v,

Imperf.
or ^-a,

S. -^-etv

iJ-ets

or

-eiaOa, -et or -eiv


D.
,
-Q-eiTov or ^-rov,

P.

-Q

wanting

wanting

or q-tt]v
or ^-fJ.ev, ^ eire

elT-qv

tJ

eifiep

or j-re, -^-eaav

Tlie verb #?;/*/ (stem 0a),

Pres. (I
S.

4>r)-ixl,

say,

(j)ri-s,

(J>t}-(tI{v)

D.

P.

<pa-fiiv, -ri, <pd-(Tl{v)

I say,

conjugated

is

much

like

<fcc.)

<pS),

<f>rii,

05, &c.

<pa.l-Tiv,

-jjj,

&c

-ij,

(pa-Tov, -t6v

Imperf.
S. l-<p7]-v,

D.

P.

[The Future,

-a-da, -(pT]

(-s)

i(pa-TOV, <pd-TT]V

wanting

-aav

icpa-fiev, -re,

OrSa (stem

Perf. (I know,
,

P.

Lat.

vict)

I hnow,

is

a preteritive verb.

elS-Q, -!,

&c.

elS-el-qy, -cfiji,

-TOV

tff-TOV,

t(r-/JLV,

lb,

<fec.)

S. olS-a, cit-aOa, ot8-e{v)

D.

-re, -d(ri{v)

Plup.
S. ^S-etv or

D.

-7),

-rjada,

-eis

or

or

-et)',

-eiaOa or
or -77s, -et

wanting

-77

wanting

^S-eiroi', i8-elT7jv

P. ^S-et/uev,

-eire,

-eo-av

(-et(Tav)

Aor.

n.

S. elSoj',

&c.

0i}o-w,

are regular.]

t8w,

&c.

Idoifu,

&c.

&C.

FmST GREEK EEADEK.

IN

-fit

continued.

very defective, and


an iota subscript.

in

some forms

IMPERATIVE.

t-Toy,

f-Tf,

PAr.TICIPLE.

t-iPOt

l-unf, -ovffo,

wanting

wanting

-69

-TUV

but wants the reduplication, and

(pa-dl or tpd dij (fxi-TW

<f>d-Toy,

is

defective.

<pi-vai

(^d;, -a<ro, -dv)

wanting

wanting

-Tuy

4>d-Te, -TOMTor or

and the Ist Aorist,

Its

distingukhed from the latter onlj

-Tuxxay or Idyruf

is

ISFIXITIVE.

wanting

toTTjfu,

105

conjugation

I9-61, -TW,

is

&C.

-yruv

iifniaa,

much

like that of verbs in -fu.

eld-4ycu

eli-dn, -wra, -6s

wanting

wanting

wanting

-. ^

IdeTy

ISliiP,

&C.

FIRST GREEK READER.

106

IRREGULAR VERBS IN
(stem

Keifiai

kc),

I am

-/nicontinued.

lying (7 have laid myself),

is

originally a

perfect passive.

INDICATIVE.
Pres.

(I

am

lying,

SUBJUNCTIVE.

OPTATIVE.

<fec.)

S. Kei-/J.ai, -ffUL, -rai

[Ki-wfiaC],

{Ki-rj},

ni-

(Ke-olfirip), [K^-oio), Ki-

OITO

Tjrai

D.Kei-fiedov, -aOov, -aOov

P.

Kel-fj,e6a,

wanting

wanting

-ade, -jTat

IMPERATIVE.

S.

KeT-ffo, -<r6w

Ke'i-<jdov,

(stem

fect passive.

or

sit

It is

i),

Pres. (I

sit,

-ov

[I have seated myself), is originally a per-

OPTATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

&c.)

wanting

wanting

-adov
-vrai

-<rdoj>,

-ffOe,

IMPERATIVE.

Imperf.

INFINITIVE.
S.

Pres.
S.

D.
P.

Kid-q/xai,

down.

S. ^-/iat, -aai, -<rrai


D.ij-fjiedov,

I sit

-7},

used in Attic prose only in the compound

INDICATIVE.

P. rj-fieOa,

-ctOop,

PABTICIPLE.

The verb Hyuat


sit,

-co, -TO

P. iKei-ixeOa, -aOe, -vto

-aduv

Ktlfia>-Ot,

iKel-/j.T]v,

D. iKcl-fiedov,

KeT-crOai

D.
P. wanting
S.

K&OLVTO

Imperf.

INFINITIVE.

Pres.

7)-ffo,

fl-aOai.

-adu)

-fj-aOov,

ff-ade,

-aOwv

-aOuaav

PARTICIPLE.
^fiep-os,

-f],

-ov

7l-fl7)V,

-ffO,

-ffTO

D.

^-fieOov, -oOov, -aO-rjv

P.

ft-fjiiOa, -ffOe,

-VTO

PART

IL

EXTRACTS FOR READING.


SECTION

THE WITTICISMS
J

irpwTOV

3.
Trep]

ovv

w/xocrev

oTi

5.

'O

Se,

etire,

jxr}

Ka0'

^vyyvcoOi

2^oXa(TTi/co9, vocrovvra eTrKTKeTrTOfJLevog, ^purra


vyielag-

Se

(Toi

juLt]

ovk

^Svvaro

'EATr/tw

aTTOKpiBrjvai.

^-^oXacTTiKog idrpw crvvairr^cra?,


etVe, Koi

firj

juloi

/xe/A\|/-p,

aTroKpiOtjvar

Kcifxe vocrrjaai,

^vy^u>ptj<r6v

2^oXa<TTi/coy OeXcov top lirirov avrov SiSd^ai

dauovTog Se tov
e^rjfjLiwOrjv,

Ittttov

OTe yap e/xaOe

S^oXaoTi/cof, oiKiav

tS)
ixrj

{123)

Xl/i^,

TpcoyeiVy

ttcoXuii',

SeiyfjLa irepitcpepe.

koi

OTi ovk euoaijara.

Tpwyeiv TToXKa, ov Trape^aXev avrw Tpo(prU,

6.

eav

irpocrea-^ov.

oil

Ttjs

eXOouTi

fjioi,

vSaroi,

(Tvvavrrjaa^

(piXui

iSwv Trpocrtjyopevcra.

ere

opytcrOeis ovv e^tjXey^ev,

4.

ayp^aadai

fi^

/jlikoov

fiaOrj Ko\v[J.^av.

2^oXa(TTt>co9

2.

TTVoui

jjioi,

(OF HIEROCLES).

2^oAa(TTt/f09 KoXvfxjSav ^ovXafMeuo^ irapa

cirnyrj'

i.

eXeye,

fit]

'Atto-

Me-ya

Tore airedave.

XiOov air avrtj^

cif

FIRST

108

GREEK READER.

^yoXaa-TiKO^ OeXcov

7.

elSevai,

avT<a

Trpiirei

et

KoijuacrOqi, Kajut-iuva-a^ eluoTTTpiC^eTO.

evft)

acrQevrjaa^i kol aicr-^vvo//.ai

fj.r]

toi-^ov

vtto

cruvavri^a-as,

Tti/o? ^e ttvOoju^vov t^v airlav,

eKOv^r],

pov

larpw

2^oXacrTt/co9,

8.

e(pr],

et'y

Kai-

o\|/-ti/

eXOeh

Tov laTpov,
^'^oXacTTiKog ^A/mivaiav

9.

Tov

e-^cov,

ea-cppayicrev avTrjv.

SovXov KarooOev Tprjo-avro^, kol tov oIvou

Se

on, Twv

aipovTO<s, eOavixatev

6 olvoi eXarrovTO'

'O ^e
aXXa ro

erepo^

etirev,

Xeiirei,

avcoOev fiipog.

S^oXacTTZ/fo?,

'Opa,

KaroaOev

/mrj

^AfxaOecrraTe, ov to KarwOev

a(pt]pe6r].

10.

acooov ovrcov,

(rrnxavrpociv

eiTrev,

iSiov

crrpovOia

SevSpov,

eirl

XaOpa vireicreXOwv {/(paTrXuxraTO r6v koXttov,


TO SeuSpov^ o)? vTToSe^ofxevoi ra (rrpovdia.
1 1

S^oXacTTf a:6?

cr^oXacrTJ/cft) (TvvavT^cra^ elirev,

^fiaOov oTi aireQave^' KaKeivo?,


^ooura' Kol

ecprj,
jULOi

ttoXXm

12.
TTceiu

KaXov

ev

vSoop,

on

Kat

koXov, kuc

fxe

en,

eiTrdiv

Tpay^ijXovi,

on

ei"?

Trlveiv rjSvvavro.

2^oXa(rTt/c09
errj

tm iScm aypcp e^icou, ^pcoTa


tw avroOi (ppiarr twv Se
yap oi yovet^ avTov e^ avTOu

TrtjXiKOv^, (ptj, ei-^ov

ToaovTOU '^aOo^

SiaKocria

opa^
imrjv

crov a^iOTricrTOTepos virap-^ei.

eu

'iirlvov

'AXX'
Kat

cr-^oXacrTiKos,

'^/^oXaa-TiKoi;,

iprja-avTcov

13.

Kal ecreie

i^fj,

juadcou

ayopdcrag

on

KopaKa

Kopa^
e/f

ra

inrep

cnroTreipav

erpecpe.

14.

S^oXacTTi/co?

etV

-^etjuoova

vavdyoou,

/cat

Tfov

trvfiTrXeoirrcov eKaa-TOV TrepiTrXeKOjuevoov crKevovg irpos


(rtadrjvai,

eKeiuos juiav tcov ayKupcov TrepieirXe^aTO.

to

FIBST GBEK SEADEB.

15. AtSuficov aSeXcpwv


CTTiKO^ ovv airavn^a-a^
//

6 ade\<p6s <TOU

tw

^Tei, 'iva Siad^Kug ypd<pr]'

avijXOev e?

eXeye,

2.y axe'^avcy,

^leXXwv,

TrivaKioas

Toy? ^e ot/cera? opwu aX(pr],

Mj?

TTOTapLov

to ttXoiov edxxTroy

(pr]

XuireiaOe,

eXev-

^ovXQfivo9

Trcpacraiy

irvOofxevou oe tivos ttiv

cnrovoaC^iv.

S^oXaoTt/co? aopwv

1 8.

avTov

vfia^.

2^oXa<TTf/f6?

aiTiav,

i/jOwra,

vavdyeiv

yovvras Sia tov kivSvvov,

17.

2^oXo-

ereXevrtja-e.

eTy

^wyri

16. 2yoXao~r//coy,

6epw yap

109

e'Lirpa<TKf

^vy^aipe

Sairavrii4.aTUiVy to.

^ipXla

ypacpwv irpo^ tov TraTepa,

Kai,

rifiiv,

TraTep-

tjSrj

yap

rjixa^

Tct

^i^Xla Tp(pl.
1 9.

^^oXatrTiKOv

'O

aydyeiv.

vl6<s,

virea-^ero

eKire/xirofJievo^i

oe

ae eXOovra, ixovov

ecbr],

vyirj

tov iraTpo^

viro

evoy

tuiv

ei'y

ej^Opcov

TroXe/mov
KecpoXrjv

Eu^o/iat Kai y^coph KecpaXijg

ovra,

iSeiv, Kai v<ppav6r}vai.

20. 2^oXa<7Tt/caj (biXog eypa^^ev ev 'EXXa^t ovTif

^i^Xla avTw ayopacrar tov Se ajmeX^aavTog,


ypovov,

Tw

(piXo)

irepi I3i^i(i}v

Trjv i-TrKJToXrjv

(TVVUXpBr], eiire,

cnreoTeiXai

juloi,

coy, /xerct

21. 2^oXa(TT(/coy fivv eOeXcoy iridaai, trwe^wy

^i^la TpwyovTa,

iSiov

^ov

-TreTraTtjKivai,

Kai oo^ay aXyeiv tov Trooa, TrepieSi^a-aTO.


fiaOiov

KaOeuSei^

Tr]v

tu

Kpea^ Sokiov evavrla eKaOiae.

22. 2^oXacrTi/f09 KaT ovap

oe

tjv

ovk eKOfMiad/xtjv.

aiTiav

ecprj,

AiaTi

"Erefloy

yap awTroStjTOf


FtKST GREEK READEH.

110

SECTION

II.

ANECDOTES.
1.

ANECDOTES OF PHILOSOPHEES.
ZENO.

7jriv(av

SovXov

eTTi

Tou

efiaa-riyov.

kXottJj

koi Sap^vai,

eiTTom-og, elfxapTO /not /cAe\|/^ai,

IIoo? TO (bXvapovv [xeipaKiov, Ata tovto,

Se

ecprj.

eJire,

Svo

2.

wra

cYO/mev, (jToiuLa Se ev, Iva irKeloo jxev aKovcofxev, rjrrova

e Xiyoo/iiev.
(br],

Ta

3.

Neaj^/cr/cou ttoXXcc

toTci a-ov e/? t}]v

XaXovvroi,

yXwrrav

Znjvcvv

crvveppvtjKev

ARISTOTLE,
4.

avOpcoTTW

aXXa Tov

eXerjjuocrvvrjv eSooKev,

avOpcoirov

Ou tou

ecbacTKev evprjKevai irvpou^ Kai vo/jlovs'

^rjcrOf^h vofioi? Se

airo fieyaXtjs ttoXccos

aXX'
7.

et'

e^tj,

e<pr],

^AOtjvalov^

aXXa

irvpol^ juev

Tlpog tov Kav^w/mevov, ws

6.

jmr/.

Trovtjpia

Tpoirov,

Toy?

5,

rjXericTa.

on

ttotc,

^ApL(TT0Te\t]9 oveiSi^a/uLems

Ou

tovto,

^cpr),

Set cTKOTrdv,

Ti? /neyaXr}^ iraTpiSo^ a^i6<i icTTiv.

^ApiCTTOTeXf]? ej/o^Xoi/yUez/o? vtt aooXea-^ov, Kat

KOTTTOfxepos aTOTTOt? tictI

Sitjy^fxacri,

Xeyoirrog, ov davfjaa-TOP o ti

Xiyw\

Oavjuaa-Tov, aXX' e? Tip TroSas e-^cov

ttoXXukis uvtov

Ou

tovto, ^rjai,

ere vTFOfievei.

PLATO.
8.

IIXaTWv

TTUTepa,

Ou

Opacrvvoixevov iScov Tiva irpoi tov eauTi


TraucT/?,

fxeipuKiov,

enre,

tovtov kutQ'

FIRST GREEK

ov /uLeya

di

(f)povo}V,

READER

(ppouetv

111

a^iois',

9.

opyi^ofxevo^ TTOTC TU) oiKeTr], exicrTarro?

Aa/Sajv,

<pt],

TlXdrcou

'iEl^evoKpoLTOvg,

yap opyi-

TovTov, fiacmyaxroi'' iyo)

SOCRATES.

^ooKparrj^

10.

Trpog

'i^apQiTnrrjv,

irpoTepov

XoiSopovcrav, varepov Se Koi irepi-^eaa-av avrw,

tKeyov,

ri

oti

etirev,

'^avOlinrrj

^owvTwv

XoiSopovaaf

vSwp

^poiTwo-a Ka\

lEavBiTrTrrj

11. TLpo^^AXKi^idSijv eiiroPTa,

TTCfiyp^ei',

Ou

koi

<ry,

fxkv

Om

Ovk

dveiCTt]

elire,

^tjvwp

dvej^t].

DIOGENES.

1 2.

Aioyeprjg

ov TO

TTjOO?

X.^v, eiTrev,

top elirovra, kokov

dXXa To KaKws

^^v.

elvai

to

'Qi^i

3. Aioyevt}^

6 ^ivooTreug, 6 kvwu eiriKCiXov ixevog, iravri Toirw eyprjro

eU Travra, dpicrTwv Te koi Kadevooop Kal oiaXeyofxevog.


HajcTJjpia eirajpeicraTO

dadevrjaa^'

Kat

SiaTravTog e(p6pei avrriv.


avT(i) TO. (TiTia ^v.

eireiTa fxevroi

irripav eKO/ULicraTo,

evOa

'ETTio^e/Xas Se Tin oiKiSiov avrco

Trpovo^cracrOaifKai. /SpaSuvom-og, ttiOov tivcl

14

KCti

Geacra/xefo? TroTe

iraioiov Taig

eayev

X^P^''

oiKiav.
"^^^^^f

e^eppiy^e T^y irrjpag ttjv KOTuXrjv, eiircoVf^TLaiSlov


vevLKTiKev

ofiolwi iraiolov Qeaadfievog, eireiori /caTea^e

Tw KoiXw
15.
Tt]v

dpTU) T^v

(bcucrju

to

CAceuof,

vTToSe^ofievov.

Mo^0>7|0oy Tivog dvOpwirov eTriypayp^ai^os exJ

oiKiav,

Tr]v

kokow

^IrjSev eicriTO}

oiKias, ^(pr], TTOv

Tag ext

fie

'E^e/3aXe ^e koI to Tpv^Xlov,

evTeXela.

eiaiXOoi

TpdireTav

xapaaiTOv^ Tpicpei.

1 7.

^'O

ouv Kvpiog Trjs

16. Tlpog tovj epirvcrap'

dv'.,

fxvg,

'looJ,

(pT](rif

IIpos tov

koi AioyevT}^

irvOo/uievov, irola

FEBST QKEEK EEADER.

112

wpa
Se

Sec apia-Tciv,

orav

"Trevrjs,

Et

fxev -rXova-io^, (pt],

18.

e^>?.

TLXdrcovos

"A^vOpcaTTOs ecTTL Xpiov Slirovv, uTrrepov


fiovvTog, TiXas

avTOv, Koi

ecbrj,

oXeKrpvova eccnjvejKev

orau

OeXrj, el

opicrajULevou,

koi

evSoKi-

els Ttjv a-yoXrjv

Outo'j ecrriv 6 nXarcovo? avOpcoTrog.


ANTISTHENES.

1 9.

A.vTKrdivrj'i TTore eTraivovfievog viro Trovrjpwv,

^Ayooviu),

echrj, fir]

kukov

avTW Ttepiyeyovev

Gels, Ti

20.

e'lpyaa-jmai.

(pi\o(ro(plag, e<pr],

e/c

^JSipoort]-

To

Svi'aa-Qai eaurcp o/miXeiv.

21. Aiperwrepov elirev elvai,


t]

els

KoXaKas' rovs

Tovs Se

els

KopaKas

fiev

GORGIAS.

22. SoXcov oLTro/SaXlbv vlov eKKavcrev.


Tivos Trpos avTOV,

Ai' avTo

ovoev irpovpyov

cos

yap tol tovto,

A.eovTivos

OvSev

KXaicov,

el

ep(OTri6els,

wcnrep yap

23. Topylaso

KXalco.

fxaKpov

ovSeirore, edn], irpos rjoovrjv oure

24. Yopylas

chaywv, oure Spdcras.

acr/xei/cos

e(pr],

^Ittovtos Se

iroiei

ep(i)T>]9els, ttoiol SiaiTrj yjnafxevos els

ytjpas riXOev,

elirev

arco/ita,

"CcoPTos Trju yp-v^r]v Xvfialvea-Oai.

SOLON.

^ft)i/,

e/JLirecreiv,

yap airoOavovTOs to

^Secos
e/c

"lorj

yrjpaios vTvap-

airodvijaKoi,

aairpov Ka\

MaXicrra,

peovros

oIkiOiov

aTraXXaTTOfiLai,

PITTACUS.

XENOPHON.

25. TliTTttKos dSiKTjOels VTTO TivoSi KOI e'^wv e^ovalav

avTov KoXacrai,
aueivcov

to

dcbrJKev,

/aev

yap

elirwVf
rjixepov

^vyyvco/at] Tijucoplas

(bvaecos

ecrrl,

to

Se

113

FIEST GREEK READER.

^lavrlveiav

/wa^j; -Trep]

TrjviKavta

Si]

fxaOovra

cTrecre.

iraioo^i

yevvaiax;,

oTi

^Efiot oe ovoe oaKpv-

aXXa yap

avTov,

rp

(paari dveiv earefx-

avrw tov Qavarov tov

tov (rrecpavov.

irdXiv eTTiOeaOai

(paaiv

'Exa/UtKoj/oa?

'^"^

eTreiTU

cnroaTechai'uxraa-Oar

vi6g, ev

aywvicrafxevo'; ereXeu-

tov '^evocpoyvra

koi

fievov ciTrayyeXdevTOi Se

aal

'iE,evo(pu)vt09

la")(yp(i}g

TavTt] Trj MX?'

'ijj'

Trjcrev.

TpvXXo^, 6

26.

OripiooSovg.

Qvrp-ov

^Seiv

elirdv,

yeyevvriKU)^.

2.

AITECDOTES OP STATESMEN

ARCHELAUS.
27.

Wo)^

are

6av/j.a.lCoov

avrw to

Kelpoo, ^a(TiXev\

peurrepo^ Aiovvaio^

ov

DIONYSltJS.

^apievTOii 6 jSatr/Xeu? 'A^^eXao?, a^oXeo-^oy

Kovpecog '7repiBaX6vT0<;
voVi

AND KINGS.

ui/uoXivov, kui Trvdofxe-

aXXcit

CKeivov^,

eKeivoav

ci

'O

28.

'Z^iunrwv, (pt].

eXeye TroXXoy? Tpecbeiv

<ro(picrrai,

Oav^aCeG'Qai

^ovXofMevo^.
PHILIP,

KING OF MACEDOX.

29. ^IXnnro^ eXeye, KpeiTTOv etvai (TTpaTOTreoov


eXacpwv, Xeoi>TO? a^paTtjyovirro^,

AOrjvalov^ /uaKaplteiv eXeyev,


aipeicrOai
v

TToXXoig T(riv eUa

31.

(piXei,

/xeXXovTa^,
yof]

Xeom-wv, eXacpov

KaB eKacrrov eviavTov

ei

Scko (rTpaTt]yovg evpl<TKOvaiv

JJap/xevlcova.

fxaXicrra

tj

30. ^iXiinro^, 6 ^AXe^dvopov iraTrip,

(TTpoTrjyovvTO^.

ecprj,

Ka\

fi6voP

^iXnnro^

drpaTriyov
ipcoTwimevos,

ovaTivag /j.dXi<rTa

TrpoSiSovai

airros

fidXccrra

irpoSeScoKOTa^ fxaXicTTa ixiaw.

yo.p

evprjKevai,

ov(rTivaf

fiKrei,

Toyj

(piXwf Tovg

^'

FIRST GREEK READER.

114

32. 'El/ J^aipwveia rou^ ^AQrjvalov^ fxeyaXr]


eviKt]cre

Seiv

^iXiTnrog.

avTOv

^^Ti-apOeh ^e

VTrofiijuvijcrKea-Oai,

on

Trj

apOpMTro?

Trpocrera^e iraiSl tlvi tovto epyou


eKaoTTr]^ rjfMepa^ 6 irai^

TTOs

eXeyev

avT(p,

viKt

evirpayia, wcto
ecTTiv, Kai

TjoJ? o

e-^eiv.

^iXnnre

avOpo)-

el.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT.


33.
ouToo

'O ^AXe^avSpo? Aioyevei e/? Xoyov^ eXOdov,


KareTrXayrj tov ^'lov koL to a^mfia tov avopo^,

TToXXaKi^ avTOV

(jO(TT

avSpos
^

fJlJ-riv,

AvaPap-vov

ro)V

(biXcov

apLoVi

<pr],

juLvrjjuovevoov

Aioyevr]^ dv

XiyeiVf

ei

A.Xe^-

fxr]

^AXe^avopog

84.

rnjLrjv.

nrepL KoaiJiWV aTreipla^ glkovoov eSoLKpve, Kat

avTov, tL SaKpvei',

epwrrjcrdvTwv
SaKpveiv,

ei

koo-julcov

Ovk

ovtmv aireLpwv,

ej/os

ovSeTTO) KvpioL yeyova/iiev',

THE SUCCESSORS OF ALEXANDER.


35.

tovTa

TlroXeiuLaiov

Tovs

ajJiCLvov elvai

tov Adyou, KUTairXovTi-

(pacri

avTov

(piXovs

TrXovTit^ip

rj

ixrjTep,

oe,

36. AvTiyovo^

Ei

fjoeis, (pt],

oacov KaKwv ixeaTOv ecrTi tovti

to paKog,

Trpos Tiva /maKapitovcrav avTOv ypavv,


CO

eXeye

VTrep-^aipeiv

TrXovTeiv.

ovk dv

SetPas TO SidSr]iua,

Koirpia^ Keifxevov avTO

eirl

e/Saa-Taa-as.

THEMISTOCLES.

37.

e^ovXer

Oe/uii(TTOKXrjg

dv

epcoTrjOeh

^ "Ofirjpog

eJvai

',

TroTepov

2u

^e

TTOTCpov fjOeXeg 6 vikwv ev ^OXv/UL7rid(nv

Tovs viKOJVTas elvai

rj

'A^/XXei/j

avTO^,

ecfyrjt

6 KrjpvarcruiV


FTRST GREEK READER.

38.

Q/j.i<TTOKXr}^ "Trpoq

eXeye

oaifMovtov

115

top ^upv/3idSr]v tov Aa/ce-

rt virevavriov, kolI aveTeivev

'O

^aKTT]piav 6 ^vpvjSidSr]^.

Se,

Trdra^ou

tw

OTi d fiiWei Xeyeiv

aKOVcrov oe*

^oei

XvcriTeXei.

39. ^epKpiov TIV09 Trpoi avTOV

ftj?

ov

avTov,

Si*

oe,

dXXd

ttjv

ecprj,

koivu

eiirovrog,

Sia ttjv irdXiv evSo^os eoTii/,

aXX' out' dv iyw ^eplcpio^

dXt]dr} Xiyei?, elirev,

eyevojxtjv evSo^o^,

avrw
fxev,

ouTe

crv,

coi/

A.Bt}vaio^.

EPAJnNONDAS.
40.

eva

'ETra/xifftji'^ay

avTOv eoooKcv

ei?

inroplav kripov.

;j(e

yvacbelov,

41.

TpljScova'

ei

Se ttotc

avros VTrefievev oIkoi

Si

'ETra^ttfwi/^ay, o Qrj^aios, iSoiP

crTpaTOireSov ju.ya Ka\ kqXov, OTpaTTjyov ovk e^Of,

'HXiKov,

e(i)J7,

Orjplov, Ka\ KccbaXijv

ovk ^X^''

PERICLES.

42.

'O

TlepiKXrj^ ev Tea Xoi/mw tou?

iraiSag airo-

^aXwv, avSpeiorara tov Qdvarov avrwv


Travra^

A.0r]valov^

e-Treicre

t/veyKe,

Kai

tov? twv (biXTOTCOv Qava-

Tovi evOvfxoTepov (pepeiv.

SECTION

III.

FABLES OF >ESOP.
1.

THE WOLF.

AuK-o? ISicv TTOifxevas ea-Olovrag ev


e^'yy? Trpoa-eXOcov,
ryti)

TovTo

eTToiovi

'HX//C09,

tcprj,

a-Ktjvrj

dv

rjv

Trpoparov,

Oopvpos,

FIRST GREEK READER.

116

THE LIONESS.

2.

A^eaiva,

oveiSiTofievt]

TravTO? eva TiKreiv,

3.

'

ecj))],

to

cttI

Sia

aXXci Xeovra.

THE GNAT AND THE OX.

Kepdro^ ^oo^ eKaOecrOr] kox tjvXer

Kft)vc)\|/ cttJ

Se TTpos TOP (iovv,

'O oe

ywpriaw.

aAcoTre/co?,

vtt

Eva,

Ei

e(prjy

^apu)

etire

tov Tevovra, ava-

crov

Ot/re ore rjXQe^ eyvcop, ovre eav

uevrj^, ixekrjcrei fxoi.

4.

Yecopyog

Se

eirXri^e

wpa

^ei/uoovo?

TovTOv

TTJjyoTa,
fxavOeiq

THE HUSBANDMAN AND THE SNAKE.


ocpiv evpcov viro Kpvovg

CKeivos,

kuI

avaXa/Scov

<pv(xiv,

THE FOX AND THE BUNCH OF GRAPES.

BoTiOfa?

TreTrelpovs

aXwirrj^ Kpefxa/mevovs

iSovcra,

lloXXa Se

Ka/movcra

TOVTOV^ eireipoLTO KaTacpayeiv.


ixrj

iSiav

tov evepyeTrjv.
5.

KOI

Trjv

ire-

Oep-

Xa/Scov vtto koXttov KaredeTO.

ovvriQelaa yp^avcrai,

eXeyev, OfKpaKe^
'

6.

EipKpos
irapiovTa
oe XvKog

CTTi

eioev,

'i(prj,

eTi

Trjv

Xvirtjv TrapajuvOovfievt],

eicriv.

THE KID AND THE WOLF.


Tivoi

ScofiaTOf

eXoioopei
"^Q,

kq).

ouTOSf ov

ecTTCOS,

ecrKooTTTCv

arv fie

CTreiSr]

avTov.

XoiSopeis,

Xvkov

'O

aXXa

TOTTO^.
7.

THE BOY BATHING.

Tlai^ Xovtrajiievos iv TroTajuw eKivSvveue Trviytjvar


Kat IScov Tiva "TrapoScTtjVf eiredxloveiy

jSot^Otjcrov.

FIBST GKEEK BEASES.

'AXXatw

Traioi Tt]v TOA^tjpiav.

ce efie/JLwero
eiTrev,

117
1 o oe Traioioif

vvv fxoi ^oi^6t](tov, varrepov Se crooQivri

fxefJL(pov.

THE HOUND AND THE FOX.

8.

Kuoji/ OijpeuTiKOi

Xeovra

Se eirKTrpadte'ig eKeivo?

Ta

fiV

ecbrj,

oirlaa) ecpvyev.

'Q

ovSe Tov

KUKT]

^AXcoTrrj^ Se Oeaa-afiivt] avrov

Xeovra e^tWey, ovtivo^

(TV

l3pv^r]9/xov vTrrjveyKa^

THE WOLF AND THE LAMB.


6

eolwKeVf

a/uLvov

oe

Tag, oTi OvcriacreL avrov 6 lepevg

eivai,

t]

vTTO

Oew, cKCivog

fxoi

icm Oew

efpij

Ovcriav

aov SiacpOaprjvai.

THE ASS IN THE

oopav XeovTog

iracn, Kai (pvytj fiev

Qg

kui Xeyov-

cl/jlvov,

tw

AXX' aiperwTepov
10.

Ovos

vaov KaTecpvye.

eis

Jl poa-KoXovfieuov Se tov Xvkov top

irpos avTOv,

&>?

e^pv^craTOi 6 kvwv (bo^ijOeig

K<paXjj,

9.

Ai;/co?

tovtov eolwKev

lodav,

ijv

LION's SKIN.

eTrevSvBeig,

Xecov

evofiiCero

Se

avOpcoTrcov, (pvyrj

ttoi/jlviwv.

oe avefxog ^laiOTcpov 7rvev<ras eyvfivov avrov tov

TrpoKaXv /uL/marog, t6t iravreg eTTiSpafiovres PvXois Ka]


poiraXocg avrov eiraiov.

THE WOMAN AND THE HEN.

11.

Vvvrj Tig

xvpd opviv

avT^ TucTovaav.
opviQi

Kpidag

ei^ey KaO^ Ka<TTt]v fifiepav

Nofila-acra

irapaBaXoi,

TovTO

ireiroirjKev.

aira^

Ttjg tj/xepag

'H

Si,

S\g

wg,

et

Te^erai

irXeiovg Ttj
Trjg

rjfxepag,

Se opvig TrifxeXrjg yevofievij

TCKetv ^SvvaTO.

wov

ov^

FmST GBEEE READER.

118

12.

opviOcau jiovKoixevcov

Tcoi/

eavTov

to /caXXof

rj^Lov Slo.

Twv

oe TOVTOv

AXX

THE BIRDS AND THE PEACOCK.

ei,

Troirjcrat

6 aero^

(Tov /SacriXevovTOi,

'Q

TTwXwj/,
(pri

TOV

TOV

LTTTTOV

ItTTTOV

Opvi9

6 ITnrOKOfJLO^ KXeTTTWV Koi


^fJLepai'

OiXeis aXijOw^ koXov eivai


fit]

jne,

TrdoXei.

THE HEN AND THE SWALLOW.

6(pe(o^

ooa

evpovcra,

7ri/xe\Sig

-^eXiocov e, Oeacrajmeur]

TauTU

uaTaia,

t'l

TTOcoTj;?

TOV aSiKeiv ap^erat

Tpe(peis, airep

16.

MuFa,

v/jloov

cTpl^c KUi eKTeviC^ TTaorag

Ei

Tijv Kpi6r]v Trjv Tpi(hovcrav

e^e/coXa\|/-e*

oikicov

THE HORSE AND HIS GROOM.

oe 6 txTToy,

15.

KaraSiuiKeiv

^wa, Toov

KaKicTTa

avTol aSere

14.

}^pi6t]U TtJU

Ko-^iai' aKovcrag Se uvtcop

coTrra

irais
ecprj,

eiXTTLirpaixevwv,

^fJi-ai

ecbrj,

THE BOY AND THE SNAILS.

13.

Yewpyov

AipovjuevMv

6 koXoio? vTroXajSoiu

aXkociv,

eTri-^eip^a-ci, ttco? ^juliv eTTapKecrei^

rpv^ovTcop,

^acrtXea, xauti

-yeipoTOvelv.

efXTrecrovcra

{nroTTviyecrOai efieWev,

THE

eig
eiprj

eKOepjULavacra

avTijv,

eSrj,

av^rjBevTa

'Q

oltto

aou

FLY.

"^vTpav

KpeaTog,

irpo^ kavTrjv

'AXX

cTreiot]

e-ywyc

Koi /3e/3p(t)Ka, Ka] TreTTW/ca, koc XeXov/uai, kuv airoOavoa

ov^ev ixiXei

juoi.

FIEST GREEK READER.

THE FOX A2*D THE MASK.

17.

'AXcoTTJ;^

iXOovaa

viroicpiTOu,

Kai eKa-

(TKevwv mepeuvuiixevrj, eupe Ka\

K(pa.\Tjv

oiKiav

eig

ara twv avrov

119

/jLOpfioXvKelov ev(bva>g KaTea-Kevaa-nivrjv

^ovcra Tali

-^epirlv,

(paXov ovK e^et

Kca

fiT]

TeKfov,

'Q

THE RAVEN AND HIS DAM.

vo(TU)v e(pr] rrj fxrjTpi,

dprjvei.

'H

Twv Bewv

eXe^a-ei

OVK eKXaTTT]

ola KecpaXtj, koi iyK-

18.

KojOa^

e(prj,

Koi avaXa-

rjv

^'

M^TCyo,

VTroXa^ovcra
;

Tii'Of

tw

eij-^ov

(pr],

T/?

yap Kpea^

Oew,

ere,

do

aov ye

viro

19.

THE DOG AND HIS SHADOW.

I. ...... .,,.,.,._
^^0

Ttjv

^Hpn/va

^^TO
OVK

eavTOv aKiav

elvai

SKeiuov
i}V'

eirc

tov voaTog, vireXa^ev erepov

Kpeag KaTe-^ovra' Ka\, a(peig to ^Siov,

wpfxtja-e

Xa^eiv

fxev ovv

airuiXecre Se ajuipoTepa'

o oe KaTely(ev vtto tov pevfiaTog KaTeavpero.

20.

THE HORSE AND THE STAG.

iTTTTOf KUTei-^e Xei/iiwva fiovos'

KOI
(xOai

to

iXOovTOi

S*

eXddyoVf

oia(p6eipovTOs Tr]v vofi^v, ^ovXo/nevo^ Tificopi^cra-

TOV eXacpov,

ripurra tlv avOpunrov, el SvvaiTO pier

avTov KoXdcFai tov eXa<pov'


^aXivov,

Ka).

avTos ava^tj

eir

S*

edyrjarev,

avrdv,

rrvvofioXoytjaravTog Se, Ka) dvajidvro^, dvri


pricraaQaif airroy eSovXevcrev

tjSf]

iav Xd^rj

e-^cov

aKovTia-

tov

tu) dvQpwirw.

Tt/xo)-

FIRST GREEK READER,

120

THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE ANTS.

21.

Xet/Uwi/o?

Tcov ctltodv ^pa-^evroov,

TeTTi^ Se XifiwTTWv

e\l/v-vov'

Se

wpa

avT(p,

/j.vpfxrjK9 eiTTOv

Tpod>i^v

'O
Ol

fjLOvaiKw^'

^e

'^Tei

Aia
Ovk

tl

ol fxvpimrjKeg

avrov^ Tpofprjv

to Oepo? ou

Se yeXda-avreg eiTrov,

(rvvt]ye<i

aXX

ea")(6\aCpv,

elirev,

^'AXX'

ol

^Soi'

Oepovi;

et

(jopai^ t]v\eig, -^ei/ULocivos op-^ov.

THE OLD MAN AND DEATH.

22.

Yepwv

PvXa

TTOre

direOeTO re tu ^liKa, Kai tov Oavarov eXOeiu

iireKoXeiTO' tov Se

Oamrov

nlrlav TrvuOavofxevov

e^ opovs, kutti tmv cojumu

TroWrju 6o6v eTrrj-^OKrjuevo^ ef^aoicrev,

apdjULevo^, eireiSi^
aireiprjKco^,

refxcop

Si* }]v

evOug eTrKxravTO?, koi rrjp

avrov KoXolr], 6 yepcov

Iva TOV cbopTOV tovtov apa^

23.

IJ-i-'Ce

THE DOG AND HIS MASTER.

Kvva MeXiratoj/ koL ovov, SieTcXei tc5

"E^ft)i/ Tig

Kvui

'7rpo(T'irai'(u)V'

Tl

(pi],

eiriQ^i; fioi.

avTM

koi el ttotc e^co oeiTrvou

/cat

irpocriovTi

ei-^ev,

eko-

Se

ouog

Trape/SaXev

y/Xcoo-a? TrpoeSpa/uev aivro?, Ka\ (jKipTwv eXuKTiae top

SeaTTOTrjw Kal 0VT09 dyavaKTrjcrag eKeXevcre iraiovTa

avTov dvayayeiv irpog tov fxvXMva, Kal tovtov


24.

THE WOLF AND THE CRANE.

A.VKOV XaijULM ocTTiov

aOov irapi^eiv
TO ocTTOvv

e/c

Stjj-ai.

eireTrriyei'

ei-rrev, el Tt]v

TOv

XaifJLov

6 Se yepdvw

fxi-

Ke(paXt]v avTtjg eiri/SaXova-a,

aVToO eK^dXor

eK^aXovaa, SoXf^oSeipog ovaa, tov

tj

julktBov

Se

tovt

eTre^tjTei'

FIBST GREEK KEASEB.

121

ooTi^ yeXoKrag, koi Toy? d^ovray O^^ag,


uiaOos,

<hri,

TovTO koI hovov,

KOI oSovTcov ePeiXeg

25.

Kapa

on

yevofJLei'wv

alye^

aypiai,

croi

(rro/uLaTO^

crwov, fit]Sev iradovo'a.

ASS.

A.i(av KOI opog KOivwvlav Oeixevoi,

pav

^ApKci

Xvkov

e/c

THE LION AND THE

avrwv Kara

Se

6 fiev Xecov

e^tjXOov

tov

irpo

e^iovaas Tccy alyas avveXd/jL^avev


eiaeXOujv evrjXaTO avraig, Ka\

(ttojjliov

wyKUTO

Se

6^-

iiri

cnrrfKaiov,

ti

ev

u)

.OTa?,

0V09

evSov

K<po^iv ^ovXo-

Tou Se Xeovrog tu^ TrXelcrrag crvXXa^ovTO^,

fievog'

^eX6u}v cKeivos eirvvQaveTO airrov


a-aro, kox

iaOi oTi Kuyio av

e(po^^6i]v,

ere

yevvaico^ tjyoovi-

'el

ras aiyas e^eSico^ev 6 Se


ei

et-rrevy

'AXX'

^Seiv

/nrj

ere

eu

ovov

ovra.
26.

EXa^o?

THE STAG AT THE FOUNTAIN.

Si^ri(ra

eir\

irriyrju

tjXOew iScov Se

eai/Tov (TKiav, tov^ (xev iroSas e/xefi(pTO

Kai aa-Qeveis ovra^' to. Se

yiara koi

evfirjKrj'

Kepara avrov

/j.T]Se7r(a

iricov,

eirrivei, o)? jxe-

Kvvrjyov

KUxaXa-

fiovro^, e<pevyev' eir} ttoXvv Se tottov Spa/nuiv koi


vXrjv
oe,

oty

e/j.^a^,

'Q

T019 Kepacriv

fiaTaio<i eyca !

ejj.efi(p6/xt]v,

e/c

^e

Ttjif

wy XeTrrovy

e/i7rXa/ceJy eOrjpevOt]'

ei'y

e(br]

09 eK jxev tcov ttoSohv eawQrjv,

twv Kepdrtov

irpoeSoOrjv,

ofy

eKaxr^co/njv.
27.

THE FOX AND THE RAVEN.

Ko^a^, Kpeai dpirdaa^i


aXioTTt]^ Se

eirl

Tivoy SevSpov eKaOicretr

TouTOv iSovaa, koi ^ovXtjOeia-a irepiyevi-

vQai TOV KpeaT09i (rracra KUTCoOev

eTr/jvei

avrov, wp

FIRST GREEK READER.

122

ev/ueyeOeg koi koXou opveov kul QijpevriKou kuI

'On

Koi Xeyouaa,

(bov

^pjuol^e

aXX

opvioiv, el Ka\ (pcovrjriKO? virtjp'^e?'

aXaXov

Kou

vwap-^eig'

'O oe Kopa^,

evfxop'

jSaaiXea elvai

croi

do

irolov opveov,

aKovcrag ravTa, koI

to Kpeag,

^avvcoOe}^

rots

CTratvoi^,

plea's

eKeKpdyer

fj

S'

aXwirr}^,

Spajuovcra kuI Xa/3ou(ra

Kpea^,

ecprj

xpo? auTov "E^et?, Kopa^, aTravTa, voOg

Se

Xelirei.

(J 01

to

THE CITY MOUSE AND THE COUNTRY MOUSE.

28.

Mi/f dpovpaiog darTiKw yiverai


(ptXiav

/meydXceg

'TTiG'TOv/uievo?,

TrpwTOs

cpiXoi;

fivC,

aypov tov

et?

kol

t^j*

acTTiKov

irapeXdix^avev, kol ^evlav avTo) TrapeTiOei koi Tpdire^aj/,

Se Trjv Peviav 6 cKrTiKos,


^ev, Koi elg

Se

Twv

ets

djuei/Soiuevoi

ckxtu tov apovpaiov eKOjui-

dvSpog eviropov TrapeXdju^avev oIkov wj

ovToov

dveKOTTTe'

ovTO

dypov

(bepeiv olSe toI^ evoiKoucriv

}]St}

/cat

7relpa9,

TrpocraTTTecrOai ^OeXov, Trpoa-iwv tis

ToaavTOLKig
ocraKig

TOig o^^oig dirriXavv-

T/79 ev

jueTaXafx(3aveiv'

eireipcovTO

TeXeuTuiov 6 dpovpaiog,

"A.Trei/u.i,

ecprj, Trjv

ev

Kai

dypoig

TrpoTifXMV fxeTpiOTrjTa T^g ev acrTei Tpvcprjg

29.

THE FROGS ASKING A KING.

JiaTpavoi, XvTTOvfxevoi
TTpecr^eig

eireju^av Trpog

Trepi

Tijg

eavTUfv avap-^iag,

tov Ala, ^aariXea auTOii

7rapaa"veiv 6 Se cruviSwv avTwv t^v ewjOeiav, ^uXov


ig Tfjv Xlfivrjv

KaOrJKev Kat ol ^UTpa-^oi, to fxev irpcoTOV

KaTairXayevreg tov y^6(pov,


eSOcrav vcTTepov Se,
CIS

co?

eig

aKivrjTOv ^v

Ta ^ddr}

Trjg Xifxvtii

to ^vXov, avaouvTeif

TocrovTOv KUTadipov^aecog ^XOov, wg koi eiri^aivovTei

9IBST 6KEEK BEADEB.

avTw

ava^ioiraOovvTe^

iiriKaOe^ea-Oar

eyeiv ^aa-tXea,

123
toiovtop

^e

K Seirrepov irpo^ tov Ala, Koi

Tjkov

TOVTOv TrapeKoXovv aWd^ai avroig tov ap'^tiyov tov

yap

irporrov \iav

Zei;?,

ayavaKTrjo-aq

eivai

koi aooKifiov

voi-^eXij

kut avTwv, vSpov avTOi9

6 o

xe/\|ri,

ov (rvWafi^avofievoi KaTTja-Oiovro.

i(p

MEECT7KY AND THB STATUABY.

30.

'^pfiij?
OpcoTTOi^

ecTTiVy

tjparra,

Spaj^/j-fj^'

eiTTovTog Se,

Koi vofiicrag,

owog,

eis

Ka\

Eaj/ TovTOvg

avTov' 6

c)i/i/(7j7,

kavrov

el-

ayaXfia tov Aio^,

Tlocov to

tou Se

tjJ? "11^09,

to kaxrrov dyoXayyeXog eari Qewv kou Kep-

TrXeiovog, iSoov Kai

a)? eTreiSij

irepi

av-

irplaaOai SvvaTai

yeXdcra^,

TToXvv avTov irapa

Xoyov, rjpero

irap

Ti/nrj

ayaXjuaTOTTOiou,

deacrafxevo^

tU avTO

iroa-ov

eiTTovTo?,

fia,

^Kev

avQpwTTU)'

KCLcras

ecprj'

yvwvai ^ov\6/JL6vo^ iv Tin

/cat

Tots

&

tovtqv

SECTION

dvOpooTroig

eivai

dyaX/j.aTOTroio^
irpocrQriKriv <roi

tov

^(p^l)

SiSw/u.

IV.

DIALOGUES OF LUCIAN.
1.

DIALOGUE

1.

DIALOGUES OF THE DEAD.

CHAEOX, MEXTPPUS, A>T) HERMES,


(Mercury.)

XA. 'A-TTo'^oy, w KaTapaTc, to. TropOfieia.


ME. Boa, ei TovTO croi ^Siov, w ^dpcov.
XA, 'A-n-o^o?, (p^fii, dvO' <av <re Sieiropd/uLevo'dfjLTjp,
ME. OvK dv Xd^oig Trapd tov
eyovTog.
XA. EcTTt <Je Tig o^oXov
e-)(U)v\
firj

fxr}

FIRST GREEK READER.

124

ME.

Ei

XA, Kat imrjv ay^oo


t]V fit]

10

ns, ovk olSa^ eyu) Se ovk

fiev Koi a'AXo?

tov TlXovrcova, w

cre, vr]

fxiapi,

aTTOOW^.

ME.

Ka-yo) T(p ^vX(a

-Trara^a?

crov

SiaXva-oo

to

Koaviov.

XA.
ME.

MaT7i/ ouv

'O

TrapeoooKe

15

'^pfirj^

TreTrXeu/cw? toctovtov ttXovv',

virep

croL

e/jiou

cnroSoTCO, os

ixi

croi.

N^

'EP.

ecrt]

Ala,

ye,

uivafxriv

ei

fiiXkoo koi

virepeK-

TLVeiV TOOV vcKpcov.

XA. Ovk a7ro(TTWO/J-cii


ME. TovTOV ye eveKa

to

veojX/cjycra?

ttXw aXX' o ye

Trapajiieve'

20

crov.

e'^co, ttco?

fxr]

XA. 2y ^' ou/c ^'^et? 0)9 KO/mi^ea-Qai


ME. "HtiJeii/ ^teV, oy/c er)(Ov ^e- rt
TOVTO

fxr]

TropOfieiov,

av Xa^oi^;

Siov',

ovv; eyji^v Sia

a.7ro6auiv\

av-)(^(reis TrpotKU TreTrXevKevai;


XA. M0V09
ME. Oj) TTpoiKa, w ^iXria-re- koi yap i'lvrXticra,
oi5i/

25 Kal

rrjg

Kcoirr]^

a-vveireXajSofJi.ijv,

Kal ovk eKXaov

fiov^

TU)V aXXcov eTTi/SaTcov.

XA.

OvSev ravra

a-KoSovvai

30

ME.
XA.

ov

ere 8el-

yap

Xeyeis,

TropOfieia-

Qe/xi^

OvKovv airdyaye

Hdpcev

ra

irpoq

fxe

rov 6^0X0

aXXoos yevea-Oar

avOi^ is rov ^lov.


Ka\ irXnyds eiri

'iva

tovt

Trapa tov Am/cou irpocrXajiw.

35

ME.
XA.
ME.
XA.

M>7

ev6-)(Xei ovu.

Ael^ov Ti
Qepfxovs,

ev Trj irrjpa e^eii.


el OiXeis,

JloOev TOVTOV

Kal Ttjs 'E/ccitj;?

^fxcv,

'E^o/x^,

to Seixvi^

TOV Kvva v^ayeft

tf

KIEST GREEK READER.

rov ttXovv, twv eiri^arwv tcou

ina 0 Koi eXaXei irapa


airain-cov

126

KarayeXcov, Kol eTrKrKooTrTwv, koi fxovos aSoov,

oijULcaTovrcov eKclvcov'^

'EP.
era?;

w Xaofov, ovTiva avSpa

^A.yvoels,

SieTropOiuev-

owToy 40

eXevOepov aKpl^u)s, KovSevos avT(p fteXer

ear IV 6 MewTTTro?.

XA. Kaf firju av ere \a^(o ttotc


ME. *A.v Xd^r]^, ^iXTicTTe' S^i
DIALOGUE

2.

Se ovk avXd^oi^.

PLUTO, MENIPPUS, MIDAS,

CEffiSUS,

AND SARDANAPALUS.

KP. Ov

(bepo,ueu,

rov Kvva irapoiKovvra)

IIA. Tt

KP.

^' u/>ta?

'Exef^ctJ/

/niKTiov,

twv

fifia^

M/e^a?

OTevoo^ev^

Koi

oliJ-wTwixev,

^apSavairaXos Se

KaOdpimaTa

cKeivov ttoi fieracrrrja-ov,

dvu),

TU)v Otjcravpoov, eiriyeXa


al

rj

Seivov epyouCerai, ofioveKpo^ wv\


rjixeh

fxejuvTifxevoi

':klvcov

TlXovroov, MeViTTTroi/ tovtovI

uxrre

eh erepov roirov.

fxeTOiKrjcroixev

ij/xeis

fiev

ovTocrl

tou

TroXXrjs Tpv<pt]9, eyco

Trjs

Kal e^oveiollCei, avSpuTroSa

UTroKaXuiv.

evloTe oe koi

aScoVy

irirapaTTei ^/xwv ra? oijULwya^' Kai oXeos, XvTrtjpos ean. 10

w M.emnre',

IIA. Tt Tuvrd

(batriVf

ME.

TLXovTcov

"1$

Kai

cucwg,

Vovrm

^A.Xt]6i], CO

oXeOplovs ovrag,

dXXd

Kal diroOavovres

TU)v dvco.

IIA.

ols

'AXX'

-^^aipco

ov XP^'

jULicru)

ydp

avrovg, dyev-

ovk aTre-^tjcre

en

/ucejuvijin-ai,

roiyapovv

fSiwi^ai

kuI irepii-

dvicov avrovs.

Xuxoi/KTat

ydp

ov fxiKpcov

rrepovfjLevot.

ME. Kat
}V

(TV

fxoopaiveig,

T0?9 TOVTCov aTevayjuLots'i

TlXovTCOVf 6fi6y^i](poi

15

FIRST GREEK READER.

126

ME. Kal
Kai

fii^u,

A.(T(TvpLwVi ovTco

fiov ev9a

25

aXX

IIA. Oi/oa/Awy

20

yap av

ovk av eOeXoifii (rracridl^eiv

A^vScov,

KOLKia-TOi

yipuxTKere,

'Irjre,

Koi,

ovSe

co9

aKoXovOrjcrw,

^pvydoVf

irava-off.evav

ai/iooVf

koi Kara.'

Ka\ Karayekwv.

Sdov,

KP. Tavra ov-^


OuK' aXX

ME.

TrpotrKwelaQaL

v^pi^;
eKelva v^pi? ^v, a

a^iovvres,

Kai ToO OavaTov

UTpu(p(iovT$f

30 aopeuovres' TOiyapovu

v/xeig iiroieiTe,

eXevOepois

Kal

avSpd<nv

TO irapdirav ov

oifMca^ecrOe,

fxvij-

irdvrwv eKelvcov dcpi^

prjfxevoi.

35

KP.

IIoXXwj/ ye,

MI.

Ocrov

fieu iyco

Oeoi, koi fxeydXcov KTtjfxaToov.

^vcrov.

2A.

Ocrt]^ Se eyco rpvcbtjs.

ME.

tjvye,

eyco oe,

aofiai

to

"

outoo

oSvpecrOe

iroLeire.

VvwOi aavTOv" TroXXaKis


TrpeTroi

vjuiiv.

[xev

vjueli'

a-vveipwv, eira-

yap av Tah roiavTaiq

oijuooyaii

eiraSoiJ.evov.

DIALOGUE

ZH. 2y
ixev

3.

ZENOPHANTUS AND CALLIDEIHDES. Im

Se,

}^aXXiS}]/ULlSr],

ttw? OLTreOave^;

yap, oTi TrapaariTOs dv Aecvlov, TrXeov tov

enKpaycov, aTreirvlyijv, olcrOa-

Traprj^

yap

iyt

iKavox

diroOv^aKOVT'

fJLOl.

KA.

Tlaprjv,

Ti eyevcTO'

do

Z}]v6(pavTe'

olaOa yap Ka\

crv

to

<5'

irov

e/uov TrapaSo^o,

JlTOioooopov to

yepovTa.

ZH. Tov
'^deiv

OLTCKVOV,

TOV

TrXovCTLOV,

(TC

TU

TfoXXi

(TvvovTa;

FIRST GSEEE HEADER.

KA.
'-

^tjKeivov avTOV aei iOepaTrevov, viricr^vov/xepog \Q

efJLol

TeOv^^eaOai.

Tiva oSop

top

ouT^crfj irieiv

eujSaXovra
avTW'

pai

oe

top KKtjpop

eirl

papfjLaKOP, ap7rei(ra

WroioScopog

iirei

to irpay/Ma

top TiOwvov 6 yepcov

erelveTO, kai virep


Luu

127

e^t]vpoP'

eg juli^kiotov
eT>;, eTr/ro-

Trpid/J-epog

yap

oIvo'^oop, eTreiSctP rd'^KXTa 6

iripei

o eTrieiKwg X.wpoTepov 16

avTO, Koi

e? kvXiko, ctoijuop eyeip

eiri-

Se tovto Troirjaei, eXevOepop eTray/xo-

el

TdUTjp a(pt]<Teip avTov.

ZH. Tt

ovp eyepero', iraw

yap

Ti traoaSo^ov ioeiv

'

oiKag.

KA.

20

'Exet TOiPVP Xovcrafxepoi

r,KOiiev,

Svo

IjSt]

ieipoKiprKog KvXtKag eroi/JLOvg e-^oop^ ttiv /xev Tut Y\.toioicpy

Trjp e-^ovcrap

ryaXcJf

to

oxwy,

Old

ovK

(pdpfJLOKOP, Ti]V
e/zot

fiep

& erepap
to

riroio^wpu) Se Ttjp acpapfiaKTOP eireSwiKeP'


oe

eyu)

~:vep'

\i/j.at09

avTiKa fxaXa

dpT cKeipov peKpog.


KOI

.6(paPTe',

ixrjp

iicTaofjp

T/

efj.oi,

(pap/JLOKOP,

eiTa 6 jxep 26

eKei/j.T]p

inro-

tovto', ye\agf

ovk eSei ye eraipu) avSpl

eirt-

yeXap.

^A-orela yap,

7,}r[.

J^aWiSrjfxiSi],

ireTropOag.

6 30

yepwv Se, ti irpog TavTa',

KA.

TLpcoTOP

'ra (Tvpeig,
jia lie

fxep

oifiai,

to

vireTapayOrj irpog
yeyeprj/mepop,

to

ai(j)vioiop.

eyeXa koI avros

6 oiPO-)(oog etpyaarai.

ZH.

TiXrjp dXX' ovSe ae ttip eTriTOjULOP e-^rjp

yQai'

^Ke

repop,

ei

yap ap

<roi

Sia

Tfjg

koi oXlyu) ^paSvTepov.

Tpa- 35

Xeaxpopov a(r<pa\-

FIRST GREEK READER.

128

DIALOGUE

4.

PLUTO, PKOTESILAUS, AND PERSEPHONE


(Proserpine).

HP. 'O
Kai

ceariroTai

^acriXev, koi

/cat

Ovjarep,

d^rifirjrpo^

(TUf

fitj

^/ixiTepe

virepiSrjre

Zeu,

Serjariv

ipWTlKlJV.

II A.

HP.

Ziv oe Tivcov

^fxoov

wv Tvy-

T19

t]

Et/zf juev TIpwTea-cXaos 6 'I<^//cXou, ^vXaKio^,

twv Ayaiwv,

(rv(rTpaTiu>Tt]s
eir

Trap'

Set]

'lA/to*

koi irpwrog cnrodavoDv

Seofiai SefCKpeOels Trpog oXiyov,

rwv

ava^Lowai

iraXiv.

10

IIA. TovTOv
IIP.
yvvaiKos

Tov

fxev

TravTeg vefcpoi epwcrr

AX\

ov TOV

oe,

veoya/mov

rju

^j/j/,

/xeTpLbO'i aTTOKvaiei

Kav Trpos oXlyov

IIA. OvK
IIP. Ka<
20 oyKov

[xe,

/maXa,

w
w

t>/s

UTro^dcret

KaKOf^aiiu!.oov ev Tij

Ttjg

Sea-iroTa' koi

6(j)9eis avTtj,

eVte?,

eywye,

ev tco OaXa/ixo) KaraXiTrm',

15 aireBavov vtto tov ' rjKTopo^' 6 ovv epcog


ov

JlpcoTecriXac,

av avToou Tvyoi.

A'i^ddvev, epu)

en

etVa o

^"Xpfirjv CLTroTrXecov

epcora,

TrXrjv ovoelg

yvvaiKo^

^ovXofxai,

KaTa^rjvai TrdXtv.

U pMTea-iXae, tq

A^6t]s vScop

oecnroTa' to Se irpayiJ.a virep-

rjv.

IIA. (JvKovv

Ttepifieivov

acbi^eTai

yap

eKeii'r}

TTOTe, Koi ovoev ere aveXQelv Serjcrei.

IIP.
ripaaOri^

26

AXX

ov (pepoa Tijv SiaTpi^^v,

oe KaL

avTog

/;^>;,

Koi,

w TiXovTcov

olaOa oiov to epdv

ecTTiv.

HA.
fier

Efra

oXiyov

Ti

(re

ovrjcrei

ixlav

to. uvto. oSvpovfievov

rjixepav ava/3iu)vai,

FIRST GREEK READER.

TIP. 07fxai

riA. Ov

irela-eiv KaKeivrjv

aKoXovOeiv Trap*

ravra,

yeveaOai

OejULi^

129

ovSe

v/ias'

yeyove 30

TTCOTTOre.

nP.

'Ava/ivjjo-w

ere,

S UXovtcov

^Opcpei yap, Si

avTr]v TavTTip TTjv aiTiav Ttiv nivpvoiKTjv irapeooTe, Kai

'UpoKkei

Tt]v ojULoyevt] jULov " AXKi](mv TrapeirejJ.yjfaTe,

35

^apuCo^evoi.

IIA. QeKryrei?

Se,

Trpouoy^eTai

KCLKelvr]

cbojSijcreTai
eat]

yap,

are,

(pavrjvai

Siayvwvai

ovSe

ttw? oe

ovvaf/.evri

ev olSa, koi (pev^eral ere' kul fiaTtjv

4"

TOcravT^v oSov aveXjjXvOu)^.

IIE. OvKOvv, w

avep,

crh

'Epjurjv KeXetcrov, cTreiSav ev

Xaos

T],

KaQiKOfxevov

koi tovto lacrai, Kai rov

tw

IIA.

(poyri

t^ pd^Scp,

airepyaaaa-Oai airrov, 0109 ^v

TOP

wv, xai

ovToo Koaviov yvfivov

afiopcpov, Trj KoXrj crov Keivi] vvfiKprj

e/c

>jorj

6 ilpayrea-i-

veav'iav evOv^ KciXou

tou

iraiTTOv.

ETreJ Tiepcre(p6vr] auvtiOKet, avayaylav tov- ^5

avOis,

TToirja-ov

w/j-cpiov

av Se

fiefivricro

fxlav

Xa/3a)v rifxepav.

DIAIOGUE

5.

iEACIJS,

PEOTESILAUS, MENELAUS,

AND

PARIS.

AX. T/
irecrwv

ayyei^,

nP. Ori
(lev

ll pwrecriXae, ttjv 'EXevrjv irpoo"-

',

Sia ravTrji',

w Am/ce,

TOU oojuov KaTaXi-tTwv,

j^jjpav

aTreOavov, ^fxiTeXr}

Se ttjv veoya/xov

yvvaiKa.

AI.

5
AiTift)

TOLWv TOV MeveXaov, ooti?

ToiavTtjs yvvouKog eiri

Tpolav

r^yayev.

vfjt.as

inrep

FIRST GBEEK READER.

130

IIP. Ej) \eyei9' ckcivov

]ME. OvK

e/Ae,

aiTiareov.

juoi

aWa

/SeXriCTTe,

SiKaiorepov

Tot'

10 Tldpiv, o? ifiou Tov ^evov t>V yvvaiKa irapa iravra to.

SUaia M'^ero

apiracra^'

yap

oiTog

aXX' VTTO iravToov '^XKrjvdov re

ayyeadai to(tovtois Bavarov

nP.

"Afxeii/ov ovToo'

15 OVK acp^cro) Trore

e/c

IIA. 'Aot/ca
o^ore-^vov ovra
T(p

avTM

ecTTL,

Oeo)

Kai Tig

Avcrirapi,

yap

Kai avTO<;

otada e
ayei,

Salfxcov

ravTa,

Kal

TlpcoTecriXae,

(S

epcoTiKog

KaTea-^rjfxar
rifxag

-^etpoov.

TTOiMu,
<tol,

Bap^dpcov apio^

aLTiois yeyevrjfxevo^.

roiyapovv,

ere

twv

ov-^ viro crov /novoVi

/cat

ijuii,

Kat

aKoucriov Ti

cog

euOa dv e0eX>;- Ka]

20 douvaTOV ecTTiv dvTiTdTTeaOai avTW.

nP.

El) Xeyeig'

elOe ovv juoi tov "E^ocoTa evTavOa

Xa/Seiv SvuaTov ^v.

AI. 'Eyco
Ta
25

oiKaia'

'iaoog

yeyevrja-Qai

dWov,

Ka\ inrepTov

yap avTog

yvuaiKog,

'EpwTog

/mev

diroKpLvov/xai

tov epdv

tw Wdpi^i

tov Oai/dTOV Se

a'lTios'

YlpooTeaiXae, ^

to

veoyd/xov

ovTW

(TQi

(brjcrei

eirei

are

croi

ovSeva

avTov, og eKXaOo/mevog

irpocrecpepecrOe

Trjg

TpcodSif

Trj

<piXoKivouv(t)g Ka] dirovei/orjiueucog TrpoeTr^otjcrag to)p

dXXcov, vd^r]g epacrQelg, Sl

rjv

irpwTog iv

Trj

diropacrei

30 aTreQaveg.

nP.
Kpivovixai

GvKovv

Kcti

inrep e/navTOv aoi,

SiKaioTcpa

ov

yap eyw

oo

Ata/ce, aTro-

tovtoov

a'lTiog^

aXX
fioipUf KOI TO ^ dp-)(r]g ovTiag eTriKeKXSxrOai.
AI. ^Opdwg. t/ OVV TOVTOvg aiTia
fj

FIRST

DIALOGUE

GREEK BEADES.

HERMES AND CHARON.

6.

*EP. AoyKTw/JieOaf
aoi

ocpeiXei^

IlopO/xev, el SoKei, oTrocra

uh avOi^

oxft)y

rjSrjy

131

ti

epcl^cojuiev

irepi

avTcov.

XA.

Aoyia-wfieOa,

'^pfxrj-

afieivov

yap wpiaOai

jrepi avTO)V, xai aTroay novicrrepov.

'EP*

irevre ^po.^-

"A-yicvpav ipTeiXafievw eKOfiicra

uwv.

XA.

IIoXXou

'EP.

N^

Xe'yet?.

Tov 'AiScovea, rcov TreWe

Kai

winja-afMfjv,

10

rpoTrcoTrjpa Svo o^oXcov.

XA.

TlOei irivre Spa-^/xdg, koi o^oXov^ Svo.

'EP. Kat

(iKecTTpav

tov

inrep

1(ttIov,

irevre

o^oKov^ eyu) KaTejSaXov.

XA. Kat TOVTOv^ TrpooTiOei.


'EP. Kat Kt]pov 0)9 eirnrXdaai tov
avewyoTa, nai ^Xof?

virepav eTroirja-a^

Tig

T]

r\vv

ti

TToXe/xoy

w
ev

r]fj.a<;

dSvvaTOV

'EpjuLtj,

tw

rjv

SieXaOev
(bt]^

20

Se Xoijuog

dOpoovg Tivdg,

KaTaTre/xy^rj

T0T6 ctTTOKepSavai

dXXo

ovv TavT dTToSwaeiv

TTOTe

fxev,

tj/v

wv^trco.

jjlt]

XA.

dcf)'

ov

Svo Spa-^/JLwv airavTa.

XA. Eyye, a^ia TavTa


'EP. TavTo. eoTiv, el
ev Tcp Xoyi(TfJL(f'

ra 15

(TKa(pioiov

KaXwSiov,

Koi

<5e,

evicrrai

TrX^Oei TrapaXoyilCdfiCvov to.

TTOpOueia.

'EP. Nyv ovv


vog yevecrdai,

XA.

eyo) KaOeSovfiai to.

KwcKTra

evyo/Jie-

w? av airo tovtwv diroXavoifxi.

(jvK ecTTiv aXXft)?,

opqs, a(piKvovin-ai ^fiiv

CO

'En/x^* vvv

elprjvij

yap.

S'

oXlyoi,

a5

25

FIRST GREEK REA.DER.

32

'EP.
30

orov

TO

" A.ixeivov OUT009, el Koi ^fiiv TrapaTeivoiTO vrro


irXi^v

b(pi\r]juia.

olcrOa

aXX

irapeyivovTO,

oloi

avaTrXeo), koi rpav/narlai oi TroXXor vvv Se,

Ti? VTTO Tov TraiSoi airoOapuiv,


VTTO

rpvcprji

36 w-^oi

yap

r]

viro

5/

aifiaro^
(hapfxa.K(a

yvvaiKos,

Ttjs

rhv yacrrepa, koi

e^uiStjKuig

^dpcov,

oi juev iraXaioi, co

avopeioi airavTe^,

to.

axaj/rep, koi ayevveh, ovSe ojnoioi

01 oe TrXelcTTOi avrcov,

evovTCs aXXijXoi?,

via

-yjirjiJiaTa

ijKovcriu,

a-KeXt]'
e/ceiVof?"

ctti^ovX-

cos eoiKacri.

XA. Tlaw yap TrepiTroOrjTa. ecrri Tavra.


'EP. OvKOvv ovS^ eyoo So^aifxi av a/xapTaveiv^
40 Kpm OLTraiToov ra ScpeiXojmeva Trapa aov.

in-

DIALOGUES OF THE GODS.

2.

DIALOGUE

ZE.

rj

7.

ZEtJS

AND HERMES.

Triv TOV ^Ivdyov iralca Trjv KoXrjv oltrOa^

'^pM\
'EP. Na/'

ZE. OvK
5

Trjv

'let)

Xeyei^.

TL 7rai9 eKcivt] eaTiv,

'EP. TepdcTTLOv TovTO'


Zil^.

TitjXoTvinjcraa-a

ciXXd Kai Kaivov

KaKoSaijuovr

dXXo

jSovkoXov

rj

dXXd

T(p TpoTTU)

"Upa,

tl Seipov

Tivd

^'

SdfxaXi^.

cv^XXayr]',

jueTe/BoXev

avTrjv

eTriime/JLij^avijTai

TroXvofxixaTov,

t;

Apyov

Tovvoixa, eTrecTTtja-ev, as vejuei Trjv SdfxaXiv, avTrvog wv.


10

'EP. Ti

ovv

>]fids ')(pr] TTOielv',

Zi^. J^aTaTTTafievog

'Apyos ^ovKoXei

e? Ttjv

Ne^eav

e/ce?

Se ttov o

cKelvov fxev cnroKTeivov Trju oe To)

^la TOV ireXdyovs e? Tijv A'lyvTTTOv uTrayaycop, ^Icriv


TTolrjcroi'.

KUi ToXoiTTOv ecrTco Oeos TOt$ eKer

kui tov


FIEST GREEK READER.

NaXov

avayeroo, koi tovs ave/uLOVs

<ra)lCeT(o

Touy xXeovra?.

DIALOGUE

8.

"H^. Ti

133
eTr/TTCyU'jreTft),

HEPH^STUS {Vulcan) AND ZEUS


w

jULe,

ZieVf

iroielv

-yjiri

rov ireXeKW o^ututov,

CKeXeva-a^f e^yuiv

15

(Jupiter).

rjKUi

/cat

yap,

&>?

Kai \i6ov

0601 fxia irKrjyrj oiaTe/xeiv.


'ZiEi.

Euye,

\i]v e/y ovoy

"H*!*.

(a

Jleipa

fxov,

Se

aWa

ueWeiv

fjLov Trjv

K(pa-

ov

-^h

SiaipeOtjual juot

ovv

S*

to KpavLOv

ei

irpurrov opyi^o/j.ei'ov ireipaarr}

vvv

KadiKve'icrOai

yap

airoWv/xai

irpoa^aTre

yevecrOai.

croi

TouTO avTO

aireiOyjcrei^,

fjLov

oieXe

5
^li/JLrjva

TuXjjOe?, oTrep OeAet?


ZiEi.

aWa

"Hcbaicrre.

KaTeveyKwv.

irairri

tw

Ou/jlw,

w^lvoov,

viro

<xt

fioi

/iijSe

10

tov

yK(pa\oi' avaoTpecpovcriv.

"H^. "Opa,
yap

(a

Zey,

EtXiJ0u/ai/, /j.aiu)<TTai

ZE.
yap

H^.
(TOV

to

15

"Hcbaicrre,

"Akoov
j

fieu, KaTOi(T(o

tovto

ti

',

Se'

ti

TavTa evoirXov

Xi/v eXeXi^Oei^

ej^wv

rj

rj-jrov

yap

etVoTftj?

Tr]\iKavTi]v vtto Tij fxtjuiyyi

Kai

Oappwv ol^a
j^prj

Kopt] evoirXos

Zev, KUKOV ef^ey ev rp Ke(pa\ri'

vo)v,

d^i/y

ovoe Kara ttjv

(Tv/uLCpepov.

KeXevovTOS

^(xOa,

Trou^a-tofiev

avaijucoTi,

are.

J^ariveyKe fxovov,

eylo

kojcov ti

fit]

ecm, koi ovk

6 TreXeKvg

',

Troielvj

M-eya,

(o

yovv o^vdvfio^ 20

irapQevov iwoyo-

aTpaToireoov, ov Ke(pa-

Se TnjSa, kcu Trvppi-^l^et, koi Ttjv

aarinoa Tivacrcrei, koi to Sopv TrdWei, koi evOovcria'


KOI

TO

fiiyicTTOv, KaXt]

iraw koi

ev ppayel' yXavKunrii ixivy

ciK/maia yeyivrjTai

aXXa

Koa-fxel koi

fjor]

tovto

tj

25

FIKST GREEK READER.

134

waTe,

Kopvi}'
ijorj

Zeu, fxaicoTpd

ctf

airoSoi eyyv^aai

fxoi

avTrjv.

ZE. 'A^wara

aireig,

'

co

Hd)at(7Te* trapdivo^

ovv to ye eir

30 ael eOeXijaei fxeveiv eyu) o

yap
ovSev

efiol

avTiXeyo).

"H$. Tout
KOI

r'jSr]

TiEi.

elSovXofxrju.

fieX^aei

e/no).

to.

Xonrd'

(rvvapiracTW avTtjv.
Ei'

paSioVf outoo

croi

xo/er

otSa oti

TrXijv

35 dSwoLTcov epa^.

DIALOGUE

9.

ZEUS, ^SCULAPIUS, AND HERACLES


(Hercules).

ZE.

TiavcacrOe,

'Acr:X/7rie KOi

'H^oa/cXei?,

epi-

^ovTeg TTpos dWijXovg coanrep dvOpcoTror dirpeTrtj

yap

to

TavTa, KOI dXXoTpia tov

'HP. 'AXXa

eOeXeis,

5 TrpoKaTaKXivea-Oal juov

A^.

N;; A/a-

'HP. Kara
eKepavvwcrev,

Zed, tovtou] tov (papfxaKea

Ka). afxeivcov

r/,
imt]

crvfnroa-iov toov Oeoiv.

Oe/nig

A2.
O'lTrj

^^TriXeXyjcrai

yap

KaTacpXeyeig, oti

'HP. OuKovv
fiev vlog

eifii,

/3iov, Orjpia

'icra

iroLovvTa,

av6i9 dOavaa-las fieTelXrjcha^

10

yap

efx^p6in-r]T

eifxi.

v ^ioti
vvv

Se

ere

6 Zeyy

kut eXeov

koi

'H^oa/fXet?, ev Ttj

crv, co

fxoi opeiSl^eis

to

irvp

Ka\ ofxoia ^e/BicoTai ^juiw o?

TOcravTa Se

ireirovriKa

A/o?

eKKaQaipoov top

KaTaycoviT6juevo9, koi dv6pu>7rov9 v^piaTug

15 TifioypovjULeuo^' crv Se piToToiJios el Ka\ dyvpTrjg, voaovai


fiev
Kcou,

((Tftjf

'A2.
OTI

av6pu>7roi9 yjprjcrifxog eig ewiOecnv

dvSpwSes Se ovSev
E(} Xeyei^'

irpcarjv

twv

(papina-

eTrioeoeiy/uiepos.

oti <tov

Ta eyKavjmaTa

dvrjXOeg ^fi[<pXeKT0$ vir

iacrdfir]v,

dfidioiv Sic(pdap'

FIKST GREEK EEADEE.


tte'vo?

TO

tov ^iTu>voi,

awfJLa, Kai

TTuoo?"

iyto

ucnrep

crv,

Se

koI

et

135
fx-era

/cat

aWo,

/jLtjSev

tovto tov 20

ovre eoovXeva-a

ovre e^aivov epia ev Auo/a iropcpvploa

i/SeSvKW9,

Koi

aavSaXo}-

aXX

viro

Traioiiievog

^0/x(paXr]^ yj}v<TW

rrjg

ovSe /ueXay^oXjyo-a? aireicTeiva to. tckvu

26

Kai Ttjv yvvaiKa.

'HP. Ef
fMoXa

apdfJLevog
fiTjSe

/u^

are,

XoiSopovfievos

irava-t]

wg ov ttoXv

etcrr],

pi^w

ere

ovrjaei.

TOV Tlaicova laaaa-Oai

ere,

fJ^oi,

aQavaaia'

rf

eirei

tov ovpavov, wcrre

K(paXT]v ck

eiri

avriKU

to Kpaviov avvrpi-

Bevra.

ZE.

30
WaxxracrOe,

Tt]v avvoucriav,

ku).

jULtj

eiriraparTere

afxcborepovs airoTreix-^o/JLai

kuitoi euyvay/xopy

avjULTrocriov

KXlveaQai

rj

(br]/j.i,

aov tov

(a

rj/xiv

vna.<s

tov

'UpaKXei^, irpoKUTa-

^A.(rK\tjTri6v,

utc kui irpoTepov


35

airoOavovTa.

DIALOGUE

10.

'EP. "EcTTt yap


aOXiurrepo^ e/xov

MA. M^
'EP. Ti

T<?,

CO

urJTep,

iv

ovpavw Oeog

Xeye,
fir]

HERMES AND MAIA.

'E^o/x^,

Xe-yto,

o?

toiovtov

fitjSev.

Toaavra TrpdyfiaTa

ftovos KOfivcov, Koi. irpo9 TOcravTaq vTnjpea-lag

uevog

ecoOev fxev

irocriov

oer

/cat

yap e^avaaravTa
SiacTTpuxravra

TJ/txarra tc eKaa-Ta, Trapecrrdi'ai

Ta^ ayyeXia^ Tag irap avTov


fiovvTa'

Kai

tw

KXicriav,

Att", irat

(tv/m-

evOe-

Siacbepecv

avco Kai KaTco ^fiepoSpO'

Kai e-TraveXOovTa Irt KCKOvifievov TrapaTiQivai 10

TTjv ajuL^Spoaiav Trp\v Se


t]Kiv,

caipeiv to

tt]v

e^(D,

Siacnrce-

TO veKTap

tov vcwvtjtov tovtov otvowoov

eyia eveyeov

to Se

ttolvtoov Seivo-

rmsT greek reader.

136

on

rarov,

aXKa

Tore tw TIXovtmvi

Kal

15 veKpoTTO/uLirou elvai, koi Trapecrrdvai

yap

iKavd

Kav

elvai,

Toi^

KOLod(jKeLv,
l~iepi(TiJ.evov'

20

KaiTOi

eicacrTrjv rj/xepav

Koiov.

Koi

yvvaiKwv

01

/ULev

25 vuv apTi rjKOVTO.

OvyaTpos,
Trah,

r]

ecp

ra

[xev

iu.r]oe

koi

^oicanav,
oAft)?

dv

^Secos

koi

Troieiu

SeyueX???

Se

ijuol

elcr'iv

avay-

viol,

e/c

avrocg' Kal

cnrb ^iSoouog Tcapa nji

l^dSjuov

Trewo/mcpe jue o'^ofxevov o Ti TrpaTTei

Aavdrju.

Ttjv

auOis e?

TreTrojuLCpev

clt

to

eKelBev es

eXOcov, ev TrapoSo) rrjv ^ A^vnoTrtju iSe.

airr^yopevKa
ri^iwcra

aSov

KOLKelva

fie-

irap

evwyovvTai a.(pp6unS(;'

dvairvevcravTa,

(prja-lu,

eu

rj

ravTa

AXk/xijuj^s

"A.pyog eTTLdKe-^oinevov

30 KOI

prjropag

Aj/^a? reKva,

Tt]9

^A.TXai/T[oog SiaKovovfxai
fxe

rjv

TraXaia-rpaig

koi

koi veKpiKo. crvuSiaTrpaTTeiv

ovcttijpcov yev6iJ.evoL,

Ma/a9 r^?

6 Se

^iKacTTrjplu)' ov

iv

KtjpvTTeiv,

eKKXtja-iais

aXy en

yp^v^aycoyeiv, koi

tm

^/mepag epya,

Tijs

eKUTepos ev ovpavcp

riij.epav

KaO

ra

/uoi

twv aWoov,

vvkto? KaOevSo) fxovo^

lurjSe

Set jue

}]rj.

yovv

fxai

oocnrep

ol

el

TreirpacrdaL,

Svvarou
ev

>;/,

y^ KaKwg

SovXevovreg.

MA. "Ea
ereiv

tm

ravra, w tckvov -^i] yap irdvra vinip-

irarpi,

35 ^0>/9, aro^ei

eig

veaviav

ovtw

"Apyog, elra

e?

kuI vuv wcnrep eireix-

rhv Boicoriav,

TrXriyaq ^paSvvcov Xa/3oi9* o^J^oAoi

DIALOGUE

11.

yap

/ut]

Kal

oi epcovreq.

THE CYCLOP POLYPHEMUS AND POSEIDON


{Neptune).

KY'. ^Q

iraTep, oia tre-Trovda inro tou

^evov, OS /JLeOvcras e^ervcpXcocre


pYia-ag.

(xe,

Karaparou

KOifxcafxev^ eirf^^ei'

FIRST GKEEK READEK.

no. Tig
KY. To

raura ToXfi^aag,

^u 6

S'

no.

OlSa ov

KY.

Xeyeig,

tov

tto)?

tout'

^lOoK^criov'

tirpa^ev,

ev tu) avrpio, airo T^g vofi^g ava-

Se

i-jre]

ecrri

yap

eireOtjKa

TrafjLfxeyed/]g)

koi

evav(rd/xevog o eipepov Sevopou diro

r^ dupa to Trw/xa
to irvp aveKavaa,
tov opovg,

UTroKpuTTTeiv auTovg ireipd/J-evor eylaoe


(ticnrep

eiKog

'EvTavOa 6 iravovpyoraTog
fxev KOI

euocTfJiov,

eKelvog,

irie'iv

crOrjv.

'O

TTpocreTi,

TvcpXog

no.

TO

Se, OLTTO^vvag

ov

yap

ireTpav diro

KY.
e^iovra-

koi

KaTccnrd-

koi

cltt

CKelvov 25

ttocreiSov.

'O

av, ey olo

Trjg

'AAX'

TrepKpepearOai

eg vttvov

KaOevSovTa'

K0ijui.i^9r]g, u>

fxera^u TvcpXoufievog.
cpuyev',

fxoi

tov ixo'^ov, Ka\ irvpwaag ye

eTvcpiXooari /xe

'Qg ^aOuv

eiTe Ourt?, etre

auro dvecrrpiipeTO, koi ovkcti


TeXog Se

fjfJirjU'

eifxi (roly iv

oirrag.

iircjSouXoTaTOV oe koi Tapa-^co- 20

a-TrTjXaiov

efxavrw

ev

15

(papfiaKov ti ey^eag,

SecTTaTOV airavTa yap evOug eooKei


iriovTii Ka\

ecpavrjcrav

avXXa^wv avTwv

Koretpayov, XrjOTag ye

tjv,

'0^u<rcreu9 ^v, SiSoocri /xoi

oXcog

S'

irdw

ou^e

10

Tolg TTOifivioig'

^Sv

iroSXovg Tivag, eTri/SovXevovrag SrjXov OTi

<TTpe->^ag,

Tivag,

i^ 'IXiov

ojj/;

KaTeXa/3ov

{jrirpa

cTrel

/3eXoi/?, ^0u(r<Tvg ovojual^ecrOai

/;v

'AXXa

evdapa-rjg

<a lloXvcprjfie',

TTOWTOV OZriv airrov aireKaXer

fiev

^e Siicbvye, koi e^co

ave-TrXei.

137

^'

TtKvov, og ovk i^eOopeg

ovv ^OSvtrcrevg

vwg

Sie-

oTi, eovv^Qij cnroKiv^crai Ttjv

Oupag.

30

eyoj dcpeiXov, wg fxaXXov

KaOicrag

irapa

Trjv

avTov Xd^oijui

Ovpav

eQripoav

yelpag eKTreracrag, fiova irape\g to. irpo^aTa

eg

ra?
ttjv

FIRST GREEK READER.

138
vofitjVf

evreiXa/xevof tS>

36 avTov virep

no.

ejuov.

^avOavd),

aWov^

ae Se Tovg

e'^rjv TrpaTreiv

oirocra

Kpt.Q>-

eXaOov VTre^eXOovre^-

VTT Kivoi{;

KJ/cXtoxa? eSet eiri^otjaacrQaL

eir

avTov.

IV 1

ZjvveKaAea-a,

Tov

40 t/povTO

iraTep,

co

eiri^ovXevovTOs

oTi OuTis

ecTTi,

aTTiovres.

Outco KarecroSlcraTo
o fxaXiarra ^piace

^wv

T}]V

crvfX(popav,

45 TloareiSwu, ida-eTal

no.

Oappei,

fidOt], OTi, el

Kal

Oi5o'

Efc^e?,

TO

irrjpitKjlv

eKkrjQri e?

to

FA. Ov
5

eKeXevcre

Teiv

TO

fxoi

ev

10

eg

yap

eaTV

ifxoL

^Oe? oia

avrov, ws

TrXef

eiroirjcrev

OerTaXia, Sioti

T/

<5e

eTi

f]

"EjOt?

koi

fxij

avrrj

yap

YlotreiSociu

aKV/m-avrov ev toctovtw (puXaT^'

"J^pi^

ovv

eTrolrja-ev

Ka\

6 TirjXev^ cnreXtjXvOe-

fj

jur]

tov

iJ.ev tjSrj

OaXa/uLOv,

vtto

Ttjs

Tl.oa-ei^uivo's TrapaTrejULCpOevTes.

Moi/cratf

A.ju(j)LTpLTt]9

'H "E^i?

^'

ev

Kai

tov

toctovtm

oe paolcog, toov fxev ttivov-

{e^vvriOrj

Toov, evldov Se KpoTOvvTCov,

oveiSl-

(prjcrlv,

PANOPE AND GALENB.

/me, u) YlavoTrr],

XaOovcra Travra?,

Tats

koi

ocpOaXfJiwv idcrOai dSu-

(Tvvei(TTiu)iJ.r]v v/acv ?yct)ye'

IIA. 'H GeVi?


<jav

on

6 Trarrjp,

(tv/xttoctlov',

ireXayo's.

irapoxjaa

12.

YaXrjvri,

SeiTTvov

fxe,

TeKvov, djuvvovfiai

(ti

DIALOGUE

IIA.

wyovro

fxe,

are.

vaTou, TO. yovv toou TrXeourcov eir

irapd

ecptjv,

6 KaTapuTo^ raJ

fxe

Ka:

oe

eirei

Kayw

fxeXay-^oXdv oirjOevres

Svofiari.
efioi

rjKov

Kai

Tovvo/ua,

rj

aSova-ais

rw

'ATroAAcoi/i KiOapiC^oiTi

-nrpoae-^ovTOiv

tov

vovv,)

FIRST GRE READER.


vel3aXv e?
crovv

ei/6a

"Upa

re,

-TrayKaXov,

eireyeypaTrro

XP^

'H

Se,

kqXt] 15

tovto, wcnrep e^eiriTtjoes,

koi ^AdypoSiTrj, koi ^A6t]va Ka-

KaTrei^^ 6

TeKXlvovTO.

avfiiroa-iov firjXou

YaXriiri

J^vXivSo/Jiei'OP Se

XajSeTco.
TjKev

to

o\ov,

139

'lS.pfxrji

aveXofievos iireXe^aTo

TO. yeypa/ULfieva, ai fiev ^rjprjtSe^ ^fJ^ei^ airecricoTr^a-afiev

TL

yap

ovvTo
1 fxt]

0i TTOieiv, Kiviov

to

ye 6 Zevi

SiecrrTja-ev

to

irpayixa.

rrpovywpticre

ov Kpivu),
SiKOLcrai

WpiaiJLov

(pt](riy

rj^iovv,)

TralSa-

o?

IIA.

oj}f

a/ deal,

"YiStj

A.<ppoSiT>i9

A(rro9

eneivai

"IStjv

Tfjv

ku)v Kpivai

aTrayycXwv

croi

av
fiev

ovtov

Trapa tov 25

kokw^

ZlafOTn/;

to

(f)ifJi-i,

ayoovil^ofJievrjiy

^fxiv Trjv

OVK
ijv

a/JL^XvCOTTr}.

(128;

eAceffOf,

(jcaiTOi

}\.ai

yeipiiov

Ttj/xepov, ol/xaif cnriacriu ey t^j/*'IJj;j/,

fj^ei fx.Ta /uLiKpou

FA.

6?

ciyjn-

re Siayvwvai to KaWioVf

olSe

^iXoKuXo^ wv, Kai ovK av

FA. T/

'AXX'

Se

airiTe

ixijXov tj^iovv.

avra^, koi

tovtov,

irep]

avreiroi- 20

at oe

TrapovcToov',

eKacrrr], Kai airrtjg elvai

10

uXXr]
utj

/cai

Tty

30

KpaTovaav.
KpuTijcrei,

irdyu

rijs

6 SiuiTtp-^

NOTES TO PART

IL

SECTION I.-'A2TEIA.
These 'AuTtla, or " Joe

Millers," are commonly, but erroneously, attributed to Hierocles, a philosopher of the Platonic school, who flourished
at Alexandria about the middle of the fifth century.

of ifmfu. i-'f^aaOau viaros: observe that the aorist


used where a future might rather be expected, (so also yoffTJcai,
in No. 3 ;) and that verbs of touching, holding on by, &c., govern the
genitive.
/JuiBji, 2 aorist subjunctive of /lai^am.
2. avYY^f^h - aorist imperative of cnr/yiyvwaKW.
After xpoai<rxc9
(2 aorist of xpoaix<^ supply rbv poDv, making the phrase equal to animad1. Wfuxrer, 1 aorist

infinitive is

vertere, in Latin.

i;

3.

Observe that the verbs SAvafuu, po\ofuu, and /tAXw, often take

as

their temporal augment, instead of

e.

Svvafuu. is inflected

like

i^T^Xey^ev, from ^leX^T^w.


4. fiJfjLTfrr): the aorist subjunctive, when used for the imperative, as
here, commands the doing of an action on one particular occasion ; whereas
tcTOfiai.

the present imperative enjoins the habitual practice.


So /Jiif fU/jupov. "do
not be always blaming ; " yn?; fiifj.-^, " do not blame on this occasion."
In prohibitions, |n) is rarely joined to the aorist imperative, but to the

subjunctive.
5. i.ToOaj'hvTOi. 2 aorist participle,

from ixodtr^KU.

/z^a, "greatly,"

the neuter of the adjective, used as an adverb.


6. e/i Setypui, " as a sample."
-repiiipepe, " used to carry :" the imperfect tense is used to express a continued action or a habitual action ; so
qpurra, in No. 3, " went on to ask," or " began to ask."
7. elSivoL, from oWa (see Irregular Verbs).
we should
euTorrpl^cro
rather expect eUruirTpl^ero.
8. iKpi^Tf, 2 aorist passive of xpinrrv.
rvffofUrou, 2 aorist participle
of wwddvotULt. Kaipov, " for a season '' i.e., for a long time, the accusa:

^x*^ f-^ aaOevrfaas, " 1 continue free from sicksignifying " to have one's self," x.e., " to be," when joined

tive of duration

ness."

t)((i),

of time.

with a participle, implies the continuance of the state indicated by the


participle ; so here the whole phrase means, " I continue now for a long
time in a state of non-sickness."
9. 'Afupaiar, " a cask of Aminean wine."
The Aminxi, a Thessalian
tribe, are said to have introduced into Italy the vines which furnished
this wine.
It was produced near Naples in greatest qoantitj.
(Ck>n-

NOTES.

142
suit Vocahulary.)

of iXaTTOvTo

%Tp-fiaavTOi, 1 aorist participle of rerpalvu.

we should

Instead

expect TjXaTTovTo.

" began to

10. virei(re\Owv, 2 aorist participle of {rjreicr^pxofio-t- ?(7eie,


shake." (See note on 6, irepU(pep.)
^usinrode^b/ievos, " with the intention of catching," or "expecting to receive."
iTr6, like s?i6 in Latin,
means properly, "from beneath;" i.e., in a lower position. The future
participle is used to express a purpose or intention, or an expectation.
11. Observe iro\\(f, in the dative, after the comparative adjective, expressing the measnrc of difference.
The accusative is sometimes used in
this sense.
12. rjpdrra iiSup ineiv, " asked about water for drinking ;" literally, "to
drink."
The infinitive mood is a kind of verbal substantive, and often
takes the place of a noun.
Here it is equal to the accusative of the Latin
gerund with ad; i.e., ad bibendum, %Kdl ydp this phrase is often used
"
like our
moreover," and the sense may easily be discovered by supply:

ing the ellipse; so here we may read, "and {tkey alleged it was good),
drank out of it."
13. rd. diaK6<ria ^7}
the article joined thus with the numeral, signifies " the space of two hundred years," looked on as a wliole.
fp, con_tracted for ^dei.
The contracted form would, if regular, be fiji, but
Xpa.ofj.ai, di.\pdo}, treivdo}, fw, Kvau, fffidw, and a few others, generally
contract ae and aei into 7) and y (instead of a and q.).
for his parents

14. ds X'^'^P-^V' ^c-'^o-y^'"! "being shipwrecked in a storm."


Here we
should rather expect
x"M'*'''') liut verbs signifying rest in aj'lace are
very often followed by a preposition denoting motion, with an accusative, the phrase thus suggesting the movement that preceded and led to
the state of rest.
So here the preposition els, with tlie accusative, suggests the sailing into the line of storm and vavayQv relates the result.
%Tup (TV/jLirXeduTuv eKdarov, " his fellow-passengers, each for himself, clasping ;" eKdarov being in apposition to rwv ffVfinX. (7Ke6ovs, contracted for
ffKeveos, genitive singular of cKeDos, neuter.
This is what is called the
" Tackling" is propartitive geiiitive
" clasping j?ar< o/the tackling."
perly expressed by the plural rd. ffKeit}, but the Greek of these dtrreia is not
the most correct or elegant.
Observe that the penult of dyKvpa is long,
while the corresponding syllable of ancdra is short.
In later Greek, however, the penult was short, dyKvpa.
15. ffii diriOaves
observe that the personal pronouns are expressed in
Greek, as in Latin, only when personality is to be strongly brought out
as when one person is to be contrasted with anotlier.
16. As jfrei is a historical tense, we should expect ypd<poi., the optative,
and not ypd<pTj, the subjunctive ; but the subjunctive is often used, as
here, to give vividness to the story, by introducing us to the events as if
passing before us.
17. irepda-ai, " to cross."
The penult is long in the future and aorist
of irepdw, to "pass over" or " cross," while the corresponding tenses o(
TTiirpdcKij} (viz., wepdcrw and iirepcCffa) have the a short.
18. rpi<j)ei, a verb singular, with a neuter plural subject, /9tj3X/a.
19. ir/riffxero, 2 aorist indicative of vincx''^oixai.
^dyayeiy, 2 aorist
(reduplicated) of dyw.
x'^/'^s Ke(pa\r}i must be translated, " without tfte
head," (not " your head,") so as to preserve the ambiguity.

20.

ff\n>d>4>0rj,

aorist passive of avyfiVTopMi.

NOTES.

143

21. SoKup, 2 aorist participle active of idx^u.


22. Observe r6Sa in the accusative, after the intransitive verb <iX7e2j'.
This is called " tJie accusativt of referaux or limitation." % trepos, sdL
rxoXa<rru((Ss, " another simpleton."

SECTION II. ANECDOTES.


1.

2.

etfiapTo,

from

fielpofiai.

ipXvapovv, contracted

Observe the use of the


3.

for

article

SapTJvai, 2 aorist infinitive passive of Sip<i>.


tfikvapiow, neuter participle of ifikvapiu.

where we might expect the

indefinite, rli.

ffvyfpfwTjKep, perfect of ffvppiu.

4. The iioiiU of this sentence is in the similarity of sound between


We can bring out the play on
Tp&rof and the latter part of iiv-Opvrov.
the words by making a slight inversion, and translating, " the man, but
" Manner," however, is not the most appropriate
not the nwn-ner."
term here for the expression of the idea, and yet it is the only meaning of
Tp6voi tliat is at all suitable for translating the pun. Indeed, it is seldom
possible to transfer into another language those pons which are mere
play upon words or sounds.
5. xpf)aOan governs the dative (of the instrument), as utor in Latin is

followed by the ablative.


7. airrmj, i.e., the talkative person, i5o\i<rxov.
10. Xantippe, wife of Socrates, is compared to Jupiter, to whom was
assigned the duty of sending thunder and rain.
13. ei J T(Ttt, " for all purposes." %irTjp(l4TaT0, (totd IrepelSu. %PpaSuvoPTos, i.e., the person to whom the commission had been given '* being
tardy."
g fox^i 2 aorist of ?xw.
14. xirop, neuter participle of -rlvu, agreeing with wcuBlof.
n^pai is
governed in the genitive by i^ippiij/t, the preposition in composition being
followed by the same case, as if ej stood alone. Korioie, from KaTiynipLi.
Note the peculiarity of augment, the syllabic being employed where tb
temporal only should be found.
15. flfflru', from eUmiu, " to enter."
(See IrregvlaT Verbs.)
18. opiaafiifov, " having defined."
eiSoKifiovproi is the genitive
singular n-uter
"it (the definition] being approved of;" i.e.. Diogenes
approving of it, or adopting it for the time. riXai, 1 aorist participle
of TtXXo.
eUrqyeyKev, 2 aori~t of eia<f>4pon.
21. Note the play on the words Kbpaxas and icoXoxat.
The similarity
of sound is more evident when the words are pronounced quickly, as id
conversation.
The phrase eh Kopaxas, " to the crows," is like our " to
the mischief," " to perdition."
22. iKXavffer, from kKcuu.
23. Observe tiie repetition of negatives in
this sentence.
25. The genitive, Tifiwpias, " than vengeance," is governed by the
eomparative, ipudvum.
This is another instance in which the Greek
genitive is equivalent to the Latin ablative.
26. iffrepLfUvov, perfect participle passive of rriipv.
freffep, 2 aorist
of rlTTTo).
Our
yeyeinnjKws, perfect participle active, from yaifdu.
idiom would require an infinitive here rather than a participle.
32. ixapdtU, 1 aorist participle passive, from iraipu.
33. KarerXdyr), 2 aorist pa.sive of rararX^o-w. Note that /3tor and

NOTES.

144

are acaisatives of reference after the passive verl).

i^lca/jM

'governed by

The

iJ.P7j/jLOve6(ov.

airrov

ia

is used with the genitive of a proper noun to denote


Adyov, " the son of Lagus."
The letter I is appended to all the
this, here," ^=Tovrol.
parts of ouTOS, to give a stronger demonstrative force ; as, oirroal {hicce),
This T has three peculiarities
aiTrjl, tovtI.
(1.) It is always long, and
always has the accent ; (2.) It absorbs a preceding short vowel, as
rovTo-i, tovtI; (3.) It shortens a preceding long vowel or diphthong,

35.

article

the son of; as rbv

36. tovtI, "

as TOVTOvi.

SECTION

III. FABLES

OF ^SOP.

known

The place and the


of the private history of jEsop.
date of his birth are uncertain.
There is no doubt, however, that he
was a slave, and that his parents were slaves. Having been liberated by
his master, the philosopher ladmon, on account of his groat mental
qualities, he travelled through many countries, and among the rest,
Greece.
The Athenians prized so higlily his wisdom and talents that
He sojourned
they erected a statue to him, as we are told by Phaedrus.
some time at the court of Croesus, king of Lydia, on the invitation of
Having been sent by
that monarch, who had heard of his great fame.
him to present an offering to Apollo at Delphi, he gave offence to the
Little

is

Delphians, and was hurled headlong

by them down the Hyampeian Rock

563 n.c.
" Whether ^sop

in

left any written works at all is a question which


considerable room for doubt, though it is certain that Fables
hearing jEsop's name wore popular at Athens in its most intellectual age.
They were in prose,
find them frequently noticed by Aristophanes.
Socrates turned some
and were turned into poetry by several writers.

affords

We

them into verse during his imprisonment (399 B.C.), and Demetrius
The only Greek versifier of
Phalereus (320 b.c.) imitated his example.
/Esop, of whose writings any whole Fables are preserved, is Babrius.
Of the Latin writers of ^sojjean Fables, Phajdrus is the most celebrated."
Smitli's Bictionary of Biography.

of

" would have been."


rb tIktsiv, " upon the bearing;" i.e., that she bore. fva, " one
StA iravro^. " always."
cub," (TKVfiuov being understood.
3. ^KaOiffdr), 1 aorist passive of KaOi^oaai.
lyvwv, 2 aorist from
1.

hv

2.

iirl

Tjv,

yiyv(h(jKCt}.

2 aorist participle of evpiaKW.

4.

eiipdiv,

6.

ecrrcis for e(TT7)Kojs,

7.

dXXd, supply, "

8.

{/v-qveyKas, aorist of

9.

Sia(f)daprivai, 2 aorist

10. irfei/ffas,
11

from

all

perfect particii)le of
very well," but.
inro<t>ip<j).

fffrryxi.

% iwia-Tpatpeb,

passive of dicKpdelpu)
irv^o).
iiridpa/JLovTes, 2

Ti^erai, horn tIktu.

% Sis r^i

7i/j.4pas.

from

ivL(rrpi(f>u>.

aor'iiL participle

of irt-

" twice in the day."

Ad-

146

WOTES.

verbs of place likewise goyem the genitive ; as, rol 717$ : so in Latin vbi
terrarum.
reKeiv, 2 aorist infinitive of tIktu.
12. cdpov/jUvoJv Twv dXX&w, " the others being inclined to choose him ;"
or, " being on the point of choosing him."
13. Ko^Xfas, " some snails."
Snails were considered rather a dainty
bj the ancients ; so much so that a Roman country seat was hardly com"
plete without its cochlearium, or
snai>-preserve."
14. Tdffas }]fiJpas, " during all days ;" i.e., " every day." Observe that
duration of time is put in the accusative.
here again we find the article with the infinitive
15. rod dStKstp
mood, the latter being in fact a verbal noun, governed in the genitive by
neuter
plural, has its verb, Ap^erai, in the singular.
dp^erai.
S.Tep,
a

16. ifiireffovcra, 2 aorist participle active of ij.i.rLvTCi>.


dXX'for iWd,
" well, but." 4XX4 often begins a clause having reference to something
not expressed, but uppermost in the mind of the speaker.
Here the fly
ponders with itself, " I am going to die, certainly.
WeU, toell! but it is
gome consolation that I have had a hearty meal, a satisfying draught,
and a comfortable bath." pi^puKO, from pi^ptiicKU and viruKa, from
rlyu.
17. Ke<l>ak-^p fiopfi., " the head of a hobgoblin."
The masks of the
ancients were not faces, but tcJiole heads.
^p shonld rather be r^v, or
else the kuI ought to be removed.
the article is here equal to the possessive pronoun,
18. ry fiTjrpi
" hia mother." vvo\a^ov<ra, scil. riv \(rfO so in the Scriptures, " He
:

took

up

his parable,

and said."

^/cXdjnj,

from which of them has not the

flesh

from icX^ttw
(of the

translate,

sacrifices)

" For

been stolen

by you?"
19. elvai Karixovra, &c.: "that there was {i.e., existed) another dog,
which possessed (literally, possessing) a piece of flesh ;" or, ftvai KaT^ovra
may be taken as equal to Karix'^uf.
But the former is preferable.
%i Si KwreTxev, " and that, on
i,ifxli, 2 aorist participle of a<f>lT)fu.
the other hand, which he held."
S is the accusative singular neuter
of the relative pronoun Ss, rj, S, governed by KareTx^20. fK6ovTos, Sia<pdelpovTos: observe that the former is the aorist,
" when a stag had come ;" and the latter the present,
" and was spoiling,"
i.e., was going to spoil.
^(pTjcrep, " said, yes ;" i.e., i, the man.
avrdt
means the man, and airrov the horse.
21. ^paxiPTWv, 2 aorist passive of /S/>^w.
dipot is the accusative,
expressing duration of time,
" during the sunmier ;" while upq, is the
dative, indicating a point, time when, or a space of time, in some part of
which an action takes place. With xM<2''oy ^PX"'') supply upau.

22. itoXXtji' bSov is in the accusative, expressing motion along or throughout a space; just as action during, or throughout a certain time, is put in the
accusative.
iweipTjKdis, from iireiirop, (which see in the Vocabulary.)
hrunivTOi, from i<pi<rrr]fu.
KaXoir], the forms -oItjp, -olrjs, &c., are
generally adopted, in Attic, in the singular of contracted verbs in -aw,
-ew, and -ow, instead of the common inflexions, -oifj.i, -otj, &c.
23. MeXtraTov, from Melite, i.e., Malta.
irpo^Spafiev, from trporpix'^'
24. ^{elXes, 2 aorist indicative of i^aipiw.
wadovaa, 2 aorist participle of irdffxi^25. Oifxevoi, 2 aorist participle middle of rldvui. '* having entered into

NOTES.

14G
partnership."

2 aorist participle active of

ffT&.'s,

tffrrjfu.

^t^Xaro,

middle of ivdWofiai.
tcrdi and ySeiv, from oI5a.
26. KaraXa^dirros, " having surprised him."
i/i^ds, 2 aorist participle active of i/x^alvco.
i/mirXaKeLi, from i/jLirXiKU).
27. X^ouo-a Sti, &c.
there is a sudden change here from the indirect
to the direct mode of speech, col being used where we should expect avT(f,
and the other second persons supplying the place of thirds. iK^Kpayei,
from Kpdfw.
28. iria-ToifJLems, "giving a pledge of," or "sealing, "friendship. ira.perlBei the imperfect of TlOrjfxL is often irlOovv, iriOets, irlSei.
& <t>4peip
observe that the relative ft is nexder plural, though referring, in syntax, to
two feminine nouns. It is the o-tro, or viands, which the writer is thinking of, and he therefore uses & in reference, not to the table and the hosjritality, but to the eatables and drinkables (frira and irord), which were set
forward before the guest.
tuv 6vtwv, " the things that were there."
The genitive follows verbs of toucMng, clinging to, and such like. rpv<pT^i,
the genitive governed by irpori/xuv, which implies a comparison
tlie
comparative in Greek being followed by a genitive, as it is in Latin by
an ablative.
I

aorist

The

as pointing to a well-Jcnovm deity.


2 aorist infinitive of irap^x'^ ffvviSibv, from cwo'Sa,
" being well aware of." KadijKev, 1 aorist of Kadlrj/ii. KarairXay^vres,
from KaTavXriffact). rbv \j/6(pov, "at the noise," the accusative of reference.
The accusative is often used after intransitive and passive verbs,
and even after adjectives, to express the object in reference to which the
meaning of the governing word (verb or adjective) is specially applicable.
Sometimes such an accusative limits the signification of the verb, and it
is then called the accusative of limitation; thus, in the phrase 6.\yeiv
ir6Sa, i,\ye?p means to feel pain generally, but when 7r65a is added it
limits the pain to one part,
g (Svaav, 2 aorist of 5vw, or Svvu.
30. yvCivai, 2 aorist infinitive of yiyvdiffKCJ. After els supply oXkop, or
ipyacTTTipiov, " to the workshop, or studio, of a statuary."
So we say,
" To St. Paul's,"
i.e.,
Cathedral understood where the preposition
seetns to govern the possessive case.
Note that
ekdiras, from ekdfw.
here we liave the active voice with the reflexive pronoun, instead of the
middle voice by itself. ir6crov, the genitive of price, " for how much."

29.

article is joined to Aia,

vapaax^^i')

So dpaxMV^f "lixt line, " for a drachma ;" and TrXelovos, " for a larger
sum." The drachma of the Athenians was worth about OJd. of our
money. irpoaOi^KTiv, in apposition to tovtov, " as an addition," i.e.,
" into the bargain."

SECTION IV.DIALOGUES OF LUCIAN.


Lucian was a native of Samosata, in the province of Commagcne,
Syria.
He was born probably about 120 a.d., and is believed to have
lived till near the end of the century. For details of his life and writings,
consult tSmitJi's Dictionanj of Biography.

3.

DiAi/>ouE I. Line
dv0' ua; " because."

1.

4.

(iir65os,

ouk

aorist

Slv Xd/3ois,

imperative of diroSlSw/u.
could not bj' any means

"you

NOTES.

147

As 4*

implies a conditicn, and therefore uneertauihff


in negative claoses it strengthens the
As Charon's fare for
negation.
5. d^oXop, an
1 4d. English.
the ferrying a spirit over Styx was an obol, relatives pat into the
month of the deceased, before sepulture, an obol to pay the boat, and a
cake to appease the watch-dog Cerberus, which kept guard on the other

g^

it," (the are.)

when joined with the optative

oM =

34. Oip/uwi, "lupines."


15. liirAfirfy, from dvimyu.
of Styx.
Menippns, being a Cynic philosopher, carried some lupines about with
him in a bag or wallet.
Lupines were the cheapest food of the very
poor.
HeccUe's supper was a meal supplied by the rich Athenians to their
It was set out at the point where
poorer fellow-citizens once a month.
three ways met ; and as the poor carried it off so soon as it appeared, they
"
Hecate was a goddess of a threehad
devoured
said that
Hecate
it."
fold nature, having different attributes, different names, and different
places of abode.
She was SeX^mj (Moon], in heaven ; 'Apre/us (Diana),
36. AdXei, " he kept
on earth ; and Hecate in the infernal regions.
41. o
jabbering."
40. KoiiSewos, &c., "and he cares for nobody."
MMtxos, " the vxll-knoum Menippus." Observe the force of the
side

article 6.

Line 1. Tovrorl, " this here." The demonstrative < is


II.
the parts of ovros, to give strong emphasis to the pronoun. On
4. Observe ifr/i^ereu
its peculiarities see note. Section II., 36 (of Notes).
governing tico accusatives, ri and 6/iai.
15. vepUxoTcu, " cling to."
;"
"
23. j oi>S4, &c,
more literally, " how that I
that I shall never cease
am not going to leave ofi^ either." This is a peculiar construction ; another remarkable example of which will be found in Xen. Anab., I. 3. 6.
It is usually called the genitive abadUUe, the in being added to show that
the action implied by the participle does not really exist, bat is only thought
of or intended. But thb so-called genitice absolute (a term which is seJfeontradictory, and which has been adopted to get easily quit of a difficulty)
can always be referred to some recognised grammatical principle and some
general rule, and is very often used to express the time, or cause, or
manner.
Here, then, we regard the participle in the genitive as the
cause of the state indicated by the verb -yiywaKcrt.
would therefore
translate, " make up your mind to this, (or, come to this conclusion,)
because (i.e., for this reason, that) I shall never cease." Instead of this
genitive, we should have expected the infinitive with an accusative before
it.
26- ravra ovx C/Spts, "is not this insolence itself V^ ue., "is not
this the very essence of insolence? "
36. ri PWD^t, &c., " that vxU hioum
saying, ' Know thyself.'"
The article t6 is joined to yrQ$i-aavr6w, which
is regarded as a compound notm.
36. <rvrelp<aw, literally "stringing
together;" ... forming into a connected strain.
37. rp^oiydp, &c, "for

Dialogue

added to

all

We

it

would

suit

(admirably),

being

sung

after,

(as

a chorus

to)

your

lamentations."
III.
Line 5. rb ift&r, " my case." " My aBur happened
very unexpected way. " The indefinite pronoun rlt, when appended
to an adjective, increases the force of the adjective ; thus, ft/yas t,
"very large;" fuKp6i ru, "very smalL" In some parts of our own
ooontry there is a similar use made of the indefinite, as in the phrase, " Aa

Dialogue

in a

148

NOTES.

big as anything," i.e., very big; " As clear as anything," i.e., very clear.
rbp dreKvop, rbv irKovcriov, are in apposition to Uroibhijspov, in preceding sentence.
rk iroWd, an adverbial phrase, "for the most part,"
"generally." 11. iir' ifiol, &c., "promising myself that he would die to my
advantage, (in my favour;)" i.e., that he would make me his heir.
4i
fi'/lKiCTTov, " and when the matter went on for a very long time," ypbyov
being understood.
14. iweibav rdx^cTTa, " as soon as," quum prinium.
15. i-meiKws, "tolerably;" i.e., pretty hard. 17. iirw/ioadfiriv, 1 aorist indicative middle of iir6/j.vv/ii.
24. oiiK oI5' 6^(0^
nescio quomodo, " I don't
know how." 30. daTeia, &c., "for you have had a comical fate;" literally, " you have suffered amusing things."
32. irpbs t6, &c., "he was
in considerable perturbation at the suddenness" (of the thing).
33. awels,
2 aorist participle of (tvpItj/u.
34. ota, an adverbial accusative, " at
8.

what a clever (trick;)" literally, "at what things." olos means properly, " of what kind," but it generally implies good, great, extraordinary, like Latin qttalis.
We have expressed this by inserting clever in
the translation of the phrase.
35. rpairiffdai, literally, "turn yourself;"
t.e., " have recourse to the short cut," b56v being understood.
$Ace S.v,
" it would have come."

Dialogue IV.

Line

1.

'fjfj.irepe

ZeO,

"our Jove;"

i.e.,

Pluto,

who

Proserpine was
the daughter of Demeter.
4. rlvwv S^rj, "what do you want?" or heg:
observe the genitive after a verb of entreating. rls (Sv, &c., " who
may you be?" literally, "who do you happen to be?" 6. 6 'I(plK\ou,
"the son of Iphiclus." The article is often used thus, vl6s or Ovydr-qp
being understood. 8. &<f>edels, 1 aorist passive of d<pl7]fu.
irpbs bXlyov,
"for a little." 10. Observe iptara in the accusative, after the cognate
11. r^xoi, 2 aorist optative of
verb ipSxn (contracted for ipdovcn).
12. toO l/rjv the infinitive f^v, with toO joined to it, is equal to
rvyxdvo).
yvvaiKbi is also
a genitive, and is governed by ipCi, a verb of desiring.
governed by ipd. 14. (fX^M^y ^^-^ " J^ "^oent off (at once), sailing away;"
i.e., I sailed hastily away.
17. 6<p0eU, 1 aorist passive of o/sdw: " lam

was

called so ("

Jove with us ")

in the infernal regions.

come down again, after liaving appeared (on earth) to her, even
although {Kdv for Kal ?av) it loere but for a little time." 19. Kal fidXa,
" (yes, I drank of it), and (that too) heartily."
rb 8i irpay/xa, &c.,
" but the case was an extraordinary one;" i.e., my love was so strong
willing to

Lethe could not overpower it." 24. rb ipav, anotlier


two words forming the subject to iffrl
know what a sore thing it is to be in love." 29. '\'fi^, 2d sin-

that all the water of


infinitive

" and

y&ii

with the

article, the

40. 656i' is the accusative, motion along or


gular future of \ap.dv(i},
throvgJioiii being expressed.
41. c3 dvep, "my husband;" i.e., Pluto.
46. fiinPTjao,
43. KaOiKb/ievop, &c., "striking him with his wand."

imperative of

iiifiPr^iMU.

Line 1. wpoaTrecrdiP, " having attacked ;" literally,


upon."
3. 7]fiire\7J, accusative of ijfUTeXfis, " half-complete ;"
8. alriariop, soil, iarl, " I ought to
I.e., without its head, or master.
blame him." Such verbal adjectives govern the same ease as the verbs
from which they come. 16. dSiKa iroiwp, "acting unjustly, Protesilaus,
and that too {koI raCra) towards a brother-chip^" [bfi&rexpov); i.e., one of

Dialogue V.

"

fallen

'

NOTES.
the

same

trade.

an unfair part."

149

The meaning is, " if jon never let me go, you


18. ^e<p, by the same god, namely, Cupid.

will act

24. roi

28. rpoevi/iSrjffas, &c,


and T(j5 HdpiSi, both depend on alriot.
"leaped forth before the rest in a fool-hardy and unreflecting manner."
''
that it had
passive
of
^t/tXti^w,
33. iTriKK\Q<r6ai, perfect infinitive
been destined for me." alTiq. is contracted for alridei, (uVii 77, 2d singular
present middle of aiTidofJuu.
ipof,

Dialogue VI. Line 1. Xayiffd/ieOa, "suppose we reckon," is not put


This is the usual
here in the form of a command, but as a suggestion.
meaning of the first plural subjunctive when used imperatively, or rather
in a suggestively adhortatory manner.
3. wplffdcLi, " to come to a distinct
understanding." 6. hruXafiifif, " for you having commissioned me ;"
Observe the genitives of price which
i.e., according to your commission.
follow. SpaxM'^^'i ToXXoO, &c.
9. rCivirivTe, "the five," already named.
is governed by iKdfuffa, from
"paid down;" literally, " threw down."
16. dveyyoTtt, "the seams," or "chinks;" the perfect participle of
Observe that the verbs dvoiyu, opdca, and oKLffdvoiywfii, or Swolyw.
Ko/jiai, take in their past tenses a double augment, both the temporal and

11. ridei,

'

mark down."

former sentence.

the syllabic

thus

PrcKnt.

12.

d-Kiarpav

13. Kari^aXov,

Imperfeet.

iv-oiyti)

iv-4-cfiyov,

opdw

i-iiptijv

oKUtko/jmi

dXwcp

which would regularly be itx^of.

aof.)

...

...

wpuv.

...

...

SiXufv,

or

(Att.) i^Xur.

17. Hxavra refers to all the accusatives going before, and, as they are
18. thvifcb), 2d singular 1 aorist
of different genders, it is neuter.
middle of iiviofiai, " you have bought tliese cheap ;" literally, " worthy,"
19. StAa^ey, 2 aorist of SiaXavBdvu, "has
i.e., worth the money.
escaped our notice." 22. iviaroL, " it will be in my power." 25. KaOe32. dydir\e(f), nominaoovfiai, future of Kadii'opMi, " I shall sit down."
tive plural of ifdirXean.
34. i^uSrjKiis (perfect participle of i^oiS^uj,
though intransitive, governs yacripa. in the accusative [accusative of
37. iis ioUoffi, " as they appear ;" i.e., "to all
reference OT limitation.]

" (No wonder they try to ensnare one anvery desirable." xep^
Charon, therefore,
like per in Latin, increases the force of the adjective
by using irdw and irepl both, makes his statement very emphatic.
This expression Hermes at once turns against Charon, by using it as a
"
justification for himself, should he think fit to " demand payment sharply
appearance."

38. rctvu,

&c

other), for these things (namely, riches) are very,

of his "

little bill."

Dialogue VII.

T(fi (for tLvi)

ciple

Line

Tp6ir(p,

5.

itnjXkdyTf,

"in what way."

2 aorist passive from iydSXdffffw.


11. Karavrdfievos, 2 aorist parti-

middle of Kodlirrafuu.

Dialogue VIII. Lirie 1. ^koj, " I have come," and otxofiai, " I have
gone," though presents, are translated as perfects their imperfects, therefore, become pluperfects.
2. o^&rarov, " very sharp (ay, sharp enough),
even if it were necessary to oat through stones at one stroke." 4. SUXt^
;

NOTES.

150

5. KareveyKdiv, 2 aorist participle of /cora2 aorist imperative of Statp^w.


6. ireipqi, contracted for veipd-rj, 2d singular of ireipdo/iai, " are
^ipw.
you testing me whether I am mad or no ?" /j.4fji.7)va, 2d perfect of
21. ^(xda, 2d singular imper18. KaToiffu, from Karatpipu.
fMlvofuii.

The syllable -6a was frequently added in the early language


2d singular in Attic it is retained in six verbs oi<j6a (from olSa);
"oSeiaOa or ^SyaOa (imperfect of oI5a) ^<rda (el/d, to be) ?<p7](Tda (imperand -xpijcyOa (XPV^-) 23. iXeX-^Oeis (from
fect o{ tf)r]/j.l]; ijeiada [etfiL, to go)
\av9dvo)) Ix'^^i " yo*^ escaped your own notice, having a camp and not a
head;" i.e., " you had, unawares to yourself, a camp, and not a head."
When \av9dv(i} and rvyxdvu are joined in syntax with a participle, it is
best to translate the jiarticiple as if it were the indicative (or other) mood,
and the part of \avOdvu or rvyxdvu) as if an adverb. So here, ^ow,
"you had," iXeX-ZiOeis, "unawares." iru/spix^fet, "is dancing the
Pyrric dance." The Pyrric was a war-dance, rapid in step, and performed,
It was therefore suitto the sound of the flute, by men under arms.
25. t6 fi^irrov, " greatest wonder
able to Minerva, goddess of war.
of all."
26. iv Ppaxei, "in a short time,"
so brevi for brevi tempore.
30. t6 ye iir' 4fiol, "as far at least as depends
KOfffieT, "sets off."
on me."
fect of dixl.

to the

Dialogue IX.

Line

with one another, just like

1.

iraiffaa-Oe ipl^ovres,

men

for this is

" leave

unbecoming

off quarrelling
{in itself,

or to

and foreign to the banquet of the gods." 3. iCKkbTpta: words


that express or imply a comparison or a difference are followed by a
genitive.
5. irpoKaTaKKlvijOai, " should have a more honourable place at
table than I." The ancients reclined at table, as is well known. 6. N'i) Ala.
observe that -(Esculapius, with comic freedom, swears by Jupiter to his
very face. Kal, " and [quite right 1 should take precedence of you), for I
" is it?*
am your superior." 7. Jj, the interrogative of direct questions
" In what respect (are you my superior), you crazy fool?
Is it because
This
Jupiter," &c.
8. & p.y] O^fus, &c., " doing what was unlawful."
refers to .Sisculapius being killed by lightning for restoring Glaucus to
life again.
10. iiriXiX-rjcrat. ydp, " (you need not talk so boldly), for have
you too forgotten your being burned to a cinder (literally, having been
burned dotvn) on Mount CEta, that you cast up fire to me?" 12. oCkovv,
(accented thus), means " therefore not ;" but in ovkovv, (accented thus), the
yourselves),

negative force seenis to vanish, it being equal to " therefore,"or "wherefore."


and 6fioia. are neuter plurals, used adverbially. Translate, " Well,
llien, [totaheyou on another topic,
not whathas befallen us, but what loe have
done), life has not been spent with equal benefit (to others) and in a similar
way by you, and by me who, in the first place, am the son of Jupiter."
Hercules means to say that he has benefited others more than .^sculapius
has done, and has been engaged in more honourable and manly occupations.
"it has
pe^Lutai, perfect passive of /Siiw, used impersonally,
been lived;" i.e., " liife has been spent."
ij/tt*', "by us;" which is
equal to "by you, and by 7;te"
this " me," ifiol, being antecedent to Si
vhich follows.
13. roffavra, &c., " have performed so many labours."
"
14. dvOpdnrovt, &c.,
of use, perhaps, in applying (some) of your drugs to
diseased folk, but a person who has exhibited no manly trait of character."
man or woman ; hence
HyOpuiroi, like homo, means any human being
laa

KOTES.

151

often nsed as a term of depredation or coiUempt; while dr^p, like nV, implies
dignity and hratery, or other merit. 1 6- rtDf ^pftaxt^ is the partitite gen19. inr' ifufxHp, &c, " damaged in your body by
itive, meaning some of.

both (calamities) ; by the tnnic, and after that by the fire." Observe thai
X'^^'os and xvplK are in the genitive, in apposition to ofupdip. Su^ap(See Sntidi^s Dictionary of
lUitn, perfect participle passive of Suupdeipw.
22. Top<pvpiSa depends on irSebvKdn,
Biography, fur Life of Hercules.)
" clothed in purple ;" i.e., " having put on a purple robe." 29. Uuraa&ai,
aorist infinitive, for future.
KptLHor is another acataative of reference or limitation^ depending on the passive form, ffvrrpifiiyTa,
" being crushed as to your skull ;" i.e., " having had your skull broken."
34. ire is the accusative plural neuter of Sore, but is used adverbially,
It may
to introduce the reason or explanation of the foregoing clause.
be translated, " forasmuch as." It is used much like Latin qu^pe, with

the relative, jim,

quippe qui.

DuiiOGCE X. Line 1. ydp refers to some prerions conversation


supposed to have taken place between Mercury and Maia. 3. Observe
the two negatives, /t^ and fir]54p, which in Greek do not destroy, but
gtrengtken each other.
4. X^cd is the subjunctive here
" the subjunctirt
of deliberation," as it is called : " Why may I not say so ?" 5. Suxorw;"
"
" divide one's
"
torn
asunder
we
say
to
i.e.,
distracted."
So
liKPOSj
self."
9. TifupodpofMVFra, "posting up and down like a courier."
The
^/upoSpSfUK, or " day-runners," were men who were trained to run long
distances without rest.
(See Com. Sepos, in Life of Themistoelea.)
11. o&ox^, i.e., Ganymede. IS. /le/iepor/i^Kir, "divided as lam." 19. rd
rian, the sons of Leda, Castor and Pollux.
20. ip ^hou, Le., idfup
understood.
% rap^ yjplpiv, "day by day;" ue., " on alternate days.'
i\. Tovra Kdx6(iu, afikirs here (in Heaven), and aflUrs there (in Hades).
22. The sons of Alcmena and Semele were Hercules and Bacchus.
24. 6, " the son of Maia."
25. Lucian seems here to refer to Europa,
who, however, was the daughter of Agenor, and the sister of Cadmus.
27. rexoft^te, perfect of riprw.
28. Danae, daughter of Acrisins, king of
;
Argos.
30. inrtiyhpevKo, " I am done out " perfect of arafOfmrii).
31. TerpSurdat. perfect infinitive passive of Tirpdoicu.
33. la raCro,
"never mind these things;" or, "let these things pass."
TcuTa is
an aeaisative of reference or limitation, " as to all things ;" uc, " in all

things."

Dialogue XI.

Line

1. eta,

experienced at the hand of

&c.

my accursed

"what shameful treatment I have


guest " 9. ovS4, " by no means."
I

23. tAoi, " in fine,"


25. dx" ^kcicov, " from
diat time." 28. pera^v, &c, "while being blinded ;" ue., " in the middle
of (your) being blinded." 29. ov yip if, &c, " for I well know that
he could not have moved," &c. 33. -rapeis, 2 aorist participle of rapiiipt,
36. pavddvu, &c., " I understand,
that they (Ulysses and his companions) escaped your notice, going out secretly under them;" {Le.. the
ram, and other sheep.)
41. <H.7j6irri, 1 aorist passive, from otopa*.
48. r& TUP rXein^wp, " the interests of those at sea (sailing] are in mj
15.

8 i4>fpoF,
"at length."

&c,

Ifprip:

t6

hMpop

8 i<f>pop.
see eipl. Irregular Verbs.

i.e.,

keeping."

NOTES.

152

Line 2. rb hetwvov, &c., " tlie banquet in Tlicssaly,"


and Thetis.
11. XaOovca, " escaping the notice
of."
Tuv irivbvTuv, and the other genitives, aflford good examples
of the so-called genitive absolute being used to express the catise.
21. Observe oiT^y in geni18. dve\6fievos, 2 aorist middle of dvatpiw.
22. &xpt X^V^''* " even to blows."
tive after etvai, " to belong to her."
26. 3j
28. What then did the goddesses do t
32. r)v ^ij,
ouToj yap.

Dialogue XII.

at the marriage of Pcleus

'

unless."

APPENDIX.
EUPHONY.
TuE

concurrence of certain consonanta was ver7 offensive to a Greek

and was therefore systematically avoided. The following are the


which must be observed in affixing a termination beginning
with a consonant to a stem ending in a consonant
ear,

principal rules

L THE MUTES.
In a concursus of mutes,

1.

T,

or

B,

labial.

the second must he a lingual dental^


not followed by a palatal, nor a palatal by a
[The preposition Ik, in compound words, forms the only excep;

i.e.,

a labial

tion to this rule.]


2. Cognate consonants come together; i.e., a light labial or palatal mast
precede a light lingual dental, an aspirate must precede an aspirate, and
an intermediate, an intermediate thus we cannot say yiypa-<f>-T-cu, but
"y&ypa-ir-r-ai (from ypatft-u) ; [so in Latin we do not say scrib-tus, bnl
scrip-tus\ ; not irv-ir-O-Tiv, but M-^O-rjy ; not 6k-Soos (Crom d/t-Tw), but
:

57-5oos.
3. Mlien two lingual dentals meet, the former is changed into j thus we
cannot say hrel-d-d-rjv, but iirel-ff-d-rjy (from xel0-u) not ipi-5-d-Tjpai, but
fpei-ff-9-TJvai (from ipelS-u.)
4. If two successive syllables begin with an aspirate, the first aspirate is
changed into its corresponding Light; as, we-^ii-XriKa, not ^-tpl-XriKa
:

i-X'^i

not I'Xw.
II.

THE MUTES AND OTHER CONSOXAN'TS.

The mutes

t, /3, 0, before /*, are changed into ft ; as, yiypafi-fiai,


not yiypa4>-p.at. (from ypd<p-w).
6. The mutes k and x> before /i, are changed into y
as, ^^^pey-fun,
not pi^pex-ftai (from ^p^-w). Except a few words like dK/iij, dpaxp-v, &c.
7. The mutes t, S, 6, before fi, are changed into j; as, ir^Tr<j--/Mn, not
rhreiff-fuii (from ireiOw).
Except a few words like araOfids.
8. The mutes v, ^, <f>, before j, combine with i and form \j/ ; as, ti5-^-
5.

for

Ti-TTff-tj).

9.

The mutes

k, y, x, before j, combine with s and form |; as, \i-^-u,


Except the preposition iK, which remains unchanged.
The mutes t, 5, 6 (and the lingual v) are rejected before s as,

not X^cr-w.
10.

ffuifiaffi,

not

adifia-T-ffi.

xdtrt, not ird-trr-ai.

(See note, p. 31.)

APPENDIX.

164
1 1.

The

letter*',

before

ir, (3,

(f>

(or ^), is

changed into

/t; as, (ru/^-/3d\Xw,

(TW-^dWo).

for

The
h-x^^

v, before k, y, x (or ^> is changed into y; as, iyx^M,


iyK4<pa\ov, for iv-K^ipaXov.
13. 'J'he letter ;/, before a liquid, assimilates itself to it ; as, cruX-X^w,
for <TW-\4yo}.

12.

for

letter

Consonants are not doubled, excepts-, k, t, y, and the semi-vowels


p, s, {it, k, and y very seldom.)
15. See note, p. 28, for another euphonic principle.

14.
X,

/t,

V,

THE ACCENTS.*
1.

Greek

Tliere are three accent-marks in


(a) The acute, as on rin-f}.
(6)
(c)

The
The

grave, as on rivhs.
circumflex, as on a^X'^j.

The acute may stand on any

of the last three syllables of a word ;


last two.
3. Every syllable not otherwise accented is considered as having the
grave ; but the grave is never written except on the last syllable, and then
only when no punctuation mark follows.
The grave merely indicates
that the acute is not to be admitted, for the time.
Thus we write i-vd,
To6t, and dypous with an acute on the final syllable ; but this acute is
turned into a grave when the words meet in a sentence without any
2.

and the circumflex on either of the

punctuation mark between as, &va roiis dypoiis rwv yeupyQv.


4. The circumflex results from a combination of the acute and tho
grave; thus, -iit. when contracted makes t], or rj, or in cursive writing, rj.
It can stand only on syllables naturally long, i.e., containing a long vowel
or diphthong; as, avXrjS, (pevye.
5. When the last syllable of a word is short, the acute may stand on
the antepenult
as, dvOponros.
N.B.
The terminations -ot and -at (except in the optative mood),
;

and the Attic inflexions

-ujs

and

-uv,

are treated as short

syllables; as, dnavdai., iroXirai, dvOpunroi, 7r6Xews, dviiryewv.

When

the last syllable of a word is long, the acute cannot stand


farther back than the penult ; as, dvOpuvov.
7. The circumflex can stand on the penult only when the last syllable
IS short (see No. 4.) ; as, fivla [but fivld, nominative dual], yXurra [but
G.

yKdrrTTj^]
8.

So

p-rp-ep [but fjL-^rjp],

In contractions,
(1.)

If the first

member

of the concursus have the acute, the con-

tracted syllable will have the circumflex

as,

^iX-^o-yuec,

ipiX-oD-piev; ^acnX-fl', paaiX-ei.


(2.)

If the second

member have

the acute, the contracted syllable

have the acute as, (t>i\-eoi!i-a7js,


Except a few words like d,? ; ly^e os, dpyvpovs.

will likewise

(piX-oi-ffris.

* It is only tlie leading principles of acccntimtion tl'.at are here given.


For the
theory and more minute details, the advanced student Is referred to "The Laws of
Oreek Accentaatioo," by the&ev. U. J. Bryce, LL.D. SVilliams and Norgate: 1859.

APPENDIX.
(3.)

155

If neither of the syllables have the acute, the contracted syllable will not be aflFected; as, fidvT-ee-s, fidm-ei-i ; rifi-aoft.ivri,

Tifi-u-fievTj.

OF THE ACCEXT EN THE INFLEXION OF NOUN&


The position of the accent in the nominative singular of a declinable
word must be learned by practice, or ascertained from the Lexicon ; but
when the tone-syllable of the nominative is once known, the accent of the
oblique cases is easily fixed by the following rules
10. The accent remains throughout the oblique cases on the same
9.

on which it stands in the nominative, so long as the quantity of


the final syllable permits ; as, ai'^-i}, avK--^ ; /ScurtX-ei^, jSatrtX-^a ; iro/>-

syllable

div-os, irapdiv-ot; Xfifjuliv, XeipLuv-ot; iroifL-qv, iroifiAv-os\ alyeipos, atyeipov,

but aiyelpov.
11. Exceptions.

two

In

the Third Declension,

genitives and datives of

syllables take the accent on the inflexion

as,

&:Qp, 0-qp-m,

but accusative &T)p-a, nominative plural


0rjp es. So likewise syncopated nouns, as firrrr^p, genitive ftifTp-os
and "yvtr/i, genitive
(not fiTjTpoi) ; Ovydrrip, genitive Ovyarpds
yvvaiKOi, yvifaiKwv, though not syncopated.
12. The inflexions of all genitives and datives, when long, are circumflexed, provided the tone be on the inflexion syllable (see 10); as, CKi-i,
ffKi-ds, ffKiq., VKi-oLLV, (TKi-aZs; aer-ov, icT-uv; OTjp-oiv, dTjp-uv; 6e-^,
0-oii.
The other cases take the acute; as, aKi-al, crKi-ds; ^c-oi)j; der-6i>.
13. The genitive plural of the First Declension has always a circumflex on the last syllable, because -uv is contracted for -duv ; as, (rKt-wf for
Orip-olf, 0T]p-uv, 6T]p-ffl

ffKt-duv.

Vocatives in

14.

-;

and

-ot

circumflex the last syllable; as ^cwtX-cv,

Ai7T-ot.

THE ACCENT OF VERB&


15.

In verbs the accent stands as far back as the quantity of the

syllable permits

/SouXewrcu (optative).
originally a contraction

Those parts of verbs in which there was


supposed contraction) follow the rules for contraction
iyyeXQ, fut., for d77eX^w
fieveiTov, fut., for fievierov
brrdufjLev
\vOfi (1 aorist passive).
16.

(or

17. Exceptions.

noted

final

as, TinrTOfiep, Tinrrfrai, TwroiffdTjv,

The accent of the

(8,
;

above); as,

IffTufiifv,

for

following parts must be specially

ACTIVE.
(1.)

on penult, Xwr-u,
2 aorist infinitive on final, \Lir-t1p.
2 aorist participle on final, XtTr-tii'.
Perfect infinitive on penult, \e\vK-iviu.
1 aorist infinitive

tives in -vai\ as, ridevai..

MIDDLE.
1*2.)

(l-'S)

2 aorist imperative on final, as Xtx-oO.


2 aorist infinitive on penult, "Kkw-ivOau

12

and 80

all

infini

156

APPEISDIX.
PASSIVE.
Perfect infinitive on penult, \e\v-(r6ai.
Perfect participle on penult, XeXv-ii^vos.

(3.)

All participles of the Third Declension, ending in s, take an acute


final syllable ; as, \vOels (1 aorist passive), rideU (present active),
iiut the participle of 1 aorist active follows the rule
as, jSouXeycras.
18.

on the

PROCLITIC&

Some

small words, o6, el, ws, iv, els [is], iK, 6, i], ol, al, throw
forward their accent on tlje word following, if connected in syntax ; an,
19.

ENCLITICS.
20. Enclitics are small, unemphatic words, which throw back their
accent on the preceding word (if cimnected in meaning), so that the two
words form only one, as it were, in pronunciation ; as, k6/>7j tis, vo/ieTi
Tives, paaiXeiJS iffrt, So0\6s rit, ^ovv riva.
Compare que, ne, &c., in
Latin; as, omneinque.

BRIEF SYNOPSIS OF THE SYNTAX OF SIMPLE


SENTENCES.
SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.

I.

Rule.

An

adjective (whether article, pronoun, participle, or adjective proper) agrees with its own substantive in gender, number, and casi;
1.

as,

7)

Kbpt] icrrl

Ohs.

koX^

ol iroXiTal elcn

iXevdepoi

rd irpdy/iaTd

icrri /coXd.

When

an adjective refers to substantives of different genders,


it takes the gender of the masculine noun rather than that of the
feminine, and of the feminine rather than of the neuter
6 irarTjp
Kal Tj /J.rp"rjp dyadoL elcn : ij fi'firrip Kal rb iraiSiov dyadal eicn.
When the substantives are names of inanimate objects, the
adjective is put in the neuter as, \ldoi re Kal irKlvOoi koI ^liKa
iarl -xpijCLfiQ.,
stones and bricks and beams of timher are use-

1.

Ohs. 2.

fvl

[tilings).

THE ARTICLE.
2.

The

article

was originally a demonstrative adjective pronoun, and

hence it is used to point distinctly to an object, to render it prominent,


and thus distinguish it from others, and oppose it to others.
as,
It points to what is known, or supposed to be well known
(1 .)
6 2w/c/)(r^x, that well-known person, Socrates; 6 '^vo(t>G)v,
Xenophon, who was mentioned lately.
(2.) With singulars, it sometimes denotes a class; as, 6 iraty, children
;

generally.
(3.)

It is

used with names of materials, virtues, and generic noons

as, 6 xP^'^^^i
(4.)

"h

dper-fi,

It serves as a possessive

faiker

vzith his son.

gold, virtue.

pronoun

as,

6 iraTrjp qxjv t<^

vl<^,

tht

157

APPENDIX.
has a distributive force
month.

(5.)

It

(6)

It distinguishes the subject

d.yad6s,

6 avyjp

d7o06s

man

as,

toO

fir]v6s,

hy Vie month,

i.e.,

every

of a sentence from the predicate ; as,


But 6
is good; or, iyaObs 6 iirqp.

would simply mean, the good man.


what is customary or deserved; as, ?\a/3e ra va\rd, he

ojtJp

It indicates

(7.)

the

received the two spears usually given

ttjj' Siktjv,

the deserved

punishment.
Ohs. 1. The article, with a participle, is equal to a relative clause;
In this case it
as, 6 vpirruiv
iKeivos is irpdrrei, Ac who docs.
retains its primary demonstrative power.
2.
cases), thus
all
It is used with the infinitive mood (in
Ohs.
forming a kind of gerundival substantive; as, rd /cX^rretp,

stealing; toC KXhrTew,

of stealing, of thefL

AGREEMENT.

A verb agrees with subject number and person;


ypdipu
the
Exception. But a neuter plural subject usually takes the verb
animals run.
singular
rk
rpix^h
two singular subjects
Since two singulars are equal a
8.

KcT.E.

tyCj

in

its

ypd(peis

ffii

as,

ijfieU ypdipofiev.

in

as,

Oie

ftDa

plural,

to

If.B.

connected by a co-ordinative conjunction (xoi, &c.) have a verb


or adjective in the plural ; 6 reus xal i} Kbp-q ffo^l flai, theboy and
the girl are icise.
Exceptiotu
But in a series of nominatives the verb often agrees with
the subject nearest it; as, (pCkei ae o irarrip koI ^ p^^VP ^"^ oi

d8e\<pol,

your father loves you, and

{so

do)

your mother and your

brothers.

APPOSITION.
4.

Rule.

iu case

as,

Substantives which stand


KOpos, o ^aaiXfvs,

in apposition* to one another agree


Cyrus, the king ; "LwKpdTJfv, rbv ao<pbv,

we admire Socrates the philosopher.


same rule applies when the second substantive is used as
a predicate; as, 'Kvpos tjv ^offiXevi, Cyrus was king; UpdKin^
iyivero dr]d(I>i', Procne ums changed into a nightingale. This kind of
apposition occurs (1) with substantive verbs, (2) passive verbs
O" NAMING AND CHOOSING, and (3) VERBS OF GESTURE.

0avud^oiJ.ev,

Obs.

The

IL

THB CASES

NOMINATTTB AND VOCATITB.

The nominative

used to express the subject of the sentence, or the


shown in Art. 3 and 4 above.
6. The vocative is used in expressions of address, as in Latin; but
the nominative often takes the place of the vocative, even in address.
5.

is

substantival predicate, as

T-AO sutjstantives are said to


U:>

explain or limit

it.

be ia appostiion whea one

is

appended

to the other

APPENDIX.

158

ACCUSATIVE.

The

accusative case expresses the direct object of the action indicated


by a transitive verb. It answers to the questions, whom? what? to wluit
2>lace? during what time?
Transitive verbs govern the accusative ; as, 6 vats ftlirrei
8. Rule.
<T<pa'ipav, the boy throws the hall ; welOei. rbv Kpiri/jV, he persuades tJie
judge.
[But many transitive verbs govern tlie gen. or dat.]
9. Any verb, whether it be transitive or intransitive, may govern in the
accusative a substantive of kindred signification ; as, tovtov rbv kIv^vvov
7.

tV

shall incur this danger ; vixrov voaeiv, to he ill of a disease.


verbs in Greek are followed by two accusatives, the one exSuch are verbs of concealing,
pressing the person, the other the thing.
teaching, ashing, dividing, depriving, clothing, and many others.
11. An accusative is often put a.ite,T passive rcrJs, intransitive verbs,
This is called
and adjectives, to define them and limit their application.
Kivdvveiicro},

10.

Many

the accusative of reference or limitation

d-Xyeiv roi/s Tr65a$,

as,

to

be

pained in the feet: KaX6s ri ififiara, beautiful in the eyes; i.e., having
beautiful eyes : 2wcpdT7;s rb 6vofj.a, Socrates by name.
12. The accusative is used to express duration of time and extent of
space; as, iriyre 7]fj,^pas l/u-eive, he remained (foT)f,ve days; dir^ei 5^(co
ffradlovs, it is distant ten stadia.

THE GENITIVE.
Hence
of the genitive is source or origin.
The point of separation {from, aivayfrom) ;
(2.) The cause, matei-ial, or occasion; (3.) The time at which, or j)i<^ce in
Hence it signifies,
which an action originates or occurs.
(1.) The author or possessor ; as, b vibs rov Sfo^toiTOS, Xcnojihoii's
son ; T) /xdxaipa rov va&rov, tlie sailor''s cutlass. It thus answers
13.

it is

The primary meaning

employed

to express (1.)

to the questions,

Obs. 1.

Thus

a coin of

whose? of whom? of what?

arises the genitive of material

as, v6fuafjf.a dpryipov,

silver.

followed by the genitive to


Obs. 2. eljj.1, like sum in Latin,
denote that something is the part, duty, or characteristic of ; as,
dvSpbs iariv dyaOov eO woieiv toi>s (plXovs, it is the part [or duty)
is

(2.)

(3.)

of a good man to benefit his fiends.


tchole of which anything is a part (partitive genitive) ; as,
ffocpwraros irdvrup, the wisest of all ; (rraybves vSaros, drops of
water ; irov yijs eariv, where on earth is he ? ovk iyd) ro&rwr
elfd, I am not one of these ; Ix^is ri tuv xpvfJ-dTwv, you liave
soTne of the money.
Hence it is used with verbs which signify to
T?w. part affected.
as, iirTcrai rov x"'w'os,
touch, take hold of share, obtain, &c.
he takes hold of the robe ; fierix^iv TifiCov, to share in the honours.
The operations of the senses (except sight) as, ^Kovaa. r^y (puvrji,
I heard the voice. IJut iJKovffa ravra rov narpbi, I heard this
FROM my father. So verbs and verbal adjectives which signify
an affection of the mind are followed by a genitive as, tireipoi

The

(4.)

r)v irpa.yp.drwv, inexperienced in business ; iiridvuei rfjs dperl)!,


he aims at (yearns after) virtue.

APPENDIX.
(5.)

(6.)

(7.)

159

The price or ralue ; as, iyopdl^'fiv tc SpaxMV^i ^ ^5 something /or


a drachma ; A^tos ttjs iXevdeplas, tcorthy o//reedom.
The crime, or ground of accusation ; as, KaTabiKtly riva <f>69wi, to
condemn one on a charge of murder.
Abundance or scarceness ; as, vXrj &i]piitn> xXi^pijj, a forest fuU of
irild beasts.

(8.)

(9.)

Separation, or removal from; as, etKCWT^ oSoD, to vnthdraw from


the road.
Cause or occasion ; as, rhv tralBa rrp a.perrj's SavfiAl^ei b xptri^,
the judge

admires the boy for

[i.e.,

because of) his merit.

Superiority or inferiority ; as, 6 vlbt /jLel^wv iffrl tov xarpSt, the


son is taller than his father ; 'A.ffTvdyr]s M^Swv fjp^ev, Astyages
ruled over the Mcdes ; 6 vii j fieloiv i<m rod rarpds, the son is
less than his father.
(11.) Time when, or tcilhiu which, if spoken of indefinUely ; as, rvicr6f,
by night j tov lapos, in spring.
(10.)

THE DATIVE.
14.
(1.)

(2.)

The
The

dative case denotes,


individual (person or thing) to whom anything is given or
communicated ; as, aimp elwev 6 Kvptot, the master said to him ;
ZiiKe^av dXXiJXotj, they conversed vrith one another.
The individual who is benefited or injured in any way ; as, if
PacriXeia vrrjpxe rtf Ki5p<^, tfie queen favoured Cyrus
avT<^ iTTirov, he glees him a horse.

(3.)

Belief

(4.)

The

or obedience to ; as,
guide.

in,

to the

cause

in

why something

which

it is

(done),

Ty

yye/iSvi ivurreiitrafiev,

SiSuai

we trusted

manner or circumstances
the instnment by which it is (done), and
is

(done), the

the agent by whom it is (done) ; as, dyaXXovrai r- viK% they


are delighted at the victory
i.e., because of the victory ; ^q.
eli oIkIolv irapiivaL, to enter a house by force ; l^aXov Xldoii, they
struck with stones ; iKrelpotrro 'AxuioTs, they were slain by the

Greeks.

[Bat irti with the genitive

is

most osnally employed

in this sense.]

p.) Intercourse with, whether friendly or the opposite; as, toTj iyaOoTs
d/jIXei, associate with the good.
(6.) Likeness, or equality, or coincidence; as, viQos trov davdrtfi, a
calamity equal to death; 6p.oios irarpl, like [om's] father.
(7.) Time or place; as, t^ t/jiVt; rip^pq., on the third day; 'Adrjiftus,
at Athens.

UL
The

mood

IXFIXITIVE MOOD.

a kind of verbal substantive, and is used


with or without the article to express the object or aim ; as, IKri^u
wvdjfftv, I hope to conquer,
i.e., I hope-for victory.
16. It often serves as the subject of a verb ; as, ifii
ri /tat^eCxif)
to kam is pleasant
15.

infinitive

is

im

APPENDIX,

160

COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE THIRD DECLENSION

IN

LATIN AND IN GREEK.


GREEK.

lATDiT.
Class.

Class.
I.

Consul.

Honor.

Consul-is.

Ilonor-is.

" Letter added


r

li

o
III.

^^

L Pure

Pure stem in the Nominative.

to stem.

Dux (= duc-s)
Due-is.

Ret-e.

Ket-is, n.

III.

a
a

Vowel inserted

<

yvir-ds.

{i.e., 7i57r-j).

Half a vowel inserted,


(i.e., a short vowel lengthened)

Clad-e-s.

iroi/xriv.

Salfiuv.

iroL/jiiv-os.

Zalfiov-m.

IV.
Last

letter

of stem dropped

Sermo.

Lae,

Sermon-is.

Lact-is.

n.

o
H

Laus.

Aetat-is.

Laud-is.

n.

6pvii.

\^prjT-os.

6pvi0-os.

VI. Last vowel of stem changed

fjidm-e-us.

VII.

Arbos, or Arbor.

Btbu.

(homin-), homin-is.

cons, of stem vocalized in


some cases and omitted in other t.

La.it

/3o0-s (j3o-y-s)

/3ao-iXei5-$.

SaciKi-iiK.

nouns with pkcitliaritibs of hobb


than one class.
Ow>.
8nm.
CLAMra.
(1.) II.

AIILaWci-s
oAtiinif

{alto-),

tuZooi.

(aA(t)jric-),

aXunrtK-Oi

(Aeoi^-),

Xiom-o^.

(CTt9

(icTev-),

jcTei'-o*.

o{ov(

(fiioVT-),

68<iiT-ot.

(2.)IIlitrV. XeMC
(mllit-),

yXvKd-s.
y\vKi-os.

/3o-6j.

Gek.

X^/9r;j.

/xdvTi-i.

VI. Judex (judic-), Judic-is.

VI. Miles

ydXaicT-os, n.

Capit-is.

K0UN8 WITH PECULIARITIES OF MORE


THAN ONE CLASS.

Homo

ffibfiar-ot.

Caput, n.

Flor-is. Arbor-is.

VI.

aufia, n.

^evo<pC>t>T-o!.

V. Letter thrown out before

l<

Clauis.

of stem dropped.

Sfvo(pQp.

t.)

VII. Last consonant of stem changed.

Flos.

Txist letter

ydXa.

a.

Aetas.

Nomin-is.

(1;

yif

fipw-0%.

Clad-is.

Nomen,

&
(2.) IV. &
(8.) V. A

ijpu-s.

Nav-i-8.

VI. Loit vowel of stem cTianged.

(1.) II.

to stem.

Nav-is.

V. Letter thrown out hrfore

iMter added

6r)p-b%.

Xet/xuJi'-oj.

II.

Urb-s.
Urb-is.

stem in (he Nominative.

milit-is.

VI.&VIL Corpus (corpor-), corpor-ta.

APPENDDL

CONTRACTED YERBS

161

-aco, -ew,

AND

-o-

Certain Pure Verbs suffer contraction in the Pres. and Imperf. of

Voices and Moods.

The

like the corresponding parts of Xi/w.

I make; and maObu, I

all

other tenses have no concursus, and are declined

The verbs

rifidu,

out for hire^ will exhibit

let

I 'honour ; roUm,

all

the peculiarities

of the contracted inflexions.

ACTIVE VOICE.
Pres.

Ti/i-du, I honour.

(piX-iu, I love.

fuff6-6w, I let out for


hire.

>
5

r
t^

S.

-du

-w

-i<a

Q>

-6

-w

-dctj

-9

itu

-eti

6ts

-0*1

-dft

-?

-iet

-et

-6fi

-0*

D. -derov

-Stop

-ierop

-eiToi'

6tT0P

-OVTOP

derov

-aroi'

-itrop

-eiTOP

-derop

-OVTOP

P. -do/iep
dere

-Q/iep

-iofjiep

-OVfUP

-bofiev

-ovfiCP

-are

-iere

-eire

-Sere

-oSre

-Qffi

-iovffi.

-OV<Tl

-Sovffi

-oOffi

-w

-dovffi

H
>

-Q

-4o}

-Q

-6(a

-ps

-ivt

-Vt

-ijs

-oti

-?

-h

-V

-6ti

-h

-drp-op

-Stoi'

-6rjT0V

-WTOP

S.TOP

-hfrOP
-hp-op

-rJTOP

-drjTOV

-TfTOP

-orp-op

Snop

-Q/jLev

-6<i}iJieP

-Qfiep

-6-ijTe

-urre

r S. -dw
dTjs

-dv

D.

P. -duficp

L
'

-wfiev

-iwfJXP

-drp-e

-are

-irp-e

-dwct

Giffi

-iwai

-<ffU

-^Ol/JU

-VS
-V
-i^OP

-^ots

-^01

S. -doifu

-dots
-dot

>
5 J D. -do(TOP
-aoirrjp
g ]
P. -doi/xev
^
L

-d'ffi

-WfU

-6oifu

-dtfu

-oTy

-6ois

-oty

-ail

-6oi

-6i

-40LT0P

-oilTOP

-boiTov

-oTtop

-(fTTTIP

-oItijp

-oLrrjP

-ooiTTjp

-olnjp

4na>

-cii/ia>

-(fire

-iotfup
-4oiT

-oTre

-boifup
-6oiTe

-oifjuep

-ioire

-(fitp

-4ouv

-diV

-boiev

-oiep

-ov

-^w
D. -derov
-airwv

S4
04

-wri

-buxn

-doifj'

rs. -6

>

iBFiir.

-oire

-a

-e

-oe

-dru

-e^w

-drw

-O&U

-WJTU)

-arop

-ierop

-eiTOP

-berop

-OVTOP

-drup

-c^wv

-elruv

-oirup

-o&riap

'iere

-ire

Sere

-oirre

-ore
-ah-uffof -druHTOM

-eiruffap -elruffap

-oirwaav -ovtuhjo.p

.(Uv

-ieiv

-6(ip

P. -rffre
^

'T^

-Oi-

-etv

-ovv

162

APPENDIX.

ACTIVE YOlCE-corUinued.
H
5
^

<

Pres. ri;a-<w.
M. -dcjc
-OJV

-iwv

-uv

-btav

F. -dovaa

-wera

-iovcxa

-ovffa

-bovffa

-wv
-ovaa

-OJJ/

-iov

-ovv

-6ov

-ovv

N.

-doj'

Imperf-

ipCk-iw.

filffd-OU).

i<pl\-eov.

irlfi-aov.

iiuffdoov.

S. -aov

-wv

-eop

-ovv

-GOV

-ovv

-aes

as

-ees

-y

-oes

-ovs

-ae

-a

-ee

-et

-oe

-ov

-atov

-lerov

-eirov

-berov

-oOtov

-drriv

-einjv

-elrriv

-oirrjv

-ourrjv

-wfiev

-^ofJLCV

-oC/xev

-6ofi.ev

-ovfiev

-are

^ere

-eire

-dere

-oiv

-COP

-ovv

-001'

-oDre
-ovv

P-

D. -d eroj'
airrjp
P. -dofiev
t-t

-dere
-aov

PASSIVE AND MIDDLE VOICES.


Pres.rt/t- dofiai.
'

w
>

-ovfiai

-oofiai

-ovfjxii

-dT,

-9

-ir]

-p or -et

-01

-derai

-fir at

-^erai

-dy
-Serai

-dfjLedov

-eofieOov -oifxeOov

-oofieOov

-ovfieOov

-deadov
-deaOov

-aaOov
-daOov

-ieadov
-hffOov

-etffOov

-oeffOov

-ovffdov

et(j6ov

-6eadov

-ovffdov

P. -ao/xeda

-difieda

-e6fie6a

-o6fi.e0a

-oofieOa

-oifieda

-affOe

-ieffOe

-eiade

-oeffde

-ovffde

-uiin-ai

-iovrai.

-ovvrai.

-oovrai

-ovvrai

deffde
-dovrai
'

-eirot

-ovrai

-wfxai

-iufj.a.1.

-wfiai

-oufxai

-dv

-?

-iv

-V

-oy

-01

-drp-ai

-firat

-iyfrat

-rjTai.

-oTjTai

-Qrai

S. -dufiai

D. -ad}fieOov
-drjcdov
-drjffdov

P. -awfjieOa
QQ

-drjcrde

-dwvTai
'

fj.iffd-6ofJ.ai.

-ioflUL

D. -aofiedav

<pi\-^ofiai.

-Qfiai

S. -rfo/uot

->fJMi

-difiedov

-eib/jLeOov -dbfxeOov

-aaOov
-aaOov

-irjadov

-ijffdov

-orfffOov

-Qffdov

-irjaOov

-ijffdov

-o-qffdov

-Qffdov

-d}fj,6a

-edifj-eOa

-wpieda

-oilififda

-ibfieda

-aade
-Qvrai

-^rjade

-ijade

-brjffde

-Giffde

-iwvrai

-Qvrai

-ouvrai

-Civrai

-oibfieOov -difiedov

-(ffJ.7]V

-eoi/xriv

-olfiTjv

ooifj.r]v

-olfiTfv

-doio

-1^0

-ioiO

-010

-0010

-oto

-doLTO

-1^0

-4otT0

-oIto

-ooLTO

-oIto

-aoifjLeOov

-(jt/ieOov

-eol/xeOov -ol/ieOov

S. -aoi/XTjv

C3

>

D.

-ooifxeOov -oifxedov

-doiffSov

-i^ffOov

-ioiaOov

-otaOov

-ooiffOov

-oTaOov

g
c

-aolaBrjV

-{^cOr)v

-eolffOrjv

-olo6r]v

-oolffd-qv

-oiffOrjv

P. -aoLfxeOa
-doLaOe
-doiVTO

-<^/jL0a

-foi/jLeda

-olfieda

-oolfxeda

-olfieOa

-i^crOe

-ioiijOe

-6oiff0e

-oTffde

-IpVTO

-ioiVTC

-olaOe
-OIVTO

-6otvTo

-otvTO

APrE>'DIX.

163

PASSIVE AND MIDDLE YOICES-contimted.


Pres.
'

^
<

<

-iov

-oD

-60V

-aicOu

-dxrOw

-ia9(j}

-eiff-du

-oiffOu)

-oiffGu)

D. -decBov

-dadov

-ieffdov

-eiffdov

-oeadov

-OVO0OV

-dffOwp

-ei<rd(jjv

-elcBojv

-ieade

-elaOe

-aiffduiv

P. -deaOe

INFIK.

<

s'

H
z

-dude

-OV

-oiaOwv

-o'uaduv

-oeade

-ova6e

-aiadtjiaai -da6ui(Tav

-t^aducav eiadoxrav

-deadai

-affOai

-ieffdai

-etadai

-oeaOai

-ovffdai

dofievos

-e6/xVos

-oitievoi

-oofxevos

-o6fivoi

-eofxivT)

-ovfi&T]

-OO/JL^m]

-OVfldvT)

-tofievop

-ovfievov

-06/j.evov

-oificvov

M. -aofievoi
N. -aofievov

Imperf.
f

IJuad-60/jiai.

<p(.\-^ofjLai.

-Q

>
in

Tifx-dofji.ai.

S. -dov

-di/ievop

irifi- aofirjv.

-aofiijv

-dov
-aero

i<f>i\-6fir]P,

o4(jd(ii<Tav-dv(Tdw<T(w

ifU(rd-o6fii}p.

-eO/JLTjV

-OVflTIV

-o6fjir]p

-ioV

-OV

-bov

-OV

-aro

iero

-eiro

-oero

-ovrn

-oofieOov -oOfitOov

-djfJLT]V

-oi/jLTfr

-aofieOoP

-tb/jLedop

-fofJ-eOop

-oififOov

deadov

-dffdov

-ieixdov

-eicOov

-oeadov

-aiaBTjv

-dffd-rjv

-ei(jdr)v

-eUrOriv

-o^adrjv

-ovcdrjp

-aofieOa

d'/ieSa

-eofieda

-ovfieda

o6neda

-o6fieda

-decrde

-affde

-ieffOe

-eTffde

-offfde

-aovTO

WVTO

iorro

-ovvto

-60VTO

-omdop

-ovcde
-OVVTO

LISTS OF

WORDS USED

I.

EACH EXERCISE.

IN

Sea-TT&r-ris,

ifKvp-a, /., an anchor.


d5cX<^-iJ, y., a sister.
ayX-7}, /., a court, hall, palace.
^affiXei-a, /., a queen.
de^L-d, /., a right hand.,
6e-d, /., a goddess.
6r)K-7], /., a chest, box
dip-a,/., a door.
k6/)-7;, /., a girl, maiden, daughter.
Xat-c, /., a left hand.
fidx-Vi /! a battle.
fivl-a, f. a fly.
Viificfi-Ti, f., a nymph; maiden.
irapei-d, f., a cheek.
iriip-a, /., a bag, wallet, purse.
vp(^p-a, /., a prow, fore part of a
,

m., a master, lord,

ov,

owner [dominus).
56^a,

/., glory.

?;s,

\iaLV-a,
p.d^-a.,

7]i,

97s,

f.

a lioness.

/., a cake.

"HLova-a., fis,/.,

the Muse.

va^-rjs, ov,

to.,

sailor.

a Persian.
I14pff-7]s, ov, TO., Perses.
iroirjT-i^s, ov, to., a poet.
roXrT-ijy, ou, to., a citizen.
2K6d-7]9, ov, TO., a Scythian.
rpdwe^-a, rjs, f. a table.
llipa--r]s, ov, TO.,

(3,

an

interjection,

0,

joined

to

vocatives.

in.

ship.

SUBSTANTIVES.

a gate.

tthX-t}, /.,

the moon.
a tent, a hut, a cottage.
a shadow, a shade.

aeX-qv-t], /.,

dplyr-t)%, ov, to.,

<XKi]v--q,

Kin-r),

/.,

ffKL-d, f.

arpari-di /., an army.

<T(poup-a, /.,
cr(pei'd6i'-7j,

T?s,

pIk-7), t]S, /.,

victory.

v4d-ri,

ijy,

/.,

fetter.

ball.

ADJEOnyES.

a sling.

/.,

a ploughman.

/., hair.

a wood, a forest.
Xl^-'h) f-1 ^ hoof, a claw, a talon.
iiX-rj,/.,

dyt-a, holy.
Sacrei-a,

shaggy, bushy, dense.

eipei-a, broad, wide.

fem. of adj., means my.


prep, governing dat., means in,

ip.-'f),

ip,

at,
ffiv,

amongf
prep,

on,

7),

r6,

governing
the.

dat.,

(See

the

Second Declension.)

means
Article,

Xet-a,

n.
yXwTT-a,

1JS,

/.,

a thorn.
a tongue.

smooth

(to

the touch}, level.

fiaKpd, long, large.


lUKp-d, small, littla
fi(j)p-6s, TO. (see

vi-a,

6,Ka,vO-a, r)t,/.,

empty.

KXew-i}, famous, celebrated, glorious.

along with,
6,

Kok-^, beautiful.
Kv-T^,

new,

Decl.II.) foolish, silly.

fresh,

recent

yellow, golden, fair, anbum


^rfp-d, dry, parched, withered.
i^ei-a, sharp, keen, quick.
^avd--fi,

LISTS OF WORDS.
much,

iroW--^,

(in pi.

manj.)

165

va-6s, ov, TO., a temple.

venerable, revered.
(TKX-rjfhd, dry, rough, stiff, harsh,
ffo^i}, wise, prudent.
Tpaxet-a, rough.

63-6y, ov, f., a way, road.


oiKL-a, as, f., a house.

^avep-i, plain, clear, bright.

6<t>daKn-6s, ov, TO.,

fft/xp--q,

oXk-os, ov, to.,

wan.

C^xp-i, pale,

he, she, or

eM, 3d pi., they


iffrdy,

3d

y\avK-6s, i}, 6f, grey, blue.


y\vK-vs, y\vKeT-a, y\vK-ii,

TO.

6v,

-q,

Xet-oj, a, OP,

fuiKp-Ss,

(,

fj.a\aK-6s,

a ship, boat
leaf,

6v, soft.

ignorant,
dry, parched, withered.

a, ov, foolish,

iriffT-ds,

71,

6v, faithful.

atfiM-bt,

ii,

6v,

venerable, revered.

an egg.

AcaX-'^,

/.

KoX-i',

n.,

beautifuL

dvd, up, along, accus., gen., dat.


dvev, without, gen.
dirb,

\evK-6s, m.; Xevx-i}, /.;


white.

Xcuc-6i', n.,

fiiKp-6s, d, 6r, small.

Std,
CIS,

away from, gen.


through, accus., gen,

into, accus.

K, out of, gen.

IveKa,

V.
SUBSTANTTVEa.
Ayp-6s, ov, m., a field, land.
d-yvi-d, as, /.,

on account

*caT(f,

because

of, gen.

down, accus. and gen,

(See

p. 34.)

a street, road, way.

'A^^v-ai, Qv, f. pi., Athens.


atytip-os, ov, /., a poplar-tree.
&v0p(irjr-os, ov,
;

of,

Kai, and.

VI.

d5e\<p-6s, ov, m., a brother.

kind

holy.

empty.
smooth.

6r, long, large.

-fj,

f J7p-6s, d, 6v,

ADJECnVBB.
*coX-6y,

lep-6s, d, 6v, sacred,

Kv-6s,

trfiiri-os,

^vp-6v, ov, n., a razor.

tthiy, ov, n.,

thick
Sa(Tei-a,
Soff-i,
shaggy, bushy; rough, dense.
ilS-&s, rjSei-a, rjS-6, sweet, pleasant
Sacr-ijs,

an apple.

sweet,

pleasant.

SdKTv\-of, ov, m., a finger.


SeiTTV-ov, ov, n., a dinner, a supper.
5oOX-os, ov, m., a slave, a servant.
Swfhov, ov, n., a gift.
6e-6s. ov, m., a god, deity.
iTrir-oj, ov, tn. or/., a horse.
KTJv-os, ov, m., a garden.

n-Xo'c-ov, ov, n.,

a leaf.

a mane.

it is.

are.

dT-6i, ov, m., an eagle.

<f>>jXX-ov, ov, n.,

/.,

an ass.
an eye.

ADtTECnVES.

two

IV.
SUBSTASTITES.

n.,

ijs,

are.

dual, they

fj.riK-ov, ov,

/.,

<t)i)Kk-ov, ov, n.,

XcUt-t],
iffrl, 3<? sing.,

a house.

m. or

ov-os, ov,

m. \homo), man, man-

a man.

|3a>^-6s, ov, TO.,

StJBSTANTIVES.
ak-dis,

/., a thrashing-floor.

tfi,

avdr/e-uv,

w, n.,

an

altar.

yewpry-ds, ov, m., a farmer, husband-

man.

KdX-(i3s,

(>,

TO.,

*ce<^X-i;,

Tfl,

Xay-ihs,

larp-hs, ov, m., physician, doctor.

e-(ii, (6, TO.,

master.

iJxrxrOi, ov, m., a calf.

a cable, a rope.

KipK-os, ov, f., a

yvdO-os, ov, /., a jaw, cheek.


Sd(pi^r], rjs, f., a bay-tree, laurel.
tdipi-oi, ov, TO.,

an upper cham-

ber.

<t>,

f.,

TO.,

tail,

hare's scut.

a head, source.
a hare.

a people.
a temple.
ovp-d, as, /., a tail.
Ta-tDy, w, TO., a peacock.

Xe-uij, &, TO.,

LISTS OF

166
ADJECTIVES.
a,

/3pax-i5j,

(TOiffds,

-ti,

prudent.

6v, wise,

rpax-'vs, eta, i, rough, rugged.

short, little.

i5,

WORDS.

\a/xirp-6s, d, 6v, bright, brilliant.

VEEB3.

iraXai-6s, d, 6v, old, ancient.

I eat.
Kelp-w, I crop, cut, shave, shear.
rpuy-w, I eat, nibble.
iffdl-w,

wK-iJS, eXa, 6, swift, fleet, rapid.

vn.
BUBSTANTITES.
EXXt/v, tn., a Greek.
6i^p, m., a wild beast.

IX.
SUBSTANTIVES.

m., a meadow.
m., a month.

\eifjuiiv,

dT)S(ip, irjd6v-os, /.,

fi-qv,

'Adrjv-d, as, /.,

X^v, m. or

/.,

a gander or goose.

dvrip, dvSp-6s, to.,

VERBS.

^-w,

I have.

I leave.

\elir-<j},

(Miiierva).

a fox.

man

{vir).

the neck.
yeirdip, -yurhv-os, to. or/., a neighbour.

avxv", avx^v-os,

I hunt, pursue, chase,

5tti/c-w,

a nightingale.

Athena

d\d)7rr]^, dXdnreK-os, /.,

to.,

iTTiffToX-'^, rjs,/.,

letter, epistle.

kIwv, kIov-os, to., a pillar.

VIII.
SUBSTANTIVES.

k{iu)v,

bread; a loaf.
a vulture.
a domestic servant.
a hero, warrior, demi-

&f>T-os, ov, m.,


yij'ip,

yvTr-6%, m.,
6 J,

S/iti-s,

TO.,

^pci)-s, OS, TO.,

god.
6s,

r]s,

/., the sea.

m., a jackal.

KX^TTT-rjs, ov, TO.,

port.

K6pa^, K6paK-os,

or /., a sheep.

ots, ol-6s, TO.

irariip, irarp-bs, to.,

a father.
a shepherd.

to.,

(puv-ri, rjs,/.,

a raven, crow.

Xi', X''OP-os,

a cutlass, sword.

(TKtj\aK-os,

ADJECTIVES.
dX7)6--^s, ^s, is,

m.

TToXXol,

or y.,

or /., a pig, swine,

boar.
pd'p, OS, TO.,

Oavfid^-ti}, I

admire, wonder

at.

/, a vein

piiTT-u, I throw, hurl.

thief.

X.
SUBSTANTIVES.

&ypi-os, a, OP, fierce, savage.


ov,

}iavd-6s,

aubuni,
harsh.

many.

ypd<f>-w, I write.

ADJECTIVES.

VK\t}p-6s,

(see p. 46),

VERBS.

veld-ia, I persuade.

(p\^^, 0Xe/3-6s,

i),

(see p. 47,) true.

nam. ^L,

young dog or whelp, a puppy.


TO.

a voice, sound.
a swallow.
/., snow.

XeXi5(i)v, xfXtSoj'-os, /.,

an ant.
fivs, /JLv-ds, TO., a mouse.
irripv^, irripvy-os, /., a wing.

(TV-OS,

a trireme.

a thief.

Ixvp/jLTj^, fjLjjp/xTjK-os, TO.,

ffKvXa^,

wand.

a friend.

ipi\-os, ov, TO.,

a nostril.

fiVKTrjp, OS, TO.,

ifj.-6s,

a mother.

fi-qT7]p, fjLrp-p-6s, /.,

Tpirip-7)s, Tpi-f)pe-os, /.,

thief.

K\ij}Tr-6s, TO.,

fidxai-p-a, as,/.,

au-s,

TO.,

f)d^d-os, ov, /., a rod,

IX^O-s, OS, TO., a fish.

/cXcii/',

Xifiiv-os,

voifirji', TToifiiv-os, TO.,

6d\aTT-a,
6il3-s,

a dog.
a harbour,

kvv-6s, to. or/.,

XtyLt^v,

i},

AyaXfia, ros, n., an image, statue.


dpfia, Tos, n., a chariot, car.

my

or mine.
6v,
yellow,

golden

fair.

A,

6v,

dry; rough;

stiff;

&PX0VT-0S,
raander.

6.px<^v,

/3^/ia,

seat-

TOS,

n.,

TO.,

a ruler, com

a step

judgment-

LISTS OF
yd\a,* yd\aKT-os,

n.,

milk.

rli,

yipovT-oi, m., an old man.

yip<jxv,

ris,

wave.

Tts,

Ti'j,

167
interrog. pron.,

tI,

which

y^t T^J> /> the earth ; a country;


a land.
KvfjLCL,
Tos, n., a swell of the sea,

what

Tpl^wv,

some

indef. pron.,

t/,

any one, a
OS,

who?

one,

certain.

TO.,

a (coarse or thread

bare) cloak.

X^ciw, X^otT-os, m.,


/ttAi, fifKiT-os, n.,

fiiKiTT-a,

T/s,

a lion.
honey.

xXa/iH/i, xXap.iS-os,/.,

a bee.

/.,

m., a river.
awfia, ros, n., a body, a corpse.
inrrip^T-ris, ov, m., a servant, attend6j, ov,

ant.
6pdi-os, a, ov, steep.

ro\-is, iro\X-i), vo\-v, much.


pi. many.
(See p. 46.)

In

I look upon.

bid,

^ffcw,

they were.

X^-w,

I say.

command,

order,

Tf^TTT-w, I strike, hit.

ADJECTIVES.

VERBS.
neXeij-w,

paif-u, I go.
^;', he was, or I was.

v\4k-w, I {)lait, twine.


rX^-w, I sail.

ADJECTIVES.

/9\^7r-, I see

a mantle.

VERBS.

Xenophon.

Sfvo(l>u>p, m.,

Tora/*

WORDS.

fU\ai, {gen. /tA(u-o$), fiiXaiva, fiiXav, black.


(Se
rds, tSLjo, rap, all, every.
xas, p. 45.)

desire.

XI.
SUBSTANTIVES.

T(H>, interror/. adv.,

&va^, SivaKT-os, m., a prince, king.


6.VTp-ov, ov, n., a cave.
dffiris, dffirid-os, /., a shield.
yiyai, ylyavr-os, m., a giant
56/Li-oy, ou, m., a building, a house.

XII.
aTfia, oXfiaT-os, n., blood-

5wa/i-is, ewj, /., power, force.

a judge.

Kopv<b--ii, rti, /.,

Ko'xXl-a.s, ov,
fj.dtn--K,

m.,

caldron;

ewer.

flip-OS, eos, n.,

a part, share.

oSovT-oi, m., a tooth.

^l<p-os, eos, n.,

a sword.

a ship of bura mercliant-man.


6pvid-os, TO. or /., a bird,

5po<p-os, ov,

oXjcds,

den
6pvis,

6Xa:(5-oj, /.,

fowl, hen.

Tah,

a top, summit.

nu, a snail.
ews, to., a prophet, seer.

Xafiirds, \a/JLird5-0i, f., a torch.


Xi^-ijT-os,

TTtttSoj,

boy; girl.
TapdSew-oj,

m.

or /., a child;

m. a roof.
a mountain.
60-is, ews, TO., a serpent, snake.
8xX-os, ov, TO., a crowd ; the popu6p-os, eos, n.,

lace.

viKeK-vs, eus,
ov,

to.,

a park;

sure-grounds.
^f, {nv-oi, /., a nostril.
nose.

plea-

iroX-tj,

eiits.

/.,

to.,

an axe, hatchet.

city, state.

TToryaw, irilrytap-os, to., a beard.

In pL the

ffo<puTT--fis,

ov,

TO.,

a learned man,

teacher, sophist.

As every genuine Greek word ends either in a vowel or in v,


p,
which the stem of tixia word terminates must be left off, and so -yaAoucT
ycUa.

Kcd, both aci

.SL'IBTAXTIVES.

X^^Tjj,

65o(5j,

t^

TC, conj., and.

where

iar-v, eos, n., a city.

KXeis, AcXei5-6j, /., a key.


Kopvs, Kopvd-os, /., a helmet.
Kp'T-T)^, ov, m.,

(See p. 34.)

irapd, prep., beside.

s,

is

tlie kt in
reduced to

168

LISTS OF WORDS.
the breast, chest.

recx-os, COS, n., a wall.

(SA-os, eos, n., a javelin, dart, weopoa


veavl-as, ov, m., a young man.

vios, oO, m., a son.

liirX-ov, ov, n.,

(yrT)9-os, eos,

re.,

iraidi-ov, ov, n.,

ADJECTIVES.
/Sa/o-i^j,

Seiv-6i,

ii,

bv, dreadful,

5rjK-os,

7],

ov,

2Ji-

arniii.

a plain.

TreSl-ov, ov, n.,

eta, V, lieavy.

weapon;
an infant.

Tref-ot, u)v, VI., infantry.

mighty.

evident, plain, vi>iblu.

6^-vs, eTa, i, sharp, swift.

rd^-is, ews, /., line (of troops).


Xeiy^'-os, eos,

Xopr-os,

a lip.
m., an

re.,

ov,

enclosure,

garden.

ADJECTIVES.
SiSdcTK-w, I teach.
?/)7r-w,
p^ci),

KaK-6s,

creep.

Ss,

tpe'jy-u, I flee,

run away.

}},

bad, wicked, worth-

6v,

)},

(See p. 50.)

less.

flow.

who, which,

5,

iroirqpos, a, 6v,
vxffTjX-os,

XIII.
SUBSTANTIVES.

that.

wicked.

ov, lofty,

f],

high.

ea, eoc, golden.


uxp-6s, d, ov, pale, wan.

Xpw-eos,

m., a king.
or/., an ox or cow.
y(pvp-a, ay, /., a bridge.
yoi>-evs, ^wy, in. ory., a parent.

/SacrtX-eiJs, ^ws,

/3o0s,

^0

VERIJS.

OS, VI.

ypavs, ypaos,/., an old

eiipicTK-oj,

I find.

Kara^aiv-w,

descend.

woman.

XV.

5opK-ds, ddos,/., a gazelle.

custom.
OuyaTTjp, dvyarp-os, /., a daughter.
?i9-oy,

lepevi,

^ojs,

m., a priest.

a horseman,

'nrir-evs, ews, ?.,

/jj^j?.

cavalry.

a ship.
vofx-evs, iois, m., a shepherd.
(TTparrjy-os, ov, m., a general, coipi'e(i>s,

/.,

/ a woinan, wife.
an Indian.
m., Cyrus.

KCp-os, ov,
Kihp.-r],

57s,/.,

olv-os, ov, VI.,

a village.
wine.

opTV^, 5pTvy-os,
ffToX-Ti,

?}$,

/.,

VI.,

a quail.

a robe.

virv-os, ov, m., sleep.

maiider.

arpaTuir

dpKT-os, OV, m. or/., a bear.


yipav-os, ov, m., a crane.
yvv-q, gen. yvvaiK-os,
'Iv5-6s, ov, m.,

K^pas, Kipar-os, n., a horn.


Kovp-vs, iijjs, m., a barber.
caOs,

SUBSTANTIVES,

eos, w., habit,

ris,

m.

ov,

a soldier.

TjS,

(t>rifi-7],

/., a

rumour, report.

ADJECTIVES, ETft
e{rp-6s, eta, i), broad, wide.
Hiy-as, fuyaX-rj, fiiy-a, great; p. 46.
tI,

ADJECTIVES.
dfMd--qs,

VERIiS.
/SaS/f-w, I stalk,

walk

in a stately

manner.

h, unlearned, ignorant.

SetXos, 1}, iv, cowardly; wretched,


miserable.
6ap(T-tJS, eto, i5, bold, courageous.
Kov<p-os,

<f)v\d.TT-w (or -(Tffw), I guard,

XdX-os,

^^-w, I run.

TTorep

f\<r-os,

ijs,

^ad-ius, ela, 6, deep.

why.

7),

ov, light.

OS, ov,

talkative.

OS, a, ov,

whether of the twa

XIV.

pq.5i.-os,

a, ov, easy.

SUItSTA NTIVE3.

arevos,

i),

eos,

?i.,

6,vd-os, eos, n.,

adO-os, eos,

n.,

a grove.
a flower.
a depth, a glen.

ov,

narrow.

tXtj/x-uv, wv, ov, patient;

suflTering;

wretched.
Xapl-eis, ecraa, ev, beautiful, gracefuL

LISTS OF WOfiDS.

169
a nurse.

Tp<x(y-bs, ov, /.,

^p-u,

I carry.

eus,/; wisdom, prudenoe

^p6vri<T-is,

iel {adv.}, always.

PREPOSITIONS.

See

dKo6-u, I hear.
rule.
/3ouXei5-w,

or ewj, m., an old

uos,

man an ambassador.
X^ 'P""J>

m., a wreath, crown.

id^-u,

king,

reiga,

consult, take counsel,

I wish.

seek.

^yjri-o), I

hunt

dripeihW, I

ImreihU, I ride.
KoXi-w, I call, call on, invoke.
\\j-tx),

let go,

set

roast

iruTTev-ia, I believe.

7rw\4-u, I

the hand.

unyoke,

loose,

free.

d-rrd'Ui, I

<ni<f>aj'-os, ov,

deliberate, advise.

a year.
rinip-a, as, /., a day.
\id-os, ov, m., a stone.
\6ry-os, ov, m., a word; speech; reason.
fiadrjT-^s, ov, m., a disciple.
ftv0-os, ov, m., a word.
rj.,

rpia^-vt,

I act sue

^affiXed-u,

XVI.
ypdfifia, ypdfifjLar-os, n., a letter.

X^ip,

VERBS.

acctis.)

SUBSTAXTITES.
tr-os, COS,

under, by.

vir6, prep.,

through, gen. (sometimes


rpos, towards (with accus.)
Vocabulary.
Sid,

barter.

sell,

Xpvff-6s, ov, m., gold.

XV 111.

ADJECTIVES.
dya$-6s,

'EXXijyix-os,

Ktxxf>-6s,

good.
(See p. 50.)
ov, Greek.

ov,

/),

i),

Same

as preceding.

XIX.

6v, deaf.

SUBSTANTIVES.

0iXt-os, a, ov, friendly.

^X-os,

01",

77,

^i^Xiov,

friendly, beloved.

OV, n.,

a book.

yiv-os, fos, n., race, origin, family.

VERBS.

Mkv-w,

Kpu-os, COS, n., cold.

I bite.

KpiiTT-fi),
xifj.ir-ui,

VERBS.

conceal.
send.

KTvl^-w, I

tX^'/c-w, I plait, twine.

riTpuaK-o}, I

comb.

irriyw-fu, F. Tijfw, I fasten, stiffen.

wound.

rp4<t>-(o,

nourish, support.

rpL^-u, I rub.

xvn.
SUBSTANTIVES.

XX.
SUBSTANTIVES.

SSvcL^, 56vaK-os, m.,

Ao0-oy,

ov, OT.

a reed.
or/., a deer.

drip, dip-<K,

Odvar-os, ov, m., death.


l5nroAc6/x-oy, oy, m.,

KpiO-Ti,

fj's,

a groom.

/., barley.

Ki/pi-os, ov, TO., the

Kv^pvTfr-Tii, ov,

TO.,

To\ifu-os, ov,

Lord.
a pilot, steers-

man.
IT/|,

m., the air.

^aKTTjpl-a, as,/., a stick, cudgel.


XvK-os, OV, TO., a wolf.

an enemy.

TO.,

war.
vdup, ibdar-os, tu, water.
<pv\aK-ri, Tjs, /., guard, prison.

ir6Xe/x-oj, ov, to.,

by

fj.ed'

wisdom, prudence;

ydp,

coiij., for,

ijSri,

adv., already,

wKT-6t, /., night

Wicr^j,

for /itrd, prep.,

among, witli

nif^ht.

raiSi-ov, ov, n., a child, infant.


ffoipla,

av,

ieamin:.

/.,

5X-0S,

yj,

ov, adj..

whole, entire.

because.

now.

LISTS OF "WORDS.

170
VERBS.

e\ev9epl-a, as,/., freedom, liberty.


i^&raa-is, eujs,/., a review; iroieiai^iu
i^^raaiv, to review.

A'jroKTelp-of, I kill, slay.

/SdXX-w, 1 throw, cast, hit.


xXiirT-u, I steal.
kXIv-u, 1 bend

set.

remain, stay.

fiiv-bi,

ipy-ov, ov, ., a work, action.

the sun,) to

(of

(TtAX-w,

I send, equip.

ov, m., Castolus.

a satrap, or Per-

(7arpdir-7]s, ov, m.,

sian governor.

rifiv-u}, I cut.

t/XX-w,

pluck, pull out.

pa.lv

show, point out.

(a,

Kao-TwX-6s,

irarpis, irarpld-os, /., native country.

araOiibs,

m., a halting-place, a

ov,

stage.
ffurrripi-a, as, /., safety.

XXI.

honour,

7js,f.,

Ti/j.-'/i,

SUBSTANTIVES.
&/xa^-a, Tjs,/., a
dper-T^,

T]i,

ADJECTIVES.

waggon.
merit.

/., virtue,

fiia-os,

'Apra^^p^-Tjs, ov, m., Artaxerxes.


apx-'f), VS, y.,

pdp^ap

middle.

ov,

77,

T),

how much, how

ov,

VERBS.

m., a barbarian.

OS, ov,

word

VI.,

book, trea-

dOpoi^-w, I collect, assemble.


dTro5dKvv-fu,,

a house.

p-ryrwp, pTjTop-os, m.,


iiiro^iryi-ov, ov, n.,

forth,

exhibit,

wish.

/3o!/X-o/xa(, 1

a beast of burden.

yev-o/xai, I taste, (with gen.)


i^airi-ofiai, 1

a,

(oCs),

ov,

beg

off (for myself.)

fidx-o/xai, I fight.

alaxp-is, d, 6v, base, worthless.


&^i-os, a, ov, worthy, deserving.
dpyijpe-os

away, despatch.

dwoirip-TT-w, I send

an orator.

ADJECTIVES.

set

declare.
diroKpiv-ofxat, I reply.

tise.

olKi-a, as, /.,

ver

great.

government, province.

5t5d(rKaX-os, ov, m. or /., a teacher.


KvireKk-ov, ov, n., a cup.

X67-0S, ov,

ficr-os,

made

of

I send for

fxeTavifiir-ofiai,

(to

my-

self.)
sil-

TToU-ii},

make

I do.

aTpaTiv-op.ai, I take the field,

silver.

go on

a military expedition.
avWapL^dv-o), I seize, apprehend.
formerly; v^ed TaTT-u {rdaff-w], F. rdfw, I mar^fiTrpocrdfv,
culv.,
shal, arrange.
adjcctively, former.
vir6, prep., by.
(See Vocabulary.)
yjyrj [impers. verb), it is necessary.
&pi(TT-os,

T],

ov, best.

VERBS.
choose, catch.

alpi-U3, I take,
Srj\6-u}, I

iXaijv

u),

make

plain, detail.

I drive, ride.

Kal-w, I set
Trai5etj-o},

on

fire,

burn.

dvSpelois, manfully, bravely.


iTTifieXws, carefully.
irepi,

around, about.

(See Vocabu-

lary.)
irpb, before, for.

I teach, educate.

iropev-ofiai, I go,

XXIII.

journey, advance.

SUBSTANTIVES.

ri/xd-u, 1 honour.

fyx-os, 60$, n., a spear.


pleasure.

<pi\^-w, I love.

rjbov-ii, ijs,/-,

XXII.

dr}pl-ov, ov, n.,

SUaSTANTlVES.
tf77cX-os, ov, m., a messenger.

fX''-os,

Aapel-os, ov, m., Dariuij.

KXiapx-os,

os,

n.,

a wild beast.
a track, trace, foot

jirint.

ov, m.,

Clearchus.

LISTS

OF WORDS.

\v5l-a, as,/., Lydia.


K&r-T],

uiK

dapiK-6s, ov,

a limb,

OS, eos, .,

member.

m., the world.


\vKovpy-os, ov, m., Lycurgus.
m.,
pay, wages.
fiwd-6s, ov,
veKp-6s, ov, m., dk dead body, corpse.
v6n-os, oy, TO., a law.
K6ff/i-os, ov,

Menon.

Mfvuiv, OS, m.,

a part, share.
Xjy OS, ov,f., Nineveh.
Top9/j.-fjs,
m., a ferryman,
^<i)s,
boatman.
ffdx-os, eos, n., a shield.
^i'7-dj, (puydS-os, m. ory., an exile.
(i^p OS, eos, n.,

irvp, irvp-6s, n., fire.

Se^i'Ss,

?KaffT-os,

right

the

6v,

d,

hand;

favourable, fortunate.
6v,

ri,

<r<li<f>p-(i)v,

remaining

wise, prudent.

as

(liairep, as,

6<ms, yJTis, Sri, whoever, whichever who, what.


xCS.i-01, at, o, a thousand.
;

VEHBS.
up,
aTodidu-pn,
pay.

if.

TTEUBS.
I

&j,

o-Trex OjUat,

go up, ascend.
keep myself from,

id-ca, I

I flee

away,

if^i-ofiai,,

W-w,

forth,

march

for-

I said.

lawful

it

is

evTvxi-d}, I

am

fortunate.

cause to stand, I erect.


Kara.Tl0ri'pj., I put down, I pay.

tarrj-px, 1

I lead the

way, guide.

Kivi-to, I

move.

Tidrj-fu,

Keifi-ai, I lie.

persuade.

place

make a

law.

I
appear.

show

<paXv-<i),

I fall.

rlirr-o},

<f>rifiCj,

expose.

permitted.

KaraTrijSd-w, I leap down.


reid-u), I

aor. of

^^ecTT-iv, impera., it is

sacrifice.

tIkt-u), I beget,

return

back,

allow, permit.

(2

iicrldji-iu, I

retreat.

yvj-wd^-w, I exercise.

^\aiv-(a, I ride
ward.

give

diSu-fii, I give, grant.

elirov

I die.

&Tr6X\v-fjLi, I perish, I die.

diro0ei>y-w,

dipicTTTi-fu, I revolt.

re-

train.
dvodirfi<TK-(i>,

a very

dvaSidta-pu, I give forth, yield, send

iroWciKis, adv., often.

ava^oLiv

ten thousand

when.

Sre, mr,j.,

Theban.

Qrj^au-os, a, ov,

great number.

lucky.
the rest.

self-controlling;

ov,

(i)v,

each, every.

ov,

7],

fivpi-oi, ot, o,

evb)vvfi-os, OS, ov, the left,

Xot7r-6s,

a tombstone.
a trophy.

pillar,

4.DJECTIVE3.

short.

i5,

(TTT^X-r], 7IS, /.,

Tp6irai-ou, ov, n.,

ADJECTIVES.
^pax-^s, eXa,

a daric (a Persian

TO.,

coin).

/., grief.

-iji,

171

t19ti/u

vd/i^v,

mid. and pass.,

produce.

rpix-<^i i run-

6ti, c<mj., that.

pdXurra, adv., very much; especi-

XXIV.

ally.

SCRSTANTIVES.

XXV.

yaO-d, Q, neut. pi., goods, blessings.


9\-ov, ov, n., a prize of

a reward.
|J^X'^'')

jfpdfifjM,
jil.

a ruler.
ypdfjL/^aT-os, n., a letter;

&px'^-o^)

"*.,

an inscription.

(128)

SUBSTANTITE3.

a contest,

^ApiaTiTT-os, OV, TO., Aristippns.


^ovk6\-os, ov, TO., a cowherd, herds-

man.
Sd<pp-r},

13

rjs,

/., a bay-tree, laurel.

LISTS OF

172
Ad(p;>id-oi, m.,

Ad(J3i'is,

him.

ol {i.e., oZ), to

wonus.

Daphnis.

(See

p.

VERBS.

54.)

a name.
nXdrcov, OS, m., Plato.
IIu^a76p-as, a, m., Pythagoras,
pd/c-os, cos, n., a rag; a coarse or
rajia^eri garment.

a drug, medicine.
-xkanv^-oi, /., a mantle,

[scil. r^x"'")))/^'"^- of larpiKii,


the healing art, medicine, surgery.

larpiK'^

most
(iTjdeii,

53),
/j,6v OS,

xoT-6s,

tj,

of /co\6s),

ov [superl.

speak

deem myself worthy

demand.
dpX-w,

govern.

I rule,

eiiepjeTi-w, I benefit,

show kindness

Kadl(TTrj-m, I establish

up

??.,

ADJKCT1VE8.

/c(X\t<rr-o5,

truthful,

to.

Ti.aaa(pipv--qs, ov, m., Tissapherncs.


<f>dpiiaK-ov, ov,

xXa/xys,
cloak.

i^i6-cif,

/., haste, eagerness.

Tjs,

am

truth.

6vofj.a, 6v6fj.aT-0!, n.,

aTTovS-i^,

d.\rjdetl-(^,

my

mid. I take

position, post myself.

Kpawv-/j,i, I

mix.

Xafipdv-d)
receive.

aor.

(2

O^apov),

I take,

tIkt-w

(1 aor. pass. irixOflv), I produce, bring forth, bear.


<j)opi-(i), I carry, wear.

beautiful, or excellent.
p.i]8e/j,la,

/xtiS^v

(.see

eh,

p-

6.V,

no one, none.
7],

-q,

only, alone.

ov,

6v,

drinkable

(pdpfiaKov, a potion.
XpT/tctfiL-os, Tj,

ov, usefiU.

adv., perchance,

if.

(See Qteek

Vocabulary.)

becomingly.
more, rather.
69ev, adv., whence.
ei5,

rori^v

ado., well,

fj.d.XKov, adv.,

xff^, adv., thej).

GREEK YOCABULARY.
m. fvtandg for Masculine,/, for Feminine,

with capiUU.

In Verbs,

and

Proper names begin

Nenter.

n. for

stands for Fotore,

f.

r. for

Perfect

iyaO-Ss, -fi, bv, good; brave; noble;


wise, &c. : t6 a.ya.Bbv, advautage,
a blessing : rd a/yadi, goods,

dyopd^-u,

wealth.
(For Comparatives and
Superlatives, see p. 50.)
iyaXna, irfiXfi.a.T-oi, n., delight
honour ; gift ; statue ; picture.

iyp-bs, ov, m. (Lat. ager), a field,


land, the country (opposed to the

i.faXp.aTOTroi.-bs,

statues: as a
4701', adv.,

is,

siihst.

making

by,

m., a statuary.

very, very much.


to feel violent

iryavaKT-id), F. ^ffui,
irritation

to

be vexed

to

be

Governs dative, and


&:e.
sometimes accusative, or is followed by a preposition and case.
From 570*, and perhaps iyu
(which see) ; or dx^oj (grief, dis-

angry,

as, /.,

a message

news

town).
iyvi-d, as, /., a way, street, rosd;

from dyw.
dyvpT-Tjs,

gatherer,

(See Liquid Verba.)

d7xw,

dy^u

F.

low-minded, mean

ignoble

d, not,

and y^vos,

from

race, descent.

ov (Lat. sacer), devoted

the gods), sacred, holy; also


accursed.
(to

(LyKvp-a,

OS,

(Lat.

ancSra),

an

anchor.
i/yvo-iu, F. Tjaw, to

tight; hence, to throttle, strangle.


F. d^u, p. ^o, 2 aor. (redu-

dyu,

not to observe.

with

plicated), Ijyarfov,

inf.

dya-

take with one,


carry, take away, drive consider

yelv,

lead,

to

spend

(as

time,

life,

&c.)

dau, to strive eagerly


to be anxious.

F.

to be distressed
F.

dyuivioij/uu) ,

dSeXtfy-'fi, tJj,

d5eX^-6s,

dydtviffofjuu

to

contend

(Attic,

for

of,

/.,

oi),

a sister.

m., a brother ; a near

relative.

m., Hades, Pluto, the lower


The
the grave, death.
derivation from d, not, and ISeTv,
doubtful.
to see, is

98-7;$, ov,

world

P. -^u, to be diucot, to
do wrong, to violate the laws ; to
injure, to do wrong to.

dSiK-iu),

be ignorant

(Lat. ango), to press

prize, to struggle, to fight.

dyeu-ri^ (or i'Yeyvri^],ris, ii, low-born,

a,

quack, cheat.

dytovi^otioL,

Sryi-oi,

In pi., a town.
m. (from dytlpv), a
beggar
mountebank,

ov,

dyuvidu,

proclaim.

attend

Aypi-os, a, ov, wild, savage, fierce.

m. ory., a messenger,
bearer of tidings.

07-7 A-Xw, F. d77eX-w, to announce,

to

buy.

to

command.
dT-yeX-os, ov,

dyopdffu,

F.
;

(like duccii

tress).

iyyeXia,

market

GREEK VOCABULARY.

174
dSiK-os,

ov

oj,

and

not,

(d,

SLkt],

unproved
ignoble, mean.
ov,

i86Kifj.-os, OS,

putable

dSokicrX'V^)

o")

disre-

fellow,

babbler.

unable to
powerless; [passive),

(a thing),

impossible.
q!S-w, F.

(^(XO),

or

(fcrofxai

which

deiSw,

for

is

(contracted

principally

poetic in use), to sing, to chant


praise.

the nightingale.

sing. 'A0T]va7os.
a,

ov,

or

toilsome, painful

d^Xtoj,
;

oj,

ov,

wretched, mis-

erable.

of a contest
F.

d.6pol^-(o,

the prize

a reward, gift, &c.


ddpolau, to collect,

assemble.
dQpb-os, a, ov (rarely ddpdos, oj, oj'),
crowded together, set thick, nu-

merous.
.iEacus

(one

of

the

AiyvTrr-os, ov,/., Egypt.


A'iSuv-evs, ^os, m., Pluto.

(See

4'57;s.)

a'i/jMT-os, n.,

al^, aly6s,

aip4-ii),

-f),

blood.

m. or /., a goat.
6v, desirable, eligible.

F. aiprjcru, r.

fpriKa, 2 aor.

(from root, '^\u}),l\ov, inf. iXeiv,


take with the hand, receive,
catch, win, conquer ; understand,
detect, convict ; mid. alpionai, to
take to one's self, choose, prefer.
aXp-u, F. ipw, 1 aor. Jjpa, v. ^pKa,
to raise,
lift
up ; carry, bear
exalt; take away: and in mid.
I

p6i,
dis-

Coin-

ahx'^'i^'')

aio'xvvio,

ycxvyKa,

p.

dishonour
alax^voiiai, to be ashamed

to

disfigure,

^^as*.
of, to

blush.

alr^u, F. alTT^ffw, to ask, beg, request, &c.


fault, charge.

air id- fiat,


mid., to

deponent

alTidcofiai.,

allege

to

the cause ;
charge, find

as

blame,

fault with.

alnaT-iov, verb adj., one must, or


ought to accuse.
atri-os, a, ov (rarely afrt-oj, oj, ov),

causing, or giving cause for blame


culpable, blamable : as subst., an

author.
ed.

sudden, unexpectNeuter used as an adverb.

dnavO-a,

rjs,

a thorn,

/.,

prickle;

thorny shrub.
dKi<TTp-a, as,f-, a needle.
ddv-qT-os, OS, OV, also oj,

-q, ov, unmotionless,


idle, sluggish.

moved, immovable,
dKna'L-QS,

a,

ov,

in

full

the flower of youth

atyeLp-Qs, ov, /., the black poplar.

aipeT-6s,

alffxvv-io, F.

steady
ov,

judges in Hades).

a.lu.a,

immoral.

base,

or

self,

to gain.

or ai<rx-pis,

al<pvlSi-os, OS, ov,

(for S,d\ov), ov, n.,

AlaK-6s,

own

6v,

parative and superlative,

hence,

immortality.
'A6t]v-3,, as, f., Athena [Minerva).
'AOjjp-ai., Cov, f. pi., Athens.
'AOijval-oi, wv, m. pi., the Athenians
d,9&vdCal-a, aj, /.,

dOXov

graceful,

sion

a songstress

a.T]S6v-oi, /.,

&d\t,-os,

d,

alffx-pis,

alri-a, as, /., a cause, reason, occa-

an eagle.

deT-6j, oO, m.,


driSuv,

to

always, ever, for ever.

ael, adv.,

one's

is

at<rx-i-<^To$.

dSi)vdr-os, OJ, ov, [active],

do

or take for one's

lift

p6v, ugly, ill-looking; hence,

d56Xeffx-os,

i'^^

prating

ov),

OJ,

^^-

to

what

justice), unrighteous, unjust.

bloom,

in

vigorous.
dKo\ov6i-(i3, to follow or go with a
ptTson, accompany.
dK6vTi.-ov, ov, n. (diminutive from
&,Kwv), a dart, javelin.
dKO'uai.-os, ov, unwilling, forced.
;

dKoi-ij}, V. dKovcrofiai [dK0>j<TCi), late),


1'. uKTiKoa,
v. j;ass. ilnovcr/xai, to
hear, listen to, obey.
Governs

usually the accusative of the


thing heard, and the genitive of
the person from whom heard
but see Liddell and ScotCs Greek
Lexicon.
dKpIpQs, adv., exactly, thoroughly,
strictly;

exact, &c.

from

adj.

dKpi-fis,

GREEK TOCABtJLAEY.
calm.
dKOV (contracted for

iKvfi.avT-os. OS, ov, waveless,


a.K-wv, &Koi'(ja,

unwilling,

d^Kdiv),

against one's

175
dXw,

gen.

dXws,

or

fiXwos,

/., a

the

same

threshing-floor.
&fia,

adv.,

together,

at

time.

will.

\aX-oi, OS, OP, speechless, dnmb;


(from d, not, and XdXos. talkative.]
i\y-4ci), T^ffdi, to be pained in body
or mind ; hence, to be sick, to
grieve, to be sorry for.
aXeicrpv-div, 6vos, m., a cock; sometimei/., a hen.
Wi^cwSp-oi, ov, m., Alexander;
applied to Paris, son of Priam.
dXrjOfi-u, cru, to speak troth ; from
the fiiUowing.
dXTj^-Tjs, i)s, 4s (from d, not, and
Xa^er*", to lie hid), unconcealed,
open ; true, candid, genuine.

'

aXriOwi, adv., truly, in truth, &c.


'AXKijoT-ts, tSos, /., Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, and wife of Admetus.

d/Mi5-i}s,

a/xafrrdv-u, F. ifiapr-^opuii, to miss

the mark, fail ;


mistake, ofiFend.

ov,

m., Alcibiades, a

go wrong,

sin,

dft^\vd)TT-w, or dfi^vweff-ot, ifi^


Xvw^tj}, to be dim-sighted, to be
purblind ; to want power of dis-

crimination.
dfi^pocl-a, OS, /., ambrosia, the food
of the gods.
F.
dfiel^u, to exchange,
change mid. to give in return,
to recompense, to answer.

ifiel^u,

ifieiv-uv,

(i/v,

gen. -ovos, better

ov,

comp. of d7o^6j, for which see


p.

50.

i/x.e\-4u,

AXxt^tdS-rjs,

h, unlearned, ignorant;

i}s,

stupid.

-f/ffa,

to

be careless, to

neglect.

famous Athenian.
'Afwcu-os, a, or, f., Aminean : as a
gubgt. /., "a cask of Aminean
!)%, f; Alcmena, mother
wine."
Both Aminea in CamdXX', for dXXd.
pania and Aminaeum in ThesdXK6., conj., but, but then, nay.
saly were famed for wine.
aWd. ydp (enimvero), but really, dfjiv-6s, ov (the oblique cases are
however
this combination imgenerally borrowed, being dpvos,
plies an ellipsis, as explained in
dpvl, dpva, &c.], TO. or/., a lamb.
the notes.
dfiop<f>-os, OS, or, misshapen, ugly,
oWdTT-u, or iXkd(T<r-u, f. dXXdf-w,
unseemly.
p. ^fXXaxtt, to make other than it dfivv-u, F. dfivv-u, to ward oflP, deis, to change, alter ; to exchange.
fend
to help : mid. to defend or
dXX'^Xwi', gen. pi. (see p. 56], of
avenge one's self.
:
one another, mutually, recipro- ifupl, prep., with accusative, geni^
cally.
tive, and dative, on both sides,
dXX-o$, 17,
(Lat. cdius), another,
around, about ; concerning;
used
other
dXXot, others ;
but ol
sometimes as an adverb, all round.
Xkoi, the rest.
daughter of
rjs, f;
'Kft(f)iTplT-ij,
dXX6Tpi-o$, a, ov (Lat. alientis), beIs'ereus and wife of Poseidon
'A\Kfi^v-7},

of Hercules.

longing
strange

to
another,
foreign,
inconsistent irith, un-

suitable to.

dXXws, adv., in another way, otherwise ; heedlessly, at random ; in


vain : from SXXos ; dXXwj re xal,
especially.

IXa-<K, eoi.

iXuvq^,

n^ a grove, lawn, wood.

dXiixe/c-os, /., a fox.

{Neptuni\.
dn4>&rep-os, a, ov,
used in singular.)
ifi<f>-<i},

gen.

and

both,

(seldom

dat. dfupoiv,

both,

both parties (whether individuals


or aggregates).

(Lat. ambo.)

ip, adv., perchance, haply,

&c. It
cannot be easily translated by
one word, but always implies a

GREEK VOCABULARY.

176

and so refers to a verb


either expressed or understood.

condition,

It never begins a sentence.

(See

Grammar, and Liddell and ScoWs


Oreeh Lexicon.)
dvd, prep., with accusative, genitive,

and

upon opposed to
KCLTd.
Its meaning varies with
the case governed by it.
divafialv-w, F. dva^^ffofiai, to go up,
ascend, climb; to embark.
dative, up,

aor. dye^luv,
-dcofiai,
dva^iuivai, to come to life

iva^i-Sui,

inf.

again, revive.
force,

using force

necessary

ivayKoioi, relatives.

ol

(Lat. neces-

sarii.)

F. dPaSibau), to give up,


give forth or yield; to distribute;
give back.
dvaS6vw, to come out of, emerge.
&vadi5ii)f/,i,,

F.

dvadijofjMi,,

2 aor.
up, rise,

dvadifffOfiat,

come

to

dvi^vv,

emerge

from beneath a surascend to embark.

(as

face), to

without shedding

adv.,

dvaiixurl,

blood, bloodless.
dvaipioi),

F.

to overturn

dv-gp-qKa,

up or away,

destroy, kill

i.e.,

p.

mid.

to procure for one's

self.

F.

dvaKa^crca,

to

kindle,

stop

dvoKafi^dvw,

up receive
;

dvaiufj.irf)(TK(i),

cut

off.

f. dvdK-{)ipoiiai., to take

resume.

again

as, /., want of governlawlessness, anarchy.

dpapxi-a,

ment

dpa(TTpi<p(i},

F.

dvafiv^cru},

to

re-

admonish.

p. dpi-

turn upside down to


turn back, turn round, return.
dpo-reiv-u, F. dparevd, to stretch or
lift up, raise, hold forth.
;

dvax<^p-iu, 7)cru), to retreat, retire,


return to.
dpSpdwoS-ov, ov, n., a slave (cap
tive in war)
from AvSpa diro56adoLi: or, according to otliers, from
dvbpbs and iroi5j, the captive falling at the feet of his conqueror.
;

belonging
manly, courageous.

dpdpei-os, a, op (dyT^p),

man

n.

dvaicT-os, i.,

ov,

to

pi. of superlative of

most manmost bravely, &c.


dpdpelws, adv., in a manly way, mandydpelos, used as adv.,
fully,

fully.
7]s, es,

like a

man, manly

current of air,
from Au, drifii, to blow.
ov,

&Pfi-os,

m.,

F.
dveKevffOfiai,
aor.
dp^pXOfiai,
dvrjKdov or dpT^XvOop, v. dveXiJXw-

6a, to

go up; go or come back,

&pev, prep, with gen., without,

dp^X^

{^^-^

^X<^)' ^ li"!"^ "Pi 1"^

a philosopher of Clazomenae

in

"P

endure.

dPT^p, gen. dpdp6i, voc. &pep, a

man

opposed to a woman, like vir;


means a man,
as opposed to a beast, like homo),
a husband, a warrior, &c.
(as

m., Anaxagoras,

away

from, except, besides.

maintain, support

a lord, master;

prince, king.

Apa^aydpas,
Ionia.

dpaarpi^po),

F.

return.

mind one of a thing, to recall to


memory, to remember; to suggest;
Aj'ttJ,

to breathe
take breath, breathe, re-

dpairviu), F. dvairveiao),

wind

light up.
dvaKbiTTii}, F. dvaK6\//03, to beat back,

repulse

dpSpdiS-rjs,

dvoLKaioj,

-i]ffv,

to

dvaTrX^w, F. dpaTr\eijffop.ai, or dvair\evcrodp.ai, to sail upwards or


up the stream; to sail back again.
dpdTrXe-us, us, up, gen., avdirXed)
(see p. 22), full to the brim, full.

dp5pi6raTa,

dvaip-f}<r()},

2 aor. dvuKov, to take


to gain

(TTpocpa, to

ivdyw, F. dvd^u, to lead up; to


bring up (from the dead), to raise;
to bring back, to withdraw.

act.

deservedly

spire.

by

ov, also oj, 09, av,

ivayxcu-os, a,

to suffer unbe indignant from


dvd^Los, unworthy, and ivadov.
dvaireid-w, F. dvairelcro}, to bring
over to a different opinion, to persuade to incite to.
dva^ioiraB-lij},

whereajj dvOpwvoi

GREEK VOCABULARY.
AptL

iv9' for
ifd-os,

flower

shoot

man

S.vOpunr-0^, ou, m., a

to a beast),

(as

opposed

mankind; sometimes

woman

when used of a
temptuously).

/.,

iviaci),

(con-

vex, annoy.

and iyotyu,

p.

dw^w,

double augment,
av^cfrya, to open, un-

with

imperf.,

dv^ijryop, v.

over against,

opposite ; equivalent to, instead


of ; at the price of, in return for.
kvrlyov-os, ou, m., Antigonus, king
of Asia.

avTiXiyu

X^w),

(see

to

speak

a-

gainst, gainsay.
'Atrri6T-rj,

Antiope, mother

/.,

Tjj,

Amphion and Zethus.


ivriiroiiuj, to do in retUm
of

:
in mid.
about a thing;
pretend to.

to exert one's self

to lay claim to,


'

kvTLcrOit-ris,

thenes, an

m., Antis(eos),
Athenian, founder of

ovs

the sect of Cynic philosophers.

or ajmriafftj}, P. d^tTa^w, to range in order of battle


mid. to strive against, oppose.
dLvr\-ibj, -^(Tu, to bale out bilgewater, to drain, dry; exhaust.
Ibrrp-op, ov, n. {anirum), a cave,
avTiTiiTTO),

cavern, hole.
iinjTroSTjT-os,

under

oj,

5^w,

op [Slv, not; {rr6,


to bind), unshod,

barefoot.
ivd),

adv.

the sense,
meet, fit.

{(ip<)

F.

gen.

dL^lw/xa,

up, upwards, above,

on high; inland
up and down.

ivw Kal

jcdrco,

apwyai-op, ov {Apu and yaia, earth),


anything elevated above
the
ground ; the upper storey or floor
of a house.
ipuiyewv, gen. avtiyeu (see p. 22),
n. ; also dvti^ews, gen. dptjyeti),
m. and/., same as dpdycuop.
iinaOaf, adv., from above, on high;
from the beginning.

(literally,

^^lovr,

to think

of,
;

in

deserved,

imperf.

i^itiffo),

deem worthy
require, demand

credit,

from tf^w,

weigh),

to

to

fit

think, suppose.

d^itifiar-ot,

that

n.,

which a person is thought


worthy, an honour worth, high
of

dx' for

for avrl.

avrl, prep, vnth gen.,

'

weighing as much

character, dignity

fold, disclose.
dirr'

trustworthy.
A^i-oi, a, ov, worth, worthy

dt^i6<ti,

to grieve, distress

ividffO),

avoi-ywfjLi

worthy of

A|i67rrr-os, os, of,

a blossom,

n.,

eoj,

177

an axiom,

iir6.

dirayy0^.tt),

F.

dvayyeKQ

(see

Li-

quid Verbs), to bring tidings, to


report, relate, announce.
dvayopei-w, ffu, to forbid to bid
farewell to, to renounce
to fail
;

(through fatigue
see dxelpTiKa).
dTdyo) (see dyu), to lead away,
carry off; bring back.
dvaiT-iu, fi<TU), to demand back,
seek payment of.
diroXXdrT-w, or draXKdaffw, r.
diraXXdIw, to set free, release ; to
remove : intrans. to escape, get
off
to give over, cease, &c.
4xa|, adv., once, once for all
;

(semeT)

iiras, diraaa, ILtop {Ana,

Tat),

all

together [cuncti).
dteid-ita, -fjaa, to

be disobedient, to

disobey.
i-reifu (see etpu, Irregtdar Verbs], to

go away: pres. used as ful., " I


shall go away ;" depart.
aor.),
F.
dretirop (2
dvepw, p.
dr-iprifca, to speak out, declare
to deny, refuse

but usually

means to fail, to be wearied,


sink from exhaustion.
(See foregoing word.)

d*flpr]Ka.

direipL-a, as, /., infinity,


it

it

to

immensity;

also means, inexperience, ignore

ance.
&ireip-oi, OS,

also,

infinite,

01'.

unused

4ireXai5'w

boundless

ignorant.

to,

(see

iXaipu),

to

drive

away, expel, &c.


dvepydl^ofiat.,

P.

direpydffOfiou,

P.

GREEK VOCABTJLAKY.

178

to finish

diretpyafffiai,

com-

off,

destroy utterly, to

kill

to
(see fpxofiai),
go
away, depart, go out of.
dTT^w, F. d(f>i^u} (see ^w), to hold
or keep off from mid. dir&x.of^cLi;

d.ir^pXO/j.a(,

to hold one's self off from, to abstain, desist

from

to be

intrans.

away

mid. &ir6\'

be undone.

Xv/xai, to perish, to

])Iete.

'A7r6XXwv, 'A7r6XXwv-os, m., Apollo.


dwovevor)p.iv(i3%, adv. (from perf. part,
pass, of ctTro^'o^o/iat) without re,

gard for life, desperately, foolishly.


dir-o^vvw (dir6, d^ijvw from d^ijs), to
bring to a point, to sharpen.
d7r6irip-a, as, /., a trial, venture,

or distant from.
risk.
dirb, i^rep. , governing genitive only,
from, away from, far from ; of diroxifjLiru (see vifiirta), to send
away, dismiss; send back, return.
time
from, after, since.
It is
sometimes used also to express the dirowXiw (see ttX^w), to sail away,
instrument, the cause, or the maset sail ; sail back.
tenal.
diroirvl'yw (see vviyu), to
choke,
throttle; pass., to be choked,
diro^dWu) (see /3(\Xw), to throw off
or away, to reject; to lose {e.g.,
throttled, drowned.
to lose children by death).
dirop-iu, F. i}(7w, to be in perplexity
to be at a loss for, to be in want.
d7r6^a<r-tj, ewj,/. [diro^alvu], a stepping off, landing, disembarking.
dvopi-a, as, /., perplexity, diflSculty,
doubt; need, poverty.
dTroSelKvvfj.1 (see Verbs in -fit), to
point away from (other objects, to dwoa-iwTr-du}, F. -Tqaw, trans, to keep

one specially)
forth,

exhibit,

show

to

Tience,

produce

to

de-

Verbs in

back, return, repay


dTTodv-qaKdi (see

-jtii),

to give

give away.

6vfi<jK<t}),

diroOa-

F.

vovjiai, 2 ax)r. dir^davop, to

be

j)iit

to death, to die.

iiroKaX-iu),
call

call

F.

by

-^crw,

to

or aside ;
a disparaging

call

back,

miscall,

to

-i^erw,

to

derive benefit or enjoyment from


something.
diroKiv-iw, F. ijcrw, to remove from.
dwoKvalw, or diroKvdw, to scrape off
to wear (a person) out, to worry,
annoy.
diroKplv-uj, F. diroKpXvdf to separate,

distinguish,
diroKpivofiai,

mid.
choose out ;
to give answer, to

avoKpviTTU, F. diroKp'ifca, to hide


from, conceal.
F.

diroKTevQ,

drriKTeiva, to slay,
d7roXai5-w, F. -ffu,

dxrca,

to

deprive of

a crown, or garland.

put
away, or stow away mid. to put
away from one's self, to put off (as
(see I'erbs in -/u), to
;

d-iro(pevyu (see ^euyw), to flee

<ior.

condemn.

to benefit from,

onjoy.

ijrdWvfju, diroKiatj), and diroKCo, to

away

from, escape.
diroxpdw, inf. diroxpfiv, imperf. diriXp7]i>, to suffice, be sufficient.
dirdxpv (3/ sing, jires. of i)receding
verb), used impersonally, it is
enough, sufficient, &c.
dvpdyfiwv, uiv, ov, gen. -ovos, free
from
occupation,
disengaged
hence,

quiet

reply.

atroKTelvu),

dTre<TTd\r]v.
dTroaT(pav-6ci),

clothes), to lay past for one's self.

title.

-avu and

f.

(see (xt^Wu), to send off


or away, despatcii ; 2 aor. pass.

diroriOrjiJLi

away

dTTOKepS-aivti),

intrans. to be silent (after

speaking).

dTToariWu

clare, appoint, create.


diro5i5(i)/Ju (see

secret

from

free
;

dirpeir-ifis,

trouble,

easy,

lazy.
^s,

seemly.
dn-Tepos, OS,

^s,

oy,

unbecoming, un-

without wings, un-

fledged, callow.

dtrru,

P.

fi^w, to fasten, bind, tie

to kindle or set fire to


uaiuU in mid. drrofULi;

more
perf.

GKEEK VOCABTTLAJRY.
7/v"", to fasten one's self
grasp; set upon,
attack; to overtake, gain.
'Apy-os, ov,m., Argus, son of Agenor,
called the " hundred-eyed."

leader,

to, cling to, to

general.

Argos, a town

in the Peloponnese.
ipyvpeos, contracted dpyvpoih, o,
ovp, (made) of silver.
o^>^ '^1 V^: f-\ excellence, merit (of
any kind) ; bravery, (moral) vir-

tue

commander, chief magistrate.


weak,

dine.

ApiffTirr-m, ov, m., Aristippus, a


philosopher from Cyrene.

dpurr-oi,

77,

dffBa^-4p,

1)1,

(See irregular

OP, best.

'

(Lat.

-^ffw

off; to assist, to

vice, to avail

sonal, dpKfi,

arceo),

be of

to suflSce

to
ser-

imper-

it is sufficient,

am

content.
ipfui,

ipfiaros, n., a chariot (espe-

cially war-chariot), car.

fit

insignifi-

doiris, dairldoi, /.,

4<7Ti;),

(in>,

a round shield.

m.pl., the Assyrians.

and

os,

of the town,

a, op (from

polite

(r-

banus], comical.
dffTuc-6i, ^, 6p, of the city, or town.
dar-v, 0i, w., a city, town.
datpaX-Tis, ijs, 4s, not tottering; safe,
secure, sure, steadfast.
ire, conj., inasmuch as. seeing that,

because.

app6^ti/, Attic, apfjb&TT-w, F. ip/iAau,

to

cine.

dtrTet-ot, oi, op,

ward

aBbwi), without

(d,

dfffUvon, adv., willingly, gladly.


'AffcnJpt-ot,

F.

ix.,

AaK\f(ri-bs, ov, m., .^Esculapius,


son of Apollo, and god of medi-

m., Aristotle,
tutor of Alexander the Great.
eot,

cant.

comparison, p. 50, mider dya06s.)


' ApiaToriK-Tjs,

dpK-i(i),

be dxrdeprp,

feeble, sickly.

strength, weak, sickly

take the ipurrop,


or mid- day meal ; to lunch, to

chief,

dadtv-i<i), fyra, to

skill.

prince,

firsti to begin
^i'^t to
(usuaUy mid. in this sense) ; to
lead, govern, command.
&PX(j3v, ipxovT-os, m. {partidpU of
dpx^, used as a svibst.), a mler,

ifiX''^!

dpiffT-d(i>, flaw, to

'

founder;

pass.

'A/yy-os, ovi (cos), n.,

179

together, join, arrange, suit


to tit, suit, be adapted

intraiis.

for.

dreKP-os, oi, op,


childless.

'ArXaJT-ii,

without children,

-ISoi, /.,

a daughter of

Atlas.

dp&rris, ou, IB., a

ploughman.

'AtXoi, 'AtXcut-oj, m., Atlas (who


dpoirpa, as, /.. a field.
bears heaven on his shoulders).
ipovpeu-<K, a, OP, from the country, droT-ot, OS, OP, out of place, extrarustic.
ordinary, strange; absurd, monaprd^to, F. aprdffopMt [dprd^a], to
strous.
snatch away, carry otf; to seize a^is, adv., back, back again, again,
greedily, to plunder.
Kpra^ip^ip, ou, tn., Artaxerxes,
king of Persia.
dpTi, adv., just, exactly; just

&fT-ot,

m.,

ou,

(wheaten)

in

^:enerally).

A/>xAa-os,

01;,

bread,

^,

now.
loaf

loaves, bread

Barley bread is /la^om., Archelaus, king

of ilacedonia.
'^'X^i V^)/-i beginning, origin; first

place or power, dominion, sovereignty, magistracy.

ipXTf^<

6c, 6p,

used tubstantivelij.

afresh, hereafter.
aiiX-id), -fyra [aSKbs),

to play

on the

flute, to pipe.

the open court-yard, a


court or hall; palace, dwelling,

01JX-1), rjs,/.,

country house (villa).


ov^dMV, or aO^, f. aA(^w (LaL
augeo), to make larg^ increase;
honour, extoL
dvrv-os, OS, OF, sleepless, wakeful.
turrlKO, adv., immediately, forthwith,
presently, at once.
aitSffi, adv.,

on the spot, here, there.

GREEK VOCABULARY.

180

)}, b, reflexive pronoun, self;


but in oblique cases often used
for personal pronoun (see p. 55),

twT-6j,

d(p[ffT7}fii (see

to

to boast,

self; declare,

the

neck,

shun, revolt.
A<ppoSlT-rj,

to take

alpiot),

Tji,

Aphrodite {Ve-

/.,

nus) goddess of love.

away

from, remove, deprive; mid. more


usual, to take for one's self, carry
off.

gen.

IS,

from care
d,

'Axa'-<5s,

d(pp6trrt,S-os,

Achaian

6v,

pi.

(see

irnJ.!.,

dxP'^j

son of

and Thetis.

i'eleus

and Verbs in -fii),


away, let go, set

ol

Achaeans.

'Axo.iol, the

unmixed with

ov,

drugs, free from poison.

free

[securus).

'Ax''^X-ei5!, ^a5, m., Achilles,

d(pdpfjLaicr-oi, or,

0^ dxpa (before a vowel),


governing gen., until, up to,

2'ep.

to send forth or
free,

to stand off from, to put

8.<ppovT-i^,

(see

in

a^iiar-qKa,

one's

throat.
d(paip4(i)

d,(plr]fii

make

and Verbs
p.

plume

'

m.,

to,

away, remove mid., and intrans.


tenses of act. to stand aloof from,

&c.

avow.

avx^v-os,

avxh^t

t(TTrjiJ.i,

F. dirocrrijo-w,

-fj.i),

(see p. 56), himself, herself, itself.


"fiffoj,

come

at,

reach.

airrhi).

avx-^t^,

past,

v.

i<i>l^oixax,

to arrive

d<pLyfiai,

myself, thyself, &c. 6 ai>r6s, the


very one, the same (contracted
aiiTov, avTTJi, avrov, for iavroO,

p.

i<f>iKviofxai,

as far as

as conj. , until.

give up.

B
/SaSifw, p.

^aSiovfiai,

(fiaSlcru}),

^aSiaopLaL,

to

go

to

and

walk, or go

slowly.
pdO-os, eos

(ouj), n.,

depth, height;

deep place, valley.


^aO-is,

eta,

i,

deep,

high

(like

P. ^i^-qna (f.
cause to go), 2 aor.
i^riv, inf. ^Tjvai, to go, walk, advance.
^aKTTipl-a, as, /., a staff, cane, walking stick, sceptre.
/SdXXw, P. /3a\w or paW-qcru), p.
pip\-qKa, 2 aor. i^aXov, to throw
at, or hit (opposed to riirrd), to
strike), to throw, cast, fling.
pdpPap-os, OS, ov, barbarous [i.e.,
not Greek), strange, foreign out-

p.

prjcro},

^rjaofiai,

will

landish,

rude,

boorish,

uncivil-

ized.

^ap-iw,

kingdom, dominion.
paaiX-eh, iojs, m., a king,
sovereign, prince.

pdrpax-OS,
arrow

T^cru,

to weigh

down, oppress.

heavy, weighty ; oppressive, troublesome.


fiafflXei-S, as, /., a queen, a princess.

a frog.
a missile;

ov, m.,
n.,

eos,

/3A.-0S,

a dart,

a weapon.

pfKTL<TTos,

r),

superlative

the best; irregular

ov,

of dya66s.

^rina, p-fip-ar-os, n., a step, pace; a

platform
from)

or

tribunal

(to

speak

/9/oi-os, a, ov, forcible, violent.

^latbTepov,

going,

compar. of forewith con-

adv.,

more

forcible,

siderable force or violence.


ov, n., a paper, letter

^i^XL-ov,
little

^ap-ijs, eia, v,

chief,

(See p. 37.)

be king, to rule.
jSaj-rctfw, F. ^aardata, to lift, raise,
exalt, support; carry off.
paffiXeij-u), to

altus).

^aivu,

f, sovereign power,

Pacn\el-d, as,

PL^pibcTKU, F. PpiiaopLai,
to eat, eat up.
/3/os, ov, TO., life
life,

book.

livelihood

1'.

P^PpuKa,

(Lat. vita)
;

common

way
life.

of

GREEK VOCABITLARY.
licofiai, 2 aor. i^itav,
^iwvax, part, ^lois, to live.

fiiSv,

p\4iro},

F.

pXixpo/iai,

IfiXi^ut)

inf.

to

have the power of sight, see; to


look on or towards.
cry aload, to shout

fiodd), -fjaofKu, to

on

to call
^o-qdioy,

(a

rjffu),

come

person).

to succour, assist, help,

to the rescue.

BoKitrl-a, as, /-, Bceotia, a district

of Greece.
oj,

/SoAo/tat, F. ^ov\f)<rofuu, to will, ba


willing, wish. It sometimes takes
rj

augment;

as

ffi.,

man.
^ouXev-w, <rw, to take counsel, deliberate ; to decide; to plan; to give
counsel, advise.

e.g., -^^ovXiqdriP, as

well as ipov\-^9r).

m. and/., an ox or cow

/3oCy, /3o6s,

PpaSvvw, F. ^paSuvw, to make slo-v,


delay intrans. to loiter, be tardy.
;

^paS-is, eta, 6 [tardus], slow, heavy;


sluggish.
(previa), short, little,

petty,

an infant, babe.
^pi^w, to wet (on the surface), moisten, soak.
PpovT-dw, ^(Tw, to thunder.
^pvxdo/jLcu, ^pvxqffofjLcu, to roar or
^pi<f>-os, COS, n.,

/3p^w,

F.

bellow.
^pvxi)0fi-6i, ov, m., a roar, bellow.

^uX-iJ, 5, /., will, determination


purpose, plan, counsel; a conncU.

(See ^i^piixrKU.)

BpdjffKCj.
^<i}fM-6s,

ov,

a raised place ; a stand,

altar.

yal-a, oj, /., the earth;

country.
yd\a, yd\aKT-os,
ya.\r}v-r),

ijy,

n.,

a land, or

milk.

(See dXX(.)

7^, a limiting

also

the paunch,

womb.

belly,

to

yipojv, yipovT-oi, m.,


yevo), yfiKjoi, to

an old man.

give one to taste;

mid. yevop-ax, to taste.


a bridge.

yi<l>vp-a, as,/.,

ov, m., &


farmer, labourer.

yeu)pry-6s,

husbandman,

yjjpai-di, d, 6, or-6j, 6j, 6v, aged. old.

yacrTp6s, /.,

foar-ffp,

spring, descendant; lineage; class,


kind.

yipav-os, ov, m., a crane.

/., stillness of sea, a

calm.
ydp, conj., for, (introducing the reason why).
It is sometimes used,
like nam in Latin, to strengthen
a question, as, tLs ydp ; why, who?

call

yijpas, yi)paos, n., contracted yi^pui,

old age.

tued 7^701, ylyavr-os, m., a giant : in


special attention to
j}l., as proper name. The Giants.

particle, at least

something ; even.
yilrwv, yelrov-os, m. andy., a neighbour, borderer.
yekdu, yeXdffo/juu, to laugh, to

yiyvo/iai, or yho/xai, f. yevT^cofiai,

laugh at (one).
yewalus, adv., nobly, magnanimous-

yiyvw<rK(i}, f. yvdi<roiuu, aor. hfinav,

ly,

in pi. cattle (generally).

Ppax-vs, eto, i

a bunch of grapes.
/Sou/coX^w, to act as a shepherd, to
tend cattle to guard.
Povk6\-os, ov, m., a cow-herd, herds^Srpv-s,

181

generously

yew-dct},

-fyrd),

bravely.
to beget [trans.); to
;

bring forth ; to grow.


y4v-oi, (OS. n., race, descent;

2 aor. iyev6firiv, to come into


being, to be born ; to be, to arise,
happen, occur.
imperat. yvQdi, inf.
yvovs, P. fyyw/ttt,
to begin or learn to know ; to per-

opt.

yvoLr)v,

yvGivai,

part,

; to form or givs
an opinion, judge, decide.

ceive, distinguish
off-

GREEK VOCABULARY.

182

t}, 6v, gleaming, glancing,


glaring ; [rmth idea of colour),
grey, pale blue, light blue.
yKavKwTTis, yXavKdoirtd-os, epithet
of Athena [Minerva), fierce-eyed;
blue-eyed, azure-eyed; [y\avKbs,
and c3^, the eye).
y\vK-vs, eta, i5, sweet; delightful,
dear (beloved).
y\u)TT-a, or yXwcrcr-a, rj^, /., the
tongue a language.
yvdO-os, ov,f., a jaw; mouth.
yva(pei-ov, ov, or Kva<puov, n., a
fuller's shop, a fulling mill.
yov-e'js, ^ws, m., a father: in pi.,

f\avK-6i,

])arents, ancestors.

yovv, adv., at least then, accordingly;


ypdififjuT-os,

written, a character,

n.,
i.e.,

a thing
letter of

for 5^.

m. and f., a god,


goddess; providence; lot, fortune,
chance; genius.

iaipiwv, Salfiov-os,

SdKVd), F. St^^o/jmi, 2 aor. ^SaKov, to

champ

(the bit); sting, prick;

gall.

SdKpS-op, ov, n. {poetic form, SdKpv),

a tear.
SaKpv-w, <rw, to weep, shed tears;
lament.
SaKTvX-oi, ov, 771., a finger: /liyas
SdKTvXos, the thumb.
Sdfia\-ti, ewj, /.,

a young cow, hei-

to train in
to

accustom

mid. and
person) to (a thing)
pass., tc practise one's self, to
exercise.
yvfJLP-ds, /), 6p, naked, unclad, un(a

covered.
(iffU),

to strip naked,

to

bare; to spoil, bereave.


yvvaiK-6s,

yvv/i,

of

(Lat.

vac.

femina)

y6vai, a woin voc. a term

respect, mistress, lady;

wife,

yiiip,

yvTfbs, rn., a vulture.

French have pieces called "Lonis


d'or" and "Napoleon."
Aapei-os,

ov,

Darius, king of

m.,

Persia.
Saa-^s, eta,

v,

thick, shaggy,

rough

of dense foliage.
Sd(f>v-r}, 7]^,f, a laurel, a bay-tree.
Ad(pi'is, Ad(pvi5-os, m., Daphnis, i
Also/., a nymph.
Sicilian hero.
S4, conj., in the second place, on the
other hand; but, and: it usually
responds to piiv,
S^7]<r-ts,

ews,

f.

[Sio/iai),

treating, prayer,

an

en-

petition; want,

need.

fer ijuve7ica).

Lavdri, tjs, /., DanSe, daughter of


Acrisius, king of Argos.
SaTrdvrjfjM,

yv/jLvdffu,

F.

gymnastic exercises,

spouse.

at all events.

bite,

Xenophon.
yvp.vdl(i),

man

Sicily.

5'

yvfiv-6o>,

Fopyl-as, a, m., Gorgias, an orator


and philosopher of Leontini in

ypdfifia,

the alphabet: in pi., letters, the


alphabet a letter (epistle) ; documents, writings; learning.
ypavs, ypa6s,f., an old woman.
ypdcpu, ypd\po}, to scratch, scrape;
sketch, write, inscribe, engrave.
F/siyXX-os, ov, m., Gryllus, son of

SairafrifiaT-os,

n.,

usu-

ally in pi., expense, outlay.

hapiK-6s, ov, m., a Daric, a Persian

gold coin, equal toabout ai/Mtraca,


English money:
said
to
be
called from king Darius.
So the

impers. verb, it is necessary, it


behoves, there is need of [opus
est), one ought: F. Se'ficrei, 1 aor.
i8ir]ffe, &c.

Sei,

beiypxt,

tflyfiar-o^,

n.

[SeUvv/u), a

sample, specimen, proof.


SeUvvfu (nee Verbs in -fu), and 5kvvia, to show, point out; explain

GREEK VOCABCLABY.
ttiX-6s,

ojwardlj; wretched;

i,

ij,

worthle&s; miserable.
Aeot'-as, ov, m., Dinias, an Athenian.
5cu'-6y,

dreadful,

6w,

)},

calamitons

mighty,

terrible,

powerful

clever, skilful.
Seirp-oy,

ov,

meal, dinner.
(Lat. coma.)
indecl. numeral, ten.
hivbp-oy, ov, n., a tree.
5efi-<, a J, f., the right hand:
5ef t^ on the right.
de|i-6s, d, 6f, on the right hand ;
hence^ fortunate, lucky, favourable.
Seofuu, F. be-qcroficu, to need, be in
want of ; beg. ask.
Sipw, F. Stpd, 1 aor. fSet/xt, 2 oor.

/.

iSdpnrp^, with wi/. 5a^>^tu,


to take off the skin, flay; to beat,

cudgel [lUe our phrases, to tan,


to hide).

Sf<rr6T-r}f,

autocrat

m., a lord, master,

owner.
time)

(as to

inferior (as to

rank and position)

ix Sevripov, a

second time.
54(0,

F.

SiSeKO, P. pass.
aor. pass. thiOrff, to
p.

3ij<rw,

Sibeftai,

bind, tie;

fetter,

imprison.

(shortened
from 4^), adv.,
already: in narrative, well

9^

now;
now.

brjkovint

''5i;Xoi>

5rt),

adv., clearly,

evidently.
6m, also 6s, 6s, 6v, clear,
-fi,
evident, conspicuous.

iriK-bi,

5i}X-6<i>,

biau, to

evident, &c.
Arifjii^rip,

{Ceres),

make

clear,

make

to declare.

Ai}fi.riTp6s,

goddess of

/.,

Demeter
and of

com

a^cnlture.
ii

for 5u.

prep, governing the gen. and


(1.) With the gen., through
and through, quite through; (of
time), through, daring; (of cause),
arising through, by means of. (2.)
"With the accus. (1 and 2 poetie),
with the same meanings.
SiA
rarrSs, always.

5t(,

accus.

tinguish;

(see ftyvuxTKai^, to disresolve, decide; give

judgment.

5ta^it-i7,

17J,

a band or

head), a diadem,

fillet (for tlie

/. {5iaTl&T}iu),

a dispo-

(of property), will,

sition

testa-

ment ; a covenant
Siatp-4w,

-fyru

(see

cdpiti^,

to take

one from another, separate ; divide,


cut in two, distribute
ZiatT-a.,

T/s,

/., life,

distinguish.

way of life

food

dress; maintenance.
SiaiTT]T--qs,

m.,

oO,

an

arbitrator,

umpire.
SidKOP-iu,

'fjcu,

to be a Siaxofos,

ue., to wait on, serve;

to supply,

administer.

two hundred.

StaXafffditj (see Xay^cbw], to escape


notice, lie hid.

Sfvrep-oi, a, OP, the second, latter of

two

htaftywwCKU

SidK6(Ti-oi, ou, a,

ov,
;

dia^cJru (see pabnJj, to pass over or


through, to cross.

StdSrifui, SiaS-^pMT-os, n.,

a meal; the chief

n.,

Mko,

emd

183

(see X^w), to pick out,


choose, distinguish: mid. to converse with, to discourse ; argue.

SiaXiyv

SioXiij (see Xi^), to loose from one


another, unravel; break up; dis-

miss ; put an end to, destroy.


Siararr6s, i.e., Sid rcvrit, tlirougfaout, always.
Siaropdfieita, to ferry over, transport.
Suurr-dbi, daofuu, p. Sifffiraica, to
tear in pieces

to distract.

Suurrpiiyyv/u, and -vw. f. Sutorpdata,


to spread, lay out (as couches,

or chairs).
Siare\4w, to finish, accomplish.
huirifUKit, Siarefiu, to cut through,
to cut in twain, sever.
SultI

[i.e., 8{& tQ, wherefore.


(LaL
tpiamobrem).
Siarpi^i^, rjs, /., a. wearing away;
waste of time, delay.
Sia^pw (see (p^pa, to carry across;
bring to an end ; carry different

ways : intrans. to differ ; excel.


Siaipevyw, to flee throush, escape.
huKftOdpti, SuKpdepCj, SUipOtipKa, to
destroy utterly.
HMffKoK-os, ov, m. and/, a teacher.

GREEK VOCABULA.RY.

184

to

SiSd^u, to teach

F.

SiSd(TKU},

have one taught

mid.

8o\ix65et/5os,

for one's self

e.g., to get one's children taught.


SlSvfi-oi, 7], ov, also OS, ov, double,
twofold, twin.
SiS<j}/j.i
(see Verbs in -fu), to give,
grant, offer.
Siepevvdu}, tjcu), to search through,
examine minutely.
SLrjyr]fia, dnjyrjfjMTos, n., a tale, nar-

rative.
f.

house.
ZbvaK-os, m., a reed; dart;
writing-reed (pen).
5()^-a, r]s, /., an opinion; estimation,
good report honour, glory.
dop-d, as, /., a hide of a beast, (when
taken off.)
;

Sm-

disagree

spear.

to stand apart, to differ,


;

to stand at intervals.

a,

subject to; obey.


5ov\-os, 01, m., a slave,

attentive to rules;

ov,

Svpa/jLai, F.

ability.

SvvaT-6s,

two-footed

two

feet

Svo,

adv., twice.

be parched.
Siu^w, Scw^o/ia^, to pursue,
drive away.
Sfiibs, 5/iw6y, m., a slave taken in
war; a slave, attendant, domestic
SoK^u, F. 56fw, to think, expect,
Si'tprjv,

to thirst, to

SidiKoj,

imagine
l)car

and

gen.

A^(nrap-Ls,

(contracts ae, &c. into?;, not a):

hunt

6p,

mighty, able, strong;

dat.

Svoiv (see p. 53),

two.

long.

inf.

-f),

(of things) possible.

dltrovs, diiroSos,

6i\t'(w

hw-fjaofiai. (see iffxafiai.

Verbs in -fu), to be strong, to be


to sigable; to be equivalent to
nify (mean).
SOvafM-is, ews, /., power, strength,

sentences.)

5^s,

bondman.

a drachma, a silver
coin worth about 9^d.
Spdo}, F. Spdaw, to do, fulfil, perform.
dpaxM-'f], v^,/.,

upright; scrupulous, honest, just;


well merited.
5iKa(TTi^pi-ov, ou, n., a court of justice
judgment-seat.
Aio7^^-7;s, eos, w., Diogenes, the
famous Cjnic philosopher.
Aiovvai-os, ov, m., Dionysius, tyrant
of Syracuse.
5i6rt, coi/.,^Std [tovto] Sti, because
that, since wherefore, (in indirect
;

to act the slave; be

Sov\eij-u), ffu,

5j/cdfw, diKaffd}, to judge, determine.


5iKai-os,

86paT-os, a stem; tree;


shaft of a spear; a

the

hence,

to divide, cause disunion

<rT7}<T(j),

in pass,

long-necked,

Siyal,

S6pv, gen.
(see Vei-hs in -/m],

5ucrTr]/j.i

ov,

os,

having long necks.


56^i-or, ov, m., [domus^ a building,

good,

intrans.

impers.

it

to

BoKfi,

seem, ap-

Paris

wretched, unov,
OS,
unfortunate.
2 aor. fSvv, to put
on, (as clothes, armour, &c.) ; to
enter (a house, country).
SuSeKa, twelve.
Su&TTjv-os,

happy

Sijw,

F.

dw/ia,

seems

it

unlucky

tSos,

(Alexander).

S6ff(i3,

ddb/juiTos,

room,

, a house;

chief

hall.

Svp-ov, oVf n., a gift, present.

pieces.

E
fdv, conj.

(contracted into

in Attic, du),

if,

if

good writers

it

is

Ijv,

and

perchance. In
always joined

with the .subjunctive mood.


iavT-oO,

ijs,

ov,

of himself,

self,

p.

foi
reflex, pron.,
56, (contracted into

avTovj.

idu,
her-

itself:

which see
F.

permit

idffu,
;

p.

etaKa,

to allow,

let alone, let pass.

GREEK VOCABULAEY.
tyyvdu,
pledge

give over as a

T. --^(rw, to

iyKovfJUiT-oi,

made by burning

els

n.,

a mark

into (the flesh,

a brand; a sore firom burn-

&C.),
ing.

(^aX^

ov, m.,

within the head

hence, the brain.

oor- 6^ea, to
water, wine, &c)
fyX'O^j foj, n., a spear, lance, pike;

iyx^<^,

f-

pour

in,

^7XeWi

(as

sometimes even a sword.


eyu, gen. i/tw, I (see p. 54).

Lat.

ego.

lyuye (Lat equidem), I


I for

my

part.

(or

e^u),

F.

at

least,

ieiKfyrv,

to

be willing; to wish, desire.


eZ, conj., if; whether (in questions).
Used with indicative and optative
moods.
fiSevcu.
(See oZ3a in Vocabulary and
will,

in Irregular Verbs.)
eI9or,

adj. (see pu 53),

or

prep, governing aeeus, onbff

is,

into, to, towards.


etffeifu,

to

go

(See et/u.)

into.

ttaipxpfuu (see Ipxofuu), to go into,


enter.

^K^^aX-oj,

idfKu

numeral

one.

iyyvs, adv., near, at hand.


lyKavfjui,

tXi, fiUt, tp,

to plight, betroth.

185

used as 2 aor. of bp6ju (which

(firom obsolete verb elSht,


or etSu), F. of ttSa (which see.
Irregular Verbs), I shall know.
(See also eZ3ov.)
elfforrpl^ofiai, to look into a mirror.
elff^pui (see 4^pu) eUrolab), &e., to
bring or carry into
to contribute ; to introduce, propose.
cTra [deinde), adv., then, next, in the
next place; then, therefore [ita.)
ttre [el ri), conj., whether.
iic (before a vowel ^, from out of,
away from out of, forth frt>m
from.
?K<WT-oj, ij, OF, every, every one
each {quisque).
endrep- oi, a, , each of two; each
etffofiai

by

himself.

6ee);*u^/. tSo), opt. tSoi/u, imperat.

'ExdT-17, rjs,/., Hecate, goddess of

part. iSuv, inf. IScTf, to see,


behold ; to lok at.
ttOe (Lat utinam), interjection, O

the lower world and of magic


^/r^aXXw (see /3aXXa>, to throw out
to throw away ; banish, cast oat
or away ; reject
iKSiSdaKca (see 5t5<i<rjcw), to teach
thoroughly ; inform accurately

lii,

that,

would that.
eUdau, p. pass,

ewcdiw, F.
to

make

like,

liken

j/cacr/uu,

compare

conjecture.

(edocere.)

eiK&ros, neuter of per/,

tUds, gen.

of eLco [ioixa], likely,


probable, reasonable : as a subsL
T& eUdi, probability, likelihood.
etKOffi {indeclinable numeral}, twenparticip.

(See p. 54.)
eU&TUi, adv., in likelihood, naturally; reasonably, with good reason.
ty.

EtX^^w-o,

aj, /.,

Ilethyia, goddess

of birth.
tlfd (see Irregular Verbs), to be.

f^

(see

Irregular Verbs), to go
by Attics as/ut I shall

pres. used
go-

drop, used as aor. of tpijfd.


(See
Irregular Verbs.)
r)s.J.,
peace,
time
of peace.
^VV^,

iKiubfv

(see 3u6kci>), to

chase away;

to banish.
iKel, ado., there, in that place (tZ7ic).

ixeWep, adv., from that place, thence


[Ulinc).
ifeip-'os, Vy o til**

person there; that

well-known person
iKOfpfi-cupu,

-ai^,

Lat

ille.)

warm

tho-

(like

to

roughly.

ixSpwcKW,

iK0opmj(uu, aor. i^iOopor, to leap out of, or forth.


iKKoJO-alpu, F. -apv, to cleanse out
purify thoroughly.
F.

oi, /., an assembly, or


public meeting ; also, the place
of meeting, assembly haU.
iKKo\d-TTu, -if/it), to scrape oat,
erase ; peck out^ hatch.
iKKkriffl-a,

GREEK VOCABULARY.

186

{K\av9dv<a (see \av0dvu), to escape


notice entirely in mid. to forget

enter

out,

unfold,

dis-

play.

or away, cast forth.

out at

full length.

(see TldTjfii),

put out

to set forth,

expose, exhibit.
-<Ii(Tii),
to render en-

iKTV(p\-6ui, F.

tirely blind.

of Priam, king of Troy.


iK<f)0^-iia,

terrify

to

T^trw,

i\aTT-6u},

away,

pass, to be afraid.
ticrw (or iXaaadoi,

make

less,

motion

ride

to

ad-

iXe-iw, F. -tJcw, to pity, feel compassion for; show mercy to.


rjs,

/.,

pity,

mercy;

alms.
'KKiv-T],

Tjs,

/.,

Helen, wife of Mene-

laus, carried off

by Paris.

m., pity,

ov,

mercy, com-

passion.

iXivdepos, a, ov, free, free-spirited


liberal, generous.
i\ev$p-6u, F.

(iffw, to free, set free,

go.

'EXXas, 'EXXd5-oj, /., Greece.


"EXXtjj'-qj, m., a Greek
"EXXrjces, the Greeks.
'EXXr]viK-6s, ri, bv, Hellenic, Greek.
(Xni^u), V. iXiriaw, Attic iXxiQ, to
liope
expect think, suppose.
i/iuuToD, ^s, ov, myself.
(See p.

'EXXt]v,

in

with

weave or

to

to intertwine

entangle.

ilxirpoaOev, or ifiirpoaQe (before con-

sonants), adv., before, in front of;

Sometimes

it

is

(Lat. ante.)
inf. of 2 aor. ind. ivicpayov (the used^^jres. being iaBlu,
which see), to take some food ;
feed upon, eat, devour.
iv, prep., governing the dative only,
in (i.e., being within); on; at or
by, (near) : iv 5dirv(i), at dinner:
iv oivifi {inter pocxila), at wine.
i/itpayeiv,

ivaXXd-TTO), or ivaXXd-aao), v. -fw,


to give one thing in exchange for
another, to barter, to change.
ivdXXo/xai, F. ivaXod/j.ai, aor. ivijX(and so like td/j,r]v, to leap on,
sidtare, in Lat.,) to leap

temptuously
ivavrla, adv.

release.
iXdelv, iXdiLv, &c., 2 aor. of lpxofJ.ai,

come

to fall ijito

fall

a pirep. and governs jrcn., before.

vance, (as an army on march.)


IXa^-os, ov, m. and/., a deer, (stag
or hind.)

i\r)jj.ocnjy-r],

upon

liglit

earlier, sooner.

off,

in

to

plait in,

set

aor. ivivpijcra, to kindle,

on fire, burn. The pres. ought


to be ifj.irinTrpT]fii, but the second
is omitted to avoid the recurfj.
rence of the /ti sound.
So i/iTrlTrXrjfu, and not ^/xTrfjttirXij/ii.
set

ifiirXiKO}, P. ^yUTrX^lw,

from

diminish pass, to come worst


be defeated be diminished.
iXarjvu, F. iXdcro}, Attic i\w,
drive,

happen.

frigliten

i\dcrau)v, smaller), to

56.)

possessive
(], bv, my, or mine
pronoun from {'kytl)] i/iov.

iniriirrb) (see vLtttu),

m., Hector, son

'Ektoj/), 'EKTop-ot,

to

thunderstruck
crazy (fool).

(attonitus); as a svhst.

ip.Tri7rpr]ij.i,

stretched

adv.,

{iKTelvw),

KTidT]ixi

into,

throv/

i^i^pbvrrjT-os, os, ov,

^/i-6s,

throw out

to

(see piirTui),

^ktolStju

to

spread

iKplTTTO)

fKe-os,

jSdXXw),

(see

into

iKireravvv/Mi,, F. iKireriau}, to stretch


;

go

to

embark.

to excite, inspire
put in
;
introduce
to fall upon, attack.

send forth,

or out, or away.
forth

i/jL^dXXo)

iKTri/xiru) (see iriinroS), to

^alvw),

(see

ifi^alvo)

utterly.

o;'),

over

[n.

on con-

to rush at.
pi.

against,

of ivavrlos,

opposite

a,

to

the face, in the presence of.


^vai^w, to kindle, set fire to.
ivbov, adv., within, in; in the house,
at

home

[domi].

of high fame;
ov,
honoured glorious.
ivSuco, and ivSvvu, v. iv56aoftax (see

hSo^-os,

oi,

enter.
5ya>), to pit on, clothe
(see elfi^, to be in or at
ivetixi
;

GREEK VOCABULARY,

i^iraa-is, ews, /., a drawing out in


line; scrutiny; review.

{used impersonally), it is
it is in one's power.
;
EvcAca, prep, with gen., on account
of; for the sake of (like causa
(vtffTi

possible

and grattd in

i^evplffKu,

Lat.)

then

adv.,

aor.

i^evp-ffaw,

i^oi,S-i(i},

F.

i^evpov,

win.
to be swollen up

to find out, discover

becaase of.
;
thereupon ; just
then : as relative, where.
here ; there ;
ivddde, adv., thither

ivda,

187

r^ffti),

perf. part.
i^oveid-l^w, F. Uru, Attic tw, to cast
up to a person, tatmt with, rei^ifSriicdis,

now.

proach.

god

spired, possessed {jy a


be in ecstasy

i^ovffl-a, ay,

to

beyond.

ifiavT-Si, ov, m., a year.

some.
ivLorre, adv., sometimes.
(voiK-io), ijcrw, to dwell in.
ivoTrX-os, oj, ov, in armour, armed.
-qaii),

imperf.

from

2 perf.

(oiKa,

evi-oi, cu, a, pi.,

ivoxX-4o},

[f^fOTt], power ; permission, authority.


#^w, adv., on the outside, without

ivOovat-d^u), dffu [hfOeot], to be in-

be

to

like

old stem,

particip.

shortened into cIkus, eUvTa, eUds,


(see eUSi, Ln Vocahulary,) to be,
or to look like ; to be probable,
to stem.

ip>dr)(\ow

double augment), to give


annoyance to ; trouble, annoy,

At' for

pester.

iTTq-Su (see #5w), to sing to or

(with

ivravda, adv., here

very time

there

to

at the

then.

efjcw,

ioiKws,

iirl.

harp upon

hraiv-iu,

ivriKko) (the active seldom used,


the mid., ivriWofjiai, being almost

approve

f. iaa, mid.
;

over

inculcate.

praise,

4<ro/Mi,

to

commend.

approval, praise,

iwaiv-os, ov, m.,

panegyric
eiralpo), F. IvapQ, to

always employed), to enjoin, command.

lift up, raise,


elevate, exalt ; rouse.
luxuriate or
revel in to make sport of, mock. 'Yiirafiivuvb-as, -ov, m., Epaminondas, a famous Theban general.
i^, prep, with gen., used instead of
iK before vowels, out of; without, ivavipxop-ai (see fpxofiai], to come
or go back return.
(See iK.)
&c.
i^aip-^w, Tjcro), 2 aor. ^|et\oi', to iirapK-iu), F. iffu, to ward off, detake out or away, remove.
fend hinder be enough for.
f^aiT-io), Tiau), to demand from aniirax0iii'<J, to load, burden with.
other
to beg (a person) off
to iirel, conj., since ; seeing that.
obtain by asking.
hreiZdv [iireiSr] S.v], conj., as soon

iirrpv<p-d<i), F. "qau, to
;

in VocabuIrregular Veris), to
raise up, rouse
excite mid. to
change one's abode or residence.
i^fifii, to go out ; come out.
t^eifjLi, impersonal forms only tised
e.g.. i^eoTLV, it is allowed.
i^ekavvo}, i^eXdau, to drive forth.
(^e\iy-X<j}, F. |w, to search out
try ; convict and confute.

i^avloTTjfii
larij,

(see tanjfu,

as,

and

adv., on

come
(128)

(see

fpxofiat),

since; seeing

ivecra [iirl elTa), thereupon in the


next place then therefore.
iirevSvvo}, or -Svui, to put on {wie
part of dress or armour) over {an;

other).

iwfpelSo}, F. iirepelau, to press, or

drive against
j^''^^- to lean on,
press against.
prep., governing accusative, geni;

purpose

hence, maliciously.

i^ipXo/Mii

[iirel 5i}), conj.,

that.

set

whenever.

ivei.^

i^eirlTi^S-i,

iirl,

to

go or

tive,

forth.

it
1

and

dative.

indicates

(1.)

With accus.

motion towards of

GREEK VOCABULAEy.

188

against,

With

(2.)

to,

(7eJi.,

towards, against.
rest or motion,

thought

upon, at, near.


(3.) With dat.,
nearness to,
in or at (a time or
place), for (a purpose.)
hri^aivcj (see ^t^lixix], to go upon,
tread upon
arrive at
to mount
;

upon

embark.

iinp\\ii)

(see

upon

add to

a rider

a passenger

a marine

(soldier).

iiripodu),

to

ivi^oiicronai.,

call

cry out against;

against one, to plot

lay snares

iirl^ovX-os,

OS,

op,

plotting; treach-

erous, stealthy; designing.

laugh

iTriyeXd-u}, -(TOfxai, to
I'ide;

smile

look upon,
iirKXKw-irTU,

ypd<pw),
write upon;

como

to

accrue

(see

scratch;

de-

^t,

to

to.

graze,

mark;

in-

Irregidar Verbs), to

show

off,

Ferbs), to

give in addition ; to give freely


to give one's self up to, devote to.

iineiKU)^,

well

pretty

fairly; tolerably;
pretty much.

^L^7]r-iu],

r.

iiriaKe/Mfiai,

to

visit,

examine.
to laugh

at,

rjiTCj,

of.

tell

command

enjoin,

give in

to.

ivi(TToX--f},

a commission;

/.,

71$,

letter, epistle.

\j/<i), to turn towards,


mid. and pass, to turn one's
self towai'ds ; to turn round ; to
care for.

iiTKJTpi- <}>(>}, p.
:

F.

(or -(r<rw),

iiriTapd-TTO)

to

-fw,

trouble yet more, give additional


to stretch out

iiriTelvd), p. iTTiTevCi,

on a frame) to tighten
to urge on, excite
to increase
(as

to strain after.

add

by or upon

lay

lTru-lOt]Hi, to

to put

suggest ; attack.
cut off; shortened
^ iiriTo/MOS (soil. 656s), the short
to,

iTriro/i-os, OS, ov,

to seek after;

wish

road.

for, desiderate.

iwiOea-is, ews, /., application.


ewiKadi^ii), to set upon
intrans. to
:

iinTpix<^!

to call on or to
-i(7(x),
appeal to; invite; invoke; to call
by a surname.
hnKK(h6(t), P. iTLKK(!}(T(i), to spin to
one, (as the Fates;) to allot, de-

iiriKoK-^u,

(see Xafi^dvoj),

to

re-

ceive in addition
to attain
mid. to hold on by seize ; to
tack, (as of battle or disease.)
;

iiriKavOifO} (sec \av6du(ii), to

in
at-

make

iiriOpi^ofxai,

or

to or after

^7rt;

fol-

attack.

iiTKpwv-io},

name

run

mention by

to

-'fiffd),

to add, .subjoin.

iiTLxeip-iuj, -i^o-w,

to; attempt,
iTrd/JLVV/ii,

swear

cree, destine.

F.

dpa/JLOvfiai, to

low

upon.

hrCKafi^dvw

-^^w,

P.

make game

upon

display.

ewiSiSufii (see Irregular

jjlaster on.

(extra) annoyance.

scribe, engrave; write down, enroll.


ein5eiKVv/j.i (see

ivi-

F.

irXdcrtrw),

hriariXXta, P. iiriaTeXQ, to send to;

turn

after, liappcn after

exhibit,

let loose.

(or

iirurK^TTTOfiaL (better hrtaKoir^u}), p.

to.

iiriylyvo/xai (see ylyvo/xaCj

iiriypdijxj)

to send after or again

vXdcdi, to spread a

charge

for.

sit

against, plot.

jeer,

iiripovXei-oj, F. -ffu, to devise plans

plans

devise

to

iTrifj.7]xavdo/j,ai,

iiriaK^^o/xai,

P.

upon, shout to;


invoke.

lose

iwi/xeXus, adv., carefully.

iirnrXdTTU)

who mounts;

forget,

to

iwiXiyu} (see X^w), to say in addition ; to choose, select.

send against

attack.

m., one

iTTifidr-T]^, ov,

mid.

of.

iirnripLTTO},

throw

to

/SciXXco),
;

forget

to

to put one's

hand

endeavour.

and -vu,

F. iiro/iov/jLai, to

to (do a tiling)

to

swear

in

confirmation.
ipdo}, to love.

ipydi^op-ai, p. -d(rofjL<u, v. etpyacrftai,

to

work, labour

effect.

do,

pcrfonu

GREEK VOCABULABT.
fpyo^,

a work; deed; thing;

ov, n.,

matter,
to strive

F. iplffu,

f'pfftj,

quarrel

wool.

?pi-op, ov, n.,

IpiSoi,

rivalry

Ipif,) strife,

or

quarrel.

As

a proper name, The Goddess of


Contention.

nu and/., a young goat,

Ipiip-os, ov,

a kid.

Hermes

m.,

ov,

'E/>/i^s,

(Mercury),

messenger of the gods.


[ipofiat], for which ipurdu

by the Attics

as pres.

is

used

fut.

ipri-

ffonau aor. ijpbfrqv, to ask, inquire.


(See ipw.)
(epxi/fw) , aor. etfnrvaa, (the

used by Attics, who


ipirv) to creep, crawl.
tpirci),

only part
preferred

go slowly

inxperf. ttpirov, to

F.

P. iki^Xuda,

iXevffOfiaL,

^\6ov (for ilXvOov], to come ;


go, go away.
epu [fut. of old pres. etpw), to be
about to speak ; proclaim say
promise, &c.
the per/, is etpTjKO.
;

pais.

etpTjfioL.

As
god

of love.

b,

to ask,

love; amorous; amatory.


ety, prep, \cith accits. onhj,
into; unto, towards.
F.

pass.

p.

iSofiat,

idi^doKa,

P.

2 aor. i<f>ayov,

iSriStcrnat.,

to eat.

companion.

trep-os, o, ov [alter), the other;

frt,

two

the second

adv., yet,

froT^u-oj,

Ti,

prepared

certain, sure.

tr-oi, eoy, n., a year.


t7',

bravo.

made

7^

adv., well

weU done

good

of

smell

fragrant.

ous;

ov,

oy,

through;

easy;

easily

passed

steady;

ingeni-

inventive.
oy, well-doing; welfare,

eiirpdyl-a,

success.
evplffKw,

p.

ei'priffti),

aor. eZpop,

to

find, discover;

invent; obtain.
ov, m., Eurybiades,
of the Spartan fleet at

Salamis.
'EvpvSix-ij,

ijy,

/.,

Eurydice, wife of

Orpheus.
eip-is, eta, 6,
sive.

nomy;
;

comely.
op,

oy,

of good form,

ov,

OS,

Cfiop<fy-os,

well

of good length;

s,

7]S,

long.

evrikei-a,

ade. (&ene), well.

f 5y (e5,

evfii^K-Tjs,

commander

different,

henceforth.
or oy, os, of, ready,

still

Of,
;

one

of good size;

es,

Tjy,

large, great.

'Ei/pv^idS-Tj^,

tralp-os, ov, m., a

of

as

[adv.) to place.
ifiey^0-7]s,

eihrop-os,

of or belonging to

i% or
iadid),

towards.
evOvs [adv.)
properly refers to time, and ev&i

eSoafjL-os,

du, -ijffw (see (pojxaCj,


inquire.
"fi,

straight, direct

ii,

straight

tall,

tpas, iporr-os, m., love, aflfection.


a proper name, Eros (Cupid),

ipwriK-6s,

fia,

adv., evdvs, directly, straightway;

aor.

p.

good

eid-&s,

creep, craw].
IpXofJiaL,

to be in

estimation ; to be honoured, respected famous.


evfpyer-4<i), f. -iJcw, to be a benefactor
do well ; do good to, show
kindness to.
evepry^-tji, ov, m., one who does
well to others, a benefactor.
evTj^ei-o, ay, /., goodness of heart
simplicity; honesty; also, folly.
evdap<r-T^s, ijy, ^y, of good courage;
daring.
xi6T-iu, F. --fyru, to set in order,
arrange duly or well.
djOvfi-oi, OS, OF, cheerful ; spirited,
of good spirits.
evOvfWTep-ov, adv., n. of compar. oj
preceding, more cheerfully.
;

fpiSa,

[accus.

/.,

F. -i7<rw,

evdoKifi-iui,

vie with.

Ipis,

charitable

good feeling;
reasonable.

WF, oy, of

evyvwfi-(i>j>,

fair

180

wide, broad

exten-

as, f., cheapness ; ecofrugality; shabbiness.

eimrx^o}, to be successful,

luck, turn out

welL

have gooil

GREEK VOCABULARY.

190
tii(ppalv(a,

gladden

merry

V.

ei><f)pavQ,

inspirit

to

pass, and viid. to

OS,
ov, of good name
of good omen, lucky, fortunate
(in reference to omens), on the
left hand.

ei/tkvv/i-os,

still, halt.

ixO-p6s, pd, p6v, hateful


as a snhst., an enemy.

?XW,
2

in mid.

ously, feast

relish, enjoy.

on

ov,

OS,

or

know

have

mid.

toith

opt.

hostile

^- ^o'X''?'^*)

ax'^'^'^}

iaxov,

<rxw,
to
<rx^''>

sumptuously
and pass, to fare sumptu-

i<pi.inr-os,

F. i^ui,

aor.

std)j.

to entertain

tixiTxiui,

to set over, by, or

upon

to place

near inlrans, to stand upon, by,


or near; to impend; to stand

F. iirKXT-fiau (see trrrj/xi),

i<})l<rTri(ii,

make

enjoy one's self.


eiKpvQs, ingeniously
cleverly.
vow
ei!/xoyu.at, f. ed^ofiai, to pray
pay one's vows
boast, speak
proudly ; profess.
;

inf.

ax'^^v,

ffX'^^Vt

hold

cling

to

part.
kec])

with

to,

gen.
adv.,

ibiOev,

from the morning;


at dawn.

the morning

horseback

in

riding.

contracted fw, fijs, ff


inf.
impcrf. ^^wv, F. ^Tjfffi) (rare),
to live; to be strong, be fresh
and vigorous.
Zei^s, voc. Zed, gen. Ai6s, accus. Ala,
Zeus {.Jupiter, i.e., Zevs TraT-qp).
l^rfKoTviriw, to be jealous of; to
emulate to envy.
id.il},

^rjv

7ii]v6(pavT-os, ov, m,,

^rp--^u, F. rjffWfto seek, ask, search for.

envy

to

imitate

to produce

^(jioyoviw,

propagate

(animals).

tQ-ov, ov, n., a living creature, ani-

mal.

I^r]\'6<j, F. -tip-Co,

Zcnophantus.

Zrjvwy, Zw^^vos, m., Zeno, founder


of the Stoic school of philosophy.

fw/3-6s, is, 6p,

pure

unadulterated,

(of wine.)

rival.
F. (Lffw, to

I^rifu-6it3,

one; to punish,

cause damage to

I^oipdrep-os,

a,

ov,

compar. of fore-

going.

fine.

H
fj,

advers. conj.

(1.)

(a?^^),

or

(2.)

interrog. whether, (in indirect questions)

(3.)

compar.

as,

than, (like

quam, in Lat.)
Jj,

it

an and num), pray,

is

lead the
tfyioiiai,
Tiyf)(rop.ai,
way, act as guide ; take the command of (troops) ; to suppose,
to

F.

imagine,

(like ducerc,)

^Sets,

&c.

before

&c., Attic for

USt], fjSrjs,

-gSetv.

compar. of :^5i;i.
f, pleasure, enjoyment.
sweet pleasant
i/,
(of

i]S,

t/5oi'-tJ,

ijd-vs,

eXa,

men), kind, dear.

really so ?

^SeLv,

adv. {Jam), already


forthwith.

now;

i]5l-uv, wv, ov,

adv., truly, verily, certainly: interrog. (like

^5??,

(Seo olSa,

tJKO},

F.

^'^a>,

have come,
perf)
i]\lK-oi,

and

Irregular Verbs.)
ifiiui (^5i)), glndly, with pleasure.

great

T),
;

^Xos, ov,
knot.

ov,

I
I

am come; i.e.,
am here, (used as

of what size ; how


(Lat. qvantua.)

as great as.

m., a nail

stud

wart

GREEK VOCABTJLAPvY.
a day.
to be a ijfiepodpSfioi,
a day runner, or courier ; to

191
of a truth

adv.,

beyond a

ilfi^p-a, ai, /.,

ffwov,

r]fiepoSpofii-o},

doubt ; certainly.
'Hpo, as, /., Hera (Juno), sister
and wife of Zeus.
'HpoKX-^s, contracted for 'Hpo-

i.e.,

post.
ijfjLep-oi,

ov,

01,

animals

or a,

tame, (of

ov,

K\iT}s: voc. 'Hpa/cXetT, (contracted

cultivated, civilized.

;)

our

rjnirep-os, a, ov,

*Hpd/cXees,) and a shorter


form,'H/)o/cXey : gen, 'S.paK\ieoi,
contracted 'Hpa/cX^ovi, m.; Herafor

{noster).

imperf. mid. of eifd, to be.

ijfi-rjv,

ijfjLLTfX-'fis,

is,

rii,

half-finished,

(ap-

which has lost


perhaps, which is

plied to a house
its

head

or,

cles [Hercules.)

a free-man
half- burnt,

ov,

oj,

scorched, singed.
ijf, conj., with mbj. (for
case that.

See

^veyKe.

if,

tJTT-uv, uv, ov,

weaker

in

inferior

"H<^ai<rT-oj,

(Vulcan),

{<pipa.)

lower;
;
unequal to.
m.,
Hephaestas

of KaK6s,) less

cornpar.
iitf),

a hero, demi-god;
warrior.
or ijaawv, [irregvlar

i}po}-s, TJpoi-os, tn.,

childless.)
r]pil<l>\eKT-os,

ov,

god of

fire.

G
m., an inner
bed-room; store-room.

6d\a}i-os,

ov,

66.\a.TT-a [ddXaffffa),

17 j,

room

/., the sea.

pro-

or Oapffiu, to be of good

courage

to be audacious

to be

daring, bold.
to encourage, cheer

on

intrans.

take courage.
6apa-vs, -eta,

BavpA^u

v.

{-ia(ji\,

ij,

6v,

davfidiffofiai,

to

marvel

wonderful, marvel-

lous, strange.

6ed,

as, /.,

a goddess;

(but dicL, a

sight.)

view, behold,
contemplate.
B{\o3, dek-fiffij}, shortened form of
idfKu, to will, be willing.
0ipA.s,
dipixTos, or Oi/uSos, accus.
0ipj.v, law (of usage, like jvs and
OedopLai, OeiaopLox, to

fas in

Ms,
/.

ov,
17

-avQ, to
pass, be heated.

flatter

6v, warm, hot ; hasty


1),
temper.)
ov,
m.,
a kind of lupine.
Bipfi-os,
(in

summer.

Qiris, QiriSos, /., Thetis,


Achilles.

mother of

QerraXl-a, oj, /., Thessaly a district of Greece.


Biw, F. Beijcofiac,
quickly.

run

move

Theban, belonging

Qij^al-os, a, ov,

Thebes

to

(in Boeotia).

Briyo), Bti^u), to

sharpen, whet

pro-

voke.
Bi]K--q, ijs,/.,

a case, box, cheat.

B^p, 6ijp-6s, m., a wild beast, beast


of prey ; a monster.

chase; eager pursuit.


mid. B-rjpdaopML, to
take part in the chase, hunt ; tfl

Biip-a, OJ,/., the

07ip-d(i), Bripdffu,

m., Themisiovs,
a famous Athenian.
TO., God; a deity: and so

6i]pVTiK-6s,-^, 6v, of or

Bebs.

warm, heat

Lat.), right.

Qpm7tok\-7\s,
tocles,

fawn on

Bep/i-cdv(o,

to

look at

to

6ip-os, eos, n.,

(See BpaoTui.)

wonder, be astonished,
at, to admire ; esteem.
9avpM<rr-6s,

pay court

Bepp.-bs,

or dapcivw, or Opaxrivu,

6app6v<j},

6epairev-<a, -ffu, to act as attendant

" dance attendance to."

per name. Death.


dappiu},

/., a waiting-maid,

171,

maid-servant.

As a

6<ivar-os, ov, m., death.

Oepdiraiv-a,

pursue eagerly.
belonging
hunting ; fond of the chaae.

to

GREEK VOCABULARY.

192
hunt,

to

Orjpeio),

chase;

catch in

hunting.

from

formation,

beast, animal

0r}pi(i}5-r]s, 7]S, ej,

(a diminutive
but not in use,)
wild beast.
full of wild beasts
d-fip,

brutal, savage, ferocious.

store-house chest.
(from stem ^ai*-), P. Oavoxi;

6vr](7K(i}

Wavov, to die

fxai, aor.

SfTjT-ds, 6s, 6v, or

i},

bv,

perish.

subject to

human.

death, mortal,

clamour.

Bpaaivw (see Oapptjvu)) to encourage,


embolden pass, to be bold be
,

confident in.

doctor.

Mount

ov [also

Ida, near Troy.

peculiar.

and

inf.

sacri-

-bv), sac-

-6s,

consecrated, holy rd iepd,


subst, the victims; tiie in:

2^i-

ternal parts of the victims

and

hence, the auspices.


'lOaK-^cn-os, a,

of or belonging

ov,

to Ithaca {e.g., Ulysses.)


[Kav-6s,

ing,

7],

suitable
;

sufficient

(of time,)

for

consider-

able, pretty long.


ov, /.,

and

"IKi-ov,

ov,

n..

Ilium, Troy.
fra, conj., that; in

adv.

sacrifice

(of

where ;

place,)

to

what

or/., a jackal.

A rgolis.
'I'5-6s, ov,
l-mr-eiiis,

m., an Indian.

iuis,

m., a horseman, rider;

knight.
m., a horse-tender,
an adjec-

tive

It is properly

of two terminations,
horse-tending.

?7r7r-o$, ov,

m., a horse

either a

cavalry

-os,

order that: as an

what

place,

place, whither.

-or,

lolien f.,

it

mare, or a body of

{eciuitatus).

an Egyptian

goddess.
t(r-os,

rj,

ov,

equal, fair, impartial

level, flat, (of ground.)

(see Irregular
Verbs,) to
cause to stand, set up, or erect; to
set in order, or arrange to check,

X(TTr}pn,

pres.j

inipcrf.,

fut., and

The
aor.

are transitive; the other


tenses intransitive: the pres., in*per/., /ut., and 1 aor. mid., are
active,

also sometimes transitive.


IcttI-ov, ov, n.,

in

celebrate.

stop; rouse, excite; establish.

bv {^KW or Ikclvw), becom-

satisfactory
IXi-os,

riOvKa, aor. pass.

MOtjv, to make sacred offerings

'I<rts, 'laiSos, /., Isis,

ficer.

red,

or gift.

means

(See also opdco.)


ius, m., a priest;

of ftdov,

as

mind,

6vp-a, as, /., door, entrance, gate.


Ovai-a, as, /., a sacrifice;
victim.

-ov,

ISwv, Ideip, &c., 2 aor. part,

lep-6s, a, ov {also -bi,

heart,

(intellectually.)

groom.

one's

-oi, -os, -ov],

own; private;

lep-eis,

liriroK6p,-os, ov,

/.,

rSt-oy, a,

(of

m., the soul; life; breath;

courage ; passion
the kindly feelings;)
;

'Ivax-os, ov, m., Inachus, a river of

to heal, cure.

properly the
fem. of larpiKbs, i\, bv, the medical
medicine.
art, surgery;
larp-bs, ov, m., a surgeon, physician,
rjs,

lament.

a daughter.
dvfj.-6s, ov,

0d)s, Ooibs, VI.

rtxyr)),

[sell,

fool-

dvydT7]p, dvyarpds (for duyaripoi),

dvio, F. dv(ju), p.

l6.op.ai, Idaofiai,

arrogant.

Ovaid^-us, to sacrifice, offer a victim,

Bbpii^-oi, ov, m., noise, din, uproar,

ISr],

Oprjv-^oi, -Tjaos, to wail,

spirit

a store, treasure;

67](Tavp-6s, ov, in.,

larpiK'^

bold, spirited

i5,

hardy [audax)

6r)pL-ov, ov,

in

Opaff-is, eta,

a web; cloth; sheet;

sail.

Iffxvpus, a/lv., strongly;

exceedingly.

very maoh;

GREEK VOCABULARY.
(from

equally,

/X^s,

probably (the chances be-

rX>'-oj,

adv.,

&<!,

fairly

tffoi,)

ing equal), perhaps.


1^/cX-oj, ov, or 'l<piK\-rls, 4ous, m.,
Iphiclus, or Iphicles, father of

193

m., a fish.
n., a track,

oi,

foot'step;

eoi,

mark.

trace,

daughter of In*-

/., lo,

'Id), 'loOs,

chus.

Protesilaus.

K
and I.
Kd.dfj.os, ov, m., Cadmus, a Phoenician, son of king Agenor, and
brother of Europa.
KaO', for Kard, before an aspirated

K&yd,

for Kal iyd,

vowel.

make

KaBaipoj, F. KaOapQ, to

clean,

purify, cleanse, purge.

Kadapfia,

which

that

n.,

removed by cleaning,

off-

scourings ; a castaway, outcast,


worthless fellow.
KaOi^ofiai, F. KaOeSovfuu,
to set
one's
still

self down,
encamp.
F.

Ka0ij5(i},

Ka0T]v8ov,

down

down;

sit

sit

KaOev^Tjaw,
imperf.
or iKadevbov, to lie

to sleep

to sleep, rest, be

p.

cause to

Kadlad},

KaBiw, to

down, seat, set


down, be seated.

sit

trans. to sit
Ka6lr]fii {Kard,

Att.

trj/ju

see

trifii,

in-

Irreg-

KaOl^o/juii,

to

come

down, reach to, touch strike.


KaOiiTTafiai, and KaravirofjuL,
;

to fly

and he

v.

down.
(see

Verbs), to set

down;

Irregular

set in order,

arrange, (as soldiers ;) station, appoint ; establish, confirm : intrans.

6v,

i},

Ka\\idi}nlS-7}s, ov, m., Callidemides.

more

Kol, conj., and, also.

KdXk-os,

w.,

(OS,

Ka\-6s,

-fi,

/caXtiSt-ov,

small cord.
w, m.,

a rope, sail-rope,

cable.

koXCjs, adv., beautifully; well.


for Kol

ifj-i,

close the eyes

Kd/ivv,

and me.

for Karafiuu, f. -iJcw, to

Kafifi-iw,

F.

nod, doze.

aor.

Kafiovfiai,

intrans. to be weary,

and as soon
xdri, for

iKaftxv,

tired

to

afflicted: trant. to labour,

Kdireibrj, for Ktd

fresh,

seemly

good.
ov, n. (from kKu)s),

K&v, for jco2 idp,

6t>,

comeli-

new; newly

i},

beauty,

beautiful

bv,

honourable

discovered; strange.
ov, m., due proportion (of
one thing to another); due mea-

Kaip-6i,

compar. of KoKbs,

ov,

beautiful, &c.

be sick;
work.

to settle.
Katv-6s,

un-

ill-fated;

bad; ugly; cowardly;


base, wicked, &c.
KaKwi, adv., badly, ill;
like a
coward.
KoXdw, F. KoK^ffw, {mid. ica\4aoftat),
Att. KoXw, to call, invite, summon ; call by name.
/ca/c-6s,

Kdfj.^,

Xarijfu,

for koI iKexvo%.

KaKoSaifMuv, u, or,
happy, ^vretched.

*cdX-j,

KaTaTrnqcofJUii, aor. KaTerrdfiTjp,


Ka6i(rrr]/ju

yet, yet.

Kdiw, or Ka.u, F. KOLicbi, and kojuaofujn, to kindle ; bum, scorch


(of cold,) pinch.

ness.

ular Verbs), KaOrjcw, P. KaOeiKa,


to send or let down ; to reach.
KaBiKviofiai, f.

and

KoxTOt, adverhial ccmj.,

KaWl-wv, uv,

still.

KaOii^w,

(of time); anil hence, right


time, crisis, season, occasion, opportunity.

KdKtivoi,

Kaddpfiar-oi,
is

sure

and

if.

eiretSiy,

and when;

as.

kolI iicL,

and upon.

GEEEK VOCABTJLAHY.

194
Kipd,

used only in

n.,

nom. and

the

accus. sing., the head, top,

sum-

mit.

P.

Ka.Ta.(TKev-d^<j),

furnish

finish

With

down from;

gen.,

down

over; towards; against; concerning.

With

(2.)

down

accus.,

to,

or along (opposed to d^rf); throughout ; in over at according to.


;

Karapalvu

(see ^alvw),

to

go down,

descend.

KarafidWo) (see ^dXXw), to throw


down, strike down lay down, pay
down.
;

KarayeXdci],

f.

KaTayeXdcro/Jiat.,

laugh down or

to

mock,

at, deride,

jeer.

ter; weaken.

Karacxir-do), F. -data, to

KaraSuli-Kd), f. -|w, or-^o/j,ai, to

pursue hard

hunt

overtake

capture.
KaT-4.Sw,

v.-q.(T(i},

and-4<ro/xat, to sing

by singing;

to; to deafen

to sing

in derision of one.

KaraKXipQ,

KaraicXlvio,

p.

down

cause

to

down

lie

lay

to
:

in

pass, to recline at table.

take, catch.

Ibrsake,

abandon

drop asleep

KaTairi/jL-irw, f.

to

Irregtdar Verbs), to
put or lay down lay by, deposit
lay aside mid. pay down.
KaTa(f)ip(i}, p. KOTolffw, to carry or
bring down; overtlirow, destroy.
Karatpei-yu, p. -^o/xai, to flee for refuge, take refuge; escape.
KaratpX^-yu, f. -^w, to burn down,
;

consume.

make very
Kardpar-oi,
minable.

close the eyes

nod, doze.

upon;

i.e.,

down

to think little of, de-

spise.

overweening
Kareffdito

contempt

ews, /.,

self-conceit.

(see

i<rdi(o),

to

eat

up,

down,) devour.
^w), to hold down or

Kar^X'^ ('Ce
back, restrain

-^w, to send down.

p. -laa,

ov,

Att. -iw, to

accursed

possess,

occupy

seize, arrest.

Kdro) (Kard), adv., underneath, (opposed to &VU,] below ; (of time,)


afterwards.
KdrwOe, or, before a vowel, KdruCev,
from below ; below, beneath.

speak

Kavx-dofiai, f. -^(xo^iai, to
loud
vaunt, boast, brag.
;

2d

KeifjLai,

sing.

Keicai.,

Kelcro/xai, to

be

laid

Bd, KeTrai,
;

to lie, be

inactive.
Keipta,

p.

KepC),

shave.

KeXeC-d), F.

Kv-6i,

to cut short, crop,

-f),

-<TU3,

to drive on, urge,

command.
empty fruitless, vain

order,
6v,

bereft of.

rich, enrich.

os,

think

Kara<l>pov-iti), f. -t^ctw, to

impel

allow.

KaTairrjMd), to leap down iVom.


*fara7rX^-TTU (or -irXi^cro-w), F. -^w, to
strike down; astoun'd ; terrify.

KaravXavT-i^u),

ravage,

plunder.

clip,

to leave behind,

\f/(o,

Karaixd-u), -ffu,

down;

pull

to

KararldTj/jii (see

F.

KaraXa/ipdvu, Ka.Ta.X-f)\j/ofiat., to seize


upon; hold down; check; overKaraXeliru, f.

draw or drag

down.
Ko-Taaipu),

{literally, eat

Karaywrn^ofiai, KaTaywulcrofiat, Karayutou/j-ai, to struggle against ;


overpower, conquer.

down

overpower by
wheedle.

fallacies; outwit,

KaTa(pp6vr](r-is,

naTay-vv/M, p. xardf u, aor. Karia^a,


to break down or In pieces, shat-

adorn.

to

Karaaotpl^o/xai.,

Ka(rrwX-6j, oO, m., Castolus, a city


of Lydia.
rar', for Kard.
Kard, prep, governing gen. and
accus., down, or downwards.
(1.)

to prepare,

dou),
;

abo-

Kepdwvfu, and -iJoi, p. Ktpdau, Alt


KtpQ, to mix, mingle.
Kipas, Kiparos [Kipus], n., a horn;
bow wing of an army.
Kepavv-6(i3, f. -ibaw, to strike with a
;

thunderbolt, to blast.
w, bringing gain

KepStfi-os, a,

crafty.

wily,

GREEK VOCABULAKY.
tipKOi, ov, y., the tail of a beast,
[ovpi, is the more general term,
applicable to birds also.)
175, /., the headKfpr-0%, ov, m., a garden.
Kr]p-6s, ov, m., bee's wax ; wax.

Kf^oX-^,

as

herald

make

Ki6ap-l^u),

proclamation,

on the

to play

F. -Iffw,

cithara or harp.
icwSweiJ-w, -ffw, to incur danger,

a risk.
Klv5w-oi,
hazard.
Ku>-iw,

ov,

TO.,

danger,

run

risk,

F.

move,

to

--fiau,

excite,

tiuiv, Klov-oi, m., a pillar ;


sometimes, like <m}X7j, a grave-stone.
xXa/u, Att. kK&w, f. Kkaiaofiat, to
weep, lament, wail; to weep for,

deplore.

Kkiapxo^i

m.,

ov,

Clearchus,

Greek general.
famous,

glorious,

6p,

1},

kX^itt-w, f.

m., a thief.

K\i-\f/-w, OT-0/j.ai,

to steal;

cheat, beguile ; conceal ; do (a


thing) in an underhand way.

m., a lot

/cX%}-os, ov,
lots

make

drawing of

the thing allotted.

kXwC},

p.

icXoTr-Y), -rfi,

rotXoj,

i.e.,

t},

f., theft, firaud.


ov,

hollow,

hollowed,

Itill

to rest or sleep

in pass, to fall asleep ; lie


rest; die.
1},

6v,

common,

abed,
public,

general.
KoivuvL-a, as,/.,

communion,

inter-

course, fellowship.
Ko\dio},

f.

to

KoXdffOfjLcu,

check

chastise, punish.

KdXaK-os, m.,
fawner, parasite.

if6Xo^,

hammer,

Kbp-11,

17 J,

a raven, or

to.,

a maiden, girl [pudla)

/.,

a daughter
the eye.

doll

Kbpvs, K6pvO-os, /., a

helmet: aecus.

--qffu {Kbfffios),

set in order
ov,

adorn

set

summit

to arrange,

order,

TO.,

a pupil of

Kbpvda, and Kbpw.


icopv<t)-fi, Tjs, /., the head, top,

oflf.

decency

ornament, honour ; the world.


17s, /., a hollow vessel, cup
the socket of a joint ; an Athen-

KOTv\-rj,

ian liquid

measure

KovSeis, for koI ovSels,

m., a

i(i)s,

dresser

Kox^^as,

half a pint.

and no one.
barber,

hair-

gossip.

ov,

TO.,

a snail

vrith a

spiral shell.

Kpd^u, F. Kexpd^ofiai, aor. fKpaycp,


to croak
scream clamour.
;

KpaT-iti), T^ffw, to

to rule

flatterer,

be strong, power-

conquer.

Kp^as, Kpiaros, Att. Kpiws, flesh, a


carcass.

KpdTToiv, uv, ov, irregular eompar.


of ayaObs, stronger; braver; better ; too great for.
Kp4fjia/iai, pres. pass, and mid. of
following.
Kpe/juivwfu,

Kpe/juiffu,

KpidT^,

in

17s,

j)l.

Att.

Kpe/ui,

hang up, suspend.


/..barley ; generally used

^s, ^, to

chop

forge.

K6pa^, KbpaK-os,
crow.

ful

to

to strike, smite;

k(itt-(i}, k6\}/u,

Kpdvl-ov, ov, the skull.

concave.
Koifi-d(j),'--{)<T<i),

Koit>-6s,

cover with dust.


Korpl-a, as,/, a dunghill.

Kovp-evs,

to incline,

lay down, to re;


cline, lean ; draw to a close.
K\iffl-a, as,/., a tent, hut; a reclining place, couch.

bend

to

foliage of

KO/d^W, F. KOfdffti, Att. KOfuQ, to


take care of, tend, provide for;
to carry, bear ; bring.
Kovl^u, F. Kovtffu, to render dusty

Kbfffi-os,

jcX^TrT-ijy, ov,

/., the hair

r}s,

trees.

KOCfJL-i(t},

illustrious.

kXip-'j},

and swim.

oflF;

stir.

K\fti>-6s,

k6\v-os, ov, m. [sinxts], the bosom;


the fold or lap of a robe ; a bay.
Ko\vft^-dcj, --^(Tu, to dive ; to jump
in

announce.

jackdaw {gracultu).

Ko\oi-6s, oO, m., a

K6/j.-ri,

mjpO-TTO), or -caw, f. r7pi/|w, to act

195

Kptdal.

GREEK VOCABULAKY.

196

Kplvfa, F. KpivQ, aor. ^Kpiva, to sepa-

judge, decide.
Kpi'bs, ov, m., a ram; battering-ram.
KDLT-r\s, ov, m., a judge, umpire.
Kpor-iu3,

to

-^<t(j3,

make to

rattle

n cnp, drinking

k6pmt-os, n., the swell of the


wave, billow.
Kvvr)y-6s, ov, dog-leading ; a hunsea,

to

ter.

K&ireW-ov, ov,

a beaker, cup

n.,

bellied drinking-vessel.

frost.

F.

Kpii-VTO),

to

-ypu,

hide,

m. a lord, master, ruler


guardian.
m.,
Cyrus.
Kvpos, ov,
Ki'uv, Kvv6^, m. ory., a dog or bitch.

cover,

Kijpi-os, ov,

conceal.
KTev-ij^O}, -IcTO), to

comb, curry.

jiroperty

jil.

Kv^epv7)T--r}s,

ov,

n.,

KLbp.-7],

or one-eyed monster.
F.

-)7<TW,

for Kv\lv5c>}, to

mos-

quito.
Kd>iT-7], 77s, /.,

a handle.

Kucp-ds,

blunt, obtuse

along.

roll, roll

-wjroy, TO., a gnat, or

Kii)v-<i}\p,

KiiKKuxf/, Ki^kXwtt-os, m., a Cyclops,

Kv\iv8-i(i),

country

a village,

/.,

r]s,

town.

guide.

a possession,
wealth, goods.
m., a steersman,

KTTJ/xa, KTrjfiaTos,

pilot

KvfjLa,

chilling cold

cold,

n.-i

vessel.

strike together, clap (hands.)


Kp6-os, eos,

KivXiK-os,

KijXi.^,

rate, divide; select;

-f),

bv,

dumb

deaf.

A
A<7-os, ov, m., Lagus, a Macedonian, father of Ptolemy, king of

Egypt
to.,

TO. {Aft. Xt(iy, Xeti), the


people at large; a people, tribe, or

a hare.

\a.dpd, adv., secretly, stealthily, un-

known

treacherously.
It is
\ai-d, Sj, y., the left hand.
properly the/cTO. of Xat6y [Iccvus),
to,

almost entirely confined to

is

poetry.
Xai/i-6y, ov, m., the throat, gullet.

AaKeSaip-bvL-oi,

ov,

m., a

Lacedae-

monian, a Spartan.
Xasr/f-w,

ter

kick with
tranipleon; knock, beat.

babble, cliatto indulge in incessant trifling


F. T^crw, to talk,

\d.\-oi, OS, ov, talkative, babbling.

\afMirdS-os, /.,

a torch,

lamp.
ov,

bright, brilliant,

gleaming, glancing.
p.

a caldron, or

TO.,

vase.

X^w,

F. X^|w, to lay
lay in order,
arrange; choose, jiick out; count,
tell; say, speak: X^eroi, inqters.,
;

said.

it is

Xeip.wi'-os,

to.,

meadow;

holm.
XeF-or, a, op, also -oj, -oj, -ov,

smooth

(Lat. la;vis, or Icvis), level.


\eliru3,

F.

aor.

Xei^u),

to leave

AeopTip-os, ov,

fail

fKivov,
;

be

P.

defi-

XiXijOa, to escape no-

TO.,

a native of Leon-

tium, in Sicily.
Xt7rT-6s,

)},

61* (X(?7rw,

to peel), peeled

off; licnce, fine, thin, lean.

\evK-bs,
d,

"KavO-dvu), F. X'^crw, aor. f\a,6ov (T^at.


latere),

kettl; urn

cient.

Xafx^dpu, F. \-i']\f/o/xai, v. ei\7)(pa,


aor. O^a^ov, to take ; receive
catch, overtake, get; apprehend.

\afnrp-6s,

'Ki^ip-os,

Xi^/Sijs,

XAonra,

talk.

\ap,w-ds,

nation.

\^aip-a, 7]^,/-, a lioness.

\eifi<S)v,

F. XaKrlffO), to

tliehec'l;

XaX-^w,

he unseen, unknown, bt

concealed.
Xa-6s, ov,

\ay-(bs, Xa7t6,

and

to

tice,

-fi,

6p,

light, bright,

clear,

white.
TO,., a lion.
Xew, Attic form of \a6s, the

X^cjp, \ioPT-os,
Xetiy,

people.

OKEEK VOCABULARY.
\.eu<p6p-ot,

crowded

ov,

OS,
:

bearing people

\oiZop-i(a,

as subst. a highway, a

197
to rail at, revile, re-

"fyxti,

proach.

thoroughfare.
Xot/i-6y,
m., a plague, pesti*
ov,
lence.
A^5-a, -as, (or-i7J,)/., Leda, mother
of Helen, Castor, and Pollux.
\onr-6s, 17, 6t>, remaining, the rest.
A-^O-T], r]s, /., Lethe, the river of Xov-w, -<r<i>, to wash, cleanse ; bathe.
lower
world.
oblivion in the
As AiiSl-a, as, /., Lydia, a district of
Asia Minor.
a common noun, forgetfulness,
oblivion.
Av^6s, ov, m., a Lydian.
XvK-os, ov, ra., a wolf.
Xjo-r-^s, od, m., a robber, pirate.
Xtav, adv., very, very much, ex- AvKoDpy-os, ov, nu, Lycurgus.
cessively.

Xv/jLoivofiai, p.

\i0-os, ov, m., a stone


Xi/i^i*, Xi/iiy-oi,

gem.

m., a harbour, haven,

place of refuge.

a lake, pool ; marsh.


hunger; famine.
XifjiWTTO), or Xifiwaau), to be hungry
to be starved, to famish.
Xorfi^oficu, F. XoylffOfwx, or Xorfiovfuu, to calculate ; consider ; con-

XLfjjf-T],

distress.

tjs,/.,

\iH-bs, ov, m.,

XvTT-i], rjs,/., pain, grief.

a
0?,
reckoning, account.
m.,

Xby-oi, ov, m., a

word

son

account

grievous

XvffireX-ids, "fiaa, to benefit, profit.

Xvau,
unbind, set
miss.

Xv-(a, F.

Xif<TT-os,

speech

troublesome.

calculation,

painful

Xvirr]p-6s, d, 6,

clude.
Xo7((r/x-6s,

pass. XeXiufiaur/xai, to

cleanse one's self: also, to outrage, maltreat, injure.


Xwr-^w, -ijffw, to cause pain, grieve,

v.

XAvko,

free,

ov

to loose,

release,

(X(ic<rroi),

dis-

sttper.

of

ayadbs, (Xwfw*', X(^<rros,) more de-

rea-

sirable, better.

praise.

M
or fia^-a, r)i, /., a cake (of fiaXXor, adv., more, more especially,
barley mL-al.)
[compar. of/zdXa.)
(See iproi.)
fiavOdvu, F. fjLad^aofiat, aor. ffiaOov,
(laOifT-ifis, ov, m., a learner, pupil,
disciple.
to learn, understand ; notice, perceive.
Mat-a, as,/, {ifaia), daughter of Atlas, and mother of Hermes.
MavTivei-a, as, /., Mantinea, a town
in Arcadia.
fmivQfwx, F. fjLovovfjLai, p. fiifxijva {(is
2'res.)., to rage, be anjcry.
fidvT-is, fidvT-eus, m., a diviner, seer,
prophet.
ftai-do/iai, F. (bffofiai,
to act as a
midwife, deliver.
fiaaTiy-bo), f. tbco}, to whip. flog.
pi,,
wages
fialurp-a, -up, n.
midwife's
/idrai-os, a, ov, also -os, -os, -ov,
(ui^-a,

or

foolish

fee.

(laKopl^u, to pronounce
bless, congratulate.
lioKp-hs,

a, ov,

happy

to

long ; deep ; broad

yAXa, adv., very, very much.


i},

bv, soft, gentle, light

tender, delicate.
ndXtiTTO, adv.,

most of

ally, {superl. of fidXa.)

idle

fidxcu-p-a,

especi-

a large knife
dagger.

t^X'V) V^j f-i battle, fight, combat.


fmxofuu, fiax^o/iai, engage in battle,

all,

trifling.

as, /.,

short swi rd

extensive, large.
lLaiKaK-6s,

pArriv, adv. [fnistra), in vain, fruitlessly ; at random.

/j-iya,

to fight; quarrel.

adv., greatly; neuter of fiiyas.

lieydXus, adv., greatly, exceedingly.

GREEK VOCABULARY.

198
fi^a^,

fUya

fieydXr],

(see

p.

46),

great, large.

change the position of;

to

fiedi<TTr]fj.i,

remove (from one place

to

another), to

to

flit.

make drunk,

intoxicate.
(iiv,

greater, larger.

m.,

ov,

fieip'aKlcTK-os,

/jieTpa^,

lad,

boy,

aor. ifipiopov, p.

due

to receive as one's

^/nfiopa,

be

allot-

In perf. and pluperf. pass,


etfiaprai, and etjiapro, it is alted.

lotted, destined, fated.

fiiXaiva, pi.i\av, black, dark,

obscure.

concerns

for a

is

it

care;

it

curce mihi.)

{est

jJ-fKiT-os,

y-iXiTT-a,

honey.

11.,

[or-ffffa,)

rjs,

bee

purpose

from

turn back.

Herdka/ipdvu (see Xa/ipdvw), to receive a share of, partake ; assume.

between

meanwhile, whilst.
to send one after anmid. to send for one, sum;

mon.

to delay, loiter.

a limb, member
also a song, strain, music.
(jLiixvTjiiai., p. pass, of lUfiv^ffKU, to
remember, (which see.)
fii/jLipofiai, F. /j.ifi\l/onai, to blame,

complain

find fault with,

the one

on the one hand

6 5^, the other


ol S^, others.
;

some
MevAd-oj, ov, m., Menelaus, husband of Helen, and king of Lace01 iiiv,

daamon.

ance.
adv., moderately, temper-

fierplon,

ately
fj.-^,

enough.

adv., not (in dependent clauses,

and in independent clauses giving


a command; hence, with imperat.
and subjunct. :) also a conj. lest,

firi^i (neque), nor, neither; not even.


/xTjSety,

fir)S^v

fjLrjSe/ila,

{fj.r]Si,

eh),

not even one, no one, none.


firjSiTTco, adv., nor as yet;
not as
yet by no means.
;

fi-flKicn-os,

ri,

ov

{jirJKOi,

length),

supcrl. of fiaKpSs, longest, tallest

Miviirir-oi, ov, m.,

Menippus, a Cynic

philosopher.

suredly for that matter.


fivS),

to

as an adv., in the highest degree.


fi^\-ov, ov, n.

adv., certainly, indeed, asr.

moderamiddle course, temper-

tion, the

that not, whether.

of.

fiiv, conj. adv., [responded to by S^,)

in the first place,

change one's residence,

remove.
/lerpidTTji, fJLerpi&rTjT-os, /.,

.,

eos,

maneo),

HeroLKiio, to
:

fiiXXu, F. /xeW-^ffu, aor. unth double


augment, rj/j,{\\r](Ta, to be about

abide.

among,
between into the midst of after.
It governs the dat. in poetry only.
fiera^dWii), to throw round; change,

other

/.,

Maltese

MeXtrai-os, a, ov,
McX^TTj, Malta.

fxivu,

with,

filled

/leTaTripLTTUf,

[apis.)

fiiv,

full,

fxera^^, adv. {/ierd), in the midst of,

fiAet, impers.,

to do,

6v,

"f),

wearied.

arid dat., in the midst of,

alter

be melancholy-mad.

lie\ayxo\(i(i), to

(lim-oi,

sated

ixeri, prep., governing accus., gen.,

fielpo/xai,

ov [medius), middle ; in
1],
the middle ; middling, moderate.

/j.<TT-6s,

youth.

/ii\-oi,

to divide,
share, distribute, apportion.

fii(j-os,

dimin.from

a boy, lad, stripling.

\i-iKi;

a part, Bhare, por-

.,

tion, division.
fiep-l^w, F. Iffw, Att. -tw,

compar. of fiiya^,

ov,

HeipoLKi-ov, ov, n.,

\i.iKa.s,

eos,

fiip-os,

fiedvffKO), F. fiedOffu, to

uel^-cov,

Mivui/oi, m., Menon, a


Thessalian, one of the leaders of
the Greeks in the expedition of
Cyrus the younger.

M^vwp,

aor.

stand

ffieiva
fast,

(Lat.

remain,

fruit-tree.

{malum), an a])ple

t4

firjXa

cheeks.
adv. (vera), indeed,
sooth, verily.

fi-^v,

fiT^v,

nt/v-Ss, m., a

{mdla), the
truly,

in

month; themiwn.

199

GREEK VOCABULARY.
membrane

Hijn-y^, fji-tinyy-oi, /., a

the

membrane

(see

/.

/tip-pAs,

H-qTrip,

of the brain.

mother.

wretch.
Mi5-a9, ov, m.,
Phrjgia.
less

d,

Midas, a king of
small,

6v,

fufurr)<iKW, F. yjrffffw, to

memory

call to one's

little,

tiny,

remind, remid. more

p. pass, aspres.,

remember

or

hatred], to

bull,

a heifer.

The Muse, goddess of


music, poetry, &c.
There were
nine Muses.
(ufr.,
musically;
elegantly.
fUMaiKwi,
fiOxOvp-ii} <^ ^"j subject to hardship, distressed, afflicted, wretched;
troublesome.
fwX^-ii, oO, m., a lever, crow-bar,
bar, or bolt.
a

fly.

m., the nose

fjLVKT-^p, fivKTTjpoi,

hire, re-

fivXdiv,

ward.

pi.

fwXQy-os, m., a place for a

mill, a mill-house, a mill.

fivTj/xovevo),

mind

or/., a young shoot:


a calf, a young
;

the nostrils.

wages, pay,

ov,

a hobgoblin,

hence, oflfepring

fivl-a, as, /.,

fUfjLyiffniP.

Tjaw {juaos,
hate, abhor.
F.

fuffd-6s,

fj.i)jjrrifj.cu,

subjunct. fUfwufiai

opt. fu/JLVT^fir]P,
fila-id),

only, solitary.

ov, n.,

Moi/<r-a, ;i,/..

irapd fUKp6v, nearly, almost.

usual :

or, alone,

/iiffX-os, ov, TO.

fuip-6s, a, OP, stained, defiled, polluted, filthy: as a aubsL, worth-

fiiKfhds,

rj,

bugbear.

28),

p.

ftSv-oi,

fwpfioXvKei-oi',

to

luXp-a,

remember,
remind one.
to

portion

call

to

hence,

one's

lot,

fwpi-oi, at, a, ten thousand.

m., an ant.
m. (see p. 26), a mouse.
fiupalvu, to be silly, foolish ; to play
tke fooL
fwpur]^,

properly a part or

as, /.,

fate,

destinr>

fivpfj.r]K-os,

/xCs, /jLV-os,

N
fat, adv., yea, verily, yes, ay.

to

go to ruin.

vaSJs, yedis, /.,

va&r-Tis,

a ship.

voyager by

sea.

young man, youth.


m., a youth, a young

vedvL-as, ov, m., a


vidvlffK-os, ov,

man {under forty).


Net\-oj, ov, m., the Nile.
Tj, bv, belonging to the dead.
conducting the
dead; ghost-conductor.
VKp-bs, ov, m., a dead body, corpse.

rKpix-6s,

VKpcnrofjLir-bs, 6s, 6v,

riKTap,

viKTap-os,

n.,

nectar,

the

drink of the gods.

Xemcan games.

viiui, F.

veiM, aor.

newly married.

young,
new, fresh.
peoAKiu, to haul up a ship on land.
vewvTjT-os, OS, OP, newly bought.
peiis, Pw, m. (see p. 21, art. 9),
Attic form of pobs, a temple.
p(urrep-os, a, op, compar. of pios,
younger, more fresh, more recent.
p^, affirmative adv., used in asseverations; as, VT] Ala, "by Zeus."
Kijxi-oj, a. OP, also -os, -os, -op, not
speaking (infant); '.., very young:
hence, childish, sUly.
'Stiprjts, ISrjpTjtd-os, /.,

'SefU-d, aj, /., Nemea, a town and


forest in Argolis. rd 'S^fiea, n.pl.,

the

peiryafi-os, or, op,

yi-os, a, op, also -os, -os, -op,

ov (navta), m., a seaman,

sailor; a

apportion, assign: mid. to


possess ; inhabit ; enjoy ; to feed
or tend cattle.
bnte,

(AU. vetSn see p. 21,)


a dwelling; especially, z. temple.
favdyi-u, -fiau, to be shipwrecked;
fd-ds, ov, m.,

iveifia, to dlstri--

a Nereid, sea

nymph.
f.,

an

-lieu,

to

PTJff-os, ov,

piK-dbi,

gain, win.

island.

conqoer,

prevail,

GREEK VOCABULARY.

200
vIk-ti, 17s, /.,

victory, conquest, supe-

voffi-u,

fjffu),

to be sick, to

from disease

riority.

Nrc-os, ov, /., Nineveh.


a sliepherd, herds-

vov, m., (eontr. for vbos,)

the mind.

vo/i-evs, ^wj, m.,

man.

gen.

voOs,

ail, suffei

{v6(ros).

a bride; a nymph.
marriageable: as a
subst., a bridegroom, husband.

vv/xcp-Tj, 775, /.,

vofi-Tj,

Tji,

pasture,

/.,

food,

(like

vvfKpL-os, a, ov,

fo/xAs.)

Alt.

vofxiaw,

F.

vofjLi^u},

vofiiQ,

to

regard as a custom; to believe,


think, suppose, consider; acknow-

now, at

adv.,

vvv,

this

very time

[nunc),

now; well now,

vvv,

now

(the

of

sequence;) then, thereupon.

ledge.

a usage, custom, law;

v6fj.-os, ov, TO.,

f6-os, ov,

m.

vvKT-bs, f.

vv^,

but vofibs, pasture.

night, dark-

[nox),

ness.

(contr. vov^), the

mind,

ywxeX

head, intellect, reason.

i^y,

h, moving slowly,

175,

sluggish, dull.

comb,

^evo(f>wv (see p. 30), Xenophon, a


distinguished Athenian, famed as

^avdiinr-T], r]s,f., Xantippe, wife of


Socrates.

a philosopher, writer, and military commander.


^rjp-6s, d, 6v, dry, dried up, withered,
parehed.
^l<p-os, eos, n., a sword.
^vKov, ov, n., wood, timber
a piece

^avC),

F.

^alvui,

to

scratch;

card.

yellow, auburn, fair,


applied to hair).
hospitality;
the right
^vi-a, as, /.,
of hospitinm, as between states or
i^av9-6s,

6v,

)},

blonde

(as

of wood.

individuals.

^cvoKpdT-7}s,

eos [ovs), Xenocrates,

a pliilosopher.
^^v-os,

ger

friendly

a guest-friend, stranalso a host, entertainer.

society.

in.,

ov,

avvovaia, as, /., a


meeting ; intercourse ;

or

^vvovaL-a,

^vp-6v, ov, n., a razor.

o
6,

7),

t6,

tlie

(See

article this, the.

6^o\-6s, ov, m., an obol, a coin worth


about three-halfpence.
oyK-do/iai, rj^o^iai, to
ass).

olda, I

know; a jierf.

vnlTi pres. sig-

(See elSov,
and Irregular Verbs.)
nification.

p. 21.)

bray

(like

Comjjare d-onk-ey.
a way, path, road

6S-6s, ov, /.,

pedition

way

an
ex-

or means.

ddovs, 6d6vT-os, TO., a tooth.


ddvpo/xai, to wail,
'05v(T<T-e\js,

iws,

whence; from whom, &c.

house

TO.,

little

of/cot,

ov,

ot/xai,

n.,

dimin.

from

otKot,

house.

adv., at

oTk-os, ov, TO.,

from

an inmate of one's

a house-servant, domestic,

menial, slave.
old-a, as,/., a house, abode; household, &c.
oIkISc-ov,

mourn, lament.
Ulysses, king of

Ithaca (fiodie, Theaki).


&dv (utide), adv., whence,

olKh--7js, ov,

dMvon,

home

[domi).

a house, dwelling.

contr. for oto/xai.

oiixwy-il, ^y, /.,

weeping and wailiug.

201

GREEK VOCABULAEY.
F.

olfui^u,

ment,

ol/jua^ofuu,

to wail, la-

on one
wine.

olfoi, ov, m.,

otyoxf>-os, ov, m.,

cup-hcarer.
oli^ofuu, aor. ifffiiff, to
suppose, consider, judge.
ot-oi,
a, ov, such as [gudli^ ; of

what

sort.

Oir-ij,

a mountain in

Thessaly.

olx^ofuu, imperf. ifiX'


gone ; to have gone

to be

6fiTlv,

to die.
fatal.

ov,

17,

few,

oXicds, 6Xxdd-o;, /.,

little,

short.

passionate, irascible.
6|-iJs,

eta,

inrlau, adv., behind,

place

oxot-os, a, av, of

17,

many

games.

({(rroiuu),

an

Homer.
asso-

with.

dfwvftai,

P.

dfttlifioKa,

to

swear, affirm by oath.


ofwyev--^s, ^j, is, of the same family,
akin.
Sfjioi-os, a, ov, like,

lar

resembling, simi-

common.

ofxoius, adv.,

manner, simi-

larly.

6fi6vKp-os,

OS,

ov,

companion

in

death, fellow-gho<t.
b/jLirrexy-oi, os, ov,

fellow-workman.
OS, ov, voting with,
ing with being a party to.
cratt.

sid-

rjs,

/.,

Omphale, queen of

Lydia.

only,

a dream

cases

are

supplied

with

how many;

to roast, broil

as

fry

bake,
F.

Sjpofuu,

I shall see.

Srui, conj., how, in what


that ; when, as soon as.

way;

so

imperf. iuipuiv, F. 6ij/0fMU, P.


ewpdjca and edpdxa, pass. aor.
<S<pdT]v,
p. pass,
ewpafuu and

bp6.(j3,

H/ji/juu, to see, look


think; understand.

F.

at,

Alt. -iw,

Iffu,

observe;
to

make

angry, irritate, provoke : mid. be


angry.
dpOQs, adv., right ; safe, well ; truly,
op-l^u, -lau, Att. -lu [5pos, a boundary), to set a limit, separate from;
to bound, determine, define.
6pfi-du, ij<r&>, to set in motion ; urge
on, excite:
intrans. to hurry,

rush

f. , an unripe grape.
ivap, n., used in nam. and acctis.

6fx<j>a^, ifjLipaK-os,

sing.

ov (suofj,

ijffw,

really.

of the same art or

ifi6:f'r]<p-oi,

'OfupK-ri,

what kind or qua-

as.

(5/ry-tfw,

in like

(of

(See 6pdu.)

to be together

mix

backwards,

lity [qxtalis).

inrT-axii,

^w,

acute,

hereafter, (of time ;) again,

;)

ot6c-os,

ciate with,

pungent, (in taste;)


hasty, passionate; swift
6{(5xoX-os, OS, ov, quick to anger,

in-

'0/xr]p-os, ov, m.,

sharp, pointed

1/,

pain;)

habitant of Olympos ; a goddess


in pL the contests at the Olympic

'OXi/^iridy, 'OXi;;xirid5-os, f.,

dfiyvfu, F.

name; address

passionate.

small.

a ship of burthen,

a merchantman.
S\-os, rj, ov, whole, perfect, complete.
SKws, adv., wholly, altogether ; in

6/itX-ew,

to

m. andyi, an ass.
quick-tempered,
01, ov,

6vos, ov,

(of

6\idpL-os, oj, ov, destructive, deadly,

6\iy-os,

reputation.

6^60vft-os,

F.

oixo/JLat,

by name.

only.

Oilta,

/.,

17s,

aor. mid
dvfyru, 2
or uvdfirjv, opt. ovalfjLijv,
to profit, benefit : mid. to have
the advantage of, be a gainer.
Svofta, dv6/jM,T-oi, n,, name; fame,
F.

ujvi/lfir]v,

ovo/Ji-dl^ti}, F. -dffo3,

o, alone,

tj,

reproaches

revile, reproach, upbraid.

dvbnifu,

pouring out wine

<^oficu, F.

oT-oi,

dveiS-li'u, F. Iffu, to cast

pity.

the

by

irreg. pi. ovtipara.

other

6veipos,

set out

6pv-ov, ov, n.,

make an
6pvii,

5p-os. COS,

ofhiiia.

rt.,

effort
bird.

m. or/, (seep. 32), a


hen omen.
a mountain ; hill; cbaiji

flpws, 6pvid-oi,

bird, fowl

202

GREEK VOCABULARY.
m., a roof.

6po<f>-oi, ov,

oHkow, adv., not therefore; so not;


not then ? But ovkovv, therefore,

a quail.
Orpheus.

Sfrrv^, 6f>Tvy-os, m.,

'Op(p-eOs, ^ws, m.,


F.
6px-iofiai,
leap, bound.
8s,

ij,

-^(TOfMi,

adv., then, therefore, accordingly, consequently.

oZv,

8, relative

that {qui)

then, accordingly, [losing the negative /orce.)

dance

to

pron., who, which,

6s,

6v, possessive,

17,

offdKis,
6ff-os,

&c.;

and ocaKt, adv., as often as.


ov, how many, how much

71,

[quantus)

many as, as much

as

[qui quidem)

(you must know).


dari-ov, ov, contr. dcrrovv, pi. dcxria,
contr. (Jcrra, a bone.
Saris, ^Tis, 8ti (written
i),

sometimes

whenever, as soon
fire,

adv.,

when;

Sre

rls), not any one,


proper name, Odris,

{oil

.4s

Nobody, Noman.

oCtos, avTT] TovTo (see p. 57), this


{hie), this well known (person.)

here, this identical individual.

or ovrus

ovTu,

as.

since; seeing that.

adv., in this
oiix,

(before a vowel),
manner, thus.

adv., not.

(See 06.)

owe, be in
debt for (something), to be under

ov is used before
consonants, ovk before unaspirated
vowels, and oiix before aspirated
vowels ; as, ov X^w, ovk idu, oix

6(pl\u}, F. 6<peL\ri(TW, to

opdu.

6(f)6a,\fi-6s,

oil,

adv.,

not.

by no means,

oiidafiQs, adv.,

in

no

wise.

an obligation ; to
doomed, destined.
6(j3-is,

and not

not

even.
ovdels, oiiSe/ila, oiiS^p [ovS^ ets),

not

even one, no one, none.


and not ever, never.
ovbiiru, adv., and not yet, not as yet.
oiiKiri,,

the eye.

dtfA-^/xar-os,

n.,

fine,

6xX-os, ov, m., a crowd of people,


tlie populace, mob.
6\{/-is,

ews, /., a sight, appearance,


face ; eye-sight.
;

vision
8\p-ov,

n.,

ov,

(generally)

(See ov.)

bread or
&p.

no more, po further,

adv.,

bound;

debt.

ovdeiroTe, adv.,

OVK, not.

av, m.,

bp

ews, m., a serpent, snake.

5(pXrjfj.a,

5^, but not

oi)5^ [ov

man

ovToai, avT7]l, rovrl {hicce), this

8.v),

8ti, conj., that, because.

the ear; a handle or


ear of a jar, &c.
oCre {ov ri), and not ; neither, nor.

8,

8T(p,

(for 8t' &v, i.e.,

of heaven.

accus. oUtiv,

Srav, adv.

see.)

o5$, (bros, n.,

no one.

whosoever,
whichsoever interrog. who, what.
dat.

of beasts, birds,

m., heaven, the firma-

oStis, oihivos

gen. ovrivos, ijcmvos, &c., Att.

gen. 8tov,

which

KipKos,

ment

tail

more general term than

(a

oCipav-o";, ov,

as.

which very one


which indeed who

Sairep, ijirep, Hirep,

the

oip-6,, as, /.,

his, her's, its.

no longer.

boiled

meat;

flesh

anything taken with

flesh, as vegetables, fish,

n
irci7KaX-os,

beautiful

7),
;

or -os,
good.

ov,

all

-os, -ov, all

tlie

or Tlaidv, or
the physician of

Tlai-fjovos,

I'ajon,

llatt.')!',

raiSev-u, -au, to bring up a child


train, teacli, educate.
iraioiov, ov, n., a young child, little
child, infant.

Ilairiwv,

gods.

or /., a child (boy


boy, youth j /. a girl,

Trais, iraiS-Ss, vi.

or girl)
slave.

GREEK VOCABULARY.
ralu, F. vaiffw [vcui^u)], to strike,
smite, knock.
raXa(-6;, d, ov, old, aged, ancient,
antiqae venerable.
ira\al<TTp-a,
a palaestra,
as,
/.,
wrestling school, gymnasium.
rdXiv, a<^v.,back, backwards; again,

other's table

Ilav6ir-Ti,

rjs,

rjs,

/.,

tract

flatterer,

extend

pro-

defer.

to place beside; hold


propose intrust.
irapei-d, a.s, f., the cheek.
xdpeifu (see Irregular Verbs], to be
beside, present, at hand.
wdpeifu (see Irregular Verbs), to go
by, or past ; pass over ; come
forward.
xap4x(^ (see ^), to hold in readiness ; afford, furnish, supply.
xapdiv-os, ov, f., a maid, maiden.
raplyjfu (see Irregular Verbs], to
let fall beside ; let pass ; omit,

xaparldrj/ju,

forth

brandish, swing.
es, very great.
Panop^.

Tavovpy-os, oy, ov, ready for anything ; knavish, roguish,


villanous, crafty ;
up to everything.

raw,

xaparelvu), to stretch beside

afresh.

TrafXfieyid-T]s,

hence,

parasite.

irdXXtij, to wield,

203

adv., altogether, entirely.

trap' for irapd.

wa.pd, prep., governing accut., gen.,

neglect.

and dat. (see p. 34), beside. ndpis, HdpiS-os, and Hdpios, m.,
With accus., along, beside, to
Paris, son of Priam.
with gen., from beside, from, by -raploTTifju (see Irregular Verbs], to
means of; with dat., beside, near,
place near; present 2>as3. to stand
at, among.
near or by assist.
:

vapa^dWu

(see /SctXXu),

beside, or to
side,

give

compare

to throw

Hap/ievluv,

put side by

irapaylyvofiai (see yiyvofuu), to be


near ; to be present ; stand by
one, support.
irapd5fia--os, ov, m., a

grounds

park; pleasure

hand over, give up,


grant, bestow.

xapa5i8<i}fu, to

deliver

xapd8o^-oi,
pectation
irapaKaX-iu,

contrary to ex-

OS, ov,

strange, incredible.

aor. ixdOo*
xeliroixai.,
from patior], p. viwovda,
to suffer, endure
to be treated.
Trardcrffw, xord^w, to beat, knock,
strike, wound.
traTaT-4u), fyrta, to tread, walk
irdffxw,

cheat.

stay

to

verse

remain,

with,

abide.

exhort

father

console, soothe.

wapdrai' (xapA

itSj'),

to send past

conduct, convoy
os,

ov,

p. 28), m., a
in pi. parents, forefathers.

iravw, F. iraiffu, to put an end to,


stop, allay : intrans. and mid. to

escort,

cease, give over, desist.

despatch.

eating at

warpls, iraTpiS-os, /. (patria), one's


native country, fatherland.

adv., altoge-

ther, entirely.

vapairi/xiru,

trample on.

irarpos, (see

xar-fip,

rapa/jLvdiofuii, to encourage,

(128)

F.

[pdti,

xapakoyl^ofioi, to calculate wrong;

rapdffir-os,

TaffT-bs, ov, m.. a bed-chamber,

i<jw, to call to one


send for, invite ; entreat ; exhort
encourage.
xapaXafi^dvu, to receive &om another ; receive ; undertake.

vapafiiviis,

the

xapoUT-7)s, ov, TO., a passer-by, traveller, wayfarer.


Ttdpob-os, ov, f., a way past or
through, passage
Tap68(fi, by
the way, in passing.
vapotK-iu, i}(rw, to dwell beside, live
near.
ras, raaa, tSlv (see p. 45), all, the
whole, any, every.

paradise.

m., Pargenerals of

JIaf. fji.evl(i}v-os,

menio, one of
Alexander.

deliver.

an-

T^5-i7,

14

rjs,

f. (jpe<fca), fetters.

GKBEK VOCABULARY.

204
reit-of, ov, n., a plain,

flat

coun-

Teldo), P.

jreftrw,

2 aor.
on,

^tI'^oj',

to

(governs
accjis.)
in mid. to persuade one's
self, believe, trust to; obey, listen to, (governs dat.)
veip-a, as, /., a trial, attempt, exprevail

persuade,
:

jH'i'iment.

veip-do),

-dad) {hut mid.

F.

P. iripApu},

1'.

iriirop.cpa,

to

Tfivrf-os, m., a day-labourer;

and

ripe,

H4pa7is, ov, m., a Persian.

/., a rock, a ledge of


while trirpos means a piece
of rock, a (small) stone.
as,

some place,
indef., somehow
somewhere
interrog. irrj, how,
what way whither, where.

ttJ,

irrpf-^,

to force (a passage)

-o.(T<i),

pass through or over ;


penetrate ;
reach : hxit
;

irepdii},

P. irepa<r(i},

sea for sale

to carry

over

to sell.

all

irepiylypofuit, to

fountain, spring,

source.

and

TT'ffyvvfiL

irT]S-d<i>,

P.

vriyvioi,

make

irijfw,

p.

fast, fix, fasten

or -i^cropui, to spring,

ijcrw,

overcome, surpass,

remain
be over and above
escape ; survive.
irepi5-4(i}, ijo-w, to bind round, band;

age.

throb.

HrjXeijs, U.r]\^ix)s, m.,

Peleus, father

of Achilles.
v/jXIk-os,
large, of

7],

how

ov,

what

irrip-a, as, /.,

governing accus., gen.


round, about, near;
concerning.
irepi^dWu), to throw around, surround put on, (of clothes, &c.)
wepl, prep.,

and dat,

/.,

rjs,
;

bound, leap

tla-ough

(See p.

stiffen.

mellow, ma-

ture.

wep-du),

(See p. 14,

16, note.)

p.

iriinjya, to

iriireip-os, os, ov,

great,

how

size.

a leather pocket, wal-

let, scrip.

maiming of the
limbs or senses
blindness.
TTid^d}, to lay hold of, catch.
wLd-os, ov, m., a wine-jar, flagon,
w^pucr-is,

ews, /.,

jar.

viKpus, adv., from iriKpSs, bitterly,


severely sadly harshly.
;

Trf/ieX-i^s, T^s,

fat.

^s,

vivaKls, TTivaKlS-os, /., a little tablet,

jrept^w, to hold all round, embrace,


surround, encompass ; hold on
surpass.

HepiKXrjs, TlepiK\4ovi (see'HpaKX^s),

m., Pericles, a celebrated Athenian.

memorandum-book.
P. irlo/xai and

xlvci),

to

wait for one, await,

expect.

to sell.

embrace.
os, ov, much longed
loved or desired.
to carry round or about,

wepnr60riT-os,

much

rrepL<f)ipo),

revolve.

p.

viirpaKO,
(See vepdu, irepdau.)
2 aor. iire<TOV,

V.

P.

p. ireaovp-ai.,

irdwTuiKa, to

iriffrev-u, au),

irepiirXiKu, to fold around, cling to,

irioup.ai,

iriwtjJKa, to drink.

TiirpdaKti}, p. vepaffct),

irivTtj),

wtpifiivbt,

for,

(2),

well

let go, dismiss.

wivre, indecl., five.

a poor man.

cross

of lower world.

rock

viXeK-vs, ews, m., an axe, hatchet.

iriv7]s,

Persephone [ProHades, and queen

Hiparjs, ov, m., Perses.

irh-p-a,

strive.

rjs, f. ,
serpine], wife of

ireipd-

sea, tlie ocean.

send

Ilp<Te<p6v-r},

to try, attempt,

iriXay-os, eos, n. [pelagus), the open

w^fiiru,

pour round

to spread out.

16, note.)

more used),

o/xai

by

irepix^o}, F. irepixeQ, to

or over

try.

fall, fall

to trust to,

down.
have con-

;
obey.
trustworthy, faithfal,

fidence in, believe


7ri<rr-6r,

tJ,

6v,

true.
-d)ff(i}, to make trustworthy,
confirm faith mid. give mutual
pledges ; give security.

iTLaT-dd),

GEEEK VOCABULAKY,

206

IIt7Tojc-6,

oO, m., Pittacus, one of


seven wise men of Greece.
nXdrctT, nXdrwj^oj, m., Plato.
irXeicT-os, tj, Of, superL of voXvs,
most, very much.
x\ei (ov, UP, ov, corner, of icokvs,
more, greater.

vo\ifu-os, a, ov [also -ot, -of, -op],


belonging to war, hostile : ol
roXifuoi, the enemy.
v6\efM-os, ov, m., a battle, fight,
war.
ir6X-is, eus, /., a city; state, re-

tXc/c-w, f. v\i^(i), to twine, twist,

iroXiV-ijj,

weave

plait,

devise.

travel

uv,

for rXeton', (which

ov,

a blow, stroke ; ca(Lat plaga.)


lamity, plague.
v\r,d-oi, cos, n., a great number,
crowd, multitude.

ir\yjy-r}, ijj, /.,

irX^p, adv. or prep., besides, except,

more

s-XijTT-w, or

than, over, beyond.

vivX-rjya, to strike

a ship,

irXot-oi', ov, n.,

transport

v\i)^u, P.

F.

v\T)ff<i-<i),

wound.
merchantman.
;

v\ov, and

B-X6-0S, contr. v\o\Js, gen.


(of

Zd

Declension), a

voyage.
wealthy, rich.
rXoirr-^w, T^ffci), to be rich.

xXoirr-ijw,

Att. -iQ,

Iffu,

to

JJXo&ruv-oi,

m.,

Pluto,

god of nether world.

drown.

how

TO*

(= ywo ; but
x^<"'"5s,

F. rfyru, to

to

vrj

what

make, produce,

bring to pass.
woirfT-^s, ov, m., (Zjferafly, a maker),
a poet, writer.
cause,

eflfect,

Toifji^v, TTOifJiiv-oi,

ffi.,

a herdsman,

fli^ck

ov,

be

af-

rovTip-6s,

d,

causing

{literaUi/,

6v,

worthless,

bad, wicked.
Topev-u), aw, to caase to go, bring,

go, travel, jour-

to.

sail.

ferry, ferry-boat

a passage over,
;

fare for cross-

ropdfi-eis,

m.,

ius,

ferryman,

sailor.

(Same

as ropd-

irop<f>vpl5-os, /.,

a purple

ov, n.

T6p6fu-ov,
fieiov.)

vopipvpU,

rdc-oi,

71,

(^antus.) of what

OF,

number ? of what kind


much ? how great ?
irorafi-6s, ov, m.,

how

a river, stream.

when? at what time?


some time, once upon a

xfire, interrog.

indef. at

time.
irfrrepov, interrog.

adv. (utrum), whe-

ther or no ?

shepherd.
rdfivi-ov,

m., Poseidon
[Xeptune), god of the sea.

part of earth, (like ubi terrarum.)


troi-ica,

to toil, labour

by what HoaeiSwv, HoceiSwvos,

adv., whither

gwi.)

"fiffu,

flicted, distressed.

robe.

whence

adv.,

means

Neptune.
vov-io},

boatman,

or Tvevaofuu, to

blow, breathe.
TvLy-d}, F. Tw'|w, to choke, suffocate,
ir6dev,

46),

are often used as adverbs.


ov, m., Polj-phemns,
one of the Cyclopes, and son of

TopQp.it-ov, ov, n.,

make

p.

ing a ferry.

TTvi-bi, F. Tvetjffu,

stifle,

(see

UoXviprjfi-os,

ney

rich, enrich.
nXoi>7-wj',

iroXy

many, (opposed to 6\lyos;) much;


great.
The neut sing, and pi.

carry: mid.

sailing,

irXoi/cri-os, a, ov,

TPot^

ToXX^,

pain), painful, hurtful

boat.

later irXooj

many-eyed.

T6\v6fjLfw.T-os, OS, ov,

roXvs,

see.)

save

of the

frequently.

sea.

irX^-ciji',

member

m.. a

ov,

body politic, citizen freeman.


ToWdxis, adv., many times, often,
;

r\i-<j3, F. -KKevcoiuxL, to sail,

bj

public.

n.,

a herd of

cattle,

of sheep.

Toi-os, a, ov, {f/ualit), of

of what nature.

a, ov,

whether of the two ?

TT&r-os, ov, m.,

a drinking, drinkingrapa rdror, while

Torepos,
{uter.)

what kind,

bout, carousal,

GREEK VOCABULAEY.

206
drinking

{inter pocula).

irorbv

irov, interrog. adv.,

voi
somehow.

indef.

where? how? As
somewhere,

{enclitic),

a foot, leg.
vpayfia, irpdy/xar-oi, n., a thing
done, deed
matter, affiiir.
trpdTT-w, or xpdcrcrw, f. irpd^o}, to
do, work, effect, accomplish.
vpiirei, impers. {(lecet), it is suitable,
it becomes, it is seemly,
vpbr-u), to be distinguished (among
a number), to be manifest; be

iro6s, ToS-Ss, m.,

become, beseem.
vpia^v^, wpicr^v-oi, and TrpicT^euii,
an old man, elder ; ambassador.
Uplafi-os, ov, m., Priam.
like;

"TTplacxdai, to

buy,

(2 aor.

of uviofiai.)

Tplv, adv., before, formerly, before

that {priusquam.)

governing gen., before (of


front of; before (of
time) by reason of, for, through.
irpb^ar-ov, ov, n., used mostly in 7?^.
irpo^ara, cattle, (especially) sheep.
TrpoSldufJU, to give up, betray, abandon.
irpoLKa, adv. (really the accus. of
n-pol^, a gift), freely, gratuitously
irpb, prep.,

place),

in

{gratis.)

sum-

irpoaKcCK-iii), F. icyu, to call to,

mon,

invite

TrpooKvv-iw, P.

hand

to

call to one's help.


--^ffofiai,

hence, do

to kiss the

homage, wor-

ship, adore.

receive in addition ;
take to one as partner ; acquire.
{irpoabTTTOfiaC), irpoaopdw, irpocbil/ofiai, to look to, behold, see, regard.

jrpo(r\ap,^dv(i),

Trpoffwal^u,

make

F.

Trpoffwal^onai,

sport with, joke with,

to

make

game.
TrpoawliTTU (see ttIittcS), to fall upon
or against ; attack prostrate one'a
;

self before.

vpoardTT-u},

or

vpocriaata,

f.

trpoard^uj, to place in a position,

arrange; appoint, enjoin, intrust.


to put to, add
mid,
associate one's self with ; assign.
irpoar^ipo) (see <pipw), to bring to,
to add, contribute
to attach ;
approach agree with.
irpordTT-b}, or irpordcrau), V. irpord^u, to post in front, appoint
before mid. to take the lead.
vpbrepov, adv., before, sooner, earTrpoffrldtj/Mi,

vpoKdXv/ifjia, wpoKoK^fifiar-os, n., a


veil, curtain,

screen; cloak.

irpoKaTaKklv-b), to set one


fore others (at meals) :

recline

to go to; come forapproach.


irpocxiTi, adv., moreover, besides.
irpoff^w, to hold to ; bring near
give attention to (tt. rbv voOp) :
mid. to cling to, remain with.
irpoffO-^K-T], i}s,f., an addition, supplement, a douceur, into the bargain.

irpoffipxofiai,

ward

a potion.

tf>dpfx,aKOV,

(at

down

be-

mid. to
meals) in a more hon-

ourable place.
irpovo-iu, to perceive beforehand,
provide, anticipate.
rpoTrrjS-du, to spring (forward) before
others.

vp6s, prep., governing accus., gen.,


and dat, in front of; from before;
near, at, to, towards, against.
rrpocrayopti-u,

to

address,

salute,

accost.

lier, {netit.

of folloioing.)

irpbrep-os, a, ov {irpb), before others;

in front of; sooner, earlier.


TTpoTi/xdu, to

honour specially

esteem highly.
irpoTp^o} (see rp^w),
fer

pre-

ward

run

to

for-

outrun.

vpoCpyov, contr. for irpb fpyov,


erally, for a

work or

object,

{lit'

t.e.,

of service,) useful ; profitable.


adto carry forward,
vance allege ; propose display.
vpox(op-4(i3, -fiffu), to go forward, advance succeed.
trpo(j>ipu,

npocrdirrw,

irpoadipio, to fasten to,


attach to, append mid. to touch,
lay hold on, reach.
:

irpba-fipn {dfu, to go), to

advance, approach.

go towards,

irpibrjv,

adv., lately; just

before yesterday

now; day

the other day.

207

GREEK VOCABULARY,
prow

rpifipa, or rpifpa, as, /. , the

irwBdvofiai,

TfvcofJMi,

F.

rhrvafuu, to ask, inquire

bow.

learn.

JlpcjTeffCKa-oi,

the first
of Troy.

m., Protesilaus,

ov,

Greek

killed at the siege

and vrpOra, adv.

rpCrrov,

and pi. of follotcing),


first

{neut. sing.

in the

first;

ov

rj,

foremost;

(Trp6), first,

earliest.

a wing-

TTTipv^, trripvy-os, /.,

TlToi6Sup-os, ov, m., Ptccodortis.


nToXe^at-os, ov, m., Ptolemy.

llvOaySpai,

Pythagoras the philosopher.


t6\-i}, yjs, /., a valve or wing

(of

wand,

stick.

p4.S1.-os, a, ov, {also -os, -os, -ov,)

ready

Tj.,

pg.oy,

compar. oi p(j.dios,

easy.

astream, river;

*"
-'''w, to dance the
war-dance, or Pyrric dance.
TTwywu, vdrfuv-os, m., the beard.
vujk-iu), F. --fjab), to exchange, bar-

wppix-^^^t

sell.

itwua, viiifjMT-os, n., a

joined
irwj,

teith

lic

peiffop.a.1.,

sweep

to flow, run, gush.

crapw, to grin {ringt)

F.

to

clean.

cdK-oi, eos, k., a shield.


ffdvSa\-ov,

sandal

aawp-bs,

usually

negative.

how?

in

any way

in

indef.,

m.

in

other.

[rhetor),

speaker, orator

what

a pub-

pleader.

-01')
catting roots
-OS,
medical purposes) ; herb docquack.
;
plvTW, F. f)lyp(o, to throw, cast, hurl.
in pi. the
ph, piv-Ss, /., the nose

tor

nostrils.

bv,

.,

rotten, putrid

old; filthy.

"LapZavdvSX-os, ov, m., Sardanapalus, last king of Assyrian empire of Nineveh.


aarpdir-rjs, ov, m., a satrap; i.e.,
governor of a (Persian) province.
ffavrov, contr. for (rcai/roO.

a club, cudgel

n.,

stick.

rji, of thyself:
a re/fex.
pron., on which see p. 56.

(TCour-oO,

ffeiti),

ov, n., a wooden sole,


woman's shoe slipper.

d,

cover.

lid,

anytime;

interrog. adv.,

way ?

p6va\-ov, ov,

flood.

ffolp-w,

fire

(harden

pevfia, pe^ifiar-ot, n.,

piu, F.

fire,

(for

pdK-os, eos, n.,a rag; ragged garment,

more

on

set

to

fire;

ptfoT6/i-oj,

fxfolus, adv., easily; readily.

p^wv, aw,

to

iSi<T(>),

fire.)

P'flTwp, jt'ffrop-os,

easy;

obliging.

F.

burn with

some way, somehow or

house door).

p4j95-oj, ov, /., a rod,

vvp-6u},

rtlnrore, adv., at

folding-doors) : usually in pi. the


gates (of a city, as opposed to
Oijpa, a

ter;

UvOaySpoVy m.,

gen.

hear,

Tvp, Tvp-6s, n. (in pi. rh xvpi, and


watch-fires.
dat. vvpoh], fire
irvp-Ss, ov, m., wheat.

by

place [primtirn].

TrpOr-os,

pass.

P.

tore part of the ship, ship's head,

F.

move

to shake; disturb;

ffelffu,

to

ffeX-^v-rj,

^efiiX-rj,

and

fro.

Tit,/; the
ris,

moon.

/., Semele,

mother of

Bacchus.
<Tepu'-6s,

holy

ij,

6p,

revered;

august;

majestic ; dignified ; proud, haughty.


Sepfi^t-os, ov, m., an inhabitant or
native of SerTphus, one of the
;

stately,

Cyclades islands.

GREEK VOCABULARY.

208

a seal, a stamp.

n.,

a-fjliavrp-ov, ov,

^iddiv, 2cSQ;>-os, /., Sidon, a city of

m., an inhabitant
or native of Sinope, a town in
Asia Minor, on south shore of
iias,

Black Sea.

ov,

corn

but in

TO.,

meal, flour

crirla,

vict-

cira,
food,

id. ret

bread

keep silence
keep secret.
tub

be silent,
not to speak of,
to

--/lixo/jMi.,
;

n.,

ov,

a small vessel or

little skiff

or boat.

in

tackle

utensils

^;Z.

baggage

gear,

an army)

(of

&c.

stores,

spring,

to

-i^cru,

leap,

dry

CK\-qp-b%, d, 6v,

hard

harsh,

P.

F. (TK^fofiai.,

^(TKe/JLfJMl

look at
contemplate.
inspect, examine
Ski5^-7;j, ov, TO., a Scythian.
(TKvXa^, ffKv\aK-os, m. and f., a
young dog, whelp, puppy.
(from

ff/c^TTTO/iai),

to

ffKunrru,

f.

mimic

crKU)i^ofj.ai,

scoff at, jeer,

ape,

to

mock

cut

ijcrw,

shake

hastily

you

cavern.

jTevayfi-ds, ov, to., groaning; sighing ; wailing.


ffT^vo)

and imperf,

(used in pres.

groan

F. -ijcrw,

lament

bewail.

pass, usually <rr^p-

deprive of; bereave

ofiai, to

of.

ari(pav-os, ov, m., a wreath, garland;


fillet

crown.

crown.

eos,

(XTTjO-os,

surround;

to

ari-^oi,

F.

wreathe

the

.,

breast

the

heart, (as scat of feeling.)


(TTriK--q,

/, an upright

rjs,

(TtoX-tJ,

/.,

TJs,

stone, a

gravestone.

equipment; clothing,

a garment, robe.
(Tt6/JLa, (TT6/xaT-oj, n., the mouth, an
opening
passage, &c.
ffTpaTeiojjjui, and (mpcTe^u, to take
the field; be in active service; act
as a soldier.
;

(TTparrjy-iu,

F.

-^<rw,

to act

or general

(TTparrjyos,

to

a.s a
com-

mand.

TO.,

shrewd.
ov,

<TTpaTu!ir-ri^, ov, to.,

n.,

campment

n.,

<rrpovOl-ov, ov, ., dimin. of (rrpovdln,

a young or
a sparrow.
(Ti),

a cave, grotto,

a soldier.

a camp, ensquadron.

aTpardired-ov, ov,

Solon.
tTO<pi(rr--^s, ov, to., a skilled person ;
clever man; a teacher; a sophist.
ffo<f>-l)s, T}, 6v, skilled ; clever ; wise

2,6\wp, S6\wj'-os,

I)rudent

arpari-d, as,/., an army; squadron;


(military) expedition.

to Argos.

nriJXat-ov,

iara\Ka, to
send dis-

p.

;
to drive away
bustle along, go

to

a6ei ii 'Apyos, off with

crreXQ,

f.

place ; get ready


patch ; start.

to say aov, aov [shoo,

shoo) to a bird

to

a rising;

be at vari-

arpaTTiy-bs, ov, to., the leader of an


army ; a general.

jokes on.
co^-iu,

ariWu,

dress

rough, stern.
ffKOTT-iCi},

make

ance with.

pillar, post

frolic about.

bound;

oracrt-dfo), f. -dffu, to

(jTi(j>(i},

ffKy}v-'fi, rjs, y., a covered place 5 tent;


hut; house.
(FKi-d, as, /., a shadow, shade.

ffKipT-dw,

a shelter; dwelling; quarters,

arep-^u,

a vessel or imple-

n.,

eoj,

ment

zeal

halting-place, or stage.

only), to

ffKi\-os, eos, n., the leg.


(TKev-os,

speed

(TTa6ix.6s, ov, TO., pi. often, tcl crraO'

set,

F.

(TKa<l)l8i-ov,

/., haste,

Tjs,

anxiety.

rebel, revolt; quarrel;

provisions.
ffidnr-du,

cirovS-i^,

fid,

usually in p?. to,


food made of corn, bread ;
uals, provisions.

arrl-ov, ov, m.,

<TiT-os,

make
busy.

Wioenicia.
Sij/WTT-eivs,

or -daofiai, to
-cJo-w,
haste ; be eager, in earnest

<77roi'3-tfw,

ffov,

2d

little

bird

esjMxiallg

pers. pron. (see p. 64),

thou.
ffvyyiypiiffKu,

f.

ffvyyvdxrofuu, to

GEEEK VOCABULARY.
think with, agree with ; yield
allow ; confess ; pardon.
avyyrd)ii-rj,

with

ijy,

pardon.

<rvyKaX-iu, F. -iau, to call together,


invite.

ffvyxtap-iu), F. -i}<rw

and

--fyToiuxL,

to

make concessions to agree;

unite;

pardon.
miyXaiJ^dj'U) (see "kan^ivu)), to take

with

along

apprehend

seize,

comprehend

adv. (from adj. awex/p,


holding together), continuously,
incessantly.

or (wIt]/u

throw together,

to sail

ffvfirftffi-ov, ov, n.,

a drinking-party

hanqnet.

(see

trj/u),

to

conjecture

i.e.,

agree

to

together

profit.

to,

ri

course
dere),

friendly inter-

oj, /.,
sociality

F.

geniality.

{con-tun-

ffwrplyf/w,

bruise,

to

conto

F.

<n)ppi<x),

smash,

crush,

combine.

an event, chance;

misfortune, calamity.
prep, vnth dat., together with,
with.
(See p. 15.)
awdyu, F. awd^b), to lead or bring
together, collect, assemble.

-^u,

to fall in with,

meet.

and carry off ; to carry off


(TwStaxpdTT-w, (TwSjaT/Kifw, to assist in performing.
<rw36/cet (placet), impera., it pleases;

seems good.

awopdw, to see
understand.
avveiSoy, 2 aor. of avvoiSa (see dtSa,
Irregular Verbs), to be conscious,
avvetdov, 2 aor. of
;

convinced of
trwicoiicu,

(see

elfd),

to

together,

m. or/,

(see fivs, p. 26),

a swine, pig, hog, boar, sow.

a fellow-sol-

(TwrrpaTuIrr-iji, ov, m.,


dier.

c<pa?p-a,

ai,

/.,

sphere,

ball,

globe.
ff^fdXkti), F.

atpaXw,

1 aor.

ia^iriKa,

stumble or fall ; to
pass, to be foDed ; to make

to cause
foil

(Twaprd-l^u), -ffw, [corriperi\, to seize

flow

<nn^p
meet,

p.

(TvppeiffopLcu,

to

ptJTjKO,

<nJ/-

<r6v,

plainly

hold.

ffv-i, (Tu-ij,

F.

to confess,

fyru,

promise.

{owiTTOfJuu) , awopdu, F. aw6\f'0fuu,


to see at a glance; survey; be-

ipepow.

(TVfupop-d, as, /.,

awoPT-dw,

shatter.

<ru/juf>4pu (see tp^pu], to collect

conduce

acknowledge

avrrpl^u,

along with.

tribute

awo/jLoXoy-id}, f,

<rvpoval-a,

assist.

ffVfiTXiw, F. <rv/xrXei;<7'o/iu,

aiveifu,

along with.

feast

perceive, understand-

late.

it

to entertain in

-dffo},
;

(Hjpexun,

ffvflij/u,

ffVYxaipa, to rejoice with, congrata-

feast,

ffvreari-du, F.

one's house

fellow-feeling

/.,

allowance

to,

209

to

a mistake, to blunder.
{/undo), a sling.

<T<pvS6v-ri, yf!,/.

a<f>pay-l^b), r. -lau,

Att

-t>,

to seal,

stamp, mark.
<rxp\-d^w, F. -dau, to be at leisure,
to have time to do a thing.
<rxo\cu(rTU(-6s,
6v, one having leisure an idler a simpleton.
-f),

rp, f., leisure

<rxp\--fi,

rest,

ease;

idleness.

(Twfw, F. ffihffio,
preserve.

to

save,

rescue,

have intercourse with, associate

HuKpdr-Tjs, -fo$ (-ow), m., Socrates.

with.

ffQfio,

avyelpu}, to string together, connect;

continue in discourse.
ffweriXa/i^dpu, to lay hold of along
with (some one)
to take a hand
;

(see

ipxofuiCj,

to

together, meet; live with.

come

n.,

body,

carcass.

auhos, a, ov, contr. ffwy, a defective


adj., safe, sure, certain.
ffurripl-a, os, /., safety, deliverance.
ov,

of sound

self-controlling,

moderate

ffdxpp-uv,

at, assist.

wy^pxofuu

ffih/uiT-oi,

corpse

uv,

dent, wise.

mind
;

pru-

210

GREEK VOCABULARY.

for rb dXij^^s, the truth,


the real thing.

ri\7]9^s,

rapax(iS-i}s,

ei,

ris,

perplexing, con-

worth; honour, esteem

TTn--fi, 7}s,f.,

worship

regard.

TLfiup-iui,

punish,

to

-fiffU},

take

vengeance on.

fusing.

tcCttw, or Tttcrcrw, f. rrf |w, to arrange,


put in order ; draw up ; appoint.

TifjLwpi-a, as,f.,

ravp-os, ov, m., a bull.

Tivdffffu,

rdxicrr-os,

oi>,

>),

superl.

of raxiJj,

quickest, swiftest, speediest.


adv. neut. offollowing., quickly,

Tttxi^,

to

brandish,

certain person.

rb, inierrog.,

to end one's life j to die.


tA-oj, eoj, n., an end, limit: as

Tol (old dai.

tivd^w,

F.

shake cause to quiver.


t/j, indef, some one, any one

rax'i^y, eto, iJ, swift, quick, fast,


speedy,
rawy, Taw, m., a peacock,
r^, enclitic conj., and.
(Lat. g'Me.)
retx-oy, eoy, n., a wall, (especially
that of a city.)
riKv-ov, ov, n., a child
of&pring.
reXevr-diij, ijcrw, to bring to an end
;

revenge, vengeance,

punishment.

(See

who

which

p. 33.)

what

(See p. 33.)
Ti(xaacpipv-7]i, -eos, (-ous), Tissaphcr-

nes, a Persian satrap and general.


rlrpao) and rirpalpu), late forms of
Ttrpalvd}, to bore through, pierce.
-uv,

TK-fjfji-uv,

patient

-ov,

bold

wretched.
for t#),

adv., there-

accordingly in truth, truly.


adv., in fine.
Toiyapovv, adv., so then
assuredly,
riixvu), F. re/tw, aor. fre/wp (or ft-ocertainly; wherefore.
/aoi'), to cut, hew, &c.
toIpvp, adv., therefore, then; morerivwv, t4vovt-os, m., a sinew, muscle,
over, furthermore.
repcfcrrios, os, ov, strange, monstrous. TM-ovTos, -a&n), -ovro, ot-ovtop, of
ricaape^, or rirrapes, four.
such kind, of such nature.
retpalvu), or rirpdu, F. rp^aw, to rotx-oi, ov, m., a wall (of a house or
bore through.
court.)
ritft^, rh-Tlf-oi, m., (cicdda,) a To\fid-u), F. ^(Tti), to have the courage
grasshopper.
to (do), to dare
undertake ; venT7]\tK-ovT09, -aijTT], -ovto, of such a
ture.
size or age
so young.
ToX/jLrjpl-a, ds, /., boldness.
rriiJLepov, or (ti/ifiepou, adv., this same
To\onr6v, adv., for the future; for
day, to-day.
the rest accordingly.
TfjvLKavra, at this or that time of t6w-os, ov, m., a place, spot (locus);
day ; then, at that time.
a passage in a book.
tI, adv., neut. of rls, what ? why ?
TOffavtdKis, adv., so many times,
rlOri/u {see Irregular Verbs), to place,
so often.
fore,

set, fix, settle

make.

TOff-ovros, -airrr}, -oCro, or -ovtop, so

Ti0wv-6s, ov, m., Tithonus, brother


of Priam.

much ; so great ; so numerous.


T&re, adv., at that time, then.

tIktu,

ToSpo/jLa,

f.

T^fw, aor. ireKOP, to bring

forth, beget, procure.

rfWu),

F.

TiKC),

vellico), to
Tifi-io), -fiau,

worship

aor.

irlXa, (Lat.
pluck, pull, pluck out.

to honour, reverence,
value.

contr.

for t6 6pofia,

the

name.
Tpdlrt^-a,

i;s,

/.,

a table

dining-

tablc.

Tpau/xaTl-as, ov, m., a

rpdxv^-ot,

ov, TO.,

wounded man.

the throat, nock.

GREEK VOCABULAEY.
a,

rpdx-^,
harsh

rugged

rough,

i5,

(See p. 53.)

Tpeis, TpeTs, rpla, three.

2 aor. itparoy,
p. rirpoipa, to turn, alter ; rout
mid. and pass, turn one's self to.

rphru),

F.

Tpi\j/(>),

F.

Tp4<f>(i),

make

th-po<f>a,

p.

6pi\l/(i),

solid, i.e., to

thicken

to

hence,

to fatten, nourish, feed.


F. dp^^ofjuu, or dpafiovpuu,

rp^d),

2 aor. (SpafjLor,
hurry.
rpl^u, F. rpit(/u, to rub, thrash,
grind ; wear down ; spend.
rpl^ojv, rpi^uv-oi, m., a worn garment, a threadbare cloak or robe.
to ran, hasten,

[rph, and 4p), triply


hence, as a fern, tubst.

rpiTjp-ijs, Tji, ej

equipped

i) rpi-fipTji

a trireme,

paCs),

(scil.

or ship with three banks of oars.


rpls, ado, (rpcit), three times.

Tplr-of,

Tpol-a, oj, /., Troy, The Troad.


Tp&rtu-OP, ov, n., (tropceum,) atrophy.
rpSr-ot, ov, m., [rpiiru,) a turn,
way, means ; direction ; turn of
mind, disposition.

ir^pi^u,

F.

-lu,

and

i^pioOfjuu, to

insolently towards;
rage, insult

act

v^p-is, ewj, /., violence

strap ; an oar-loop, or twisted


leathern thong, which fastened
the oars to the thole.
Tpo<f>--f],

to oat-

insolence

outrage.

nutriment

food,

f.,

rfi,

rearing.
Tpo<p-6s,

ov,

and

TO.

a rearer,

/.,

feeder, nurse.

a cup, bowL
only in pres. and

Tpi^SKi-ov, ov, n.,


rpC^di, (used
perf.,) to

noise, to
rpwt>--fi,

I'wi-

make a low murmuring


murmur, buzz sing.
;

softness

rp, /.,

luxury

effeminacy ; conceit.
Tpwds, TpwdS-os, ./., the district
around Troy ; The Troad.
Tpuryu, F. rpdi^o/juu, aor. frpayow,
to chew, gnaw (as herbivorous
animals.)

rei^ofuu, aor. (rvxof,

riryxt*'w, F.

upon happen upon


meet by chance ; gain.
dark obTvf>\-6s, ^ 6t', blind
to hit, hit

Of, third.

ij,

a thole-

rpoirur-fip, TpoTurrTJp-oi, m.,

savage.

211

scure.
Tv<f>\-6co,

F.

c&ru, to

m&ke

blind,

deprive of sight.

come in
in unawares.

inteiffiprxppLoi, to

to

come

by stealth,

inrevayrlop, adv., neut. of adj. vireravrloi, in opposition to, on the

contrary.

an overbearing vrip, prep., with cuxus. and gen.,


person, an insolent man.
over, above ; beyond, across
iJ7(et-o, a, /., health, soundness of
for the sake of.
body or of mind.
inrip-a, as,/., [vrip,) usually in ^.,
iiyi-^i, -fis, 4s, healthy, sound, strong,
the uppermost ropes ; the mainv^piffT-iqi,

ou,

TO.,

hearty.

sail brace.

vSp-oi, ov, m., a water-serpent.


vScijp,

vrepfK-rlvtii, r. -rlffu, p. -rh-ixa, to

vSar-oj, n., water.

pay on behalf of another

There is a
form, vUoi in the gen., vUT in the
dat, &c., as if from a nom., vlevt'^'Vi Vh f-1 * wood, forest timber.
vi-6i,

ov,

TO.,

a son.

hvi-frxys,

F.

irrip^o},

begin to exist,
belong to.

i.e.,

to begin;

to

arise, be; to

to

pay

for.

to pass over,

^^P^PXPl'^h
yond; exceed.

[vrep&irronaCi, vrepopdw,
ixj/ofjuu,

to

overlook,

P.
let

go bevrtppass;

despise, slight.

vTiporyKoi,

OS, OP,

exceedingly swol-

212
len

GREEK VOCABULARY.
large,

very great

very im-

portant.
{nrepxaipt^, to rejoice exceedingly.
as, f., a sliip's crew
hard service
assistance, attendance obedience.
F.
vir-iper-icj,
-i^ffu}, to do
service

inn)peal- a,

for,

work

for

V7r7]ph--7]s, ov,

labourer

ov, m. an actor
a di*sembler, hypocrite.
viroXafi^dvo), to take up; answer,
reply engage
suppose.
\nrop.iv(j}, to remain behind ; endure,
bear; hold out, persevere.
{nroKpiT--fis,

F.

iroaxi^crofiai,

to

with accus., towards and

under, beneath gen. from under,


by: dat. under, beneath.
supposititious,

up an under-current

stir

trouble a

turb

:
pass,
troubled.

stealth

re-

vtrorapdrTCi), or -cffO}, F. {nrorapd^u,

trouble; to

a, ov, substituted

to

suffocate

drown.
to

undertake, promise, engage.

viro^oXi/jial-os,

inroiiv^ffii),

choke,

to

inroTrvly'j),

viTP-oi, ov, m., sleep.


V7r6, prep.,

F.

mind, recollect, remember.

m.,a rower, seaman;

servant, attendant.

inrL(TXviop,ai,

uiropLifj.v^<TKU,

aid, serve, assist.

little,

somewhat

be

to

of
dis-

F. {nroiffu, to bear up
undergo, sustain; endure, suffer.
varepov, adv. {neut. of adj. vorepot),
afterwards, at length after, too

viro(p^po},

by

counter-

feit.

inroSixof^o-h

iiroSi^o/jiai,

to receive

kindly ; give ear to, listen to


promise.
{iiro^L-ov, ov, n., a beast of burden
or draught.

late.

v^', for inr6, under.


vipair\-6(>),

beneath
vfr]\-6s,

F.

-dxTO),

to spread out

unfold.

6v, lofty, high.

i},

^
(paydip, 2 aor. part, of icdlw, to eat.
F.

(paivo),

(pavQ,

aor.

Itpriva,

to

bring to light, show, exhibit


mid. and pass, to appear, seem.
pulse;
(f>aK-7J, Tjs, /., a dish of lentils
porridge.
open,
clear,
visible,
<f>a.vep-6s, d, 6p,
manifest, evident.
(papp-aK-eus,
^wj, m., a medicine
vendor sorcerer poisoner.
^dppMK-ov, ov, n., a drug, medicine,
poison.
<f>d(TKU), strengthened form of (l>ripJ,,
;

to say, assert

affirm.

(ftipu, F. olffu, 1 aor. ijveyKa,

2 aor.

to

bear,

ijveyKOV,

carry

iirffVOXO;

(pe&yu, p.

<pe^^o/jLai,

2 aor. i<pvyov,

away, run.

TJS, /., (fama,) a rumour, saying, voice, report ; speech.

4>'^/Ji-7),

pripj., p. ipT^ffb) (see

(piXl-a, ai, /., love, affection, friend-

ship.
^[Xitrir-os, ov, m., Philip.

loving the beauan admirer of the fair.

(piXdKaX-oi, OS, ov,


tiful

Irregular Verbs),

to say, speak, declare.

adv.,

(piKoKivSOvcos,

way,
(pCX-os,

1),

in a foolhardy

venturesome way.

in a

loved, dear; friendly:

ov,

as suhst. a friend.
as, /., love of learning;
study, philosophy.
(plXrar-os, superl. of 0fXos, most beloved, dearest.
<j)\^^, (pXe^-ds,/. (sometimes m.), a

<f>i\ocTO(f>l-a,

vein.
(piXvapSta, to

bring.

to flee

P.

F. -ijata, to love, regard.

<j>CK-i(j),

fool,

talk nonsense, play the


:
ri xpXvapovv, for

trifle

<f>Xvapiov, neut. oi pres. j)art.


(j)o^-itj), F. i}(r, to frighten, scare,
terrify.
<f>op-iw, F.

-fjiTU),

<p6pT-os, ov,

to bear, carry, wear.

m.,a load, cargo, burden.

GREEK VOCABULARY.
a well, cistern

i>p^ap, (fipiar-oi, n.,

to think, consider,

-i}<rw,

nam.

i>pi/^, #/)iry-6s,

^pvyes, m.

pi.

or. /., a fugi-

m.

(pvydS-os,

tive, exile.

banishment,

flight,

exile.
^i/XaK-i},

/., watching, guarding;

rjs,

a garrison

*yXd-os,

a prison.

a, of,

/.,

essence;

nature,

constitution.

sound, voice, report.


suited for speaking;
able to speak.
(fniip, (fxap-ht, m. {/r), a thief, smug-

<l>uv-ri, fi$, f.,


(f><tjvTiTiK-bs,

/.,

ijs,

tun,

<p6a-ij,

shape

or/., a Phrygian.

<pvy--q,

foliage.

reflect.

(pvyds,

or -ffffu, P. ipvXd^u, to
guard, watch, protect.
^{iKk-oy, ov, n., a leaf inpL leaves,

<f>v\dTr(i},

pit.

^pov-4w, F.

213

i),

bv,

gler.

contr. for tpioi, n., light


liverance; joy.

tpQs,

of or belonging to

de-

Phylace.

Clueronea,

aj, f.,
in Boeotia.

Xatptfivet-o,

town

Xoip<^, ^glad.
y^alr-jf,

long hair

/.,

iji,

or lion's

mane;

be

a horse's

foliage (of trees).

m. {pi. sometimes, tA
XoXivi, n.), a bridle, bit, reins.

XciKLV-6%, ov,

Xnpt-ftJ,

-fffffo,

(see

-e

44),

p.

graceful, beautiful, elegant.

Xaptiyrus, adv. (xopfetj), becomingly, decorously ; gracefully.


Xapll^ofiat, F. ^aptoCyuat, to gratify.
XcipiJ,

X'^P'-'^'^^t

f-1 S^'^^i

favour,

kindness; service; delight.


Xdpuv-oi, m., Charon, ferryman of the Styx.

'S.dpwv,

Xaw-6(j},

F.

-dxTw,

render proud,

XeiX-oj, eos, n., the


Xftfidiv,

to

puflF

x^ij'-oj,

make

loose

storm

Xpi},

impers.,

cessary

it

is

fated,

behoves

it

it

one

is

ne-

must

n.

{xpdofiaii,
XP^fMT-oi,
a thing that one needs ; a thing,
matter, aflair :
in pi. goods ;
money ; property.

TCPVfJ^

XP^<TifJi-oi,

ov,

f),

^^^ hand.
XfipoTov-^u, -^a, to stretch out the
hand (in voting), to vote.
XeXZStiv, xf^'5<i'^os, / * swallow.
X^/X-i}, ^i, /., a horse's hoof ; a claw,

o,

XpiJce-os,
ovv,

X^l'P, X^'-P'^^i f-1

(also OS,
;

fit,

OS,

ov,)

proper.

made

ov, contr.

xP^<^''^f ^
of gold, golden ; gold-

coloured.
Xpv<ri-ov, ov, n., dimin.

ing,

from follow-

a piece of gold, gold

coin;
Xpvff-bt,

a gold

money.
ov,

m.,

gold

gold coin

money.

a talon.

or

/., a goose,

der.
XVP-<'h *> /

X^^,

Xpbv-os, ou,m., time ; a period, season.

lip.

m.,

mantle, or cape military cloak.


ov, m., an enclosed place
{hortus) ; feeding-ground ; fodder,
grass, hay.
Xpdofuii, inf. xp^ff^tt*, to use, put
in force ; experience.
X^pr-oj,

useful, serviceable

up.

winter.

XV", XV-^^i

one thousand.
an upper robe,
frock, mantle ; coat of mail.
Xtw*", X'^'''<'S, /> snow.
xXa^i, x^afjLvS-oi, f., a cloak,
X^Xt-ot, at, a,

Xi-Twv, x'Twi^oj, ",

^ rejoice,

X*'/"}<''<^>

* widow.

adv., yesterday.

gan-

an earthen pot, jar.


Xyrp-a, OS,
Xwpfs, (1.) adv., separately; apart:
(2.) As a prep, yrith gen., without ; &r from.
.

OKEEK VOOABULAXY.

214

\{'ai5-<rw, to touch, graze,


reach ; gain.
ov,m., a.n inarticulate sound,;

spirits of the

^ai5-w, P.

handle
}j/6(p-os,

ipvx-'fi,

noise, crash, din.

^vxaywy-iu,

dead to the lower

world.

v^,/; hreatb, life; soul, spirit.

f&X,-o3, F. yp^^o, to

f. -iiffw, to

conduct the

fresh, revive

blow

to cool, re-

to chill, dry up.

Q
u5,

intetj., (of address),

prise or pain), ah
(bSls, ciSTj'-oj, /.,

(of sur-

woe's (me.)
pain of child-birth,
1

pang, throe.
lifc-i^y,

?a,

6,

swift,

rapid

fleet,

keen.

raw

--^(To/iai,

{pvum], an egg.
up-a, aj, /. {hora), a season
of day, hour ; nick of time
of life; age.
(i-6v, ov, n,

coarse

toj,

conj., as {ut); that

w'y,

adv., thus

ov,

n.,

flax

to buy, pur-

chase.

a barber's towel or shoul-

(hfi6\w-ov,

linen

iLv-ioiMi, P.

time
time

(^Mod)

{sic.)

der-cloth.

(Sffvep, adv., as,

even

m., the shoulder (and upper


arm,
humerus.) Also the shoulder of a beast,
armus.

woTf, adv., like


wherefore.

as, just as, so that

5/t-os, ov,

Cirxp-bi, d,

(>p,

pale,

as, just as.

wtn, bloodless.

ENGLISH TOCABULARY.

Ambassador,

(a certain), ris.

About
and

Among,

(around), xepl (occjm., gen.,


dat.)

about (on both

{accus., gen.,

i/jiip^

and

Admire,

we

And, Kol

[ri,

Apple, HTJk-ov,

take

ov, n.

ffrparl-a,

Arrange, rdrru, or rdaffu; F. rd^u


Artaxerxes, 'Apra^^p^-iis, ov, m.
Ass, 6vos, ov, m. or/.
At, irl {dat.) ; ip {dat.)

Air, 6.-fip, iip-oi, m. (the lower air,


properly) ; alOi^p, alOip-oi, (the

Athena {Minerva),

air.)
;

tos, n.

OS, /.

{accus.)

'AOrjv-a, as,/.

Athens, 'A^^p-ot, uv,


pi.
Athenian, ' Adifvai-os, ov, m.
ol 'XdT]v<uoi, the Athenians.

^to;,

ATafro, Sltov.

Along (parallel to), irapi, (accus.)


Along with, ffiv [dat.) ; /icrd (yen.)
Altar, pufi-is, ov,

m.

U.)

Army, rrpdrevfia,

Bavfidl^-u}. iyafiai.

All, every, tSj, retro, toi'

4us,

Aristippus, ' AploTirir-oi, ov, m.

Advise, ^ovXev-u, ^ovXe^oftcu.


Against, eij {accus.) ; ixl and xphz,

upper

T/)(r/3-i5s,

with dat.

Anchor, iyicip-a, as,/.

sides),

dat.)

Action, Ipy-ov, n. : before


action, irpb fpyov.

iv,

Ayt&j

pL

(from), (1x6 {gen.)

at.

B
Bad, KaK-6s,

previous

Before,
front

of,)

Barber, Kovp-eis, Itas, m.


Barley, Kpid--^, ijs, /.

Beg

(for one's

Battle, fidxv, vs, /

Believe, rurre6-u {dot.) ; xelO-opuu,


{dat or accus., and in/.)

"fi,

bv.

Ball, a<paip-a, as, /.

Be, ApX ylyvofixii.


Bear, ipicr-os, ov, m. or /.
Beard, irwyuv, irwyutv-os, m.

vpb

to,

or

in

{gen.)

own

satisfaction),

i^airi-ofioi.

yipei-

ov, ov, n.

Beast (wild), 6^p, 6Tjp-bs,m.; 0T]pL-oy.


ov, n.: beast of burden, vroli'ijyt-op.
Beautiful, Kd\-6s, -fi, bv, xP^-"s>
aaa, ev.
Because of, Ii^ko {jen.) ; 5id {gen.)

Becomingly, e5; vpeirbvTUS.

oflf

(..,

Beside, trapd {dat.)


Bite, SdiO'w ; F. Sri^ofiai ; 2 aor,
ISaKov.
Black, /i^as, aiva, av. (See p. 45.)
Blessings, dyaO-d, Civ, n.
Boar, ffvs, av-bs, m. ; Kdvp-os, ov, m.
Boat, (floating vessel, generally,)
ir\o1-ov, ov, n.
<jKd<i>{.-ov,

ov, n.

<iKa<f>-ls, L5os,
;

aKaip-r),

-qs,

/.

ENGLISH VOCABULARY.

216

Body, awfj.a, awpLaT-os, n.


Hook, ^i^Xl-ov, ov, n.; /3t/3X-os, ov,f.
Both, coHJ., ri;
Kdi;

Boy,

botli

Kal t4; ri

irais, 7raiS-6s,

Brt:ad

(wheateii),

and,

Bright, Xa/jLTrp-hs, d, 6v.

Broad, evp-ijs, e?a, v.


Brother, dSe\<f>-6s, ov, m.
Bull, ravp-os, ov, m.; /SoOs,

/cat

ri.

Burn, Kalo}

m.
&pr-os,

m.

ov,

(barley), fxd^-a, or /tSf-a,


Bridge, y^<pvp-a, as, f.

ris,

P.

/3o-6i,

(shaggy), Saa-vs, eta,


thickly wooded.

f.

But, dXXcC,

m.

Kaij<T(i).

Bushy

also,

i5;

5^.

c
Cable, (cdX-ws, AcdX-w, m. (Seep. 21.)
Cake, p-d^-a, or fid^-a, tjs, /. ; irKaK-

City,

iwip-ekCos,

adv.

dar-v,

atrov-

Cloak, xXap.is, "xXapid^-os, f.


rplu}v, Tpl^o)v-os, m,, a tliread-baro
cloak.

ovs, TrKaKovvT-os, m.; irdiravov, n.

Call on (invoke), KoK-iw, iaoi.

Carefully,

v6X-eus, f.

TrAX-ts,

&<TT-eos, n.

Company

Saiios, ado.

company

in

(i.e.,

with),

Carry, ^^pw, Kopi^w.


Cast, plwTw, /SdXXw.
Catch, alpiia; 2 aor. et\ov:
\ap./Savw; 2 aor. O^afiov.
Cauldron, Xi^rjs, \i^7}T-<n, m.

companionship, ffvvovala.
Consult (i.e., take counsel \vith any-

Cavahy,

Cottage,

crOy

i]

ittttos,

body), ^ovXeiJCt) ; more frcquculhj,


mid., ovXevop.ai [ireptj, or avp.^ovXevop-ai tlvl wepl twos.

oi iTrweis.

Certain (a),T/s; (sure, firm), /3e/3a(- or,

ijs,

f.

sidt,

as, /.
Cliest (breast), arrjO-os, eos, n.

box),

O-qK-t), t)s,f.\

Crop

Ki^ofT-

f. ; \dpva^, XdpvaK-os, f.
(inChild (son or daughter), irais

Cup,

ov,

n.

(to),

Cut, Kelp-w,
Cutlass,

fipicp-os,

Kelpoj.

<pid\-7],

ijs,

/.;

KvXi^, K>jXiK-os,

/.; KiiweXX-ov, ov, n.

6s, ov,

TraiSl-ov,

(See Con-

above.)

Court-yard, avX--fi, r,s, f. the king's


court or palace, aZ ^aaiXiws Oupai,
Crane, yipav-os, ov, m.

Cheek, irapei-d,
(i.e.,

koXij^t],

Counsel (take counsel).

a, ou.

fant),

aKTi]v-i],

Vhf-

Chamber. (See Room.)


Chase (in hunting), d-fip-a, as,/.
Chase (to), SidiKU.

Chest

eos, n.

rip-uoj.

p.dxo.ip-a,

as,

/.

f/^-oj,

eos, n.

Citizen, iroXir-rjs, ov, m.

Cyrus, Kvp-os,

ov,

m.

D
Daughter, Ovydrrip, dvyarp
Kop-v,

Day,

6s,

Vhf-

rjiiip-a, as, f.

(Sp-a, as, f.

Deaf, KU}<f)-6s, tJ, ov.


Dear, <piX-os, r], ov ^t'Xt-os, a, ov,
or OS, OS, ov.
Death, Odvar-os, ov, m.
Deep, ^aO-vs, eta, 6.
Deliberate, ^ovXev-w, jiovXev-op.at,.
;

Dense

(of a wood, &c.), Saa-vs, ela,^


Descend, Kara^alv-w.
Desire (wish), iO^Xu), or 6iX u.
Desire (order), KeXev-u.
Dinner, 5f7'rrv-ov, ov, n.
Doctor (i)liysician), l2Tp-6s, ov, m.
Door, Ovp a, as, fDown (from), Kara, with <jen.
Dry, ^Tjp OS, d, 6v.

ENGLISH VOCABULARY.

217

E
Each,

?/ca<rT-oj,

Enemy,

voXi^u-os, ov, m.
ix6p-ot,
m.
Every, vas, vaaa, Trav,
Expose, iicTidr]iu.
Eye, 6<p6oLkiJ.-6s, ov, in.
J/x/ui, <5>i-

oy.

rj,

Eagle, der-os, ov, m.


Eat, iadiu ; of herbivorous animals,

rpdydj, usually.
Educate, iratSeii-u.

Egg,

d)-6v, ov, n.

Empty,

Ha.T-os, n.

ij,

ov.

Faithful, TWT-6s,

i},

Kev-b%,

ov,

F
/is,

^j

/3^/3ai-os, o,

ov

For my,

dXij^-ijs,

or

oj*,

ov,

m.

Father, irarrip, warp-os, m.


Ferocious, 6.ypt-o$, a, ov, and
(hp.-6i, Tq, 6v.
OS, ov

os,

Field, ayp-6s, ov, m.

Fierce, dypi-os, a, ov.

Find, evpl(TK-w.
Five, irivre.

Floor

(thrashing),

&\us,

(See p. 21.)
Flow, pt<i3, pevaopMi.
Fly, (ivl-a, as, /.
Foolish, VTjTTi-os, a, ov
ov; or fjLup- OS, a, ov.

&\u, f.

fj.u}p-6s,

her, our,

&c.,

lowed by 5^ in the second (and


succeeding ones, if necessary).
For, (motion towards,) els, with
accus.; e.g., he sets out for Greece,
i.e., to Greece.
^orce, S^vafjL-is, ews, /.

Fall-into position, KaOiffTafiai.

Farmer, yewpy-os,

thy, his,

part, fi^v in the first clause, fol-

os, ov.

Forest, vk-r], tjs, f.


Fore-part (of ship), vpi^p-a, as,/.
Fox, dXwvT}^, &X(lnreK-os, f.
Friend, 0tX-os, ov, m.

Friendly, ^iX-os, r), ov; (f>t\i-os, a,


ov, or OS, OS, ov.
From (beside), dir6, or irapd.
From (out of), iK, or f|.

d,

G
Garden,
m.

if^r-os,

Garment
Gate,

oi*,

m.; ^dpr-os, ov,

(of poverty), ^dx-os, eos, n.

tiJX-t;, 97$, /.

Good, d7a^-6s, 17,


Goods, TO. dyaOd.
Goose, XV"}

XV-^h

Grant, SiSwfu.

General, (rrparriy-bs, ov, m.


Giant, yiyas, 'fly'avr-os, m.

Great haste

Give,

rjs,

f.

didw/jLi.

Greek,

Glory, 56$-a,

Groom,

f.

6e-6s, ov, m.
Goddess, de-d, as,/.

God,

in or

or/.

'^Sj

with great baste,

ffiiv iroXX^ airovS^.


Great, p-^as, pieydX-i), \iiya.
Greece. 'EXXds, 'EXXdS-os, /.

Give back, dTo5t5w/u.


r)s,

"*

Government, dpx-%

Gazelle, Sop/cds, Sop/cdS-os, /.

Girl, K6p-Tj,

ov.

'EXXt/ii, "EXXT^y-os,

lvitOK6p.-os, ov,

m.

m.

Guard, tpvXd-rT-u, or ijaw;


d^w.

F.

^v\-

ENGLISH VOCABULARY.

218

H
Himself, iavrov, contr. airrod.

ITabit, fff-os, eoy, n.

Hair,

k6/j.-t],

tjs,

f.

Opi^, rpix-6%, /

Hand, x^ip, X^'-P'^'h /


Harbour, \i/j,-^v, \ip.iu-oi, m.
Hare, Xa7-t6j, Xa7-ciJ, ot.
Haste,

a-irovd-Tj,

He, avT-6s, gen.

its, their, &c., expressed


oi airr-6i, iKeiv-os, iavr-oS
(when referring to the subject).

His, her,

hj gc7i.

The

^s, /.

(but in this

ov, m.,

KeKpoK-ii,

Hear, dKouu,

Ijs,

Hit,

article often serves as a,posse8-

pronoun.

sive

sense only in the oblique cases);


iKelv-os, 6Se, (when he is emphatic, like ille); and the article 6.
(See p. 56.)

Head,

/9(iX\-w (to hit with

Ti/iTT-w;

something thrown).
Honej, fiiXi, fi{kiT-o$, n.
Horse, tirir-o^, ov, m. and/.
Horseman, lirir-evs, ius, m.

f.

(with accus. of tJdng

House,

tvJiom.)

ol/c-or,

S6fj.-os,

ov,

on, m.; olKl-a,


m. [domus).

Here, ivOdSe, ivravOa,

Hunt,

Herself, eavrTJs.

Husbandman, 7ew/)7-6[,

v\f/T]X-6s,

i},

6p.

77s,

Hut,

I&

part,)

iyu

fiiv:

i.e.,

fiTiv;

I,

for

ov,

m.; dpdr-

m.

<TKriv-i],

f.; Ka\6p-rj,

71%,

r)s,

/.

J
Trcf-oi, wv,

m.; rb ire^iKdv.
;

pi.

of ypdnfia, a letter.
Into, els, with accus.

my

vT}(X-os,

ov, f.

Itself, kavT-ov, avr-ov, n.

d-q.

Infant, iratSl-ov, ov, .; ^pi(f)-os, eos,


.;

ov,

Island,

indeed;

as, /.;

Inscription, ypdfj./xaT-a, uv, n.

In, iv, with dat.


(I,

didiKU, drjpe^u, Orjpdu.

Infantry,

(See p. 54.)
Ignorant (unlearned), dfiaO-'^s, -qs,
is: (inexperienced), dirup-os, os,
ov ; vf)Tn-os, os, ov, or os, a, ov.
I, iyd).

Indeed,

IvireTs, cavalry.

heard, and gen. of person frovi

High,

(See

p. 56.)

6(Iis,

Javelin,

/3 A-os, eos, n.

Judge,

vr]iri-os.

Ou-ds, m.

Jackal,

KpiT'-^s, ov,

iraKr-bv, ov, n-

m.

K
Key,

jcXefs,

xXetS-is, /., [clavis.)

Lacedaimonian, AaKe8atya6n-os, oi',i.


Land, 7^, 7^j, /. dyp-bs, ov, m. (a
piece of land for tillage).
Land [verb], trans. iK^i^dtu, i^dyu,
d7ro/3t/3dfa>
intrans. to go on
shore, iK^alveiv, diro^alveiv, with
rrjs veilis sometimes added, and
;

sometimes

els tt]v yrjv.

King, /SoatXci^

Large, fiiyai.

Law,

iva^.

(Sec p. 46.)

m.
Learning, awpl-a, os, /.
Leave, Xe/irw.
Let go, X(ya> let alone, iiw.
Letter (of the alphabet), ypd/tfta,
vd/x-os, ov,

Tos, n.; aroix^i-ov, ov, n.: epistle,

hrtaroX-fj,

rjs,

f.

ENGLISH VOCABFLAEY.
Liberty, ikevOepl-a, as, f.
Light, (not he&Tj,) Kovip-oi,

JAao

219

oy, in the accus. in expressions


of time ; as. CXrjw t^v Kf/icro, th
live-long night.
Loaf, iproi, ov, m.
rj,

op.

17,

(of troops), rd^-is, eon, f.

Lion, \iiiiv, \ioirr-ot, m.


Lioness, X^otv-a, rji, /.

Long, fiaKp-6s, , 6v.


Lycurgus, SMKOvpyos,

Lip, xctX-oj, eof, n.


Live-long, Toy, xo^ro, rar, or JXoj,

m.

ov,

M
Maiden,

K6p-ri,

Midnight:

/.

/f,

Xlajority (the), ol roWol.


laws, rldi}fu vSfiovs.

Man,

dydptiTT-os,

dj'5/>-6j,

m.

ov,

X'*^''"''?)

Many,

xoXX-of,

'7',

di^p,

Mother, fiifnip, firfrp-oi, f.


Mountain, 6p-os, eoi, n.
Mouse, fivt, fw-6i, m.
Much, ToXi/j, toXXt}, roXi.

/.

a/, d.

Master, SfaTdr-ij^,

ov,

midnight,

rept

Month, y.riv, ftijv-os, m.


Moon, <reX^i'-i7, 171, /.

m.

Mane,

about

fUffas viicrai.

Make

m.

Meadow, Xec/u&p, Xet/wSv-or, wi.


Merchantman (ship), oKxtis, dXxdS-

(See

p. 46.)

Muse, MoO<r-a, iji, /.


my own, ifi-is,

My,

-fi,

fUM, ifioS, ifMvr-m),

bw
i)t,

or gen.

ov.

N
Narrow, artp-hi,
Near,

iy^,

ij,

adv.

6i.

adv.

rXrjalov,

also irapd, with <2a^ or accus.

Neck,

auxn",

m.

avxiv-oi,

t/x-

Nightingale, irfiiSv, &r)Z6p-os, f.


Nine, bmia.
Not, oil {ovK, oirx^ in definite clauses,
and those stating facts. With imjperativea,

Night, nii,

yvicr-is,

f.

by

with indefinite clauses,

and with clauses expressing doubt,

night,

yvKrSi.

IJL-il

is

used.

o
(about,) vefA: of, (out of,) U:
(made of,) (k. Of is generally
expressed by the gen. of a svbst.,
without say prep.
Old, TaXa(-6;, d, 60: old-man, ftpbv,

Of,

of,

yipovT-os, m.
Old-woman, ypavs, ypa-bs, /.
On, (of place,) iv, with dat.;

&c.,

irt,

with gen.: on, (signifying time),


ir, or simply dative case; as,
Ty rplriQ rjfUpif., on the third day.
One, els, jda, Iv.

(128)

agreeing with noun),


{adj.,
fJMv-oi, ij, op: only {adv.), /x^ror.
Order, bid, command, KeXev-u.
Our, TifUrep-ot, a, op, or gen. of
pers. pron., ijfiQp.
Often not expressed at all, when it is very
evident to whom " our, my, hit,'"

Only

refer.

The

article

shows

the meaning,
and
becomes equal to a possessive.
(See His.)
Out of, ^ic, or i^.
sufficiently

15

ENGLISH VOCABULARY.

220

Palace,

Port, \ipA)v, \ip.iv-ot, m.

^aalXei-a, uv,

<iS\-fi, ^s, /.;

Portion, p.ip-os, eoj, n.


Position,
to fall into position,

n. pi:

Pale, wxp-ii, d, 6p
"KevK-ds,
Parched, (7]p-6s, d, 6v.
Parent, 7ov-ei5s, ^ws, m. or/.
;

-fj,

6v.

self,

KaOlarafiai.

Part, flip- OS, COS, n.

Priest, Up-eis,

Pay, flier d- OS, ov, m.


Peacock, ra-cDj, ra-w, m.

Prison, ^vXaK-'^,

iois,

m.

rjs,

f.

Sea-fi-ol, (av,

Perses, IUpcr-Tjs, ov; voc. HipaT].


Persian, Il4p<r-r]s, ov; voc. Il^pcra.

m. pi.
Prophet, ndvT-is, eus, m.
Province, dpx-^t V^> /

Persuade, irdO-u.

Prow,

Pillar,

kIuv,

stone,

m.;

kLov-os,

a tomb-

irpifip-a,

Prudence,

crrrjK-Tj, tjs, /.

ecas, f.

as, f.

(ro<pl-a, as, f.

',

ff(i}(f>po(T6v-r),

Purse, wfjp-a, as,

Plain, ireSi-ov, ov, n.


Plait, irXiK-w,

/.;

<pp6vr)ff-is,

rjs,

f.

aXdvTi-ov

(or

/SaXXctJ^joj'), on, n.

nXdrup, HXdruv-os, m.
Ploughman, 6.p&r--qs, ov, w,'

Pursue,

Plato,

Poet, TToiTjT

kolO-

Irra/ioi.

Post one's

-^s,

Poor, TTTwx-ij.

>},

SidsKO).

Put-in-prison, jSciXXw, or diSw/ii, eh

ov, m.

<f>v\aK-f)v.

Put- in -position,

iv.

Poplar, atyeip-os, ou, f.

(of

KaO-

troops),

lffT1)/U.

Q
Queen, /So(rO|-a, as,/.; but/3o(rtX/a uaeans sovereign power.

Quickly, raxv, tox^wj, adv.;


rdxovs dvb rdxovs.

3t4

R
Razor, ^vp-6v,

Remain,

(of

wealth),

cloak,

j^apujs,

XXa/ti5S-os,/.: (of poverty), rpl^tav.

fiivu.

Return, (give back,)

Review,
Review,

Robe

ov, n.

(See Cloak.)

AiroSiSufii.

Rod,

i^iraxr-is, eus, /.

fid^d-os, ov, f.
(upper), ivdry-ewv,

Room

hold a review, noiet<r6ai i^iraatp.


Revolt, d/piTTtitu.
Rich, ir\oiai-os, a, ov 6\pi-os, a, ov.
Ride, lirireuu,
Kiver, norafjirSs, ov, m.
lioad, way, journey, 68-6s, ov, /.
i.e.,

ivd/y-tu,

n.; inrep(fi-ov, ov, n.

Rope

(cable), kciX-ws, KdX-w, m.


Rule, /3a<rtXei/u
fipx^ (in active)
Kpariu, (the last two governing
gen. or dat.)
;

Run,

did};

t/j^w,

f. S/ia/uoC/tcu.

s
Safety, ffumipl-a, as, f.
Sail, irX^w; F. wXeiJa-oynot, (or
Ota.)

Sailor, vadr-r^s, ov,


TrXeiJ-

Same

(the),

m.

6 avr-bs,

a,vT6s, avri},

-fj,

6,

contr.

ravrb, or Tairrov.

ENGLISH VOCABULAEY.
Savage, iypi-oi, o, ov.
Say, X^w.
Scut (tail of hare), xipK-oi, ov, f.
Scythian, S/n5tf-7;j, ov, m.
Sea, sea-shore, OdXarT'O, or -aaa,
by land and sea, ical
gen. rjs, /
KoriL yijv Kal /cord dSKarrap.
:

See, /SX/irw, optfw.

(to

to sling,

o'0'5oi'(-w.

Small, /xiKp-6s, d, op.

Smooth, Xer-o?, a, op.


Snow, x"^**! X'^*^*", /.
Socrates,

^wKpdr-rjs,

AtootAXw,

jriparu.

one's self), /nerariftr

roficu.

armed
Some,

tIs, tIs, tI.

Some

(kind), tIs, tIs,

Seven, Irrd.

Stalk, (to
o,

of,)

X^.

Stafii Paicnjpl-a, as, /.; pdfiS-os, ov,

wand, small stafll)


walk in a stately manner,)
^aSlj^a, F. paSiovfuu
ao^iw.

f.

(a

(cause

Stand,

instrament, pain, person, &c)


Shave, Keipu, droKelpa, ^vpdu, or

heavy-

tL
Somewhere, xov (encUtie.)
Son, vl-6s, ov, m.
Speak, (speak

soldier, oxXTr-ijs, ou.

Serpent, 6<p-is, 6<p-ebyi, m.


Servant, xnrijpir-Tjs, ov, m.; oiKir-rji,
ov, m,; Oepdrup, Oepd-rorr-os, m.;
Sfjuln, Sfiii>-6s, m. (xan in prose.)
Set free, XiJw.

Shaggy, Sac-is, eto, tf; X<f<rt-oj,


OP and X(<ri-oj, os, op.
Sharp, 6^v$, eto, 6 (of anything

contr.

eos,

m.

Soldier, <rrpaTiuT-Tjs, ov, m.

rw\4o}.
Send, (rrfXXw,
for

Slay, KTetvu, drorrc&w.


Sling, ff<ppS6p-rj, 171, /.

ovs,

Sell,

Send

221

to

stand,)

jKrf., t<rn]Ka,
Stay, ftdpu.

ils

Steep, 6p0i-os, a,

oi*;

jtres.

trrrjfu

"I

stand."

or 6p9i-os,

os, op.

Shear, dTOKetpw, Kelpu.

Step, ^Tj/xa, ^-quaT-os, n. (steps 01


stairs, &c.) ; txp-os, eos, n.

Sheep

Stick,

(a), otj, ol-6i, m. or/.


Shepherd, Totff^p, TOip-ip-os, m.
Shield, dcrirls, dcvlbos. f.
Ship, vavi, pedis,
t\m-op, ov, n.
;

Silver, Apyvp-os,

m.

ov,

dpyvpe-os,
dpyvpovs, a, oOi'.
Six, tl
silver,

a,

made

or,

of

contr.

Take, Xafi^dvw,

Take counsel

17J,

Tail, oi'p-d, as,

(deliberate), ^ovXeio-

crpaTeOonat.
Taste, yevop.ai,, with gen.
Teach, hibdaKu, raideiu.
ov, m.; pews, peii,

Tent, ffKr)v--fi, ijs, f.


Tenth. SfKar-oj, n,
The, i, ij, t6.

op.

paxTrjpl-a,

Stone, \ld-os, ov, m.

Swallow, xeXtSaK, xeX{54r-oi,


Sweet, yXvK-ih, eia, A.

Swift, ibK-vs, CMt,

, A.

Their.

xipK-os, ov, f.

alpica.

field,

Temple, va-6s,
Ten, 3^<ca.

^l<lyos,

i5;

eos,

tox-i5s,

n.;

ftdxatp-a,

as, f.

flat.

Take the

ov, f.

Strike, tvtto}, /3<XXw.

Sword,

Slave, 5oCX-oj, ov, m.

Table, rpaxet-a,

p</35-os,

m.

(See His.)

Thick, rax-^t

e'la,

i5 ;

i, (shaggy.)
Thief, K\irT-r]s, ov,
KKuir-bs, m. ; <pd'p,

Saa-vs,

m.

<fxitp-6s,

Third, rplr-os, 17, op.


Thirty, Tpt&Kovra.
This, these, oxiros, avrq,
(For pi. see p. 57.)
Thorn, &Kap0-a, rjs, f.

e'ia,

kXw^,
m.

tovto

Thou, otJ.
(See p. 54.)
Thousand, x^'Ot, x^^-**. X^-<^
Thrashing-floor, SXus, S\u, /.

222

ENGLISH VOCABULARY.

Through,

Throw,

Sid,

with gen.

Tooth, iSoiJ?, 6S6vr-oi, to.


Torch, Xafiirdi, \afivdS-ot, f.
Towards, els, with accus.

ftliTTU, /SctXXw, tr)fu.

Tissaphernes,

eoj,

'Siffiraipipv-iii,

Town,

contr. ovs.

To, (towards,)
the side

of,

with accus.

els,

up

to, irapi,

or irp6s,

with accus.
Tongue, yKwTT-a, or y\Ci><T(Ta,

rjs,

7r6X-K, ews, /.

dirrv, dtareo*,

n.

to

Trireme,

rpf^p-rjs, eos, contr. ous,

Twenty,

ef/coat.

Two,

f.

Si/o.

U& V
Unyoke, Mia.
Up, dvA, with accus.
Upper (room). (See Soom.)
Used-to, expressed by imperf.

Very, superl. of

Very much,
ind. of

very

r),

ov;

B-Xettrroi'.

<pavep-6s, d,

bv.

Voice, <f>uv-i^, ^y, /.


Vulture, yuxf/, yvir-'os, m.

bv\ al5i<Tip.-o%,

i},

e.g.,

^ndXiora, or

Visible, Srj\-os,

f\eye, " used to say."

verb ; e.g.,
Venerable, (repiv-bi,

adj.

great, fiiyiaros.

OS, ov.

w
Waggon,

ific^-a,

i/j,

Wing,

/.

Wise,

Wallet, vfip-a, as, f.

War,

m.

iriXe^-os, ov,

Warrior,

!jpu>-os,

ripias,

Tn!)T-7)s, ov,

n.

m.;

m.

with, (in the midst of, ) yuerd, with


With, sign of dat. of the
instrument, to be expressed by

gen.

6irX-ov, ov, n.

dat. only.

tpop^w.

What? ri.
Where? vov,
Which,
Which,

Who,

Without, prep., Hvev, X'^P^^t "'''^i


hen meaning outeufe, Ifw.
gen.
Wolf, Xi5/c-oj, ov, in.

irij.

relative, 6s,

-Ij,

S.

Woman, yvvr), ywaixos, f.


Wonder at, Oavp.di'w, dya/Mi.

interrog., ris, rls, tI,

White, \evK-bs,

"f),

relative, 8s,

bv.
ij,

Wood,
Word,

interrog. rls,

tIs,

Why?

>},

bi>;

vovijp-bs, d,

7],

Xenophon,
p. 30.)

f.

ov,

m.

^evo<pC!>v, rot, wi.

m.

\by-os,

(See

Xerxes,

ovSevbs d^ios.
TiTp{i)(TK<i),

Wreath, aricpavos,
Write, ypacpu.

71.

otv-os, ov,

ov

Wound,

(beast), 5^/), Orjp-fts, m.; 0ripl-ov,

Wine,

rjs,

p.vO-os,

ov,

by.

ov,

ilX-77,

m.
iir-os, eos, n.
Worthless, /ca/c-or, }, bv

tI, Sid ri.

Wicked, xaK-os,

Wild

m. and

Wish, idO^u), 6^u, ^offKopMi.


With, (along with,) ff'uv, with dat.

crrpa-

Wave, Kvpjti, Kijp.aT-os, n.


Weapon, /3^-oy, cos, contr. piXovs,
Wear,

Trripv^, irripvy-os, f.
i}, bv; auxppwv,

ao(p-bs,

/.; n. ffQ<f>pov; gen. adxppov-os.

'S,ip^-i)s,

/SdXXw.
ov, tn.

ov,

ipavK-os,

THE DECLENSIONS, &a,


WITH THE CASES IN AN ALTERED ORDER.

PIBST DECLENSION.
DUAL.

PLURAL.

avX.-d,

av\-ai.

a court

twocoort&

eoDits.

auX-17,

avK-df

avK-aly

flNGTTLAB.

(1.)

N.

auX->7,

V.

Oconrt.

two

A.
G.

D.

N.

& V.

courts.

avX-iyv,

av\-a,

av\-a^f

a comt.

two

courts.

av\-rjs,

avX-aiv,

av\-a)V,

of a court.

of two' courts.

of COUTtSL

courts.

ai5X-p,

avX-aiv,

to or for a eoatt.

to or

sntatTLAs.

(2.)

courts.

(TKi-ay

ft>r

two

aOX-aff,
courts.

to or for oonrta

DUAL.

PLTTHAL.

(TKl-d,

(TKl-aiy

a shadow.

two shadows.

shadows.

A.

(TKl-dv,

(TKl-a,

(TKi-aSf

a shadow.

two shadowsL

shadows

G.

(TKi-a^,

(TKl-aiV,

a-Kl-COVy

of a shadow.

of two shadows.

of shadows.

D.

(TKi-a,

(TKl-aiV,

(T/Ci-aff,

to or for a shadoir.

to or for two shadows,

to or for

shadowa

FIRST GREEK READER.

224

PLirUAt..

(3.)

N.

& V.

y\S>rT-a(oT)

COTT-a,
two tongues.

a tongue.

A, y\wTT-av,
a tongue.

G. yXcoTT-r]^,
of a tongue.

'yXa)TT-a9,
tongues.

yXu)TT-aiv,

y\u)TT-U)V,

two tongues.

to or for

two tongues,

DUAL.

TeXc6j/-a,
two

toll collector.

tongnes.

'yXcoTT-a/f,
to or for

tonguea

PLURAL.

SINQULAR.

TeXd)v-r}g,
a

tongnes.

two tongues.

yXu)TT-aiv,

to or for a tongue,

y\u)TT-aif

yXdoTT-af

of

D. y\a)TT-ri,

(4.)

toll collecton.

TeXtoj/-at,
toll collectors.

V. TeXoov-r]

TeXu)v-a

TeXSiv-ai

A,

TeXcov-a

reXtoiz-a?

G. reXdav-ov

TeXwv-aiv

TeXuiv-wv

D.

reXuiv-aiv

TeXwv-aig

TeXdov-rjv

TeXtoi/-?

SECOND DECLENSION.
DUAL.

SINGULAR.

(1.)

N. SovX-oi, masc.

SovX'COf
two

a slave.

slaves.

PLURAL.

^ovX-oi,
slaves.

V. SovX'C

SovX-00

^ovX-oi

A. SovX-ov

SovX-co

SovX-ovg

SovX-oiv

SovX-cov

SovX-oiv

SovX-019

G.

SovX-ov

D. SovX-(a
SINQULAB.

(2.)N.V.&A.

DUAL.

PLURAL.

ixriX-w,

/ntjX-a,

an apple.

two apples.

apples.

G.

fii^X-ov

IxrjX-olV

IxrfX-Oil

D.

/ttjJX-y

IJ.r]X-OlV

H^qX-Oig

fi^X-ov,}aeut.,

FIRST GBEEE KEADEB.

THE ARTICLE,

o, 7, to, the.

DCAU

gnrGHLAB.

Masc

23ft

Fem.

Kent

iltae.

>7

TO

TOO

Tft)

Feco.

rhujikx,

KenL

Matr

Fem.

Kent

at

A. TOV

-rnv

TO

TUi

TO) (to) TOJ

TOV9 Tay

Ta
TO

G. TOV

TrJ9

TOV

ToFl/

TCUV

TOIV

TOOV

TbiiV

Ta>P

D. T(p

T^

TftJ

TOIV

TOiv

TOIV

TOt9

Tofy TO?p

N.

(ra) TO)

01

ATTIC SECO>T) DECT.F.XSION,


DCAU

SrSOCLAR.

N.

N. V.

&

&

V. Xay-wi, masc,

PLITRAL.

Xay-eo,

\ay-(pt
haniL

bare.

twohara.

A. Xay-wv

\ay-ta

\ay-(ai

G. \ay-(0
D. \ay--a

\ay-wv
Xay^wv

Xay-wv
\ay-wg

A.

ai/<^e-ft)i',neut.,

avwye-w,

avdoye-ti,

an upper ehamber.

two upper cbambenk npper chambeim

G. avcoye-oo

avcoye-wv

avtaye-iov

D. avwye-m

avatye-tav

avwye-ut^

THIRD DECLENSION.
snrouLAK.

N.

&

V.

Xe/yLiojt',

masa.

PLURATt.

Xe/yuoJv-ey,

a meadow.

two meadowa.

meadowi.

A.

Xeifiuiv-a

XeifJ.(V-

XeifiS>v-a^

G.

Xeifxojv-og

Xeifiwu-oiP

Xeifitov-w^

D.

XeifiMV-i

Xeifi(hv-oiv

Xeifxlo-a-i

sraacLAB.

N.

DUIX.

Xeiixwv-e,

&

V.

^/XB-y,

ahera

A.

TjpOD-a

G.

D.

= nfx^

DUAL.

PLURAL.

jjpco-e

T]pO}-S

twohavea.

heroes.

iJp(i>-

T}pa}-as

tjpoo-oi

ripda-OlV

Tjpui-tav

^p(0-t

iipw-oiv

i}p<i>-<Tl

226

FIRST GKEEK READER.


SINOULAR.

N.

iX^u-i,
a

fish.

ixOu-e,

ixOu -e?

two

fishes.

fishes.

= ixOvs
lx6u--a? = t^^yy

G.

ixOu-oiv

ixOv -0)V

IxQv-oiv

ixOv -(Tl

lyQv-e

i^Pv-os

&V.

rrroijui^p,

masc,

V.

ixOv -e?

VVAh.

PLURAL.

iroifiev-e,

TTOifiev-ef,

two shepherdi.

a shepherd.

shepherds.

A. TTOijuev-a

TTOi/uLev-e

TTOifiev-ai

G.

TTOt/UieV-OS

TTOllXeV-OlV

TTOljUieV-MV

D.

TTOlfieV-l

iroiixiv-oiv

TTOifxe-a-

auSpCi

avSp-e^f

avrjp ,
a

ix0v9t

l-^Qv-e

SIKaULAB.

N.

V. 1x66
A. IxOv-v

D. lx0v-t

N.

PLCRAL.

DUAL.

masc,

man

masc,

= Latin,

two men.

vir.

avep

A. av-S- pa

avSp-eq

auSp-

avSp-ag

G. av-S- pos

avSp-oiv

avSp-cov

D.

avSp-oiv

avSpd-(ri

(for

avepa)

men.

avSp-e

av-S- pi

DVAU

SINGUtAB.

N.

&

PLURAL.

masc,

V.

1S,vo(l)wv,

A.

'iE!tvo(f)U)t>T-a

G.

'i3,evo(b(iovT-og

J).

'^evo(puivr-i

A.

crw/ua, neut.;

Xenophon.

N. V.

&

a body.

(rco/J.aT-,

two bodies.

(ru)fiaT-a,
bodies.

G, croofxaT-o?

(TW/UidT-OlV

arcouaT-<eu

D.

a-cofiar-oii'

(Ta>jJLa-(Ti

crcofiaT-i

FIBST GREEK RHATHTR.


DUAIb

SI5Gin,AK.

N.

&

V.

opvi^,

m.

or

f.,

a bird or fowl

A. opvi6-a,OTopvtv
G.

opvi6-09

D. OpVlB-L

/j.avTi-9,

masc.,

prophet or

seer.

FLITRAU

opvi6-

opviO-eSf

two

birdi

birds.

6pvi6-e

opvi6-ag

6pvi6-c<iv

6pvlQ-<av

opvlO-oiv

opvi-<ri

VVlh.

SI50ULAB.

N.

227

PLCUAL.

fidvre-e,

fiavre-es

two prophet*

V. fldvTl

uavre-e

fiavre-e^

A. fiavTi-v

fxavre-e

fiavT-as

fxavre-oiv

/J.dvT-0)V

fiavre-oiv

fiaVTihO-l

G. fidvre-co^

D. fidvTH

= fidvrei

N.V.&A.

Tiy(0-^,

neut.

rei^e-e

awalL

T).

two

fxavreif,

= fxairreig
= fiavreig

SCAL.

BIK0OT.A1t.

G. TCi'^e-os

prophets.

Tf^e-OlV

Tl-^0V9

re/^e-f == Tl-^l

Tet^'/.

wallai

Tl')^-01V

=
=

TCf^OlV
Tei-)(01V

walla.

G. Tet^e-v

SnroiTLAR.

DUAIi.

Te/^c

PLXmAL.

/8a<rtXe-ep, -6??,
a kin^

two Unga.

V. ^aa-iX-ev

^aa-iXe-e

^acrtXe-ep, -??

A. ^aaiXe-d

j8a<r/Xe-

^atriXe-d^, -ig

G.

^acriXe-ojg

^aariXe-oiv

^acrtXe-wv

D.

8a(TiXe-i', fiaa-ikel

^aa-iKi-oiv

Baa-iXeva-t

READER

FIEST GREEK

J28

ADJECTIVES.
BINGULAR.
Masc.

Fein.

N.

<rfiv-6i,

V.

Nent

o-e/xiz-ij

(rejULv-ov

(TIJiV-e

(re^iv-jy

a-eixv-ou

A.

(refiv-ov

o-e/jtiA-jJi/

aefiv-ov

G.

crefxv-ov

(reiuv-ijg

a-ejuv-ov

D.

arefiv-w

a-efJLp-rj

cre/uLv-^

venerable.

DUAL.

G.

& A.
& D.

N.

&;

N. V.

(Te/ti/-a

a-fiv-u>

a-efjiv-u)

arefiv-oiv

orefiv-oiv

PLURAL.

V.
A.

crefiv-ol

(refiv-al

a-efiv-d

creixv-ovi

(refjLv-dg

creixv-a

G,

arejuLv-wu

aeixv-wv

(re/xv-wv

D.

crejmp-ois

aejuLv-ais

(refJLu-019

SINGULAR.
Fem.

Masc.

N. ^ap-vs,

Nent

^ap-eia

I3ap-v

V. /3a^i;

^ap-ia

/Sap-eiav

^ap-v
^ap-v

heavy.

^ap-vv

G. jSap-ioi

D. I3ap-i,

-e

(3ap-eia^

^ap-09

^ap-ela

^ap-ei,

-ei

DUAL.

N. V.

G.

& A.
& D.

^ap-ie

/Sap-ela

jSap-ie

^ap-oiv

^ap-eiaiv

/3ap-oiv

PLURAL.
Fem.

Masc.

N.

& V.

Nent

^ap-eia^

^ap-ia
^ap-ea

G. ^ap-etov

l3ap-io)v

(3ap-ecov

D.

Bap-iai9

^ap-icri

l3ap-g,

- er?

I3ap-iai

A, ^ap-eas,

- 19

)8a/)-eV/

229

FIEST GKEEK READEE.


8IH0UI.A&.

N.

TTOW-IJ

TTOX-V

V. TToX-y

xoXX-i;

TTOX-J

A. TToX-VV

much, many

-TTOW-^V

TTOX-U

G.

TTOW-OV

TroXX-tjg

TTOXX-OU

D.

xoXX-o)

TToW-tj

7roXX-c5

PLURAL.

N.

&

V. iroW-oi

TToW-al

TToXX-a

A.

TToXX-ot/y

TToXX-a?

TToXX-a

G.

iroXk-wv

TToXX-toJ/

TTOXX-WV

TToW-aig

TToXX-OlS

D. TToXK-Oti

SISQULAR.

N. fiey-as,

/aeyaX-T]

fiiy-a

V. fiey-a

fieyaX-tj

(xiy-a

A. fiiy-av

fieyaX-rjv

fxiy-a

G. fMcyaX-ov

/xe-yaX-j/?

fxeydX-ov

/xeydX-^

fjLeyaX-<a

great, large.

D. lneyaX-ip

PLURAL.

N.

&

V. fjLeyaX-oi

fxeyaX-ai

A. fjLeyaX-ovg

fieyaX-as

IJ.eya.X-a

G. IxeyaX-wv

fxeydX-wv

fieyaX-cov

D. fjLeyaX-o if

fxeyaX-aii

fieydX-oii

RELATI VE PRONOUN, Who Which


,

SIXGULAR.

DUAL.

Masc

Fem.

Neut

CO

rt

rf

ff

A. ov

f
tjv

CO

G. o5

r}s

OV

oiv

Masc.

N. OS

D.

rf

CO

fieydX-a

OIV

Fem.
ff

Neut

aiv
?

aiv

Muw.

rf

0}

9
oiv
*
OIV

That.

If

01

at
tt

ft

PLURAL.
Fem.

Kent

ovg

a?

cov

wv

cov

ok;

aif

p
oi9

230

FIKST

GREEK EEADKR.

THE THREE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.


DUAL.

N.

VW,
we twa

I lego].

or

A.

efJLf

G.

e/ULOv,

D.

ifxoi,

/te,

we.

VCOf

na twa

me.

or

of me.

of US two.

or

to or for 08

A.

(re

thou

twa

DUAL.

SIKaiTI.AB.

OT/,

of

as.

fioi,

to or for me.

N.

us.

PMV,

fJLov,

to or for OS.

PLURAL.

(T^O),
you two.

[tu].

you.

(T(pCO

Q. (ToO

arcpwp

VfJLWV

D.

(rd)wv

VfllV

(To/

SINOTTLAR.

N.
A.

(r<peig, they

e [se],

him.

G. ov [sui]

D.

ot [sibi]
D0AL.

BIHO0LAR.
Fem.

Neut

Fem.

Nent

aUTf}

TOUTO

TOVTO)

(ravTo)

tovtco

A. TOVTOV TaVTtJV TOUTO

TovTW

(ravTo)

tovtw

TttVTaiV

TOVTOlt

TaVTatV

TOVTOIV

Masc.

N. OVTOif
this.

G. TOVTOV TaVTt]S TOVTOV TOVTOIV


D. TOVTW TauTrj TOVTW TOVTOIV
PLURAL.
Masc.

N. OVTOl

Fem.

avTai

Nent

TavTa
TOVTa

A. TOVTOVS

TavTa9

G. toJtcov

TOVTCOV

TOVTCOV

D. ToyVot?

TavTai9

TOVT019

FORMATION OF THE

TENSES OF GEEEK VERBS.


The following

Btiles attempt to account for the formation of all the Tenses

Bat analogy

of Begular Verbs.

is

so often departed

from in conjngation, and

dialectic peculiarities so often occur, that it is impoasible to provide for every


irregularity.

As many verbs

are defective,

the student cannot be too ear-

nestly urged to consult a good List of Irregular

The

principal parts of a

Greek Verbs, in regard to each.

Greek verb are

ACTTTB.

PASSIVE.

Present, Xuto

Future,

Future, XvO^a-ofiai
\vcra>

Perfect, \eXvfxai
Perfect, Xe'Xu/ca

I. ACTIVE

VOICE.

I.-IMPERFECT TENSE.

Rule.

The

imperfect active

is

formed from the

present by prefixing the augment, and changing the

termination

1.

-as

Rule I.

into -ov

as,

Xi/o)

eXi/oj/

Tvinto

erviTTOV

ll.-FUTURE

TENSE

In verbs not liquid, the future active

formed from the present by insertiug

cr

before -w;

is

as,

FORMATION OF TENSES.

232

2.

Rule

\va>

Xvcroo

ypacpo)

ypdy^w

Xeyco

\eP(o

Liquid verbs do not

II.

only shorten the penult *


clined as contracted forms

insert

if

it is long,

i"

as,

imevco

fxevca, eff, ei,

CTTreipoD

(nrepw,

<Paii/(io

(pavco, &c.

KpLVM

KpXvW, &C.

eff,

they

cr;

and are de&c.

&a

e?,

SPECIAL RULES.
A..

3.

MUTE VERBS.

Before -crw reject r,

(1.)

avvTO)

4.

o-,

and

acroo

TrXj/Oft)

ttX^ctw

irKaadw, or TrXaTTW

TrXctcra)

airev^ia

(nrela-oo

rvTrroo

TJ;\|/-to)

voiniQa

POfiicrco

(2.)

Many
;

* The long penult


;

v',t

as,

avv(T(i>

aSco

in the future

consonants

, 9,

verbs in

-cro-w

and

-^ft)

\\

(Att.

vofJLiu))

make

-^co

as,
shortened by rejecting the latter of two vowels or

is

as, cnrelpo),

airepQ

rif^vtis, re/iio.

The

variable vowels are

short in the future.

t In the

future, -w,

-eis,

&c., are contracted for -^w, -^j, &c.

hence

the circumflex.

J See Appendix, page


II

has

See note,

153,

ii.

10.

p. 31.

Most of these verbs have stems ending in a guttural


stem irpay-, and Kpi^w, Kpay-. Hence -{w in the

its

thus, irpdffffoi
future.

AcmvB

VOICE.

233

or TrpaTTco

Trpacrcru),

Trpa^a
-to

Kpd^a
-to

Kpdl^co

5.

(3.)

And some have

6.

Verbs in -aw,

(1.)

-crto

-e'o),

-oo?,

(2.)

TlfiaU)

TlfXrjCTUi

(piXew

(biXriau)

Exc.

the present

But some

as,

oriXwo'co

eacroy

(yeXdcrw) yeXdaofxai

apow

apocra)

And some

in -eu)

have both forms

alv-eaw, or

aiveco
TTOveta

Some

TeXe<ra)

TeXeci)

9. (4.)

as,

yeXdco

(3.)

-a-u)

verbs retain the vowel of

eao)

8.

change the short

corresponding long before

its

orjXoco
7.

and -^w

PURE VERBS.

B.

vowel into

both

irov-ia-iOf

in -ew

make

as,

(Epic, &c.)

-jycrw

or -^aco

their future in -eJo-w; as,

TTveco

Twevcrui

peco (to flow)

pv<T(a

lll.-FIRST AORIST.
1.

Rule.

-o)

into -a

The

by

the future
;

first

aorist active is

prefixing the augment,

fonned from

and changing

as,

mast be observed that the different forms generally belong to


Hence the student must be careful to consult a good
Lexicon, or Lbt of Irregular Greek Verbs.
It

different dialects.

FORMATION OF TENSES.

234

eXvaa

Xvcrco

TU^a

Tvy^co

But

2.

TijuLtjcroo

eTifitjcra

Xe^co

eXe^a

in liquid verbs the penult

lengthened

is

by changing e of the future into ei, and a short


variable vowel into its own long
as,
;

fxevM

'

ejueipa

a-Trelpco

(TTrepw

ecnreipa

oireXXw

crreXS)

ecTTeiXa

(paivia

(pavo)

(pr]va

TTiaiPOO

TTiavoo

eTTidva

KplvU)

KpCVO)

Kplva

a/xvvw

a/uivpoo

There are a few

3.

fievo)

ijfivva

which do not

first aorists

tain the characteristic of the future

Also

re

as,

Sl^CdlJLL

Scoa-co

eScoKa

TlOtJ/Xl

Oi^a-O)

eOtjKa

7t}fii

t]cro)

^Ka

elira {(pfjfju)

jjveyKa (cpepco)

Ixea (xew)

IV.-FIRST PERFECT.
1.

Rule.

future

by

The

and changing
from

-ft)

first

perfect active

prefixing the

or

-co

-cro),

or

-orco

--^a

is

formed from the

augment (with
into

from

-rKa

-^co,

or -d

and

reduplication),*
{i.e.,

-(pa

making

from

-y^cci)

-ku
as,

* See p. 62, 11. But it must be remembered that those verbs have
no reduplication which begin (a) with a vowel, {b) with a double consonant, (c) with two consonants, except certain combinations made up of a

mute followed hj a

liquid.

S6

Acnvc yoicK.

2.

3.

eyj/aXxa

\traXXct)

-vp^oXw

ayyeXXo)

ayye\u>

f^yyeKKa

(paii'O}

(pavw

Tre(payKa

Xvo)

\v(ra>

XeXvKa

irXeKCd

7rXe^(o

xexXep^a

TVTTTto

Tu\|/-ft)

Tervcpa

In some verbs the radical vowel t is changed ;


arroXica
crreXcd
(xreXXw
Te'ivta

Tvw

Teraxa

TTreipw

airepw

eairapKa

^aXkco makes ^ipKriKa, and

as,

yuevo), fie/jLevrjKa.

V.-FIRST PLUPERFECT.

Rule.

The

first

by changing
augment (when

the perfect
syllabic

pluperfect active
-a into -eiv,

possible)

is

formed

fix>m

and prefixing the


as,

XeXf/ca

iXcXvKeiv

Tervcba

ereTvcpeiv

lyyyeXxa

tjyyeXKciv

VI.-SECOND AORIST.B

1.

RuLK

The

second aorist active

is

formed

from the simple stem of the verb by prefixing the


augment, and adding the termination -ov

as,

See p. 154, 12, Appendix.


t This phrase is used merely for convenience, and to agree with
general usage.
The simple stem of the verb is foond in the second
aorist (when it exists)
as, t-\ir-op
bnt this is osoaUy strengthened in
the present by the insertion of a vowel or consonant
The radical vowel
is often changed.
See vi., below.
;

X Some verbs reject p before k


I The form called the second
028)

as reu>w
aorist is

16

so also KpUu, xiicpuca.


found chiefly in those verbs
:

FORMATION OP TENSES.

236
Pres.

Simple Stem.

2Aor.

rvTrro)

TUTT-

ervirov

/3dX\(a

/3aX.

ejSaXov

XeiTTft)

XlTT-

eXiTTOu

Xaju^avM

\a^-

eXa^ov

\av9dvco

XaO-

eXaQov

Some verbs seem

2.

have had two stems

to

thus, Tefxvoo has 2 aor. ere/uov

verbs have

a,

has

1, ai,

J?,

ft),

6,

e,

v,

i,

or

I,

and

erajULou

and many

in the aorist, while the present


eu.

See

vii.

below, with

2,

examples.

SECOND PERFECT.

VII.-THE

Rule.

1.

Tlie second perfect active

formed

is

from the simple stem of the verb by prefixing the

augment (with
mination -a

and adding the

reduplication),

Pres.

Simple Stem.

8 Pert

TVTTTCa

TVTT-

TCTUTTa

Eut the

2,

ter-

as,

radical

vowel

is

often changed

a,

from presents in

or

ei,

a,

from presents in

f]

or

ai,

e,

from presents in

e,

I,

from presents in

ei,

or

into o

et,

into

into

or

i,

viz.,

>/

into o

oi.

As,
^

SepKOjxai

eSpaKov

SiSopKU

KTiv(a

eKTavov

eKTOva

XavOdvoi) (X^Ow)

eXaOov

XeXrjOa

which have no

first aorist

for

very few verbs have both tenses. Pure


also those verbs whosa

verbs, as a general rule, have no second aorist

stem

in the

second aorist would be the same as in the present

e.g., \4yti).

PASSIVE VOICE.

237

(2 aor. pass.) ireiprjva

ipa'ivu)

e(f)dinjv

TiKTU)

ersKOv

TeroKa

XeiTTw

eXiTTOu

XeXonra

VIII.-SECOND PLUPERFECT.

Rule.

The

second pluperfect

is

fomied from the

second perfect by prefixing the augment, and changing -a into

-iv

Tervrra, erervireiv.

as,

II. PASSIVE

VOICE.

I.-PRESENT.

Rule.

The

present passive (and middle)

from the present active by changing -w into


TUTTTO)

is

formed

-o/xai ; as,

TVTTTOJJLai

II.-IMPERFECT.

Rule.

The

imperfect

passive

(and middle)

is

formed from the present by prefixing the augment,

and changing

-/xat

into

-/J.t]v

Svva/xai

eSvvdutjv

Rule.

The

the future active


as,

as,

eTVTrTOfitjv

lll.-FIRST
1.

Tvirrofiai

fii-st

FUTURE.

future passive

by changing

-co

is

formed from

or -a-w into

-Orja-o/xai

FORMATION OF TENSES.

238

2.

ayyeXu)

ayyeXd^aofiai

\v(T(jo

XvOtjcrojuai

Tvy^oo

TucbOrjcrojuai

Many

verbs insert

cr

before -6wonji.ai

Certain pure verbs

(a)

as,

K\i.i(r6ri(T0iJ.ai

/cXe/ft)

/cXa/o)

icXava-drjcro^aL

TeXe'ft)

TeXecrO^crofxat

Verbs which

(6)

cr,

reject a consonant (r, S,

^) in the future active

TreiOco
3.

Some

verbs
;

TreKrO^aofxat.

Tre/cTft)

future stem

9,

as,

shorten

the last vowel of the

as,

alprja-w

atpeQrjcroixai

IV.-FIRST AORIST.

Rule.
the

first

Tlie first aorist passive is

future passive,

and changing

by

-Qna-otxai into -Qriv

XvO/iaojuai

formed

from

prefixing the augment,


;

as,

eXv6r}i/

TvcpOwo/nai

eTV(p6>]P

TeXea-O^crofxai

ereXecrOijv

SoO^crofxai

iSoOijv

TeOrjcrofxai

ereOijv

V.-PERFECT.
1.

Rule.

The

perfect passive

The rules of euphony,

p.

t See Appendix, Euphony,

is

formed from the

153, must be attended


p.

153,

i.

3.

to.

PASsrvB voicK

by

future passive,

first

reduplication),

2.

-Otjcro-

l3el3ov\v/xai

Exc.

But

and some verbs which have not

it

fxe/iti/r]/jiai

(reaaxTfiai

In the Attic

vowel of the

^pijfxai

dialect, v before

sometimes changed into


but

7re(pafxfxai,

The

last

as,

alpeO^crofiai

5.

o-

before -fiai (see p. 153,7); as,

few verbs lengthen the

future stem

* as,

before -Qriaofiai does not always

o-

-fxai

cr(a6j](rofi.ai

become

-ytiat;

XeXetyu/iat

fivt]a6t](T0fxai

is

before

\i(p6f](T0fJi.ai

in the future assume

4.

augment (with

prefixing the

and rejecting

^ov\ev6r/(rofxai

remain before

3.

239

is

a-

fi

(see p.

154, 13)

thus, irecpav/xai should

made

irecpacrfMai.

three verbs, T^oeVo), rpecpw, and (rrpecpw,

change the vowel of the future stem, making TCTpa/j.fiai, TcOpafMfjLai, ecrrpafi/xai.

VI.-THE PLUPERFECT.

Rule

The

perfect passive,

ing

-fxai

into

pluperfect passive

by

is

formed from the

prefixing the augment,

-p-rjv',

and chang-

as,

TeTVfifxai

ereTVfifjitjv

XeXv/xai

iXeXvfirjv

* In declining the perfect passive, the rules of enphonj most be careto, viz., p. 153, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9; and p. 154, 11,
It must further be remarked that, in the terminations -<rBow,
12, 13.

fullj attended

ffOe, -cdcu, -ffdw, -ffOwv, the

cedes

as, TiTV<t>Bo, for

<r

is

rejected

Tirvwadom.

when another consonant

pre-

FORMATION OP TENSES.

240

VII.-SECOND AORIST.

The

Rule.

second aorist passive

the simple stem of the verb,

by

ment, and adding the termination

RuLK

-fjv

as,

Simple Stem.

Pres.

The

formed from

is

prefixing the aug-

2 Aor.

VIII.-SECOND FUTURE.*

second future passive

by adding

the simple stem,

-i/cro/xat

formed from

is

as,

Pros.

Simple Stem.

2 Fut.

Tl/TTTO)

TUTT-

TU7r^(T0/J.ai

IX.-THIRD FUTURE,

Rule.

The

OR PAULO POST FUTURE.

third future passive

is

formed from

the simple stem, by prefixing the reduplication, and

adding

-crojULai

as,

XeXvcrofxai

Xuft)

III. MIDDLE VOICE.


I.-PRESENT AND IMPERFECT.
[See corresponding tenses of Passive, p.

237]

II.-FUTURE

Rule.
future

The

active,

future middle

is

formed from

by changing -w into

liquid verbs into -ovjuai


* The second future

is

-ofiai,

and

as,

of rare occurrence.

See note

||,

p.

235.

the
in

MIDDLE VOICE.

Rule.
the

Xuo-to

Xva-ofiai

fxevu)

fievovfxai

ill-FlRST AORIST.

The

first

K.B.

middle

aorist

is

formed

-o/mai into -afirjv

as,

Tvy^ofxai

eTir<\raiJ.r]v

Xe^ofxai

eXe^dfirjv

In

from

by prefixing the augment, and

future middle,

changing

241

liquid verbs the penult is lengthened, as

in the first aorist active, which see, p, 234, 2.

IV.-SECOND AORIST.

Rule.

The

second aorist middle

the simple stem,

ing

-ofitjv

by

formed from

is

prefixing the augment, and add-

as,

Prea.

Stem.

9Aor.

XetXft)

XlTT-

eXlTTOflTJV

[See the Second Aorist Active.]

GENERAL VIEW.

From
change
Future. From
Present.

ACTIVE VOICE

Either simple or strengthened stem.

Imperfect.

present

present

and mute verbs


penult
I.

-co

(if

prefix

augment,

and

into -ov.

-o)

Aorist

insert

a-

before

long) without insertion of

From

into -a.

to

in pure

in liquid verbs shorten the

future; prefix augment,

cr.

and change

FORMATION OF TENSES.

242

Perfect

From
and change
From
Simple
From

future

I.

-a into

Aorist

II.

perfect

I.

redupli-

-w or -o-m into -Ka or

cation),

Pluperfect

augment (with

-a.

augment, and change

-eiv.

stem, with augment, and termi-

nation

-ov.

augment (with
simple stem
and add the termination -a.

Perfect II.

duplication),

Pluperfect II.

^From

change -a into

Future. From
From
Perfect. From
and
From
From

second perfect

re-

augment, and

-iv.

PASSIVE VOICE.

From present active change -w into -ofiai.


Present.
From present augment, and change
Imperfect.
-fiat

into

into

-OfjcrofJLai.

-fitjv.

the future active

Aorist

I,

-Otjarofiai

into

future

-jmai

Aorist

into

or -o-w

and change

augment (with

perfect

reduplica-

-/uLai.

augment,

and change

simple stem; augment, and add

From
Imperfect From
From
into

-tjp

MIDDLE VOICE.

present active

Present.

Future.

-co

-fxt]v.

II.

-fjiai

augment,

reject -drjao- before

Pluperfect.

change

-6t]v.

future

tion),

present

change -w into

augment,

-ofxai.

and change

-fjujv.

future active

change - into -ofiau

GEKEBAL VLKW.
Aorist

I.

From
From

into

future

-a/xrjv [or,

Aorist II.

augment, and change

add

-/xrjv

-oiJ.at

to first aorist active].

simple stem

augment, and add

TABLE
SHOWINQ THE FORMATIONS ACCORDING TO THE PRECEDING SCHEME.
Note, that thoteform* which hteome principal partt, art
type,

and xciih a waved line underneath, in

aUo

ffiven,

in bolder

the column to which eadi properly

belongs, at being themtelvet derived.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.

ACTITE.

TUTTTto)

PASSIVE.

MIDDLE.

T&rroiiM

Ti}rro/iot

TV(p6t^(ro/xai

ri^ofuu

(Tvrroy

Tvy^w
(rv\pa

TeTV<pa
Tervcba
irerOipfiP

TV(p6i}arofiai

Tervju/xai
TeTV/JLfiai
irerimiriv
Simple Stem.

(rvTOf

TVr-fjffO/JMl
Tenu^f/OfjLoi

rirwa
h-T{nrew

trvrbiiifv

PURE VERBS.

244

PURE VERBS-

INDICATIVE.

>

Pres.

\i5w

Imperf.

^vov

Fut.

Xi5(r

SUBJtjNCTIVK.

Xi/w

\6<TU

Aor.
<

m
>

1
<

Perf.

\6\vKa

Pluperf.

iXeMKeif

Pfes.

Mo/mi

Imperf.

i\v6iJ.7i

Fut.

\v6-^ao/J,ai

I.

XeXiJxw

XibJfJMl

Aor.

iUOrjv

XvOQ

Perf.

\^v/uu

\e\v/Mipos

Pluperf.

iXeki/iriP

Put. III.

\{\i(rofiai

Pres.

\ionai

Imperf.

i\v6fir}v

Fut.

\6aofJiai

Aor.

iXvcrd/JLTiv

(3

I
Ma/uu

Xicw/Mi

PURE VERBS.

\vM,

245

loose.

OPTATITB.

Xi^;u

IMPKKATIVE.

IHFISITIVE.

PARTICTPLB.

XOe

Xveip

Xvceiv

Xvffuv

\6ffaifu

XvffOf

Xvaai

Xiffas

Xe\iJKOifU

XiXvKS

XeXvK^vat

XeXvKws

\volfJir]v

X6ov

Xveffdai

Xvofievos

XvO^ffEcffai

Xydriffofievoi

XiiTOlfU

\v6riffolfi7iv

XvOelrjP

XeXv/iivos

ett]v

Xvoiv

XMirri

Xvdijvcu.

XvOdt

XAvffo

Xe\6(r0ai

XeXu/iA-os

XeXijo-eadat,

XeXvffonevos

Xie(r6ai

\v6iJ.vos

XeXvffol/i'Tjv

Xvot/iriv

Ximi

XwraifJ.r]P

Xv<TCU

Xtjffeffdai

Xvcofievos

XvffaaOai

Xvffdfievos

MUTE

246

VERBS.

MUTE VERBSINDtOATIVK.

Pres.

riiTTO}

Imperf.

h-VITTOV

Fut.
Aor,

*Ti;^w

SUBJUNCTIVK.

TlJjTTCO

[ruirTT^ffw]

I.

iTv\pa [^ri/TTTijo-a]

I.

*TiTV<pa \TT6irTr]Ka]

TlJ\f/U

>
Perf.

Pluperf.

I.

TeTi;0W

irerijipeiv

Aor. II.

irvirov

Perf. II.

* Th-vira

t6iru
TeT&irco

Pluperf. II. * ireriTteiv

Pres.

r&TtTOfiai

Imperf.

iTVVT6/i7]V

* Tvcpd'^ffofiai

Fut.

Aor.

I.

h'i>(f>6r]v {irvirT-fid-riv]

TV(t)65>

Perf.

th-vfinai [and TeT&irrriiMi]

rervfifiipoi

Pluperf.

h-erCfifiriv

xa

Aor. II.

iTijTrr}ti

Fut. II.

Tvn-^ffOfiat

Fut. III.

i
p
a

Note.

T&trTU/JUU

TvirQ

* TTii\f'oiiai

Pres.

T&lTTO/iat.

Imperf.

irvirrbiiriv

Fut.

Tifofuu

Aor.

I.

Aor.

II.

T&irrunai

[Ttrtrrijffo/iot]

hv^dfirju

rij\punai

iTinr6fir]i>

T&irufiai

Those parts which are not found,

brackets exist,

or which are used only in


and some of them are more Attic than those of the

MUTE VERBS.

ryTTTO),

247

strike.

IMPKBATIVE.

OPTATIVE,

tiJttoi/

T&rroifu

PAKTICIPLE.

ISFISITIVE.

rinrreiv

TlJuTWI'

TT/^eo>

nJ^wi'

Tufatfu

rv^op

rC^ai

rifas

reriipoi/u,

TiTV<pe

renxphxu

TCTWpiit

T&roifu

rim

Txnreiv

Tvriip

Ter^oi/u

rhmre

rennrivat

TervTuis

TVTTolnrp>

rinrrov

TihrTea6ai

TVTrSfieyos

ri^oi/u

rv<p6^a0ai

TvipdrjiTofieyos

TVipddriv

TtKpdrp-i

rv<t>0rpnu

TV<t>dLs

rervfifj-ivos etijv

riTv\po

Ter{nf>6ai

rerv/jLfjLivoi

TVTreii}v

Tivrfii

Tv<j>dT}ffoliiriv

TVTTljVai

Ti/iret'j

TVTnjaolfiifv

TviTT^effOai

TwrtaofJiivos

TfTV\polfiy)V

TfTVif/eadaL

rerV'poiJ.evoi

T&rreffOai

Tvrr6yjP0i

TVTTOV

TVTITolfiriV

Ti^peadcu

Twf/6/jLeros

Tv^al/jLijv

Tvypat

T&if/a<r0<u

TV\f/dfj.epos

TVTolnrjv

TVTTOV

rwicOai

Tvirofievos

rvfolfii}*

post-classical

times,

regular formiation.

arc

marked with an

Oiiterisk.

The forms

in

MUTE VERBS.

248

MUTE VERBS-

INDICATIVE.

Pres.

tX^/cw

Imperf.

iirkeKOV

Fut.

fl-X^ty

Aor.

SUBJUNOTIVK.

irX^Kw

iir\^a

wXi^o}

Perf.

TiirXexa.

ireTrX^X"

Pluperf.

iTreirXix^iv

I.

>

-<1

H
>

Aor. II.

* ^irXaKov

nXdKO)

Perf. II.

* TriirXaKa

ireirXdKU

Pluperf. II.

Pres.

TX4K0fjLat.

Imperf.

iTrXK6firiv

Fut.

TrXex6'fl<^oiiai.

Aor.

wX^KU/JXLl

iirXixOw

irXexOio

Perf.

TT^irXeyfiai

ireTXeyfi^yoi

Pluperf.

iireirX^Hrjv

Aor.

iireirXdKCiv

I.

II.

iirXdKr]P

Fut. II.

irXaK-^ffOixaL

Fut. III.

irewXi^oixai

Pres.

ir'KiKO/JLa.t.

Imperf.

iTrXeK6fir]i>

Fut.

TfX^^ofiai

Aor.

I.

Aor. II.

7rXa/cw

7rXiKWfi(n

iirXi^dfirfv

TrX^^ufiai

iirXaK6/JLrjv

irXdKWfiat

(3

M9

MUTE VERBS.

7rXe/cw,

/ plait.

OPTATIYB.

IMPZaATITB.

iinriHiTivB.

PARTICIPLE.

vXiKe

xXiKCiP

xXiKVP

rXi^eii>

xXi^wv

xXi^aifu

vXi^ov

tX4^i

xX^laj

TcxX^ot/u

x^Xexe

xerXexA'cu

xexXexi!)i

irXdKoipu

irXdiKi

rrXaKeiv

xXaKtbp

xeirXdKoifu

TrbrXaKi

reirXaKivcu

xexXaKus

T\eKoifJir]

vXiKOU

rXiKeffdai

xXeKofievoi

rXiKOtfu

rXiioifju

irXex&'^ffeaOai

xXex9r}c6fievos

XX^^T/Tt

vXexdiiKU

xXexOili

x^Xe|o

-rerXix^cu

xexXejfiivot

rXdxTidi

TXex^<''oiM'?'
xXex^fti?*'

veirXeyfiims

etrpr

TXaKrjvai

xXaxeli

vXaKrjaol/l-rjP

vXaKTicecdaj.

xXaKrjabfJLtvfn

VTrXe ^olfirjv

TeirXi^effdcu

xexXe^6ixfvos

xXiKCffOat

xXtK6fievoi

irXaKeir]v

TXeKolfi-qv

xXiKOV

xXi^eadai

xXe^fiePos

vXf^alfiip'

xX^lat

xXi^aadai

xXe^dftevot

trXaKolfitjp

xXaKov

xXajciffdaL

xXaKbfuvoi

irXe^oifj.r]v

MUTE VERBS.

2S0

MUTE VERBS

INDICATIVE.

Pres.

rphru)

Imperf.

h-peirw

Fut.

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^--f

THE ROYAL SCHOOL


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Work
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BINDING SECT. MAY

1964

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