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wgyn mc`k ciqgd :'!d`wldl epic ?za'

sq ` cec

za el dcle py ciqg z `kd lr oenin dnly ly ezecr .`

xra ac 'x cibnd xvga exewia lr (1800-1753) oenin dnly ly znqxetnd ezecr mcwen jk lk alya azkpy el dnec xe`iz epicia oi` .dpina zcgein ` id 'uixfnn ly miyiyd zepy idlya 'uixfna oenin xwia d`xpd lkk .zeciqgd zginv ini ly

.dxyr ray e` dxyr yy oak ieyp xirv ezeida ,g"id d`nd `l zxeeir d`pya mb mewn lkn j` ,zeciqgl dxzi dad`a mpn` ceyg epi` oenin zrwea exe`izn ,seqelite likynl dide zeciqgd on afk`zdy it lr s` .rebp did zepin` z` dax dcina zeqqan zeielz izla zeiecr .mipey`x miciqg mze`l dkxrd

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,hi wxt ,(oenin iig :oldl) b"iyz aia` lz ,jexa l"i zipnxbn mbxz ,oenin dnly iig xtq

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.149-132 'nr `"vxz-u"xz aia` lz ,zeciqgd zeclez) 1772Îl 1770 oia df didy x riy aepaec oerny

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`vnp cibnd .rexi`d z` micwdl yiy il d`xp j` ,(83 'nr ,[zeciqgd zec lez ,aepaec :oldl]

zexifba

xecd

iwicv ly mzcinr' ,xey yia` mdxa` e`x) 1765 zpyn zegtl 'uixfna

ik qxb aew`nn cec cibnd mbe ,(5 dxrd eqw 'nr ,[`"pyz] el l`xyie oxd` zia ,'

`hpeb

milyexi ,a ,micbpzne miciqg ,iwqplie ikcxn) 1766 zpya wx mqxtzdl l gd cibnd ly eny izextqd epeafrn' ,oihypiaex mdxa` e`xe ;235 'nr ,[micbpzne miciqg ,iwqplie :oldl] l"yz mipnfd xcq .(234-233 'nr ,[l"yz-h"kyz] g-f dpyd xtq :oli`Îxa ,'ee`w`nn cec 'x ly `vnpe ccp `ed oky ,mez cr xxazp `l ,eini zixg`a cgeina ,cibnd ly eixebn zenewna d`xpk did myy ,(Miedzyrzeczî Korzecki) lecbÎ'uixfn :oileea zepey zexiira oibexiql myl xary xiaqe ,1772 uiwa ze`ceea xb myy ,(Równo) dpaex ;eyxcn ziae ixwird ezia

 

wxei eip ,

owfd

x"enc` w"k z`n ycew zexb` ,[xicdn] oiel xraec mely) okl mcew cer

mewn mb mye ,(1772) b"lwz elqka h"ia xhtp myy ,(Annopol) iletep` ;(dkw 'nr ,f"nyz zpya 'uixfna dvxty dtbn lya cibnd myl xar zxge`n ziciqg zxeqn it lr .ezxeaw oke ,zeciqgl ezeaxwzd mcew .(bt-at 'nr ,c"qyz oilwexa ,a ,cenr i miwicv zia) a"lwz ;Korzec) uxFw¤ ,dpaex zelidwa mb cibnd xxebzd ,g"id d`nd ly miyiyde miyin gd zepya oiyhehe (d"kwz dwxeh ,dweqt dkld ,dpaexn yxid iav oa qexceh ly extql eznkqd

a'vicxa ,y`xn `xew

yexit

mr ziy`xa xtq lr dax yxcn ,odkd l`eny oxd` ;Tuczynâ )

.cibnk ezeknq dyext dzid mlekae ,dl`l dl` mikenq elld zenewnd l k .(dncwd ,`"rwz ,[xicdn] oihypiaex mdxa`) epa i`eyip xetiqa ahid ztwzyn dpaexle 'uixfnl dletkd ezwif

.(144-143 'nr ,a"pyz milyexi ,h"yrad igay ylg ,miizye mixyr oak ,minil xirv yi`' xikd ik ,oenin xtiq miil eyd zexrdn zg`a

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sq` cec

enya `iady zexezd yely .zeciqgl ezerceezd xe`iza oicd `ede ,llka eizepexkif dcerqd xe`iz ;miielz izla miiciqg zexewna mb opeylk hrnk zehhevn cibnd ly zpen`e ,ycewd gexa wacidl eywaa hwp cibndy zeilxh`zd zeegnd ,ziyilyd ,cigie cigi lk ly zeihxtd eipfe`l miribne miwlgzn wicvd ly ei xacy miciqgd ly mhr ixt ,mixg` zexewna mb mixkfp dl` lk - ywiay dn z` mda `ven d ixacl dax zepin` eqgii zeciqgd ixwegy `et` `lt oi` .miciqg lye micbpzn

7 .ezecrn mipey miwlgl ewwfpe oenin

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df mc` ly ed`xna .zeciqgl sihnk oilet zpicna xfgn did `ed .mipt xeege xya lc ,eteba cg`l `ay oeeik .zevixra mc` ipaa hley did eci lry ,zexn lihne mei` dn xac did oiwzne ,eipira xyi `ly xac lk lhan dide dldwd ly dxecql cin l`ey did ,zenewnd eqipy eid .(146 'nr ,oenin iig) 'odiwecwc lkl oze` miniiwn eid zeixady ,zeycg zepwz mircei ep` zelidw zepwza ezeaxrzd lry ,oilx`wn oxd` 'x mr df inipep` xirv zedfl l`xyi ;145-144 'nr ,e"hyz milyexi ,zexecd dptna ,xepic oeivÎoa e`x .mixg` zexewnn oilet oia ,xbpih` l`eny ;338 'nr ,h"kyz milyexi ,dtexi` gxfna zecdie micedi ,oixtliid .203-202 'nr ,d"pyz milyexi ,diqexl .ak-bi 'nr ,(d"pyz) ci crlb ,'zepnidn zpiga :oenin dnly ly zepexkfd xtq' ,xlh mc`

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dxez lr' ,l"pd ;97 'nr ,(f"yz) ai oeiv ,'yhixfrnn cibnd ly cg` yexc lr' ,qiie sqei

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Joseph Weiss, Studies in ;108-107 'nr ,(e"hyz) k my ,'yhixfnn cibndl zg` ziciqg cibnd zexez' ,sq` cec ;Eastern European Jewish Mysticism , Oxford 1985, pp. 70–72 .101-99 'nr ,(e"qyz) `r oeiv ,'oenin dnly zepexkifa 'uixfnn xraÎac 'x ,iwqplie) xecn`n lwiig miig 'x ly exvga ziyilyd dcerqd ly oierd xe`izl lynl eeyd

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'x cibnd cinlz ly ,mixken zegtd ,eixe`izl licadle ;(166-165 'nr ,a ,micbpzne miciqg ,miyp` ipeeb daxd etq`pe ,d"dllf cibnd ziaa oiaeqn epiid zg` mrte' :xinehi'fn slee a`f

zg` ,miyp izy el eidy in" mxn`na

[dxez

ixac] z"c xacl eit gzte ,mixrp mr mipwf

jk ,"o`kne okn gxw `vnpe ,mipal zhwln dclie ,mixegy zhwln dpwfd ,dpwf zg`e dcli

d`xi ixeacl fnex dxegy y`e .dpal y` iab lr dxegy y` dpzp[y]

dxez

ixaca oiprd

ipiipra mcigtdl mikixve 'd ceqa oiicr ecnr `l xy` mixr pl rbe pd mixqEn¨ ixacn dnecke

 

`wiic rbe pd dxezd zeceqe mifnxe dad` ipiprl fnex dpal y`e ;`yia drevxn ze`xi axd ipt yexcl oi`ay oeike .zFlMUna¨ § ª `xead zbyd mrh aeh mpiadl ,milikyn miyi`l

,zead` ipiprn oikyen el`e

ze`xi

oiprn axd z` oil`eye oikyen el` ,mc` ipa ipeb daxd

dagx eytpe llekd mkg `edy in ok m` `l` .oiprk aiydl dt el oi`e ,o`kne o`kn gxw `vnp [cg`e cg` ] `"e` lkl mieyd mixeac `ivndl leki [e ] ,zrcd zehytzd el yie ,eilr izrny cg` mrte' :oke .(a"r fvw ,mixac ,g"pwz uxew ,xi`nd xe`) 'ez peaze ekxr itl epi`y zeida ,dxez xnel ji` xzeid ote` mkz` cenl` ip` ,yexita d"dl lf cibnd epl xn`y .envra xacnd `ed `le ea xacn xeaicd mlery ji` zrney ofe` m` ik ,melk envr z` yibxn xacl eit gztyk ,xf `le ipir e`x minrt dnke .wiqti envr ixac renyl ligzny skize minrtle .epexb jezn zxacn dpikye ,llk mlerd dfa epi` el`k lk oirl d `xp did dxez ixac .(`"r at ,ev ,my) 'dn onf dd[e]ye wqet did daiz rvn`ae oipr rvn`a elit` mibixg dk' eixe`iz oky ,llk oenin lr jenql oi` ik dwqty ,xleyhl` xen `id otec z`vei ceqd) 'uixfnn cibnd cnr dy`xay xvg ly dneiwl di`x lk oi` dzhiyl .'otec i`veie

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wgyn mc`k ciqgd

oia dlzp `ed ,zeciqga q`n recn extq i`xewl xiaqdl oenin ywia xy`k ,dpde :epeyl jke .cibnd xvga el cr¥ didy dyrna xzid

jxce ipivd dbdpn llba daexn dcina ipira z`fd zkd lk dzid drx df caln epqpkzp zg` mrt .df bdpnl zg` dnbec o`k `iadl ipixde .drextd d zevilr edel`y mixg`de ,zvwna xg`¥ driqd ipan cg` .iaxd ly eziaa dltzl erny j` .xg`¥ jk meyne ,za dlild dcli ezy`y ,dpr yi`d .xac ly eza ql dze` .lecb yrxe oe`ya .'aeh lfn' zkxa ekxal eligzd ,mixacd z` elld exifgd mde ,zelew ilewa miyrex md dn iptn ,l`ye excgn iaxd `vi dry qrka iaxd `xw - !za' .mlerl za d`iad ezy`y ,.t z` mikxan ep` :el mzpekza wdaen oniq edixd ipyd oinl fead ybx) '!d`wldl e pic - ,lecb .(zeaxz ixqegn miyp` x`y lk lye elld miyp`d ly dne eryt dn ,oiadl leki `l `ed .df oic xfb cbpk dgn aelrd .t eze` ewifgd dxeagd ipa .melk lired `ly `l` .mlerl za d`iad ezy`y ,e z`hg (envr oaxwd on ueg) lkd .dqb jxca edewlde oztnd iab lr edeaikyd ,ea ,dltzd zry dribdy ,iaxd mxikfd xg` ;zrcd zegica icil jk ici lr e`a .'!dgnya midl` z` ecar ,mig` ,dzre' :dl` mixaca ,iaxd z`n dkxa izgwl okae .df mewna izaiyi jix`dl izvtg `l aey

10 .izia l` dxfga izrqpe mlerl mafrl dhlgd jezn dxeagd ipan izcxtp

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oinl fead ybx' lr eixac oebk ,oenin ly zxge`nd ziyi`d ezepyxt n mlrzp m` mb dcefit` ly xe`iz epicia xzeeii oiicr ,(dxrdk ipnxbd xewna mi `aend) 'ipyd `weec xaecny fnx oi` ;dlitzl cibnd ly eziaa dqpkzd miciqgd zxeag :dpeyn

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'x ecinlz xvg oial cibnd xvg oia d`eeyd .(38-37 'nr ,a"qyz dtig ,zeciqgd ly igiynd ‘The Early Hasidic “Court”’, Eli e`x .qwh` l`epnr dpexg`l jxr xecn`n lwiig miig Lederhendler and Jack Wertheimer (eds.), Text and Context: Essays in Modern Jewish History and Historiography in Honor of Ismar Schorsch, New York 2005, pp. 157–186 'mei lka ephtynk ,zixgyd zlitzl wicvd ziaa eptq`p zg` mrt' :mbxz aeiah g"i

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`l` ily od xn`na mewn lka zeybcdd .(107-106 'nr ,h"pxz dyxe ,oenin dnly zeclez) .zxg` oiev m` ,ihxt myl fnxnd ,df xeviw gzt ,`q 'nr ,b"vxz iixeblia ,drc xec ,x`dlnw dix` l`izewi

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!'ipelt'k Salomon Maimon’s Lebensgeschichte , Berlin :ipnxbd xewna .146-145 'nr ,oenin iig 1792, pp. 234–235

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mig` enk mibyena yeniy ici lr oenin lv` ybcen ziciqgd dxeagd ly yeaibd ceqi 11 .( Gesellschaft) dxeagd i pa e` ,(Brüder )

123

sq` cec

ly mei mzq ly zixgy zlitza ,d`xpk ,`l` ,ziyily dcerqa `l i`cee ae ,zaya drxky ezy` lya akrzdy xazqne ,xgi`y mdn cg`l mib`ec dxeagd ipa .leg ziciqg dgtyn lr zpiiprn zecr epiptl ixde ,'uixfna dcli dyi`d y wtq oi` .zcll `zd z` zgpefe dnewnn zwzpznd mixirv zxeag wx `et` ef oi` .dxii ra zxxebznd mpn` ,zegtyn ilra mb dkeza yiy dlidw `l` ,wicvd xvg zaehl izgtynd

oaa xaecn m` zrcl oi` .mly izgtyn `zk micwtzne xvgl jenq mixbd ,mixirv oenin enk ,cibnd zeawra 'uixfnl ribdy ciqga `ny e` ,cibnd l` g tzqpy mewnd .('mipey zelilbn o`kl e`ay ,micakp miyp` oend my iz`vne') x` izy mixg`e envr lfn" zkxa ekxal eligzd' :dgny `id zad zcled zxeyal ziphpetqd daebzd oinl fead ybx' xaca envr ixac z` oenin xzq o`k xake - 'lecb yrxe oe`ya "aeh zcleda mbt lk miciqgd e`x `l dligzkln ik xexa oky ,miciqgd z` o iit`nd 'ipyd

mr `zeeva lltzd `l cibndy al miyl yie - excgn cibnd `vi yrxd lya

13 ei`v`v lv` mb yxzydy bdpn ,miciqgd lk

oiad `ly ,okqnd ciqga ellrzde d`xedl eziiv miciqgd .a`d z` ze wldl 'lecb .lltzdle cenrl iaxd mdl `xw dqbd zrcd zegicae dltydd qwh xg`l .`hg dna oind ipa l` dlwp qgi .` :df ibxhÎinew oeifiga oenin `et` dlz mi rx mixac ipy ly dxiee` l` gex zeqbe zevilr zxiee`n xidnd xarna ipnxev cebi p .a ;ipyd .'dgnya 'd z` ecar' ly ,dyecw oenin ly ezecr z` ep` milawn m` ,`qib cgn ?ezecrl qgiizdl yi `e t` cvik mi`yx ep` m`d ,deknzie dewfgiy mihrn `l mipniq ep`vn s`e ,dpin `k dllka efk dniyxn zency zrcd lr dlri mpne`d ,`qib jci`ne ?dkezn miwl g wx xexal `id zn` m`d ?oenin dl qgiiy jxcke weya miwixd cg`k bdpz 'uixfn n cibnd ly el dyxtzpy zn` zecr - mipxkf ly mkxck - `l` ef oi` `nye ,dica e` e zecr ?zexge`nd eizenbn it lr cirnl did xy`k ,g"id d`nd ly mipenyd zepy idlya eizepexkif z` azk oe nin ,ok`

qrka' deeiv daiqd el drcepyke -

12 .zad

on ,cirn zepa ly ozexbazde ozecli lr mixetiq xcrd' ik orhy ,l`bp dilcb ixacl cebipa dzcil .ziciqgd dxaga ekf dl dlcd dkxrdd lre zepal eqgiiy dkenpd zeaiygd lr ,mzqd

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dzid `l zepa ly ozcil

xkf

oa zcill dneca cgeina gnyn rxe`nl daygp `l za ly

,ziciqgd zxetiqa miyp) 'ziciqgd dgtyna lecb myex dxi`yd `l `linne

miqkha

deeln

zgnyn daygp oa zcled zeizxeqn zexaga llk jxcay oekp mpn` .(21 'nr ,d"qyz milyexi l`bpy s` .zicedid dxaga zxg` dveaw lkn miciqgd mipey eid `l jka j` ,za zcledn xzei .eixac rwxa cner za el dclepy ciqgd z`kd lr xetiqdy ipnec ,oenin ix ac z` xikfd `l 'nr ,f"pyz milyexi ,zeciqgd zecleza enewne oi'fexn l`xyi 'x :zeklnd jxc ,sq` cec

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.373-372

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

l` oeeky ,extqa

dxiird on zlzetnd ekxc z` xiaqdl mb ywia ,mixkpe micedi ,zipn xbd i`xew ldw z` obx` mb ef dnbn it lr ik ze`xdl ozipe ,zipxcend dlkydd l` ziz xeqnd

15 .extqa dxf oze`y zeiecre zecaer ly ozepyxt

did jka yg oky in

ilan dagxda oenin ixacn hhivy ,x`dlnw dix` l`izewi icxgd xte qd `weec :zwdaen zihbelet` gexa azk jke .enya exikfdl

14 .zitexi`Îgxfnde ziciqgd dieedd on ,ziytpe ziqit ,wgexn xak

16 .ezepnidn zl`yl mzrc epzp `l df xetiq ehhivy mixweg

`l zad ia` qpwpy qpwd ik ,g"z ly oileg zgiy oiad `l [oenin] df ipelt ixac miiwl xdfp `l xy` llba wx ,za dzcla ezy` d`hgy `hg llba did

`l mbe

ly dgnyl zelled ly dgnyd z` jetdl ,zeciqgd ly dgka opeazdl xcg dkld dtlg zelledde ,'dgnya 'd z` ecar' cine skiz dci lr miiwle d evn mihewil 'qa d`x) miny z`xia dcrxa dlibe dxedh dgny dx`ype ,dppi`e dl

18 .(df llke d"c b"kc l"f xra 'x iaxdn mixwi

zedydl (`"l dcp) l"fg

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.el xzena envr z` ycwle xkf ciledle

zetqep ze`nbec lr jnzqda .eipir e`xy dn z` oiad `l oenin ik `et ` orh x`dlnw dfy ,dpey zepyxt ea dtv oeniny rexi`l rivdl j` ,df xaqd un`l yw an ip` z`f mre ;dica eppi`e ygxzd ok` rexi`de ,`id zn` zecr oenin ly e zecr :dxwir ciqgd z`kd .zexge`nd eizenbn it lr el yxtzde ixewnd exywdn `v ed d`xy dn wgyn oirn `l` ,('xEAEf' xge`nd il`xyid bplqa e` ,Hazing ) dltyd qwh dzid `l byen ly zilwicx dqitza exewny ,wgynd .zevilre dgny ly mEfi xe vii ezilkzy zizc dxtq¥ l` fekix xqeg ly avnn miciqgd zxardl irvn`k qtzp ,dg nyd ite` did maexl j` ,'xbean' ilxh`z ite` did dl` miwgyn zvwnl .z ihhqw` raxa zeciqgd ly dzeidn zxazqn ef drtez .miilezid mireyry ly 'izecli' .mixerp ipa ly `ed day ihppinecd izxagd aikxndy drepz g"id d` nd ly oexg`d

ik ,zeciqgd lr wxtd seqa zkxtend ezxrd cirz zitexi`Îgxfnd dieeddn ewegix zcin lr

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.(149 'nr ,oenin iig) 'mye dt mixfetnd ,miccea micixy `l` ef zkn exiizyp `l eiykr' Ritchie Robertson, ‘From the Ghetto to Modern Culture: The Autobiographies of

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Salomon Maimon and Jacob Fromer’, Polin 7 (1992), pp. 12–30 rexi` l`k ef dcefit`l qgiizd iwqplie ikcxn mb .85 'nr ,zeciqgd zec lez ,aepaec ,lynl

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.473 'nr ,(1993) 112 ,l dne`d ,'oilet zeciqg zextqa dy`d ly dcnrn' exn`na e`x ;izn` zepzee`zl iehiak ,miicenlz zexewn dnk it lr ,zytzp za zcledy jkl fnx x`dlnw

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zrxfn dy` ;dawp zclei - dligz rixfn yi`' :yexita xn`p oky ,xabd ly zxaben zipin .(`"r q zekxa ilaa) '"xkf dclie rixfz ik dy`" xn`py ,xkf zclei - dligz .diptdd lr oiiycpen ryedi axl izcez .aq-q 'nr ,(9 dxrd lirl) drc xec

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sq` cec

'dny xeq ` zea vrd ik' .a miciqge micb pzn i pira zektdzdd bd pne ziciqgd dg nyd

mixev zeaxge mi vixr xinf .1

daygnd ly ceqid ipa`n od ,leyknk zeavrd ,dketide ,'d zcearl jxck dgnyd `l zeciqgd ik egiked mixwegy s`e .di`x dl `iadl mikixv oi`y zn` e ziciqgd

zizc drepz ly ieedd zpigan ik xexay ixd

dxizgd zaeg .dlrna oey`x cklne obx`n oexwir df did icegii izx ag oweic zlra ;miiciqgd zexewnd ibeq lka xtqn oi` minrt zx`ezn zeavrn zerpnidde dgnyl icbpzn ici lr dztvpy itk ef dgny ly miipbrle miizxewia mixe`i z mb epicia j` gep ziqenletd hand zcewpny ,xnel jixv oi` .oenin ly epnf ipa cgeina ,zeciqgd ,mieqn begl e` zlcaen dveawl `le ,miciqgd llkl mibixg miyrn q giil did ycegn oeir z`f epxkfa mb j` .iciqgd llkd lr gxkda micirn mpi` m diyrny

ly mipey miiphpetq miielib oia dwifd z` yignn miiciqgde miiq enletd zexewna yxtzdl lekiy dn oial (dfa `veike cewix ,xnf) zeiciqg zexeag a xwa ebdpy dgny ly dxeva mze` mipbx`ny inipt oeibide zipeirx dwnpd mdl yiy mi qwhk .'miwgyn' zpya qtcpy ,'mixev zeaxge mivixr xinf' ,oey`xd zecbpzdd qxh pewa xak zbydl jxck dgnyd z` miqtezy ,miciqgd z` dplieen inipep` azek dpbn ,1772 :dbbya exarpy zexar lr dhxge avr ly gex jld lk mi`kcn jk lyae mi cegii lhan zeavrd mixne` ik ,dg nye wegya cinz wx ,llk avrzdl melye qge'

20 .'zeavr icil `eai `ly icka xary dxar dfi` lr xrhvdl melye qge ,cegid

19 ,zipeirx dpigan dne`n jka dycig

:38 'nra eixac e`xe) 43-30 'nr ,(`"iyz) fh oeiv ,'zeciqga dgnyd lr' ,hgey l`ixfr

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h"yrad' ,qwh` l`epnr ;('zn` ly zecr `id

oenin

dnly ly ezecry `et` xazqn'

dgnyd lr' ,yinlg dyn ;444 'nr ,(e"pyz) `q oeiv ,''d zceara dxeya lrae owihqink zl`y .238-223 'nr ,q"yz aia` lz ,miigd zernyn ,(jxer) xyk `q` ,'zizcd oa lld miig ly ezxewiaa dpecp ziciqgÎmexhd zifpky`d zicedid dxaga 'zeryrzyd'd oevle daeyn iyrnl diihpd ik qxb oeyyÎoa .xayne zxeqn ,u"k awri l y extq lr oeyy dpkqde gekd zpad ,daiqn jezn cekild ,dgnyde ybxd' :minkg icinl z ibegl mb dxcg ,dcin dze`a mlek `l ik m` ,miievn eid mlek ,dil` qgia mihalde dy`l dad`d ,oiiay dixehqida ze`ivne mibyen' ,oeyyÎoa lld miig) '17-16 ze`na zifpky`d zicedid dxaga .(312-310 'nr ,[j"yz] hk uiaxz ,'miipiad ini idlya zicedid 'mqxetne cakp cg` yi`'k `l` ddefn epi` azekd .41-38 'nr ,` ,micbpzne miciqg ,iwqplie .dplieen

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wgyn mc`k ciqgd

zxkdl igxkd i`pz od dhxgde zeavrd ik ,qxeb cbpznd miciqgd zrcl cebipa leflfl mb minxeb ezwgcd e` avrd iekic `linne ,daeyza ezxfgle e`hga `hegd

21 .dxard zxnega micnrn ly mzexveeidl mb d`xpk d`iad dgny ly cinzn gex jldl dxi zgd x`ezy xzeia hlead wgynd .zvler dxiee` zxivi mzilkzy miizek` ln miilezid ipvil wgynk di`ex ipira dyxtzdy ,y`xd lr zektdzdd `ed micbpz nd zexewna on .miciqgd ly ipgexd mnler z` mipiit`ny ,zexwtdle zrc zelwl iehiake :xexiaa dler xacd 'mivixr xinf'a eqpeky mipeyd zexewnd

dnd zeketdz xec ik ,miwixd cg`k mzltza mifget zeidl mdipa oicnele mdil bxe dhnl mdiy`x ,mixkpe mixf zktdnk 'd zixa oex` iptl miktdne

22 .zelled zgnye lezide wegya mined cinze

dlrnl

ziaa 'd zcear zxbqnay ogletle dlitzl yexita `et` xywp zektdz dd bdpn mdizeltza mcnra hxtae' :wqixal dplieen glypy azkna mb jke ,z qpkd

mi peilr ,miyecwa mipte`d d`xnk mdiyrne

23 .' dlrnl mi pezgze dhnl

dplieea zeciqgd zehytzd dx`ez day zxbi`a ,lynl ,jk .dlitzl l lk mixeyw lr zeiecr eabp dlidwd iqpxte `"xbd ly dywd mzaebz zeawra ik ,a zekd oreh

zet iiefnd

mpi`y ,mixg` mixywda mb zebven zeiektdzdd j`

zepey

zelew mi`xn

24 .'dlrnl mipezgze dhnl mipeilr :zehy dyrn' mdae ,miciqg ly 'm ixrekn' miyrn

.y"aixd z`eev z` (17 dxrd ,38 'nr ,my) iwqplie rivd zxbi`d azek ixacl ixyt` xewnk ;[1793] b"pwz deewle'fa dpey`xl qtcp xtqd) azekd ipta cnr `l df xeaigy wx `l j` zepyl zncew dpi` `id mb j` ,dqtcd zpy da dxqgy deewle'fn zg` dxecdn dievn mpn` .iznbne rhewn `ed `zknq`k iwqplie `iady hehivd s`y `l` ,(g"id d`nd ly miryzd daxi `l dxiara lykp elit`e ,'zi `xead zcearl dlecb dripn `id zeavre' wx `iad `ed

21

xg`]e dxiard lr a vriy wx' :jiynn ixewnd hehivd eli`e ,'

dceard

lheaiy zeavra

meya ezlqkl aeyi `ly ezrcae dxenb dhxga hxgzn `edy oeik 'zi `xead a genyl xefgi [jk .(g 'nr ,1991 oilwexa ,hgy awri zxecdn ,y"aixd z`eev) 'mrt drteza d`x ekxc it lry ,aepaec ly ezcnr z` oiivl oiiprd oinn .41-39 'nr ,my ,iwqplie

22

mi`kecn ly dcixn ,ziptbqd jepigd zhiy cbpk mixxgeyn micar ly zirah divw`ix' ef zeclez) 'y`x zelwe zelled ly dxeva s` zizc zexxerzd eywiay ,"zeevne dxez ler" zgz .(113 'nr ,zeciqgd z` dptdy ,qaewii'b qi`el ly ezxrd z` xikfdl oiiprd oinn .60-59 'nr ,my ,iwqplie

23

axwa zebdep eidy zenec zewihwxt oial miciqgd zeiektdzd oiay oei ncl ald zneyz oi` (zeitgeist) 'onfd gex' ly libxd xaqdl hxt .ynn dtewz dze`a (Shakers ) 'qxwiiy'd Louis Jacobs, e`x .odipia xyw lk did `ly ,zerepzd izy oia d`eeyda dax zlrez Hasidic Prayer, London 1972, p. 56 .65 'nr ,my ,iwqplie

24

127

sq` cec

`le dgnye deevn zecerql zeiektdzdd exywp divilbay aepyl zli dw zepwza mb :dlitzl

,dldwd ipa lk onvrl oiyery zecerq ix`y mbe ,zaya zecerq yly oe cpa

mi `yx m pi` mbe

jxck ,dlrnl mdil bxe dhnl mdiy`x ,mbd pnk jtdzdl

mipy wx zkd iyp` on mdilr oinfdl dlilg

mdn

25 .zelegne micewixa mixeq` mbe ,miyer mi pvildy

zepvil dyrn `id mizrle ,dnipt zqpkd ziaa `id zektdzdd mizrl ,xac ly ellk .zkd ipan mpi`y miyp` ly mdipir cbp ianeta dyrpd mzq

1772 z pya zeiecr ziiab .2

ozepin` .(1772) dpy dze`a eabpy zeiecr hwla yi df bdep lr xzei zexe xa zerici zeny exkfp `le ,in iptae eabp okid oiev `l oaexa - zwelgna diepy dl` zeiecr ly .daiaql xkend zektdzd bdpn zecrzn od ozeiznbn s` lry xexa j` - m icrd oeyl efe .df bdpn xytl mnvr miciqgd ixaqd oda ellkpy `ed dl` ze iecra cgeind :zg`d zecrd

zxeza cirdl xykd cg` yi` epiptl `ae .epiid cg` oic ziak dyely a yena

'x ly epzg ,mely 'x cvik izi`x ip`' :oeyld dfa ,oep oa ryedi mxg a ,zecr

zay zlaw mcew ely oiipna jtdzdl zay axra bdp

26 ,oae`x iaxa wifii`

mrt ok dyr dlitzd xg`l zayd mei xweaae .eraekae elirna yeal `e dyk l`ixfr iax z` deeil xilweny mixt` iax oa ail 'x[y] cird mb .'zt qep

27 .a"lwz oqip e"k ,'c mei .[ail 'x] jtdzd ecxtpy dryae ,x`iinw

:mewne onf zekinqa d`xpk dzabpy ,zxg` zecrae

izktdzd ip`' :oeyld dfa mxga cibde oiipnd ly `pkec yix epiptl `a aey iax oa ail 'x z` d`xy ,cibde '?df oiipr edn' :eze` epl`ye .'min rt dnk

.68 'nr ,my

25

`xwp' :aew`nn cec 'x xtiq eilre ,xecn`n lwiig miig 'x wicvd ly eixfern cg` mr ddefn

26

eiyrn rexl eze` eyxbe ,qpae`x 'x wifii` 'x `xwp ,`plieen cg` hiig ozg `edy ,mely oi`

ziqnd `ed aexd lre ,y"ni `wiig rx ly ezxyn `ede

rx

ryx dhey `ed ik ,ezpen`e

mb e`xe ;162 'nr ,a ,my) 'maxa oin`dl miaxd z` gicne xirl xirn rqep xy` ,ely lecbd

 

.(169 'nra .ily mebxzde ,yiciia dxqnp (oldl d`ad mbe) ef zecr .82 'nr ,` ,my

27

128

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

`pkecd yix z` epl`y .l`ixfr 'x z` deeily dry jtdzn [xilweny] m ixt` ,oiipna miciqgd lkn izrny' :epl aiyde '?df lkl mrhd edn' :xkf pd cg` cr `a aey .'jtdzdl eilr daeg mc `l zelcb d `a xy`ky

28 .' iaxd myle 'd myl ' :xn`e jxca jtdzd mixt` iax oa ail 'xy ,cibde

oae`x oa wifii` ozg mely 'x ly exekf` ?dl` zeiecr zeqgiizn ziciqg dveaw efi`l lwiig miig 'x ly eiciqgl ,efa ef zexeywy ,zeiecrd ly ozwif lr riavn

29 .iwqplie ikcxn 'ze`ceea' raw jke ,aepaec oerny xriy mpn` jke ;xecn `n 'x ly eiciqgl `weec ,'wtq `ll' ,dxeywk ef dxeag ze`xl rivd oihypiaex mdxa`

30 ;wqpina f` xby ,(n"nx) wqahieen lc pn mg pn

ik qxb xey yia` mdxa` iciqgd xwegd .zeiektdzdl n"nx ly ezecbpzd lr epizerici ezrcly meyn z`f ,(w"`x) wqil`wn mdxa ` 'x ly eiciqg lr eabp zeiecrd

,oiiycpen ryedi ly ezrc z` `iap df jaq znlydle

32 .jxr lk odl oi`e ,ixehqid xewnk yeniyl `xwirn od zeleqt dl` zeiecr ik orhy mzektdzd ,dlitzl dwifae ,zqpkd zia jeza jtdzd mely 'x cera ,j k e` jk

l`ixfr max z` ,bedpk ,eeily dry ,'jxca' dzid xlweny ail 'xe `pkec yixd ly l` iaxd z` mieeln xy`k ,miaxd zeyxa zektdzd ly dnec xe`iz ,dpd e .x`iinw ,'dxhqe`Îipx`yhn slee 'x zlecb' ziciqgÎihp`d dxihqa ep`vn ,xirl uegn :dbln¤ © © miig likynd icia h"id d`nd ly mixyrd zpya yiciia dazkpy

31 .llk jtdzdl ebdp `l xecn`a

xe`l ddenz drvd ef j`

ixiq mr ,xirl uegn l` iepiletn axd z` dxhqe`Îipx`yh [iciqg] e eil mrt jtdzd geztd dcyae .dxiyae dgnya ,migaeyn yac ina miyecb ugx

.83 'nr ,my

28

iazka miciqgd cbp zeiecr' ,iwqplie ikcxn ;444 ;2 dxrd 131 'nr ,zeciqgd zeclez ,aepaec

29

.76 'nr ,` ,micbpzne miciqg ,l"pd ;404 'nr ,`"kyz milyexi ,xra wgvil laei xtq ,'micbpzn 'nr ,(b"kyz) al uiaxz ,'zeciqgd cbp zeiecr zeiab lr dcerzl zexrd' ,oihypiaex mdxa`

30

max l` reqpl evx miciqgd ik ,zxg` zecra oiiv zeiektdzdd lr cirnd :ewenipe .91 'x ly eiciqgl sxhvd xkfpd mely 'xy rivde oihypiaex ltltzd ef dprh qeqial .wqpinay oi` ixd ?df lka jxev dn j` .n"nx ly ciqg did oiicr a"lwz zpyae ,xzei xge`n miig ,cibnd ly xg` lecb cinlz ,n"nx l` mb reqpl eywai ,cibnd cinlz ,miig 'x iciqgy dripn ly ozepin`' ,oiiycpen ryedi e`x .qiqa dl oi` cg` iaxl zepn`p zaeg zqxebd dqitzd lke .93 'nr ,(a"pyz) 63 dxczw ,'l`xyi ux`n miciqgd zexbi` .57 dxrd oldl e`x

31

opi`e ,zixehqide zihtyn dpigan xaypd qxgk leyn el` zeiecr ziiab l y okxr lk' :epeylae ,mihxtdÎihxta mixwegd ly mdiwecwc .ezryl "dti" didy dzqde dlen rz xneg `l` mxk) 'jegib mixxerne midenz ,el` zecerz aiaq mdigekieE zexizqd z` ayil mdizepeiqip .(197 'nr ,[a"pyz] c c"ag

32

129

sq` cec

z` miyp`d exvr xak dzr .ogca dyrnk ,dg ny jezn lieelree 'x ekxc `id jky eayg xak mlek !mdipira dzr mi`ex md miyecig el` .mz niyp

33 .zten lra ly

mnvr miciqgd epzpy mipey mixaqd ipy oda epivny ,dl` zeiecra c geind j` zexiqn zpnqny deegn ;dee`bd ybx zxiay z` zpnqny deegn :zektdzdd bdpnl ,xaqd o`kn inq .iaxd lye d"awd ly mceake mny zennex dzilkze ,z hlgen .zeavrd zxqd myl d`a zektdzdd :aew`nn cec iazka xzei xge`n `v np ezenky aepaec onl ,zektdzdd bdpna epcy mixweg j` ;miiciqgÎihp`d ze xewnd o`k cr onlf xe`ipy 'x xaigy azkn :el ozipy iciqgÎmiptd zeni`d lr mb e riavd ,jli`e iciqg ly drextd mzebdpzd ik orh eae ,1805 zpya d`xpk ,(f"yx) ic`i ln :'uixfnn cibnd ,szeynd mxen ly dielbd egex zxenl dzid ,max z`x yda ,wqil`w

y"p`l ezbdpd rex lr zeyw [cibnd] ez` xac xy` erny ipf`e e`x ipi re

uvelzdl mbe ,zepvile zelleda mzgiy dzid meid lk xy`

mbe .dlecb zelwe ler zwixta zepeifa ipin lka mzefale micneld lkn

34 (jif oriilew oixewy) dlrnl l bxe dhnl y`xa cinz jtdzdl wegy ipin x`ya mbe ,milxr ipira miny my llgzpe ,zeaegxae miweeya `l ,a`lwya didy gekied xg` ,a"lwz sxegae .wqil `w zeaegxa lezide

35 .d fa `veik lre df lr dprn `vn

`iqex zpicna

ef dxihq lre dbln miig lr .(ily mebxzd) 222 'nr ,1937 dplie ,mi”zM ryicii¦ ,qlxrR sqei 'nr ,(1938) 13 xrhrlaÎ`eeii¨ ¦ ,'eeikx`ÎlxrR© mrc oe™ ol`ixrh`n© © röp' ,u"M dgny e`x

33

.565-561

lirl e`aedy zecrd zeiaba .f"yx ly ezxbi`a wx driten ,'jif orilew' , ef zipeyl dxev

34

zexewna .('m`lew oitx`eeib xrai`' cala zg` mrte) '[jif] oitx`eeib xrai`' `ed gpend .59 dxrd oldl e`xe .'qiwlrf`w' `ed geexd gpend xzei mixge`n dxrd lirl) ycew zexb` ;(xvw gqep) 85 'nr ,a"qxz a'vicxa ,iax zia ,o`nliid xi`n miig qezinn' ,qixb a`f mda oey`xe ,df azkn ly ezepnidn lr exrxry eid .`p oniq ,ekw 'nr ,(2 ,a ,dizecleze dne` ,(jxer) xbpih` l`eny ,'wqil`wn mdxa` 'x ly ezencl mieew :qez`l zeizextq zeipaz it lr azkpy meyn ea wtwtl rivd qixb .132-126 'nr ,c "nyz milyexi `ide ,oxd dirx dkld eizeawra .eaixi ipt z` xigydl ywany in ynzyn oday ,zelaewn m` mbe ,f"yx ly zixewnd ezxbi`a lzyed w"`x z` miy`ny rhwd ik ,dprhe zkl dwigxd mdxa` 'x' dxn`n e`x .zeixehqid zecaer `le dytkd ixac `l` mpi` eipkzy ixd ihpze` `ed :miax zelew ,(mikxer) oc sqeie xe`il` lgx ,'dwqtpy zecici :ic`ln onlf xe`ipy 'xe wqilwn xleyhl` dizeawrae) 424-414 'nr ,e"pyz milyexi ,a ,xniidpte`Îu"y dwaxl oexkifd xtq ly xg` 'ihpze`' gqepl di`x mey el dzeelp `ly ,df xerxr .(37 'nr ,[7 dxrd lirl]

35

130

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

ly ezinre exen ,n"nx ly egex zxenl mb eid dl` mibdpn ik ,f"yx oi iv jynda ,did zektdzdd bdpn .'enely iyp` lre eizebdpd lre axd lr el dxg ahid' :w"`x jxrpy gekieea oecpe ,miciqgl micbpzn oia jekigd icwenn cg` m b ,f"yx ixacl ly drextd mzebdpzd z` xiaqdl w"`x ly ezleki xqeg .a"lwz sxega a elwya xaecn ik raw eznga dfe ,`"xbl jk lr egeeic aelwy iyp` .mevr wfp dnxb eiciqg `et` liynd `"xbd .'xert on `edy xn` dlrnl milbxa jetidd lre' :dxeng dxara

36 .cgeina iefa beqn dxf dcear bdpn `edy ,xert dyrnl zektdzdd bdpn z`

zeyxa xnelk ,'zeaegxae miweeya' zektdzda eny`ed wqil`w ici qgy al miyl yi

cer

.miiebd ipirl ,miaxd ozipy dgpdae ,dk cr e`aedy zexewna oeird zeawra zexxerzn zei yew izy ziciqg zebdpzdl zvxgpd ezecbpzd lry ,f"yx ixacl .` :mipin`k mdil` qgiizdl

37 ,mixg` zexewnn mb mircei ep` 'd zcearl xxern irvn`k ('mivl dyrn') drext w"`x `vn `l recn .zektdzdd bdpnl mled xaqd cibnl wtql w"`x lbe qn did `l bdpn ,oldl gkeeipy itk .a ?lirl ep`vn xaky mixaqdd cg`a ynzyd l oekpl

dxengd eztifp dlired `l `et` recn

38 .xzei xge`n mb drxtd `ll jynp zektdzdd ?cibnd ly

ecbpzn w"`x z` x`zl f"yxl el did gep ik ,aiydl ozip dpey`xd dl` yd lr oen`a qgiizdl oi`y ixd ef dgpd dpekp m` .ea eghedy zeny`d gkep mec ml`py ink ,diipyd dl`yl xy`ae .oiere iaihwiiaeq xe`izk dze`xl yie ,f"yx ly ezqxbl ax

39 .zeciqgd ly ifekix izlad ite`l ztqep di`x epiptly dnec

zeiciqgd zexeagd ibidpn lk mnvr e`x `l zektdzdd ibdpnn eicin lzn dnke cibnd

.mkxcn zepyl miaiegne mzeknql mitetk zexg`d

ly mzebiizqd s` lr

miwicvd qepik) azknd ly epkez zvwn ,cere z`f .zexiaqd ogana izrcl c ner epi` ,zxbi`d wxei eip ,a ,(2 dxrd lirl) ycew zexb` e`x .f"yx ly xg` azknn wefig lawn (dpaexa .k-hi 'nr ,b"pyz .my i"yxe 3 dk xacna .dt-ct mipniq ,ctw-tw 'nr ,(2 dxrd lirl) ycew zexb` iciqgd ieedd on dnlrp' zektdzdd cibnd ly ezecbpzd lya ik ,oihypiaex ixacl cebipae ,[30 dxrd lirl] dcerzl zexrd) 'xecn` xvga xwira dze` mi`ven ep` cibnd zxiht ixg`e .(83 'nr ,(jxer) sq` cec ,'dxenze ipan svx :1772 zpy ixg` ziciqgd drepzd' ,hxal`Îhxettx dcr .235-228 'nr ,`"qyz milyexi ,zeciqgd xwga miizxage miixehqid mihaid :dcre wicv

drepzd' ,hxal`Îhxettx dcr .235-228 'nr ,`"qyz milyexi ,zeciqgd xwga miizxage miixehqid mihaid :dcre wicv
drepzd' ,hxal`Îhxettx dcr .235-228 'nr ,`"qyz milyexi ,zeciqgd xwga miizxage miixehqid mihaid :dcre wicv
drepzd' ,hxal`Îhxettx dcr .235-228 'nr ,`"qyz milyexi ,zeciqgd xwga miizxage miixehqid mihaid :dcre wicv

36

37

38

39

131

sq` cec

aew`nn cec 'x iazk .3

cec d`xpd lkk exaigy ,'miryet xay' iciqgÎihp`d qxhpewd `ed sq ep xewn

40 .aew`nn

iyrnd jezd z`' :aepaec oerny ly epeylae ,iciqgd meiÎmeid iee d lr jxr ax rcin

xvgd ly hxetnd xe`izd aeyg cgeina

zexvgd lkl mbc aew`nn cec d`x dze`y ,dpcexb jltay ( Indura) xecn`a oxd` 'x icinlzn did (1787 xhtp) xecn`n lwiig miig 'x .zexg`d zeic iqgd miazkay `l` .eiazka ahid zxkip cibnd ly ezrtyde ,'uixfnn cibnde oilx`wn lr miriavn md ,daxc`e ,eicbpzn ea egihdy zeny`dd on dne`n oi` dl`

41 .'wexfp x`and ly dtilwd z`e lk`p

eixe`iza xnzyp hwpy dnfebd oeyle azekd ly dielbd ezepier zexnl

epnf oa ly elrete ezebd z` epiit`y zeihqil`ixhnÎzeihqipecd zenbnn ezebiizqd

zadlpe zihhqw` dlitzl dthd ixac mda miievn z`f mre

42 .wqp'filn jlnil` 'x

43 .dgepipe znpten dlitzn zebiizqde ,ef xvga zqqezd dlitzd z` yibcdl daxde ,z`f ddif ok` 'miryet xay' lra

hhiv ,'llk dltzn zpdp `l jinin' .aeyg izlenrz ceqile dkiyn cw enl dzidy ygla lltzn ziidy' ,('miziqn' eita mipeknd) xvgd iplnrezn cg ` ixacn xagnd

wtec ,micngn eleke miwznn ekg

lv` ok oi`y dn .zekex` ilae dxnf ila

xecn` iciqg ly mzxizgl azekd brel mb jke .'mznerl sk l` sk dkne mici izya

:oevl iyrnl `l` 'd zcearl zlrezn dpi` ezrcl y ,zcnzn dgnyl

epiax

44

z` xicddy ,iwqplie ikcxn .zrxkn dpi` eppiiprly ,azekd ly ezedf zl`ya zercd ewlgp

40

on

wlg zegtl ik qxbe eilr wlg oihypiaex mdxa` eli`e ,aew`nn cec FxAig ik xaq ,hqwhd

cec 'xl miryet xay' ,oihypiaex mdxa` e`x .cec 'x ly epa ,l`wfgi icia xaeg qxhpewd

 

;249-240 'nr ,(j"yz) dl xtq zixw ,'oinifc`xn l`wfgi 'xl ze`pwd zxez z`f :ee`w`nn

b

zyx` ,'cbpzn ly dixlwtq`a zeciqgd :ci azka "ux`d mr zxnf" qxhpewd' ,l"pd

ixac ,'"miryet xay" iciqgÎihp`d qxhpewd' ,iwqplie ikcxn ;230-193 'nr ,(`"kyz) miciqg ,l"pd ;251-237 'nr ,h"kyz milyexi ,a ,zecdid ircnl iriaxd inlerd qxbpewd `id s` dzlrd ,xecn` xvga hexita dpcy ,dict daiag .48-37 ,28-19 'nr ,a ,micbpzne ilklkÎizcÎizxagd mbcd ly ezegztzdl' dxn`n e`x .cec 'xl xeaigd qegiia zewtq .103 dxrd 372 'nr ,(39 dxrd lirl) dcre wicv ,'lbxl diilrde dxeagd ,oeictd :zeciqga .367 'nr ,zeciqgd zeclez

41

lcpn ;107-101 'nr ,`"kyz milyexi ,epini cre dziy`xn zi`hild zeciq gd ,uiaepiax a`f

42

migwl :g"id d`nd ly diipyd zivgna zeciqgd ly dipt znbn lr wa`nd' ,'f`wiit .bkw-bt 'nr ,(a"qyz) gi crlb ,'xecn`n `wiig miig 'x iazkn miixehq idÎmiipeirx .`v ,et 'nr ,my ,'f`wiit

43

.173 'nr ,a ,micbpzne miciqg ,iwqplie

44

132

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

rci ornl ,epiax iptl dciw deegpe drxkpe degzyp e`ea :xn`e df l` df `xwe

epl didy zeavr epa oi`y

mcewn xy` ,mzegk jtdzn ,dninyd ribn ey`xe dvx` aven mleqk ,el kida eawr cva df ly ey`x ,ote`d jeza ote`d dyrnk d`xp mznkge eicinlz aex uega gxe` xaer lky cr ,einin dgny d`x `l ef dgny d`x `ly ine .df l y lew `ld :xne`e dpgn lewk erix[d]a mrd lew z` rneye ezia ilzek l v` mewna xcd axdy ,el mixne`y cr ?dyer ef dn dgnyle ,rney ikp` zepr oeyy dpde ,dgp`e oebi qp elkidne eperna oi` dgp`e eiptl oeavr oi` dfd

45 .eiptl dgnye

cenrle `xead zcearl gk epl yi zrke

mcewn

axwa iaxd igily mivitny dlenrza aeyg ceqi `id xecn` xvga dgnyd ,cere z`f zgnye ,my xikfdln qd mitebiqde ziprzd ik' :'mipy 'kl oiicr er ibd `ly' xrep ipa

dl`d miryxd dpde' :xg` mewnae myl ik miciqgd z` miy`n `ed

46 .'dny xeq` zeavrd ik ,al aehe gny j` ziide

.'zeavrd mi`pey md ik xqen icibn lkl mi`pey

dnk erny dlila a`a dryza zg` mrt' :zexar xearl mipken md zeavr d lehia

miryxdn zelelhe z ekeg miyp`

eyry exn`e ,zxg` xirl egxae mze` qepwl evxe ,dlild lk m"ekr ixnife miabr

48 .'zeavr mdl didi `ly z`f ly dii`x zecr ef .zay ly zixgy zlitza xecn`a ygxzd cgeina denz bdpn

cirnd .'xf `le e`x eipiry dn ok enk epl xtiqe cg` zay mlv` lltzdy cg` yi`' gnyi' zlitzl xeaivd gily ribd xy`ke ,miig 'x ly yxcnd ziaa llt zd inipep`d zxeag d`xe dvegd `vi `ed .zqpkd zia xvgn lecb yrx lew rztl rny 'dyn

,rwxwd lr akeyd mdixagn cg`a mgek lka mihaeg

49 ,mixirve mixbean ,miciqg :milyten eiqpkne dnc`l eipt

ixiy mixxeyne dt leaip mixacn eide

47

l"pd

50 ,cigia dakxn miyer mdn dzexag izi`x mlv` iz`ayke

xy` lad yie

epzpe ,dnegk eze` miaaqn mrde mipir ielbe ltep oedpn cgy© ,ux` d lr dyrp

 

.172 'nr ,my

45

.173-172 'nr ,my

46

.177 'nr ,my

47

.174 'nr ,my

48

,mivwyl zfnxn mivxy dlind .'cgia micner mivxy ly dtewe miryx izi`x oke' epeylae .mixrp xnelk

49

did ok m` `l` ,cigia dakxna

oiyxec

oi`' dpynd ixac lr cecig ;eilr miakex xnelk .(` ,a dbibg) 'ezrcn oiane mkg

50

133

sq` cec

gyie xeg`l dide sxer epte rwxwa ely mipt lk ektdpe zktdnd l` eze ` eci eilr hi cg ` lke eicgi erxk eilr enw miax ik ,mc` letyie yi` lk oke .zy iteyge eivlg xef` gztp hrnky cr ,dieh p eci cere edkie d pcixz mcnrae ,mditpka mikkeq ,dlrnl mitpk iyxet eilr miavpd ,dptxz mici lky cr me pd oa i ba xy` zteza enk ea mikne mditk

51 .etk ribin et` zrifa rifny cr rbie siir mdn cg` lke

,'?jrx dkz dnl ryx' mihaegd cg` z` l`ye xacd xyt z` xxal yi`d dq ipyk :el xn`e ezephhg lr envr dkend yi`d ea sfp

miknl izzp ieeib ,ixeg` z` izi`xe ipt xizq` xizqd ikep`e ?yi` l jny in' ryx zeidl epl dlilge ,leaq` ip`e `y` ip`e iziyr ip` .izebeqp ` l xeg`e eaiyde '?dltzd rvn`a dfk eyrz dnl seq seq' :mdl izxn`e .'epizepgna devn ly dgny jezn milltzn mpi`y dltzd zrya mnvra eyibxdy ,il lr epzp ,'dyn gnyi' u"ydn ernyy hxtae ,mlv` zxxerzn zeavr zvw e

52 .dgnye oeyy dpde dgp`e oebi qp df ici lre ok eyre oiprd al

©

zexxerzd oial d`kdd oia xywd df xewn ly ixihqde iqenletd ite` d s` lr xvep mdixacly ,zekn wgynl oevxn mitzey dkend od miknd od .xexa `ed dgnyl oeekzd jkl ik xryl mb ozip .'devn ly dgny jezn milltzn mpi`' ik eygy xg`l

ik' :(15 i edinxi it lr) 'mirezrz dyrn' iehiaa jenqa ynzyd xy`k aew`nn cec

mixenb miqxewit` dnd

53 .'mlv` `ed oky xakn reci xacde ,dltz rvn`a mb minrtle ,mizrd xn mfwxqa x`iz day ,aew`nn cec 'x ly ez`eeva epivn ze`kdl ztqe p zecr :zilezid dlelidk zay i`vena zbbgpd ziciqgd 'ziyilyd dcerqd ' z`

aexa mlv` bedpd mirezrz dyrne lad ly oipr caln

dnednd dax ,oelicbi zelew ilew ,ycew meid dpt ik axr zrl zexiye dgnya

mikix`ne

y`x zelwa aixrn milltzne

gkn aixr n zlitza df z` df mikny in mda yi ,mda dax dnedne

mdicinlzae mda

zevgl aexw cr y`x zelwae zexinfa

xenge

qeqk cwex dfe ,xnfn dfe xxeyn df

dlild

.163-162 'nr ,a ,micbpzne miciqg ,iwqplie 51

cnr cibnd zcewta ciqgd z`wld z` oenin ly exe`iz oial df xe`iz oia oeincd lr .my

52

.181-180 'nr ,(7 dxrd lirl) qwh` dpexg`le ,(370 'nr ,zeciqgd zec lez) aepaec dpey`xl .162 'nr ,my ,iwqplie

53

134

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

ef dn dgnyl zn`ae ,dlecb dg nya mixkxkne mifftne ,y`x zelw

54 ?dyer

ly cigid zeyx jeza ze`kdde zevilrd ,zektdzdd iwgyn `et` efke x xecn` xvga ixwird wenipd .miweeya e` zeaegxa ,miaxd zeyxa `le zqpkd zia a e` wicvd xvg zevilrk `le dlitzl dwifa bven `ed j` ,dgnyd zxabde zeavrd leh ia mpn` `ed ozip eay agxnk dqtzp 'ziniptd' dxifdy jk lr riavdl dieyr ef dpgad .mzq .zixkpd daiaqd ipira 'd leligl yyg mxbiiy `la dgny i`iyl ribd l micbpzn ly mhrn epil` eribdy ,dl` zeiecr ly otwez z` jixrdl yi cvik iciqgd oe`hiaa mqxty xn`na xey yia` mdxa` rivd zixewn zeqgii zd ?mi`pw

lr' ,aew`nn cec 'x iazka ik dced ,oilx`w ciqg envra ,xey .'l`xyie oxd` zia' oigadl dqip ef gexae ,'zeixehqid zecaere zn` ipirxb mda ep` mi`ven ,etleq mdy s` xeniya drecid - oilx`w zeciqga ik oiiv `ed .zepyxt oial zecr oia eixe `iza ,zay i`vena laewn - 'lecbd' oxd` 'x jxc cibnd xvgn milylzynd miwizr mibdpn

od el`

55 .'jif or™ihy' `xwpd epina cgein bdpn ,dlcad mxhae ziyily dcerq xg`l

dnypd ly dz`iviay xrvd lr jka zetgl ick ,zevilrl zenxebd zeiccd zetigc :azk jke .dxzid

bdepl mipeekn aew`nn cibnd iazka mix`ezn mdy itk 'mixfend mi yrn'd

'jif oitihy' `xwpd

bdpy itke ,ditpr izan cg` `ed xecn` xy` ,oilehqÎoilx`w iciqg lv`

dyn l`ingxi iax w"dxd

ziyily dcerq ly oefnd zkxa xg`'

cxyy ,`"rif yhixfrnn cibnd ziaa exewny bdpn

uipf`wn

exiag lr cg` yi` segcl oebk wegyl xac dfi` zeyrl ycewa ekxc did

56 'dnecke

'exiag lr cg` yi` segcl' w"yvena oilx`w iciqg ly bdpnde

57 .dxizi dnypd weliqe dklnd zay z`v mr dgny zeaxdl ,d`xpk enrh

izi`x zn`ae') di`x zecr lr miqqean eixac ik oiiv aew`nn cec .250-249 'nr ,my 54

'nr ,my) uip'fewn l`xyi cibnd ly exvga mixen` mixacd ik xriy iwqplie ;('my izeida miizkld mihaid :ziyily dcerq' ,xphxb awri e`x ziyilyd dcerqd lr .(74 dxrd 250 .24-5 'nr ,(o"yz) e `xciq ,'miixehqide ,iee`wx`d© © xcpqMl`© e`x) zelled wgyn e` zeaaey dyrn rnyn yiciia (yixr™ihy e`) sihy dpeekdy okzii j` ;(497 'nr ,1988 wxei eip ,jeaxrhxree xryi`rxar dÎyilbprÎyicii¦ .(494 'nr ,my) oenda zewgcide zetigc ernyny ,(yiprqiehy ,yiprRehy e`) oRehyl -1860) uipfewn dyn l`ingxi 'x lr .76 'nr ,h"txz oilael ,miwicv ly oxtq ,o`nib aec xfrl` .bqz-`qz 'nr ,`"qyz milyexi ,miyi` ,zeciqgl dictelwivp` ,iqtl` wgvi e`x (1909 l`xyie oxd` zia ,'oilx`wa miciqgd zxeage `"rif lecbd oxd` iax oxn' ,xey yia` mdxa` zay i`vena aixrn zryay oil`hq bdpn' :eeyde .46 dxrd gpw-fpw 'nr ,(c"pyz) `p

oxd` iax oxn' ,xey yia` mdxa` zay i`vena aixrn zryay oil`hq bdpn' :eeyde .46 dxrd gpw-fpw
oxd` iax oxn' ,xey yia` mdxa` zay i`vena aixrn zryay oil`hq bdpn' :eeyde .46 dxrd gpw-fpw

55

56

57

135

sq` cec

wx laewn did eixacly ,(jif oriilew) zektdzdd bdpn oia oigadl `et` rivd xey bdpn oial ,yid lehia did enrhe ,(c"age wqil`w) dpald diqex iciqg axwa did enrhe ,(oilx`we xecn`) diqlet iciqg axwa bdpy ,(jif or™i hy) zeaaezydd ,xey xeaq jk ,dzid `l zeiektdzdl 'uixfnn cibnd zecbpzd mb .dg nyd zxa bd ,zektdzdd mvrl `le ,'wqil`w zeaegxa' diqdxtae miaxd zeyxa o ziiyrl `l` .'d zcearl ziaeig jxck dqtzpy

zeiektdzd lr zexge`n zeieciqg zeiecr .4

hqed `l` ,zeciqgd inegzn zektdzdd bdpn mlrp `l leflfde zecbpzdd zexnl ,epinia zelretd zeadlp zeizc zeveaw ly mipvgend odibdpn md jkl zEcr .dileyl jtdzdle cewxl mibdepy ,('wztd lra') xqce` aec l`xyi bltn alqxa iciqg oebk uegan mitev ipira miqtzpd zevilre dgny jezn ,xeaiv zenewnae aegx zevega .zehzydk zeieciqga mb miiw zektdzdd bdep .ok zeyer zeiegc miiley zeve aw wx `l j` oebk) zblten dgny ly e` zeadlzd ly zeiepncfda xwira ,(c"ag en k) zexg` ze`na mb bdpnd ly eneiw jynd lr zeiecr hrn dpd .(dxez zgnya e` z epezg dht`n lyd ryedi mdxa` wicvd i`v`vn cg` xtiq lynl jk .'kde h"id :'l`xyi ade`' eiepika rcepy ,(1825-1748)

d`x df ixg` .`txzpe epilr `l ye`ia dlgp 'l`xyi ade`' axd ipiwf icec

zia' :el xn` '?dcez oaxw z`ad `l dnl' :el`y .melga adf ixehd [z `] ipiwf

xtqz .hrn ycwn oilaela' :adf ixehd xn` .'axg ycwnd

zxc`d' mixne` xeaiva my dide ,yxcnd zial `a ycew zayae .oilae ll zexwcfd dyre ,oelgd jxc 'l `xyi ade `'d utwe .'dpen`de

58 .ax onf 'eke zxc`d zxin`a , zeadlzda (qiwlrf`w)

`ae

'my

ixg`y bdpnd z` exiaqd miciqgd .xg` `edy dn e` zxc` ,zabn i pyl cg` mi wxef w"deax ibdpn' ,xey ryedi wgvi) 'miiga epx`yp m` jka ep` miwcea dxizid dnypd dwlzqpy zwixf bdpn .(gkw 'nr ,[c"qyz] aiw l`xyie oxd` zia ,'ycew zayl oil x`w oil`hqn .dkepgd inia mb oilx`w iciqg axwa bdep zeabnd dwihqin ,wxn iav e`xe .px oniq ,83 'nr ,`"rxz dyxe ,iaxd ze`ltp ,ocle mgpn dyn 58 .49 'nr ,c"qyz aia` lz ,alqxan ongp 'x zxivia oerbiye

136

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

dyw oe`kicn ulgpy ,oilaeln 'dfegd' icinlzn ,aeyg wicv lr xet iq epiptl ixd ey`x ,zektdzd `l` dpi` ef zexwcfd .'zexwcfd' dyr zizc zelrzd ly dryae

59 .yiciia gpend on xexiaa yxtzny itk ,dlrnl eilbxe dhnl 'x mya fla ciqg lr ztqep zxeqn dxnzyd zeiektdzdl 'dfegd' ly eq gi lr :oilaela yxcnd ziaa daizd iptl xary ,aFpdE`n§ yiaiit

eayge ,c"ndiad jeza 'qrwilif`w'¨ dyre cenrd iptln jld 'xe` xv ei' lv`e

d"awdy xn` oilaeln iaxd mpn`

orpree`c iif ief` iee ornry jif ol`f iif f` mdl d`xde mik`lndl `xw ,mce xya `edy ,yieeit 'x f` ,(milltzn md day jxca yiiazdl mdil ry)

dfa

eilr citwi oilaeln iaxd i k miciqgd

60 .(mdn xzei aeh lltzn yiaiit 'x oky) iif iee xrqra hpree`c

lr driavn `id j` ,wtqa zlhen dly zeihpze`d zciny zxge`n zxeqn ef mpn` .zadlp dlitz ly miipeviw miielib itlk zeplaeqd zcin `xity yinlw qenipelw 'x icia dazkp dpina zcgein zitxbeiaehe ` zecr ,oileta zeciqgd ly zeixewnd zeiciqgd zeiencd on ,(1943-1889) dp'vq`§ ¤ iRn© rwxd z` xiaqde ,jtdzdl bdpy envr lr cird qenipelw 'x .dyxe ehba gvxpy :df dyrnl ipen`de iybxd

zektdzdd z` zeyrl izhlgdy drya izlrtzp jk lk df dnl ik izenvr jk lk etgx df dnle ?dxezd xtq [zkepg] jepig zrya (wilryf`w) ?rfrcfp iteb lke ,jtdz`e cewx` ea xy` mewnd z` f`n izi`xyk

ezxeza eavnn xzei daxd ea zgwlzn l`xyi yi`d zweyz minrt daxd eal .'c myl dpyr`e dtixge dlecb diyr dfi` il ozi in ,xne`e ,ezcearne

meiqdl invr oikdl izlgzdyke

dgny zry `ld ,invra y`k idze z`y xzia izweyz ia dgwlzp ,jepigde iteba da zeyrl lke` dne ,iig lka `id zg` xyt` ,ef oirn d`xepe dyecw ,rayz `l cer iytp la` ,aeh .igk lka cewx`e dcrxa lib` .iwl`l lr eta dcigie dnnexn dyecw dryl dni`znd dtixgde dlecbd diyrd cer z` f oi` mdipec` zgnya milhaznd miltyde mifapd mze`k jtdz` ,xne`e .e fk

izcear

lk dne izxez dn ,eaxwa ltep

zecrd ziiab igqepn cg`a .574 'nr ,(55 dxrd lirl) iee`wx`d© © e`x .rwlf`w¨ ,rwlrif`w¨ 59 .446 'nr ,zeciqgd zeclez ,aepaec e`x .'mrlew' mewna 'qrwlry`w' myxp ok` lirl epecipy

jetdl

iel x"c ceakl oexkf xtq :iel zxkfn ,'lezid ipeifg' ,ocq ac) 'uegl wilif`w¨ z`fd zrbeynd

wicvd

iaxd oevx zeyrl' :wia l`eny awri azky ziciqgÎihp`d dxihql mb eeyde

.(101 'nr ,c"iyz aia` lz ,cpiext .fkw 'nr ,g"qyz l`ei zixw ,a ,mazk itne mditn ,(xicdn) onwilb l`eny miig

60

137

sq` cec

dne ,da yi mrh dn jl z`fd dceard dn ,ia zepnl ohyd ia rbie .mceak l .jiyeginle jze`ixal wifi xyt`e .`l e` jtdzz m` d"awdl dil ztk i` xrbi ,izb`y ial zndpn f` .lk ipira rbeynle dheyl dfa d`xz `l m` de .dwegce dcigi ,dlecb dryd ,dzr zepeayg aeygl zr `l .ohyd ja 'c ,day oeike .dvex ip` ipewe ixev myl ytp zexiqn oirn diyr dzr ze yrl xy` dtixgd diyrd z` `et` iz`vn ,ipwtqz ipeifaae ,ipcgtz ize` ixaa .dl ycwzne hlgn ip` dzrne ,izytg ,ipta dxwizp ,il dycwzp ,izica ialn xy` ,ef ziheicdd diyr ,f` one

gafn oirk wx ,ipeinca xak izi`x dheyt zektdzd `l

61 .ipirl widan did

diptl izl hazpe

,(1999-1906) obe zia-dplFhn¤ § iwqxah opgei 'x ,epxec oa x"enc` ly zeiek tdzd lr :dl`d mixacd exqnp

mizirl (lwi'few) zektdzd zeyrl ekxc did

dyecway xac lk iptl ,dlil lka reaw ote`a ok bd p `ed .zepnefn jxck ,cgeina dyw 'lhieew' z`ixw iptl ,a"eike dkepg xp zwlcd ,yeciw oebk

lehia'l sqep irvn`k ,eini lk c`n xcid ea oiipr - mipzg gnyl

z` rviay xg`l eitn ernyp zepey minrt .zexg` zeiepncfd cerae ernyp minrt .oiiprd z` hrna xiaqdl ick mda yiy mixeaic zektdz dd lr dycg dlawe xard lehia - 'zeycgzd' `id ozernyny milin eitn lke' 'dpxn`z izenvr lk' milind z` dyrn xg`l rinyd minrt .cizr d epwf z` e`vn mrty zg` zepncfda mb xtiqe ,a"eike 'degzyz jl dne w jxryk .miilbxe miici heyit ly avna r"if [dplehn] cec iax w"dx d mixg`l dxed oke 'yid lehia' fixkd dxez zgnya zetwdd jldna zek tdzd

62 .ok xnel 'lwi'few' md s` eyriy

ezbdpda epina cg ein xac

'yid

,a"kyz milyexi ,mikxa`d zxykd extql gtqp ,'fexfe ev qxhpew' ,`xity yinlw qenipelw :dp'vq`itn iaxd lr .df xewnl ial zneyz dptdy ,wxn iav x"cl dcen ip` .20-19 'nr d"yz-y"z zexfbae zenglnd izy oia zeipeirx zenbn :oilet zeciq g ,'f`wiit lcpn ,c"pyz aia` lz ,dreyil oaxeg oia ,ciay xfril` ;411-373 'nr ,o"yz milyexi ,('d`eyd') Nehemia Polen, The Holy Fire: The Teaching of Rabbi Kalonymus ;154-105 'nr ,qwe oex ;Kalman Shapira, the Rebbe of the Warsaw Ghetto, Northvale, N.J. 1999 zebd ,'dp'vq`itn `xity yinlw qenipelw 'x ly zikepigd ezpyna zeadlzdde zeybxzdd' zeciqgd :d`eapl zeigiyn oia ,myl iav ;88-71 'nr ,(c"qyz-b"qyz) e-d icedid jepiga .f"qyz ,oli`Îxa zhiqxaipe` ,xehwec zcear ,`pvq`itn x"enc`d it lr

61

wxa ipa ,`pl`hn x"enc` oxn

lr

eazkpe exn`py mixn`n sqe` :xe` meia ux`l izkygde

62

138

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

:eilr xteq cere

lr envr lbl bn didy cr dlke ozg zgnyl excbn z`vl ycewa ekxcn zegkepae ozgd ly ezrc dgf zepezgd zg`a .mixirvd ly mbd pnk ux`d

cg`

epiax z` `ipde ,diptd lr citwd dyrn zrya gkpy epiax ly ezia ipa n dpezgd mein mixetq miycg xg` ik xxazd minil .ozgd oevx z` `lnl n z`xwl cxgy jxa`d .axr zrya jxa`Îozg eze` ly ezlc lr epiax wtcz p xarl rqet epiax z` eze`xa mdcp xewiad zilkz idn zrcl ywiae gxe `d swcfn `edyke xidn y`x leblb jxere ezrabn z` cixen oir sxdae oel qd

63 .'jzpezg inin cer z`f jl aiig ip` ixd' xihtn `ed

` hk`n iax xrpleh ep' :ieeivÎdywaa epiax l` dpt ax ldw

'rl`few

miiciqg d `kd iwgynl zeizextq zeiecr :'!xcd p wgyn dfi ` ' .b

ziaeigd daeyzd ?zektdzdd ibdpn oial oenin dnly d`xy zeknd oi a xyw yi m`d jxck dgnyd zxabd mzxhny ,'miwgyn' ly mibeq dl`e dl`y epzprha dxeyw .yiciiae zixara dycgd zextqa zeiexfd zeiecr zvw xe`l wfgzz ef dprh .'d zcearl ywan xy`k .d`kda dxeywd wgyn jxcl zecr epivn h"yrad igay xtqa xak deevn `ed ,ea lflfl dhpy ,aehewn oeyxb mdxa` 'x eqib z` gwl cnll h"yrad eze` ekd :wegy jxca eiyp`l h"yrad xn` f`' :eixeg`a ezewldl eiyp`l

64 .' h"yradn wgyi `ly [xeg `a ]

xywdd lr riavn 'wegy jxca' iehiad

.ieeivd ly ilezidd xexa j` ,ihqin ltxra mpn` dtehr ,zecr dxzep alqxan ongp 'x ly e begn mb :alqxa iciqg axwa mb ebdp dl` oirn ze`kd iwgyny dkezn

zece` y"p` efi` mr [ongp 'x] l"f epax ltlt zg` mrt :dyrn did cer e ,licei 'x xn`e !zn`d in mr licei 'x xn`i :[y"p`] exn`e ,`xnba yexit m` :l"f epax xn`e .`xnbd ly hytd oipra mipekp [y"p` ly] mdixacy .od :xn`e ?[heya d`wld] uiny jl epzi mipekpe miizn` ixacy jl d `x`

.458 'nr ,(q"yz) n dpya dpy ,'egxk lra x"enc`' ,siy le`y mb e`x .11-10 'nr ,q"yz

.diptdd lr aiby icbl dcen ip` .57 'nr ,my ,xe` meia ux`l izkygde

63

.xtqd ly cid azk it lr `id 'xeg`a' ztqezd .98 'nr ,(2 dxrd seq lirl ) h"yrad igay

64

'nr ,a"nyz milyexi ,

cid

azkn liniqwt ,h"yrad igay ,(xicdn ) oiiycpen ryedi e`x

.87

139

sq` cec

ylg p uinyd zryae .uiny licei 'xl epzpe .eixack hytdy l"f epax d`xde eza dpde ,ezial rqp jk xg` .uiny el mi pze py df lr xdxde ,ezrc

epaxl skz rqpe ,c`nl dylgp

xdxdn ziid `l m`y ,[ongp 'x] el xn`e

cg` xa`y ok didi zxdxdy j` ,ixnbl d`ixa ziyrp dzid uinyd zrya

65 .d`ixad `ide ixnbl zn dci lry dphwd rav`y ded jke ;`ixaz `ide z eni

l"f

zpvwen zebdpzdl qgiizd envr oenin .opiwqr zeiektdzda e` ze` kda wx `l j` ,qenipd iweg z` erxt ,mixenb mipwipivk mibdpzn eid'y ,miciq g zvwn ly cgeina

66 .'dfa `veike mixg` ipta mdikxv miyer ,minexr zeaegxa mivvex zn eid

zetqep zeiecr epicia j` ,izax dfxtd mda yiy dnece mnldl mpn` dyw dl` ly beqk dze`xl eid mileki miptan mippeazny ,drexte zihqikxp` zebdpzdl :jkl zipeirxd dwnpdd z` mb `evnl ozip mixge`n miiciqg zexewn a .reyry

zxag ikxc xwir' ik ,dgqiyt iciqg lr xqnp lynl jk .dee`bd ybx zr ipn xy` ,ala ze` b mewn zzl `ly ick ,mzlefl ceakd qenip xcrdn ,`gqiyxt

67 .'zerxd zecnd ixt xewn df `vnp ,dibeqd oexztl aeyg gztn oenh ile` eay ,xzeia hxetnd xe` izd diqexay wqahil uipn`w dxiira lcby ,(1922-1847) wihew l`wfgi ly eizepexkifa

,oixaewn dyn 'x wicvd ly eiciqgn did eia`

68 .zwdaen ziciqg dxiee`a dpald

inegz lka zericil rtey xewn md wihew zepexkif .mipelqn mdxa` 'x ly okn xg`le elxeba aeyg ciwtz d`lin zeciqgdy oeeikne ,h"id d`na ayend megz icedi ly miigd qgi jezn dilr wtxzdle da weqrl wihew daxd ,(ei`eyip xg`l da cxn `ed) iyi`d zpya dyxeea qtcpy ,zepexkifd ly ipyd jxka .zxewiae dkxrd ly ihpleeian` :ohw xrpk dl cr¥ didy uipn`wa miciqgd ly mzgny lr wihew xtiq ,1914

mixe`iz

milelrzd enzyk .leab `le xeriy did `l miciqgd ly zeaaeyle zel ledl `a`n ywiae epzia l` ciqgd dlqei `a zg` mrt .miycg e`ivnd ,mipyid

zexecdna hnyed df xetiq .bk oniq ,gk 'nr ,o"xden iyp` ,f"nyz milyexi ,xe` iakek

65

.xtqd ly zepey`xd .149 'nr ,oenin iig

66

ly mxe`izl eeyd .10 'nr ,g"txz 'fcel ,b ,ycew itxy giy ,wihiyxtn yicw miw urei

67

xi`n iav ;130-128 'nr ,f"kxz dqce` ,dpedk xzk ,mieaxcv xcpqkl` l v` dgqiyt iciqg .309-308 'nr ,f"pyz milyexi ,oilet zeciqga zehiye miyi` :oil aell `gqiyt oia ,uiaepiax .75 dxrd oldl mb e`xe dn ,(xicdn) sq` cec :zepexkifd ly zixard dxecdnl `eana dagxda e`x extqe wihew lr

68

.g"pyz aia` lz ,` ,wihew l`wfgi ly eizepexkif

140

izi`xy

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

xy`k .miciqgd lk eid xak laihya

rax` e` yely oa f` iziid .zewenq mdipte wegva mlek evxt ,dnipt epqpkp dxxazd daiqd la` .wegvn mirwtzn md recn ,jk lk wigvn dn izpad ` le miqgeinde micakpd z` zewlna cakl ehilgd miciqgd :ce`n heyt .cin ea didi `ly ,envrl dlEcb wifgdl mc`l el l`y© cinz exkfiy ick ,md ay

,itec lk `la mibdep elld micakpd miciqgdy `id zn`d .dee`b ly o niq mey wx ixd ,mlyen ciqgl ayg p mc`yk la` ,dee`b ztih ilae xyeia dknl d`etx micwdl ie `x ok lr .ef zrxbn oiae e pia rqtk .dnibt dze ` llkl `eai `l mlerly ick ,ezewldle ,dhnl miptd ,ogleyd lr miakey :heyt zeidl jixv did d`wldd ote ` mb

lr akey owf lra icedi ji` izi`x xy`k

dgny iz`lnp ce`n mieqn mewna mgek lka ea mihaeg miciqgde ogle yd .izbprzd '!xcdp wgyn dfi`' .dax .cgi mb wp`pe wgv owefnd icedid itlk eipt ,ogleyd lr akye jld `ed .okqnd `a` ly exez ribd f` la` rxwp ialy izybxd .zewenq mipta mdici z` enixd miciqgd ipende ,dhn izika .dhigyl ize` miliaen eli`k ynn ,mini` zegxva zekal izlgzde dyw .okqnd ia` z` 'izlvd' jke ,ecxed mdici ,erzxp miciqgd .igek lka .cli ly zeikead eipir len uiaxdl d`xpk .gekd lkae ,obedk ebtq mixg`d lk .xty `a` ly ewlg wx xy`k zelwa xqnzdl axiq ,`ixa xegae lecb ovil didy ,xldExw¤ ¤ aii l ,wa`zdl dpdp heyt `ed ,jk lk eze` ecigtd `l onvr zeknd .exez ri bd o`k ea miwifgn dpd .zepgleyd lre milqtqd lr utw `ed .mglidle se gcl `ed .dt lka wgev ,ogley lr e` wegx lqtq lr cner ,my `ed xake ,dwf ega miwfg miaxd eid xac ly eteqa j` ,mirfeine miyzen eid mlek .mze ` rbiy zexihq el sihgd eaala midel`y in lk eiykry oaen .cklp `ede xzei .oexg`d did `ed .wgynd miizqd xldExw aiil mr .zenei` geln bce dlecb dlg .sixg dwyn iweawa dnk ogleyd lr ecinrd dzr e`vi diizyd ixg` .dgny aexa 'miigl' ezy mitiird miciqgde ,myÎi`n evv yrxd one - zeadlp ,zewenq ,zerfein mipt ,cia ci ,szk l` szk - cewi xa .filr iciqg oebip xvep cewixd icrv ly lecbd

!mithege - znxen dhetwd

dyexc ezegkep .laihyd l ` `eal

my

69 .miciqg egny jk

.54-52 'nr ,d"qyz aia` lz ,a ,wihew l`wfgi ly eizepexkif :cpe rp ,(xicdn) sq` cec 69

141

sq` cec

reci bdpnk zx`ezn ,h"id d`nd ly miyingd zepy ziy`xa dygxzdy ,ef dcefit`

zeknd qwh ly rlaend eciwtz .dee`bd zxiay :abyp iciqg oeirx `h and ,laewne ly eigpena Communitas) 'mieey zlidw' ly ihxwenc oirn oexwir yigndl `ed

70 .(xpxh xehwie beletexzp`d

mciwtzy mipepbpn rcena zxvei efk `zeev zlidw

mixiyr - l`d ipta dixag lk ly oeieeyd oexwr z` qqale zizc dikxxiid repnl z` zlhan dppi` ziciqgd 'mieeyd zlidw' ik yibcdl yi .mizegtk m ipqgi ,miiprk ipa oeieeyl wx zqgiizn `l` , eiciqg oial wicvd oia dpigany ziceqid dikxxiidd zepexkifa x`ezy oeifiga mitzzynd ly xirvd mlib lya ik ,gipdl ozip .dxeagd - (wihew ly epeyla 'liRy xryiciqg') ilezid 'wgyn'l ipivxd qw hd jtd wihew .'micaekn'd eizexewn lya zeinihibln dpdpd daeyn dyrn e` 'iaeig' owxetk ze`kdd bdpn zexnzydl cigid xewnd mpi` wihe w zepexkif j` ,'miigd ikxca drezd' ly iyilyd wlga .dyecw iwit`l zenil` few ip ly jxck ,mezid sqei ,xetiqd xeaib lblbzn ,(1885-1842) oiwqplenq uxt ly rcepd e xetiq ly ziran oeifiga dteve ,dxn izernynd mya diexwd dxiira iciqg yxcn zial miyp`l dlityne dbirln zeqgiizde ,wey ly xknnae gwina diefia ,dlitz xegi` :yxcnd ziaa eayiy mipwf

oexg`d yicwl ipyd lltznd ribdae axrde dgpnd zltz elk micg` mi rbxa eilbx ,ede `yie edektdie ux`d lrn eze` ediabie miyp` ipy eybp

zzl xn` yi`d .dltza jix`d ik lr exqil exn`ie

etlyie lqtqd lr edegznie xqen sihna mci egly f` ,edeafrie xt[e]k

oiia eytp dct `ed mb j` ,milr pn zewln eze ` zekdl mdilr pn

71 ,zgzn ey`xe lrnn

72 .edeafrie miyepr

oiwqplenq ly ezecr z` jixrdl xyt`n epi` df xetiq ly oierde ixi hqd eite` mpn` miqpn ep`y zewlnd wgyn ly dwegx d`eaa dxnzyp o`k mby d`xp j` ,d pnidnk .exfgyl

'nr ,(68 dxrd lirl) izi`xy dn lynl e`x .ziciqg dgny ixe`iza mitevx wihew zepexkif .375-374 ,258 ,181-179 Victor Turner, Dramas, Fields and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society, ze`xl drivd dict .360-356 'nr ,(40 dxrd lirl) mbcd ,dict ;Ithaca 1974, pp. 231–271 dceqin mr mlrpy s`y ,zeciqga iaihnxet aly da ebdpy oeieeyd iqetc ae ziciqgd 'dxeag'a dxn`na mb e`x .(146 dxrd 384 'nr ,my) mrt icn uxtzne ay `ed ziciqgd xvgd ly .101-100 'nr ,(d"qyz) 55 zrc ,'zeciqga izcd mlerde zihqind d ieegd' .iciqgd zektdzdd bdpnl ixihq cd ,wtq `ll ,o`k yi .31 'nr ,1910 dyxe ,b ,miigd ikxca drezd ,oiwqplenq uxt

d ieegd' .iciqgd zektdzdd bdpnl ixihq cd ,wtq `ll ,o`k yi .31 'nr ,1910 dyxe ,b
d ieegd' .iciqgd zektdzdd bdpnl ixihq cd ,wtq `ll ,o`k yi .31 'nr ,1910 dyxe ,b

70

71

72

142

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

ehr ixt ,'ceexz lnl 'x' ixihqd xetiqa ep`vn df wgynl cgeina oi iprn cixy ezenc zx`ezn xetiqa .(1928-1844) xhhycpxa cec ikcxn i`vilbd likynd l y :miciqgd zegilya dlap iyrn dyerd xirv ozxab ,liqty ly

mb liqty did zeprxet l oken

iayez exfb - .dwcvl mb mdl eaygie xzidk mdl dyrpe fielwda ea mi bdepy e` mwicvl gex zgp zeyrl ick ,`znc axd ipt z` yiial laihyÎmiciq gd ornl oxhirae ztfa ,zqpkd ziaa eayen z` sphie jli in ,eckpl e` epal `ly meyn ,miwynd qkn xkegn mznwp zgwl exnbe epnp ;liqty - ?eni lkd xkegd lr mixeqi`e zenxg jygna waci in ,fielwda bfnpd y"iid qn lr xze ei

leere oee` xac lkl gily did ik

fielwda

ze`qk eayi ;liqty - ?ugxnd ziae zeiqpk iza igzta ely ze`wynd lre `ly daw p ezy ` dcliy meyn ,zewlnl hgeyd ozg z` e pce htynl

73 .liqty - ?mihty ea zeyrl cenrd lr edgzni in ,mixagd oevxa

zervn`a fielwd iayei mikxery milelrze miwgyn ipin hxite jiyndy ,xhhycpxa

md elld mibdpnd lk ik ,itxbeiaehe` ite` zlra miiley zxrda oii v s` ,lqty

,ipelt ly ez`wld xekf` `ed o`k cgeind ,mewn lkn

lekiak eneiwl iz`vny cigid xewnd edf .'mixagd oevxa `ly dawp ezy` dcliy' lirl epecpy oenin zepexkifn dxiyid dwipid j` ,zepa zcill qgi a oevl bdpn ly .ynn ly zecrk df xewn ze`xl zexyt` oi`e ,oirl dielb `id zeiciqg zeveawa xnzyd dee`bd zxiayl jxck ogleyd iab lr dgizn d bdpn iciqg ly 'xwtdd jxc' z` (1948-1901) ileky` a`f oxd` x`iz lynl jk .zexg`

:dgqiyt

74 .'izclen w"wa oiwize ibdpn'

lka mixbzne mivtewe micwex ,miaaezqn mikxa`d eid mi`laÎmir xw iyeal eze` miqpewe ,ea miviaxne ogleyd ia b lr eze` migzen ,ycg mc`

rbty inl el ie`e ,y"ii ibela

miayei eid cg`l cg` qcpew dyrn oiae

minwe - 'mipewiz' miyere dxeza miwqere dwqtd ila zery zexyr d nk

75 .dee` b yyg n ,exag lre envr lr cg` lk mivvelzne

mda

73

xxebzdl xar ,dxyr rax` liba ,ei`eyip xg`le ,(Brezesko ) lbixaa clep xhhycpxa 74

.ziaxrnd divilba odizy ,(Tarnów) aepx`ha yxetn iciqg xewn iz`vn `l .80 'nr ,q"yz milyexi ,oileta zeciqgd ,ileky` a`f oxd` micitwn j` wegya miaxn mpn`y ink dgqiyt iciqg xe`izl cebipa cner `ed ,daxc`e ,jkl .129 'nr ,(67 dxrd lirl) dpedk xzk ,mieaxcv e`x .myeal lr

75

.234 'nr ,c"lyz milyexi ,clebpiit inrÎoa xicdd ,mixetiq ,xhh ycpxa cec ikcxn

143

sq` cec

zexwtd zlelid (1921-1865) iwqa'vicxa sqei dkin xteqd x`iz 'dwqtdd' ex etiqa :liaepx'v zian miwicv ipy ly xewial m`ea mr oileea ziciqg dxi ira zllegzny drevxa miztek olhad icb z ` .wegv myl edrx zglva eci z` ozep yi` yi`'

be prz myl

zeveaw axwa mb mzenk `evnl ozipe ,`weec miciqgd z` epiit` `l d f beqn 'dyecw

dxez zgny zebibg z` (1961-1887) wpexh diryi l`igi x`iz ,lynl ,jk .zexg ` - 'fcel xef`a dphw dlidw - ( Osmolin) oilenqe`a miheyt micedi mixki` ly :h"id d`nd rvn`a

zenil`'e ze`xt ivxt xac ly ezn`l j`

76

.'

rext

,rext wegv

mifee` xya mqxk mi`lnne dxkyl o`k mizey mewnd icedi eid dxez z gnya `cb yia crep df ciwtzl .dxez zgny ly i`ab mixgea eid jk xg` .aex ke dtepz mitipn eid oilenqe` ixeaib .oilenqe` ly zixtkd dlidwa xzeia lecbd .zi`xt zexidna dtvxl migipvne ,zqpkd zia zexewl cr ,okqnd 'i `ab'd z` heyita dtvxd lr r exy x`ypy cr dlilg xfege migipvne mitipn eid jk z` oitek eid df xg`l .el ewlgy ceakd lcebn dvgnl zn ,miilbxe mi ici z` milylyn xkzy pyke ,dwyn ze`ln zeqek dnk dzyiy i`abd ,d py d py d py pe xfeg dyrnd dide .dkldk eze` miwlne eiq pkn zewypn eide dniblle zelegnl zetxhvn od s` miyp . dxez zg ny icn mipype mixfeg eid mzei`xta minec zefgn .dxezd ixtq z` dad` ze wiaca

77 .a`a dryz inia mb

'd zcea ra jxcke dg nyl iehiak d`kd iwgyn :oexzt zrvd .c

'ziperbydÎzipendd' onl ,mipeebn mirten dxikn zizcd dfhqw` d ly dibelepneptd

ziciqgd dlitzd

mieegy ,mipey mibeqn zeihhqw` zeieegl ,'geliy ok' oirn ,zepncfd wtq ila `id dpc 'zeciqga izcd mlerde zihqind dieegd' dxn`na .jkl ddnk mytpy milltzn

78 .ueg itlk milbp mpi` hrnk dipniqy ,'znpten'l cre zpvgend

mqxtzpy ,df xetiq lr .epw 'nr ,d"kyz aia` lz ,` ,(iwqa'vicxa) oeixbÎoa sqei dkin iazk

76

xe`iz ik draw oixaeb .85-79 'nr ,1975 ob znx ,milbrn ,oixaeb zixep e`x ,a"qxz zpya dwaepxh dxiira xaecne ,ok xacd oi`e ;(80 'nr) 'ipeinc `l` ,ihqil`ix xe`iz eppi`' dxiird zeixehqid zeizyz :zexwtde zeciqg' ,wxn iav e`x .xac lkl zil`xe zixehqid zxbqnae .237-219 'nr ,(c"qyz) f oFtv ,'iwqa'vicxa i"nl "dwqtdd" xetiq l zeitxbeiaehe`e .25 'nr ,1962 diagxn ,xyiilt `xfr mbxz ,zepenze zepexkf :oilet ,wpexh i"i

77

dcez .91-81 'nr ,`"qyz milyexi ,zi`eapd drcezd :ziqlwd d`eapd ,xniidpte` oinipa .ef dliren dxiwql ial zneyz dptdy ,izn`Îoa ia`l

78

144

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

zei`xtd sebd zerepze zeipevigd zeegnd mler lr zeizextqd zeie cra dict daiag :miciqg ly mzlitza

ze`ignae drepz ly seb ztya deelnd ihhqw` ilwifen rexi` `id dli tzd zipnfÎea zxeywz ly beq `id zxabend dfhqw`d ike ,'yrx' zxivie miitk eiyrn ,ipy cvne ,dlitza iexy mc`d ,cg` cvn .dxagd mre zedel`d mr mizrl d`a df qetihn zihhqw`d dieegd .mitev ldw mitqe` mi`ilt nd .envr lltznd ly eteb z` wx `le dtevd ly eytp z` mb rfrfl zeaexw

79 .micrl dwewf enk `id

d`wld llk jxcay s` ik ,dxirde ab` jxca dict dxikfd oenin x`izy d cefit`d z`

80 .jkl dxeywk zi`xp dppi` oenin ly ezecr ,dxtkle sebiql zexeyw z ekn e` zelled zxiee` oiay sixgd xarnd lr eizepexkifa riavdl ywia oen in ,xekfk

81 ,df wenr ite` ew oekp l` ddif m` mb j` .dyecw ly dxiee`l zexwtde

,xtql rci envr oenin .mdizepa zcled lr zea` zekdl bdpn mrt i` d idy dlrn

mzlitz zrya zeinybd zehytzd avna cinzdl eywiay miciqgd ik ,xg` mewna

zrcd oi`

zei pkn zelert ipin lk ici lr df avna mnvr riwyde xefgl evn`zd ea miiexy zeidle ,epnn me`ived mixg` mixedxdy drya ,(zegeev e mireprp) mizrl ewiqtd ji ` ,d `xnd did jgebn ok`e .dltzd onf lk jUg ila

.83 'nr ,(d"qyz) 55 zrc

79

,mieal` awri e`x dxtke sebiql jxck zewln lr .fnx ly jxca egqep dix ac .77 'nr ,my

80

,1648-1348 ,oilete fpky` inkg ly daeyzd zehiya mipeir :mixeqi zlawe ald zaeyz .('zewln' jxr ,gztnd it lr) b"pyz milyexi bxeavpib xy` ciqgd xrpd sygp ,h"id d`nd ly miyiyd zepy idlya ,okn x g`l dpy d`n ,dxebicqn awri mdxa` wicvd ly exvga xwia `ed .dnec dieegl ('mrd cg`'k minil rcepy) `ed ekld zekeq crend leg inin cg`a .zeciqgl izxewiad eqgi z` df r exi` avir eixacle cnr ,i`vilb ,cg` owfe ,miyp` d`ln dzid `ide "dkeq"d l` ep`a' :'miclid zkeq' l` eia`e (mqxetn xzeid epzge "iaxd" ly exeka epa) "j`lxrcpiw"d zrc z` gcan d ide oglyd ci lr ,dxyr mizy oa xrp ,ip` mby cr miqb jk lk eid mixacd .dt leap mi`lnd e miqbd eixetqa ei pir z` "j`lxrcpiw"d on cg` mvr me`zt .mal lka ewgv mitq`pd lke .lkd hrnk izpad inil `ed mb `ay ,`xebicq iciqg oia mqxetn ofg) "dw'ryedi dti`" :`xwe d lecb zewaca wicvde xnfl ligzd ofgd ."'ecqg xev devi' xnfi" :l"pd el xn` dw'ryedi z` e`vnyke .(bgd cnry ,glnd ilk eicia qtzy cr dlcbe dkld ezewace xnfd l` rnye eipir z` xbq xirvd xacd jynp jke ."dkeq"d lka xftzde jld glnde oglyd lr ea wetcl ligzde ,epnn wegx `l y`x zelwn zine`ztd dxardd cegia ,z`fd ` pivqd .xnfd z` ofgd xnby cr dlecb dvxt uxt dfd myexde ,c`n rx myex ilr dzyr ,efk zewacl dt lea pe .(tz 'nr ,`"kyz milyexie aia` lz ,mrd cg` iazk lk ,'zepexkf iwxt') 'izeciqga

81

145

sq` cec

zere pze mi peyn zelew i pin lk ici lr mzltz z ` zeaexw

zei pgca

z` eniiqy xg`ly ,jk ick cr dfa mirbiizne migxeh eid ji`e

82 .dxenb zetlrzd jezn ux`l eltp dltzd

oebk miripna llk jxca ewnep zeciqgd ziy`xa zektdzdd ibdpny cera ,dpde yi cibnd ziaa d`wldd rexi` z` ,iaxl e` d"awl zexiqn ly deegn e` yid lehia ,dpey`xd dbxcnd on miihhqw` mixxernk eqtzpy ,zevilrd iwgyn mlerl xeywl 'd zceara dgnyd ef zilwicx dqitz it lr .mixirv mixab ly mnlera cgeinae miwgyn zervn`a ele ,eil` xezgl yiy izc xbz` mb `l` ievx iytp av n wx dppi` ly minz ielibn gztzdy izn` rexi`l cr did oeniny xiaq .minefi m iilezid zetigcd wgyn ly idylk div`ixe l` dxeagd ipan cg` ly ezgnya zet zzyd .oilx`w iciqg axwa zay i`vena meid cr bdepd ,'jif or™ihy' zeiektdzd oiay ziceqid zibelepneptd dpgadd dyhyeh jli`e h"id d`nd onl x`izy d`wldd rexi` lynl jk .dfa df eaaxrzde ecklzd mipeyd mixaqdde ,zewlnl ,dee`bd zcin z` xeayl wqahil uipn`wa miciqgd ly mpevxa wnep wihew l`wfgi .mipzg gnyl jxck ,x`yd oia ,exaqed obe ziaÎdplehn iaxd ly zeiektdzdd eli`e dpzipy zernyna ,( Homo ludens 'wgWn© mc`' oirn `ed ciqgd mb ,ok ik dpd

83 .( Johan Huizinga ) dbpified o`dei ly iqlwd exeaiga el

`et` yi oenin ixac z`

,'wgyn' ly beqk qtzp eitzzyn ipiray rexi`l zxge`n ziyi` zepyxtk ze`xl .zenil` s`e zeizecli ,zeixbleel iehiak qtzid l ieyr `ed uegan opeazn ipira j` dtid zextqdn ,micbpznd iazkn epilrdy ze`wldde zeiektdzdd i xe`iz lr od miiciqgd miwgynd ly mipey miqetc lr od miriavn zepexkif d zextqne oecirl e` zenil` fewipl jxc ef ienqd caexa .mdly miienqde mii elbd micEwtzd§ ¦ ieaixl zpeekn zixwird mzilkz ielbd caexa ;migilvn miyp` itl k zeptwezd xvi miizxagd zecnrnd jetid ,dee`bd zxiay enk zepexwr ly ilnq bev iil e` dgny zcear zxbqna 'mieey zlidw' zxivie dlidwd cekil ,(mikenp zda bde mideab zknpd) .ziciqgd 'd

.140 'nr ,oenin iig

82

ongp 'x ixac mipiiprn .e"kyz milyexi ,xailden l`eny mbxz ,wgynd mc`d ,dbpified o`dei zelra zeiektdzda mixeywd miabyp miilnq mipiipr dkepga oeaiaqd wgyna dlzy ,alqxan xfegd lblb zpiga ,liciixc zpiga dfy ,dlrnl mipezgze dhnl mipeil r zpiga') inqew ite` xn`n .fk 'nr ,n oniq ,g"lyz milyexi ,o"xd zegiy e`x ;('ef dpigal ef dpigan jtdzpy wgynde wegvd lr' ,wxn iav :alqxan ongp 'x ly zizcd ezebda wgynd mewn lr aeyg 'nr ,(a"qyz) 41 zecdid ircn ,'alqxan ongp 'x ixetiqn xetiq zeawra :l`d zceara

83

146

.168-131

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

miilikyn zexewna miciqg iwgyn :` gtq p

(l "aix) oef pieel xra wgvil ' mi `tx wnr' jezn .1

.micibnn[e] mipaxne ,xecd inkgn zepvil dnke dnk ogcad dyer [ df ixg`] f"g`

84 ,xiip ly ztpvn sepvi ey`x lre ,ea shrzne miyak ly xry zxc` jtdn f"g`e

dpdke dpdk cere ,gnex zipaz lr ,epinia dwifgne dkex`

leaipa oevl xacl daxde .diqpkd lke migxe`de axd z` gnyne .zeh y ly mixac rcei `le `aip `ede .zeceq dfd dt leaipa yi i`ceay mipin`n mrd lky cr ,dt xne` oke .k"k eixac lr gny dfd wicvd axd did `l z`f `lel ik .`aip i`n envra

86 .mrd gnyie ,dfd xack `ln dta axd

85 (rxiv`w) ztxbn gwele

oiihy pxe` dynl 'dxebicq ycew zlid wa zeycg xyan' jezn .2

gnyl c`n dtie xyk wegy `ivnd ,`xeb`c`qa xy` wicvdn lecbd ogca d ,oeyny ipyl ,mec` cg`e wexi cg` ,migetz ipy ozi ik `ede .miaeh minie z ezaya wicvd miwxfp dl`d mipyd migetzde .mixdvd zcerq xg` ,wicvd ziaa xy` miciqg m`e .d`ltp zexidna mdd miciqgd ipy ly exag cil cg` cin cg` rbxa mifg`pe ipy ecbpk xy`l yper ozi ,ux`l mec`d egetz mec`d getzd lran let i dxwna mirneyd lke ,urd ixt `xea zkxa mx lewa mdn cg` lr jxai mlawnde .migetz wexid getzd lra cin xy` dxwn xwi m` oke .on` eixg` epri eizeaia q micnerd `ed mb xy` ,mec`d getzd lral migetz ipy eypr `ed mlyi ,ux`l ege tz leti aehde .dgnya dgpnd onf cr zeryd mixvwn dnd dfd wegyae .mdn cg` lr jxai ,ux`l migetzd elti dpeeka minrtle ze`iby daxda xy` `ed dfd we gydn `veid d`nd enilyi dfae ,getzd lr jxal ewgyi xy` miyp`dn cg` migxken f"ir xy` ewgyi minrtle .c`n dti bdpn `ede .jxand on xzei dperd lecbe .m iaiegnd zekxa

gnwa l`ebn eipte' :sqep (18 'nr ,f"kxz dqce` ,mi`tx wnr mr miwicv ixac) oey`xd qetca

84

.'oingte .xepza milgbd zkitdl zynynd dzgn `id rxryh`w¨

85

xi`n ozpeie sq` cec zkixra mi`tx wnr ly zxrende zizxewiad dxecdnd j ezn d`aend .(dpkda)

86

147

sq` cec

ipirae .wicvd al gny ornl miblten mixiyre micnel s` wicvd ziaa migetzd mr

87 .l"pd wegvd eze`xa wicvd ly inetn `keg wqt `l xy` izi`x

(`) a`a dryza miciqg ireyry .3

xy` oeq`d lr eavrzi `l ik mixerpd ipa lr frl `ivedl azekdl `a oi `n eprci `l jilydl ,dfd arzpd bdpnd .[ycwnd zia oaxeg] dpy mitl`k df mnr l r `a mixerpd ipan `a `l ,uvelzdle [a`a dryza] a"za 'c ziaa edrx lr yi` mivewy ,miciqgdn e `ven ik ,slegd xecn dl`n `le ,milikynl miaygpd ,epxeca bed pd lk lr e brl xy` mdixg ` xrw v`wde¨ mzrya xrgqiytd cegia eayi dl`d miciqgd ik ,epipira epi`x xy` z` xekfp cer .dzncw mcwn l`xyia erb mrd lk xy` zra ,yhyen`fa lecbd c"ndia dvwa milqtqd lr zepi wd zra bdpnd lawzp mdne .mcnir milezide mzxhwn ilkn oyr elrd dl`d mi ciqgde ikaa daygn dfi` mdn cg`l yi m` c`n epgp` miwteqne ,micbpznd z`n mb d fd rextd zz ilan ,mireyry ziaa enk 'c ziaa bdpzdl lbxdde zrc zelw `id wx ,dxf

88 .miyer md xy` dlapd lr mytpl oeayg

(a) a`a dryza miciqg i reyry .4

zrya ,[a`a 'ha] a"ha wegy zeaxdl zephwd mixra epvx`a xxey zgyne rx bdpn ,jkl zxyken dpi`y drya ,y`x zelwe dgnyl dlilr `evn ornle ,zepiwd zxin`

17 xyw ,'zrcep `l ziciqgÎihp` dxih`q :"`xeb`c`q w"wa zeycg xyan"' ,sq ` cec 87

meid cr fp`v zeciqga miiwzny ,'yihÎlRr'd bdpnl ile` zfnxn ef dxih q .121 'nr ,(1995) j` zeciqgl mecw bdpnd ly exewn mpn` .eiciqgl migetz wxef iaxd eae d xez zgny i`vena xteq ,(1876-1799/1797) m`hyxald miig 'x lr xak .edevni` ,divilba cgeina ,miciqgd wy e`iade ,eixg`ly dlild jezl meid zcerq jiyndl epiax bdpn did dxez zgnya' ik cg` lk ik ,lecb wgec df lv` dide ,mitheg eid mlerde mlerd oia migetzd wxf epiaxe ,migetz ikxc ,mieahniv l`tx) 'el` migetza milecb mizten mdl eid miyp` d axd ik ,sehgl dvx oiipnk ,migetz 26 wxef iaxd ,laewnd it lr .(fi oniq ,22 'nr ,diipy dxitq ,b"txz aewxw ,miig wgvi e`x ezvetze bdpnd iyxey lr .dlecb dreyi zghaen migetzd iqtezle ,died my mlevn ceriz .w-dr 'nr ,(g"qyz) k h"yrad lkid ,'dxez zgnya migetz zwixf' ,xrlqrh www.sanzusa.info/ details.php?nid=88 :bxeapfielwÎfp`vn iaxd xvga ,f"qyzn ,wtq ila ,`ed azekd .1026 'nr ,c"nxz lel`a '` ,uilnd ,'dfd ziad did mivixt zxrnd' ly wegyd ibdpn qegii .oiletay 'uyenf cili ,(1893-1816) mieaxc v xcpqkl` oezird jxer ,xnif wgvi e`x .daxda mdl encw md oky ,jenql dn lr el oi` `weec miciq gl a`a dryz .190-174 'nr ,e"pyz milyexi ,bdep ebdpnk mler

148

88

wgyn mc`k ciqgd

oipr dne ,dfd bdpnd `vi oi`n

yi` oi` - epzne` zeqixd lr epycw zia oaxeg lr ,ide dbde mipiw zxenz ,wegyd ikxa lr dfd bdpnd clep ik epin`i miax - exewne exyt zrcl ,al lr m y oi`e rcei

ezcile ezxed dfd bd pnd ik ,mixne ` mixg `

`ed zeciqgd ixwrn cg` ik ori ,cle p zizn `d zeciqgd ikxa lre ,dyecwa

mlera eiyrnn mrd z` rixtne ,midl`d zcear lhan avrd zeida 'zea vrd hern'

zeliv`d

oia wx `l hytzp xy` ,l`xyia wegl dzid a"ha d`kdd ,didiy ji` did i mle` ,'jzwx oenxd gltk' aezkd xn` mdilr xy` ,dl` oia mb ik ,'d i`xie dxez ixney mzepne` xy` dk`lna miyer oia ,'dipwxet gnvie' mlern exn` `l xy` dl` oia

89 .mdicia mdizea` bdpn xy` miaaey mixrp oiae ,mzxez

- odn epl mb rleai ot mipa` zklyd mewna epiy`x qipkdl epl `l

[iav izay] z"eivyd

yi` mipa` mb minrtle mipelqe mivew ewxfi

edrxa

dee` bd zcin zxiaye weg v ,d `kd lr :a gtq p

recik .iaxl rqp `l mxnr 'xe ,l"f mxnr 'x xag el did r"if o`xee`q n dyn iax dxw mrt .r"if aeyhicx`an axdn mb cinlz dide ,mevr oe`b xrp`xe e`qd did `edy iyyd mei lr xne` dide ,mipnfd elv` jtdzp ik ,`xep xac mxnr 'x exagl .xrp`xeee`qd ly eytpa xacd rbpe ,oey`x mei w"ayd mei lre [yce w zay] w"ay .zeytp zepkq did ,dpen `edy meid df `ed meid ik mxnr 'xl dcen di d `ly ine lk el [!] ziiv mxnr 'x did ,dpen `edy enk minid zepnl mxnr 'xl dce n didy ine .epnn ywiay dn riyeie xefriy xrp`xee`qd el xivtd .xrp`xee`q dl aeyhicx`an axd ribd mrt 'xe ,aeyhicx`an axdl mxnr 'x z` `iad xrp`xee`qde .ezxvn l"pd exiag z` ,dpen `edy mei `ed meid ik dcen `ed m` aeyhicx`an axd z` dpey`xa l`y mxnr dz` mpn` ,jl dcen ip` :aeyhicx`an axd dpr .xac mey renyl dvex e pi` e`l m` .jl dev`y dn [!] ziivi zelwn mdicia egwi miyp`de ,xirdn miyp` `iadl aeyhicx`an axd deve mxnr 'x z` eki miyp`de c"ndiaa dniad aiaqn aaezqi mxnr 'xe ,ze h`h`ne .eze` efaie zelwnda

.2 'nr ,e"nxz a`a d"k ,dxitvd ,'[a`a dryz] a"z bdpn' ,[uiaepnip uxd ilztp] u"pd 89 zlibna d`ixwd xg`l ,a`a dryza eygxzdy mixeng zepeixa irexi`a jynda oc azekd cer .diptdd lr aby xexcl izcez .(uilcy jlt) aewel fegnay ,[?wvew] 'w dxiira ,dki` 'nr ,c"qxz oeyga e"k ,uilnd ,'mei ly xiy' ,odkd oqip diryi :a`a 'ha miciqg ireyry lr .181-180 'nr ,(68 dxrd lirl) izi`xy dn ,wihew ;(oivel iciqg lr) 2

149

sq` cec

dyrpe eze` ekde zg` mrt aaezqde aeyhicx`an axd zcewtl mxnr 'x ziiv ok`e ligzde aeyhicx`an axdl mxnr 'x gxa ipyd mrt aaezqdl dvxyke ,w egvl

xayl eilre ,'eke ze`iba didy xazqne .'eke

90 .'eke dnly daeyza xfge .z`f

` qiex` xi n hib ,iax :wervl

daeyz

,

bieevpfex

ield l`xyi l`igi iax

xtiqy

dn

l`xyi

xve` xtq ,mela odkd ikcxn 90

.diptdd lr xi`n ozpeil izcez .b ze` ,gix-fix 'nr ,e"pyz oilwexa ,i`zilz `xecdn

150