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TABLE OF CONTENT
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
ATOMIC STRUCTURE...........................................................................................................1
CHEMICAL BONDING...........................................................................................................2
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM....................................................................................................3
ACID BASE............................................................................................................................4
IONIC EQULIBRIUM..............................................................................................................5
CHEMICAL KINETICS...........................................................................................................6
OXIDATION-REDUCTION..................................................................................................... 7
VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS..................................................................................................... 8
MOLE CONCEPT................................................................................................................... 9
CHEMICAL ENERGETICS.................................................................................................... 9 - 10
ELECTRO CHEMISTRY........................................................................................................ 11
SOLUTION AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES...................................................................11 - 12
NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY........................................................................................................ 12
GASEOUS STATE................................................................................................................. 13
SOLID AND LIQUID STATE.................................................................................................. 14
SURFACE CHEMISTRY & COLLOIDAL STATE.................................................................. 15

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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PERIODIC TABLE................................................................................................................. 16
EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY............................................................................................... 17
s- BLOCK ELEMENTS..........................................................................................................17
BORON FAMILY.....................................................................................................................18
CARBON FAMILY...................................................................................................................18
OXYGEN FAMILY...................................................................................................................19
HALOGEN FAMILY.................................................................................................................20 - 21
TRANSITION ELEMENTS (D-BLOCK ELEMENTS).............................................................21
COORDINATION COMPOUNDS............................................................................................21

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
GOC........................................................................................................................................22
ALKANES...............................................................................................................................23
ALKENES...............................................................................................................................23
ALKYNES...............................................................................................................................23
HALOGEN COMPOUNDS.....................................................................................................23
ALCOHOLS............................................................................................................................24
PHENOLS...............................................................................................................................24
ETHERS................................................................................................................................. 25
CARBONYL COMPOUNDS...................................................................................................25
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS............................................................................................................26
NITROGEN COMPOUNDS....................................................................................................26
CARBOHYHYDRATES, AMINO ACIDS AND POLYMERS...................................................26
CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS....................27
IMPORTANT REAGENT.........................................................................................................28 -29
MAIN USE OF COMPOUNDS............................................................................................... 29
SMELL OF SOME COMPOUNDS......................................................................................... 29
IDENTIFICATION TESTS....................................................................................................... 30

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PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
2 2
n2
n h
2
=
0.529
A, rn = n r1
2
2
4p mZe
Z

1.

rn =

2.

PE
Z2
ET = KE =
= - 13.6 2 eV
2
n

3.

DE =

4.

v=

2
4
hc 2p me 1 1
=
2- 2
2
l
h
n1 n2

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1 1
1
= RZ 2 2 - 2 , R = 1.0968 107 m-1
l
n1 n2

5. Total no. of spectrum lines=

n(n - 1)
2

6. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (D x )(Dp ) h / 4p


7. Moseley's law : v = a (Z - b), En = -

13.7
eV / atom
n2

8. Nodes (n -1) = total nodes, l= angular nodes, (n l 1) = Radial nodes


1
2

9. Photoelectric effect: hv = hv 0 + mv 2
10. Orbital angular momentum: l (l + 1)

h
2p

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CHEMICAL BONDING
1. % ionic character

Actual dipole moment


100
Calculated dipole moment

2. Fajan's Factors: following factors are helpful in including covalent


character in ionic compounds
(a) Small cation
(b) Big anion
(c ) High charge on cation
(d) High charge on anion
(e) Cation having pseudo inert gas configuration
(ns2p6d10) e.g. Cu+, Ag+, Zn2+, Cd2+

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1
2

3. -DH f = H S + Hd + IE + D H EG - E L
4. M.O. theory:
(a) Bond order = 1 ( Nb - N a )
2

(b) Higher the bond order, higher is the bond dissociation energy, greater
is the stability, and shorter is the bond length.
(c )
Species
Bond order
Magnetic properties
H2
1
Diamagnetic
+
H2
0.5
Paramagnetic
Li2
1
Diamagnetic
5. Q = 1 [V + SA - ( q )]
2

6. Former charge = V- L + 1 S

7. VSEPR theory
(a) (LP LP) repulsion > (LP BP) > (BP BP)
(b) For NH3 Bond Angle 106045' because H2O molecule contains 2LP
and 2BP where as NH3has ILP and 3BP.
8. Bond angle:
Decrease in bond angle down the gp is due to LP BP repulsion
(a)NH3> PH3 > AsH3
(b)H2O > H2S > H2Se

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CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
1.

K p = K c( RT )? n g where D ng =n p -n R

2.

Free Energy change(GD)

(a)
(b)
(C)

If GD=0 then reversible reaction would be equilibrium.


If GD=(+) ve then equilibrium will displace in backward direction.
If GD=(-) ve then equilibrium will displace in forward direction.

3. (a) K c unit (moles/li)Dn


(b) K p unit (atm)Dn
(c) Total molecule at equlibrium =[total initial moles +Dn]
(d) Time required to establish equlibrium a 1 / k c
(e) If in any heterogeneous equilibrium solid substance is also
present then its active mass & partial pressure is assumed 1.
4.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

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Le chatelier's principle
Increase of reactant conc. (Shift forward)
Decrease of reactant conc. (Shift backward)
Increase of pressure (from more moles to less moles)
Decrease of pressure (from less moles to more moles)
For exothermic reaction decrease in temp. (Shift forward)
For endothermic increase in temp. (Shift forward)cTime Total

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ACID BASE
1.(a). Lewis Acid (e- pair acceptor) CO2 , BF3 , Alcl 3 , Zncl 2 , Fecl3 , PCl 3 ,Sicl4 ,SF6 , normal cation
(b). Lewis Base (e- pair donor) NH3 , ROH, ROR, H2 O, RNH2 , R 2 NH,R 3 N, normal anion
2. Dissociation of Weak Acid & Weak Base
(a). Weak Acid K a = Cx 2 / (1-x) or K a = Cx2
(b). Weak Base K b = Cx 2 / (1-x) or K b = Cx2

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3. Buffer solution:
(a)

Acidic pH = pK a + log{salt / Acid }for Maximum buffer action pH = pKa


Range of Buffer pH = pKa 1

(b) Alkaline pOH = pKb +log {Salt/ Base} for max.


Buffer range for basic buffer = pKb 1

(c )

4.

Moles/lit of Acid or Base Mixed


Change in pH
dCBOH
dCHB
B=
=dpH
dpH
Buffer Capacity =

Necessary condition for showing neutral colour of Indicator pH = pKln or [HIn] = [In- ] or [InOH]=[In + ]

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IONIC EQULIBRIUM
1. Relation between ionisation neutral constant (K i ) & degree of ionisation (a ): Ki =

a2
a 2C
=
(Ostwald's dilution law)
(1-a )V (1-a )

It is applicable to weak electrolytes for which a < < 1 then a = K iV =

Ki
orV C a
C

2. Common ion effect : By addition of X mole/ L of a common ion, to a weak acid (or weak base)a becomes equal to
Ka
X

or K b [where a =degree of dissociation]

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3. (A) If solubility product = ionic product then the solution saturates.


(B). If solubility product > ionic product then the solution is unsaturated
and more of the substance can be dissolved in it.

(C ). Id ionic product > solubility product the solution is super saturated


(principle of precipition).
4. Salt of weak acid and strong base:
pH = 0.5( pK w + pKa + log c)
Salt of weak base and strong acid
pH = 0.5( pK w - pKb - log c )
Salt of weak acid and weak base:
pH = 0.5( pK w + pKa - pK b )

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CHEMICAL KINETICS
1. Unit of Rate constant:
K = mol 1- Dn lit Dn -1 sec -1

2. First Order reaction:


2.303
a
0.693
log10
& t1/2 =
t
a- x
K
- kt
[ A]t = [ A]0 e
K=

3. Second Order Reaction:


When concentration of A and B taking same.

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1
x
K2 =
t a (a - x)

When concentration of A and b are taking differentK2 =

2.303
b( a - x )
log
t ( a - b)
a(b - x )

4. Zero Order Reaction:


K=

a0 - at
t

x = kt & t1/ 2 =

a0
2K

5. Arrhenius equation:
- Ea / RT

K = Ae

& slope =

- Ea
2.303RK

whenT , thenk = A (\ e - Ea / RT = 1)

T -T

2
a
2
1
6. log k = 2.303R T T
1
1 2

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OXIDATION-REDUCTION
1. Oxidant itself is -reduced (gives O2)
Or Oxidant e (s) Acceptor
Reductant itself is- oxidised (gives H2)
Or reductant e (s) Donor
2. (i) Strength of acid O.N
(ii) Strength of base 1/ O.N
3. (a) Electro Chemical Series:- Li, K, Sr, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe,
Cd, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, H2, Cu, I2, Hg, Ag, Br2, Cl2, Pt, Au, F2

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(b)As we move from top to bottom in this series


(1) Standard Reduction Potential
(2) Standard Oxidation Potential
(3) Reducing Capacity
(4) Ip
(5) Reactivity

4. (a) Formal charge = Group No. [No. of bonds+ No. of non- bonded e-s]
(b)At A node Oxidation, Cathode Reduction

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VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS
1. Equivalent weight of element = Atomic wt of the element
n factor

2. Equivalent weight of Compound =

Formula wt of the compound


n factor

3. Equivalent weight of an ion = Formula wt (or At. Wt.)of ion


its valency

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4. The law of dulong and petit


Atomic wt. specific heat 6.4

5. Normality (N)= Number of equivalents of solute


Volume of the solution in liters

6. Molarity (M)=

Number of moles of solute


Volume of the solution in liters

7. When a solution is diluted


N 1 V1
(before dilution)

= N 2 V2
(after dilution)

8. Common acid- base indicators

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MOLE CONCEPT
1.Mole concept
GAM 1gm atom 6.02 1023 atom.
23

GAM 1gm molecule 6.02 10 molecules.


NA =6.02 10 23
2.Moles (gases)at NTP=

volume (L )
22.4

3.Molecular mass=2 vapour density

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CHEMICAL ENERGETICS
1. First Law: DE= Q + W
Expression for pressure volume work W = -P DV
Maximum work in a reversible expansion:
W = -2.303n RT log

V2
P
= - 2.303nRT log 1
V1
P2

2. Enthalpy and heat content: DH = DE + PDV


[q(p) =q(v) +Dn g RT]

DH = D E + Dn g RT

[Dn g = n p ( g ) - nr ( g ) ]
3.Kirchoff's equation:
DE T2 = D E T1 + DCv (T2 - T1 )[cons tan tV ]
DHT2 = DHT1 + D Cp (T2 - T1 )[cons tan tP]
4. Entropy(s): Measure of disorder or randomness
DS= S p - S R
DS =

qrev
V
P
= 2.303nr log = 2 = 2.303nr log 1
T
V1
P2

5. free energy change: DG=D H-T DS


DG < 0(Spontaneous) [-ve]D G = 0(equilibrium )
DG > 0(non-spontaneous) [+ve]
-DG = W(maximum) -PD V

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10

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11

ELECTRO CHEMISTRY
1. M = Z. I.t
2. Degree of dissociation: a =

l eq Equivalent conductance at given concentration


=
l eq
equivalent conductance at infinite dilution

3. Kohlrausch ' slaw : D 0m = x l 0A + yl B0


4.Nernst Equation
E = E0 -

0.0591
[Pr oducts]
nFE 0
log10
& E0 cell =E 0anode +E 0 cathode & Keq = antilog

n
[Re ac tan ts]
0.0591
0

DG = -nFE cell & D G = -nFE

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0
cell

D G
-DG0 = 2.303RT log Kc & Wma x = + nFE 0 & DG = DH + T

T p

5. Calculation of pH of an electrolyte by using a calomel electrode:


pH =

E cell - 0.2415
0.0591

SOLUTION AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES


1. Raoult's law
p = p A + pB = p0 A X A + p 0 B X B = (1 - XB ) p0 A + p 0 B X B = ( p 0 B - P 0 A ) X B + p0 A
P0 - PS
n
P - PS
w.m
=
& 0
=
P0
n+N
P0
W .M

2. Colligative a Number of particles


Properties a Number of molecules (in case of nonelectrolytes)
a Number of ions (in case of electrolytes)
a Number of moles of solute
a Mole fraction of solute
3. Depression of freezing point, DT f = K f m

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12

4. Elevation in boiling point with relative lowering of vapour pressure


DTb =

0
1000 Kb p - p

(M1 = mol .wt.ofsolvent )


0
M1 p

5. Osmotic pressure (P) with depression in freezing point fTD


dRT
1000 K f
Normal molar mass
Observed colligative property
6. i = Observed molar mass = Normal colligative property
Observed osmotic pressure
Actual number of particles
i=
=
Normal osmotic pressure
No. of particles for no. ionisation
n
i -1
degree of association(a) = (1-i)
& degree of dissociation(a )=
n -1
n -1
P = DTf

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NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
1. Radius of the nucleus: R = R 0 A 1/3

2. The amount N of the radioactive substance left after 'n' half lives =

N 0 (initial amount)
2n

0.693
l
4. Rate of disintegration:
dN
2.303
N
= l .N & l =
log10 0 orN = N 0e - lt
dt
t
N

3. Half-life period t1/2 =

Average life (t AV ) =

5.

Total life time of all the atoms


Total number of atoms

tdn
=

N0

1
= 1.44t1/ 2
l

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13

GASEOUS STATE
1. Ideal gas equation: PV = nRT
(i)
R = 0.0821 litre atm. K-1 mole-1
(ii) R = 62.4 liters mm Hg K-1 mole-1
(iii) R = 8.314 * 107 ergs K-1 mole-1
(iv) R =2 cals K-1 mole-1
(v) R =8.314 J K-1 mole-1
2. Velocities related to gaseous state
RMS velocity C =

3 PV
3RT
3P
=
=
M
M
d

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Average speed = 8RT & Most probable speed = 2RT


M

pM

Average speed = 0.9213 * RMS speed


MPS = .816 * RMS; RMS = 1.224 MPS
MPS : A. V. speed : RMS = 1: 1.128 : 1.224
3. Rate of diffusiona

1
density of gas

4. Vander Wall's equation


n 2a

P + V 2 (V - nb ) = nRT for n moles

5. Z (compressibility factor)=

PV
; Z = 1for ideal gas
nRT

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14

SOLID AND LIQUID STATE


1. Available space filled up by hard spheres (packing fraction):
Simple cubic =

p
= 0.52
6

bcc =

p 3
= 0.68
8

fcc. =

p 2
=0.74
6

hcp =

p 2
=0.74
6

diamond =

p 3
=0.34
6

2. Radius ratio and co-ordination number (CN)

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3. Atomic radius r and the edge of the unit cell:


Pure elements:a
Simple cubic =r =
bcc r =

3a
4

fcc =

2a
4

4. Relationship between radius of void (r) and the radius of the sphere (R ):
r (tetrahedral) = 0.225 R; r(octahedral) = 0.414 R
5. Paramagnetic : Presence of unpaired electrons [attracted by magnetic
field]
6. Ferromagnetic: Permanent magnetism []
7. Antiferromagnetic: net magnetic moment is zero []
8. Ferrimagnetic: net magnetic moment is there[]

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15

SURFACE CHEMISTRY & COLLOIDAL STATE


1.

Higher is the valency of active ion, the greater is its coagulating


power.

2.

Emulsion: Colloidal soln. of two immiscible liquids [O/ Wemulsion,


W / O emulsion]

3.

Emulsifier: Long chain hydrocarbons are added to stabilize


emulsion.

4.

Lyophilic colloid: Starchy gum, gelatin have greater affinity for


solvent. Solution Can be easily prepared by bringing in contact with
solvent and warming.

5.

Lyophobic colloid: No affinity for solvent, special methods are used


to prepare sol. [e.g. As2S3, Fe(OH)3 sol]

6.

Preparation of colloidal solution:


(i)
Dipersion methods
(ii) Condensation method.

7.

Properties of colloidal solution:


(i)
Tyndall effect
(ii) Brownian movement
(iii) Coagulation
(iv) Filtrability

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16

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
PERIODIC TABLE
1. General electronic configuration (of outer orbits)
s- block
p- block
d-block
f- block

ns1-2
ns2np1-61-10 1-2
(n -1)d ns
(n-2)s2p6d10f1-14 (n-1)s2p6d0 or 1 ns2

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C
3.

IP a

1
1
1
1
a
a
a
Metallic character Reducing character Basic Nature of oxide Basic nature of hydroxide

4. EA a size a neclear charge


Second electron affinity is always positive.
Electron affinity of chlorine is greater than fluorine.
5. The first element of a group has similar properties with the second
element of the next group. This is called diagonal relationship.

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17

EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY
1. Floatation is a physical method of separating a mineral from the gangue
depending on differences in their wettabilities by a liquid
2. Roasting is the process of heating a mineral in the presence of air.
3. Calcination is the process of heating the ore in the absence of air.
4. Electrolytic reduction: Highly electropositive metals are extracted by the
electrolysis of their oxides and hydroxides.

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s- BLOCK ELEMENTS
1. Atomic radii: Li < Na < K < Rb < Cs
2. Ionic radii: Li+ < Na+ < K+ < Rb+ < Cs+

3. Electronegativity: Li > Na > K > Rb < Cs

4. First ionization potential: Li > Na > > K > Rb > Cs


5. Melting point: Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs'
6. Density: Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs
7. Colour of the flame Li- red, Na- Golden, K- Violet, Rb- Red, Cs- Blue, CaBrick Red, Sr- Blood red, Ba- Apple green
8. Rb and Cs show photoelectric effect.
9. Stability of hydrides: LiH > NaH > KH > RbH > CsH
10. Basic nature of hydroxides: [LiOH < NaOH < KOH < RbOH < CsOH]

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18

BORON FAMILY
1.
2.
3.
4.

Stability of +3 oxidation state: B > Al > Ga > In > Tl


Stability of +1 oxidation state: Ga < In < TI
Reducing nature: Al > Ga > In > Tl
Basic nature of the oxides and hydroxides:
B < Al < Ga < In < TI
5. Relative strength of Lewis acid : BF3 < BCl3 < BBr3 < BI3

CARBON FAMILY

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1. Reactivity: C < Si < Ge < Sn < Pb


2. Metallic character: C < Si < Ge < Sn < Pb

3. Acidic character of the oxides:


CO2 > SiO2 > GeO2 > SnO2 > PbO2
Weaker acidic
(amphoteric)

4. Thermal stability and volatility of hydrides:


CH4 > SiH4 > GeH4 > SnH4 < PbH4
5. Reducing nature of hydrides:
CH4 < SiH4 > geH4 > SnH4 > PbCl4
6. Reducing power , covalent nature of
Hydrides: NH3 < PH3 <AsH3 < SbH3 < BiH3
7. Stability of trihalides of nitrogen: NF3 > NCl3 > NBr3
8. Ease of hydrolysis of trichlorides
NCl3 > PCL3 > AsCl3 > SbCl3 > BiCl3
9. Lewis and strength of trihalides of P, As and Sb
PF3 > PCl3 > PBr3 > PI3
10. Lewis acid strength among phosphorus trihalides
PF3 > PCl3 > PBr3 > Pi3
11. Bond angle, among the halides of phosphorus
PF3 < PCl3 < PBr3 < PI3

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19

OXYGEN FAMILY
1. Melting and boiling point of hydrides
H2O > H2Te > H2Se > H2S
2. Volatility of hydrides
H2O > H2Te > H2Se > H2S
3. Thermal stability of hydrides
H2O > H2S > H2Se > H2Te
4. Reducing nature of hydrides
H2S < H2Se < H2Te
5. Covalent character of hydrides
H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te

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6. Bond angle & dipole moment of hydrides


H2O > H2S > H2Se > H2Te
(1040) (920) (910) (900)

7. Ease of hydrolysis of hexahalides: SF6 > SeF6 > TeF6


8. The acidic character of oxides (element in the same oxidation state)
9. Acidic character of oxide of a particular element(e.g. S)
AO2 > SeO2 > TeO2 > PoO2
So3 > SeO3 > TeO3
10. Stability of dioxides
SO2 > TeO2 > SeO2 > PoO2

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20

HALOGEN FAMILY
1. Bond energy of halogens: Cl2 > Br2 > F2 > I2
2. Bond length in x2 molecule: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2
3. Solubility of halogen in water: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2
4. Oxidizing power: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2
5. Enthalpy of hydration of X- ion: F- > Cl- >Br- > I-

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6. Reactivity of halogens: F > Cl > Br > I


7. Ionic character of M X bond in halide
M F > M Cl > M Br > M I

8. Reducing character of X- ion: I - > Br- > CI- > F-

9. Thermal stability of hydrides: HF > HCI > HBr > HI


10. Acidic strength of halogen acids: HI > HBr > HCI > HF
11. Conjugate
base strength of halogen acids
I-< Br- < CI- < F12. Reducing power of hydrogen halides
HF < HCI < HBr < HI
13.Dipole moment of hydrogen halides
HF > HCI > HBr > HI
14.Oxidising power of oxides of chlorine
Cl2O > ClO2 > Cl2O6 > Cl2O7
15.Acidic character of oxyacids of chloride
HCIO < HCIO2 <HCIO3 < HCIO4
16.Strength
of conjugate bases of oxyacids of chlorine
CIO- > CIO2- > CIO3- > CIO4-

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21

HALOGEN FAMILY
17. Oxidizing power of oxyacids of chlorine
HCIO < HCIO2 < HCIO3 < HCIO4
18. Thermal stability of oxyacids of chlorine
HCIO < HCIO2 < HCIO3 < HCIO4
19. Stability
of anions of oxyacids of chlorine
CIO- > CIO2- > CIO3- > CIO4-

TRANSITION ELEMENTS (D-BLOCK ELEMENTS)

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1. The
element
with
exceptional
configuration
are
24
5
1
29
10
1
Cr [Ar] 3d 4s , Cu [Ar] 3d 4s
Mo4742 [Kr] 4d1055s11, Pd7846 [Kr] 4d1410 5s100 0
Ag [Kr] 4d 5s , Pt [Xe] 4f 5d 6s
Au79 [Xe] 4f145d106s1

2. Ferromagnetic substances are those in which there are large number of


electrons with unpaired spins and whose magnetic moments are aligned
in the same direction.

COORDINATION COMPOUNDS
1. Coordination number is the number of the nearest atoms or groups in the
coordination sphere.
2. Ligand is a Lewis base donor of electrons that bonds to a central metal
atom in a coordination compound.
3. Paramagnetic substance is one that is attracted to the magnetic field, this
result on account of unpaired electrons present in the atom/molecule/ion.
4. Effective atomic number EAN = (Z Oxidation number) + (2 *
Coordination number)
5. Factors affecting stability of complex
(i) Greater the charge on the central metal ion, greater is the stability.
(ii) Greater the ability of the ligand to donate electron pair (basic strength)
greater is the stability.
(iii) Formation of chelate rings increases the stability.

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22

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
GOC
1. The order of decreasing electro negativity of hybrid orbital's is sp > sp2 >
sp3
2. Conformational isomers are those isomers which arise due to rotation
around a single bond.
3. A meso compound is optically inactive, even though it has asymmetric
centers (due to internal compensation of rotation of plane polarized light)

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4. An equimolar mixture of enantiomers is called racemic mixture, which is


optically inactive
5. Tautomerism is the type of isomerism arising by the migration of
hydrogen.

6. Reaction intermediates and reagents:


Homolytic fission Free radicals
Hetrolytic fission Carbocation and carbanion

7. Nucleophiles electro rich


Two types :
1. Anions
2. Neutral molecules
With lone pair of electrons(Lewis bases)
Electrophiles: electron deficient.
Two types :
1. Cations
2. Neutral molecules with vacant orbitals
(Lewis acids)
8. Inductive effect is due to s
9. electron displacement along a chain and is permanent effect.
9. +I (inductive effect) increase basicity, - I effect increases acidity of
compounds.
10. Resonance is a phenomenon in which two or more structures can be
written for the same compound but none of them actually exists.

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Class

23

ALKANES
1. Pyrolytic cracking is a process in which alkane decomposes to a mixture
of smaller hydrocarbons, when it is heated strongly, in the absence of
oxygen.
2. Combustion is a process in which hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and
H2O (l) when they are completely burnt in air/O2.

ALKENES

s
s
la

1. In dehydration and dehydro halogenations the order for removal of


hydrogen is 30 > 20 > 10 (Saytzeff's rule)
2. The lower the Dhh (heat of dehydrogenation) the more stable the alkene is.

3. Alkenes undergo anti-Markonikov addition only with HBr in the presence


of peroxides.

ALKYNES

1. All o and p-directing groups ring activating groups (expect X)


They are: -OH, -NH2, -X, R, -OR etc.
2. All m-directing groups are ring deactivating groups.
They are: -CHO, -COOH, -NO2, -CN, -NR3 etc.

HALOGEN COMPOUNDS
1. The order of reactivity is
(a)RI > RBr > RCl > RF
(b)Ally halide > Alkyl halide > Vinyl halide
(c) Alkyl halide > Aryl halide
2. SN1 reaction: mainly 30 alkyl halides undergo this reaction and form
racemic mixture. SN1 is favoured by polar solvent and low concentration
of nuclephile.
3. SN2 reaction:Mainly 10 alkyl halides undergo this substitution. SN2 reaction
is preferred by non-polar solvents and high concentration of nucleophile.

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Class

24

ALCOHOLS
1. Alkenes are converted to alcohol in different ways as follows
Reagent
dil H2SO4
B2H6 and H2O2
Oxymercuration demercuration

Types of addition
- Markovnikov
- Anti- Markovnikov
- Markovnikov

2. Oxidation of
10 alcohol aldehyde carboxylic acid
(with same
(with same
no. of C atom)
no. of C atom)

s
s
la

20 alcohol ketone carboxylic acid


(with same
(with less
no. of C atom)
no. of C atom)
30 alcohol

ketone carboxylic acid


(with less
(with less
no. of C atom)
no. of C atom)

PHENOLS
1.

Phenol

2.

Phenol

CHCl3/OH
Salicyaldehyde
(Reimer- Tieman reaction)
CO2
D

Salicyclic acid (Kolbe reaction)

3. Acidity of phenols
(a) Increase by electron withdrawing substituents like
-NO2, -CN, -CHO, -COOH, -X, -NR
3

(b)

Decrease by electron releasing substituent's like


-R , -OH, -NH2, -NR2, OR

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Class

25

ETHERS
Al 2O3

1.

2ROH

2.

RONa + X R'

3.

ROR + 2 H2 SO 4

4.

ROR + H2 O

R - O - R + H2 O

2500 c

ROR' + NaX
(Williamson's synthesis)
D

(conc.)
dil. H2 SO4

2RHSO 4 + H 2O

2ROH

s
s
la

CARBONYL COMPOUNDS
1. Formation of alcohols using RMgX
(a) Formaldehyde + RMgX

Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis

(b) Aldehyde + RMgX


(other than HCHO)
Hydrolysis
(c)Ketone + RMgX

1 0 alcohol

20 alcohol

3 0 alcohol

2. Cannizzaro reaction (disproportionation)


Aldehyde

Hot conc.
Alkali

Alcohol + salt of acid

no a H-atom

Crossed- cannizzaro reaction gives alcohol with aryl group or bigger alkyl
group.
3. Aldol condensation:

Carbonyl compound +dil. alkali


(Witha H-atom)
4. Benzoin condensation
ethanolic
Benzaldehyde
NaCN

b - hydroxy carbonyl compound

Benzoin

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Class

26

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
1. The rate of esterification decrease when alcohol, acid or both have
branched substitutents.
2. Ortho effect: All ortho substituted benzoic acids (irrespective of type of
substitutent) are stronger than benzoic acid. As this group decrease outer
resonance of ring towards acid which increase acidic nature.

NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

s
s
la

1. Order
of basicity: (R = -CH3 or C2H5)
20 > 10 > 30 > NH3
2. Hofmann degradation
Amides

Br2 /KOH

10 amine

3. The basicity of amines is


(a) Decreased by electron withdrawing groups
(b) Increased by electron releasing groups
4. Reduction of nitrobenzene in different media gives different products
Medium
Acidic
Basic
Neutral

Product
Aniline
Azoxy, Azo and finally hydrazobenzene
Phenyl hydroxyl amine

CARBOHYHYDRATES, AMINO ACIDS AND POLYMERS


1. Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketenes.
2. Oligosaccharides are simple sugars, containing three to nine carbon
atoms.
3. Polymer is a chemical species of high molecular weight made up from
repeating units of low molecular weight.

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Class

27

CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC


COMPOUNDS
Homologous series
(a) Alkanes

Type of reactions
Substitution
(Mostly free radical)

(b) Alkenes and alkynes

Electrophilic addition

(c) Arenes

Electrophilic substitution

(d) Alkyl halides

Neucleophilic Substitution

s
s
la

(e) Aldehyde and ketones


Test to differentiate:
10, 20, and 30 alcohols

Nucleophilic addition

Lucas test
Victormayer's test

10, 20, and 30 amines

Hinsberg test

10, 20, and 30 nitro compounds

Test with HNO2 and KOH

Aryl halides and alkyl halides

Test with AgNO3 solution

Aldehydes and ketones aromatic

Tollen's test/ Fehling's test

Aldehydes and aliphatic aldehydes

Fehling's test

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Class

28

IMPORTANT REAGENT
1. D iH2 SO4 [or Cons. H2 SO4 + H2 O
Dehydrating agent (+ HOH)

U se

(a) CH 2

CH 2

(b) C2 H5 OC2 H5

dil. H2 SO4

dil. H2SO4

10 alc

"

ald, 20 alc

OH

-Hx

alc. KOH
-HCl

3. Cu or ZnO / 3000C

CH2

2C2 H5 OH

2. Alc. KOH or Nanh2 (Use


CH 3CH 2Cl

CH3

CH 2

"

CH 2

s
s
la

ketone, 30 alc

"

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alkene (exception)

Class

C6 H5 NO2

SnCl2 / HCl
6H

29

C6H5NH2

10. Lindlar's catalyst = pd / CaCO3 + in small quantity(CH3COO)2Pb


2 - butyne + H2

"

Cis - 2 - butene
(main product)

s
s
la

11. Ziegler- Natta Catalyst (C2H5)3Al + TiCl4


Use In additional polymerization
Propene

"

Poly prope ne

MAIN USE OF COMPOUNDS

SMELL OF SOME COMPOUNDS

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Class

30

IDENTIFICATION TESTS
(a) Unsaturated compound (Bayer's reagent) Decolorizing the reagent
(b) Alcohols (Ceric Ammonium nitrate solution) Red coloration.
(c) Phenols (Neutral FeCl3 solution) violet/deep blue coloration.
(d) Aldehydes and ketones (2, 4-D.N.P.) orange Precipitate
(e) Acids (NaHCO3 solution) Brisk effervescence (CO2 is evolved)

s
s
la

(f) 10 amine (CHCl3 + KOH) Foul smell (isocyanide)

(g)20 amine (NaNO2 + HCI) yellowoily liquid (Nitrosoamine)

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