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A"STUDY"ON"THE"ACTIVITY,"ETHOLOGY"AND"PSYCHOLOGY" "

A"STUDY"ON"THE"ACTIVITY,"ETHOLOGY"AND"PSYCHOLOGY" " OF"FLUORESCENT"PLASTIC"CUBES* !

!

Author:!C.L.!SCULDER ! Institute!for!the!Study!of!Mind,!Drugs!and!Behaviour ! Loyola!University!Medical!Centre!

2160!S.!First!Avenue!

Maywood,!Ill.!60253 !

! 2160!S.!First!Avenue! Maywood,!Ill.!60253 ! ABSTRACT '

ABSTRACT '

A!series!of!experiments!are!presented!which!have!provided!rigorously!quantified! and!carefully!analyzed!data!on!the!behaviour!of!small,!fluorescent,!plastic!cubes! of! varying! size! and! weight! in! an! environment! of! organic! complexity.! These! variables!have!been!studied!as!to!their!effects!on!the!psychomotor!activity!of!the! cubes,! on! the! social! behaviour! of! the! basic! units,! and! on! the! evolution,! the! affinities,!drives!and!Intelligence!of!the!cubes. !

A! new! point! of! view! regarding! the! behaviour! of! richly! connected! systems! is! expressed.! The! data! suggest! that! there! are! errors! caused! by! the! dogmatic! separation! of! scientific! disciplines! and! strongly! favours! a! metagoal! of! transP cultural,!transP world!unity!of!science. !

INTRODUCTION '

The! series! of! experiments! reported! here! represent! more! than! eight! years! of! research.!However,!none!of! the!data!have!been!published!previously.!The!work! has! been! carried! cut! with! difficulty! in! that! the! necessary! funds! were! from! personal!contributions!of!the!author!and!motivated!graduate!students.!An!initial! tentative!grant!request!in!regard!to!the!project!was!not!permitted!to!pass!beyond! the! chairman’s! desk! and! caused! such! emotional,! vindictive! and! threatening! behaviour!on!the!part!of!the!establishment!that!much!of!this!work!has!had!to!be! carried!out!secretly.!Only!the!virtues!of!the!tenure!system!permitted!the!analysts! and!presentation!of!this!data. !

This! laboratory! has! been! engaged! for! many! years! in! studies! on! mouse! behaviour i, ii . ! A!serious,!noP nonsense!consideration!of!the!concepts!on!which!our! behavioural, ! theories!were! based! promoted! the!investigation! reported! here.! In! our!everyday!conversations!in!the!laboratory!we!had!a!natural!enough!tendency! to! let! the! concepts! of! our! professed! field! (behaviour)! soul! over! to! our! descriptions! of! the! behaviour! of! “inanim ate”! things;! and! we! found! ourselves! deep!in!information!theory,!systems!theory,!Gestalt!theory,!etc.!when!we!tried!to! establish!the!validity!of!the!assumptions!underlying!our!initial!points!of!view!and! to! pin P point! the! rationale! behind! the! classical! constructs! of! animal! psychology! which!we!used!to!speak!about!the!mice!under!investigation iii .! !

We!came!to!view!the!organism!as!a!behavioural!system! that !mirrored!aspects!of! the!environmental!reality;!and!we!began!to!wonder!which!was!the!reflection!of! which,!e.g.,!did!the!adaptive!intelli gent!animal!reflect!the!environ ment!or!did!the! environment! reflect! the! animal?! Feedback! apparently! was! involved! in! the! simplest!motor!act.!The!mice!acted!upon!things!as!a!result!of!things!acting!upon! them;!and!the!stimulus!was!modified!by!the!actions!of!the!mouseP actions!that !it! (the! stimulus)! caused.! An! on P going! developmental! situation! existed! for! which! there!was!neither!a !beP ginning!nor!an!end!but!rather,!in!most!cases,!there!was!a! dyadic!relationP ship!as!follows:!

! ! ! ! ! Environment ! Mouse ! ! A ! B ! !
!
!
!
!
!
Environment !
Mouse !
!
A
!
B
!
!
!
!
!
A!is!an!event!(or!series!of!events)!of!a!system!external!to!the!mouse!and!affecting!
it,! and! B!is! an! event! (or! series! of! events)!within! the!mouse! affecting! the! other!
system!so!as!to!modify!A. !
!
The! experiments! reported! here! were! conceived! with! only! a! slight! change! in!
reference!or!point!of!view.!This!change!in!reference!seemed!reasonable!because!
it! appeared! to! us! that! there! was! only! a! convention! directing! us;! and,! possibly,!
new!insights!would!be!gained!if!we!ignored!our!conventional,!egocentric,!Judeo P
Christian! philosophy.! The! philosophy! treats! the! world! as! divided! into! animate!
and!inanimate!objects!and!main tains!itself!by!rigorously!indoctrinating!us! from!
infancy! that! this! dichotomy! has! some! validity.! The! validity! is! enforced! by!
suitable!separation!of!terminologies,!concepts,!and!hypotheses!in!use!in!separate!
disciplines!studying!one!or!the!other!category.!
!

We!jokingly!referred!to!our!studies!as!the!founding!of!a!new!science! P !“cubology,”! the!study !of!the!behaviour!of!cubes!in!a!complex!organic!medium.!After!we!began! our! research! and! discovered! that! this! was! indeed! a! new! science,! we! began! to! worry!about!its!implication.! In!what!way!were!the! conclusions!that!we!reached! more! silly! and! irrelevant! than! those! of! scientific,! behavioural,! life! sciences! orthodoxy?! The! measure ments! are! accurate! and! valid.! The! hypotheses! are! simple,!clear,!and!not!devious;!but! the!overall!implications!are!alarming!in! that! the! principles! and! the! logic! of! cubology! are! those! of! e conomics,! sociology,! psychology,!or!any!of!the!model P constructing!sciences!of!the!artificial.!

MATERIALS'AND'METHODS '

I'Animals '

The!animals!used!in!these!experiments!were!wildP trapped,!male,!domestic!mice,! Mus! musculus! domesticus.! After! a! twoP week ! quarantine! period! in! the! environmental! chamber! of! the! laboratory,! the! animals! were! admitted! into! the! cube! chamber! described! below.! They!were! not! further! studied.! The! number! of! male! animals! was! maintained! at! thirty! individuals! in! the! chamber! throughout! each! experiment.! Food! and!water!were! available! ad!libitum! at! the! sides! of! the! chamber!in!small!containers.!

II'Cubes '

The! work! reported! here! dealt! with! the! behaviour! of! solid! polyethylene! plastic! cubes.!Control! cubes! for! this! study!were! 1.5! cm.! on!a! side,!all! the! same! weight! and! solid.! During! certain! studies! either! the! dimensions! or! the! weights! of! the! cubes! were! changed.! If! the! cube! dimensions! were! the! parameter! under!

consideration,!2!sizes!of!cubes!differing!from!the!1.5!cm!on!a!side!control!cubes!

were!constructed.!The se!were!either!1.2!or!1.8!cm!on!a!side.!The!smaller!cubes! were! weighed! with! lead! inserts! re P covered! with! plastic! and! were! of! the! same! weight!as!the!control!cubes.!The!larger!ones!were!partially!hollow!so!that!their! weights!also!equalled! the!control!cubes.! Thus!in!studies!on! the!effect!of!size!on! behaviour,!all!cubes!weighed!the!same.!For!those!studies!involving!the!effect!of! weight!on!behaviour,! the!control!cubes!of!1.5!cm.!dimension!were!hollowed!or! weighed!and!then!recovered!to!all!look!identical!although !they!now!weighs!2,!3! or!4!grams. !

All!cubes!were!impregnated!with! fluorescence! that !was!activated!strongly!by!a! dark! light! of! 385! m illiP microns! and! emitted! fluorescent! light! at! 435! milliP microns.! The! latter! radiation! could! be! recorded! by! means! of! a! camera! as! described!below.!

At!the!beginning!of!each!experiment!34,560!cubes!were!admitted!to!the!chamber!

described!below!and!placed!equidistant!from!one!another!on!the!floor.!

III'The'Cube'Chamber'

This!was!a!large!chamber,!6.1!x!3.7!x!2.4!meters!in!size.!It!was!constructed!from!

pine!2”!x!4”!studs.!The!entire!chamber!on!the!inside!had!a!lining!of!¼!inch!wire!

netting!forming!the!walls!and!a!ceiling.!The!floor!was!a!smooth!aluminium!sheet! perforated! with! 0.5! cm! holes! spaced! ¼! cm! apart.! These! holes! allowed! faeces,! food!particles,!and!urine! to! fall! from! the!chamber!but!did!not!permit!escape!of! the!cubes!and!provided!a!smooth!solid!base!for!their!activities.!The!chamber!was! maintained!in! a! dark! room! at! 22oC.! ±! 1.3o! with! a!lightP dark! cycle! of! 16! hours! daylight.! The! on! time! was! 6! a.m.! When! photographed! for! analysis,! the! entire! chamber! was! lit! briefly! with! strong! ultraviolet! radiation! and! all! other! illumination!was!extinguished!briefly!at!that!time.! !

A!modified!wide!angle!Minolta!camera!mounted!above!the!chamber!was!used!for! photography.! One! picture! (frame)! of! the! total! field! (floor! of! the! chamber)! was! photographed! at! every! five P minute! interval! throughout! the! experiment.! This! series!of!frames!provided!us!with!a!moment P toP moment!record!of!the!behaviour! of! the! cubes! in! the! pr esence! of! complex! organic! material.! The! mathematical! analysis! and! quantisation! of! these! data! was! made! possible! by! means! of! a! computer!readP out!of!the!film.!Each!cube!appeared!as!a!point!of!light!and!suitable! programs!allowed!us!to! formulate!the! statistically!relevant ! generalities!that!are! presented!here.!

IV'Experimental'paradigm '

The! basic! experiment! has! already! been! indicated! above.! The! chamber! was! emptied! and! cleaned.! The! 34,560! cubes! were! admitted! to! the! chamber! and! placed!equidistant!from!one!another!on!the!floor.!The!mice!were!admitted!to!the!

chamber!at!6.00!a.m.!and!the!filming!was!begun!at!this!time!at!the!rate!of!1!frame!

every!5!minutes.!Each!experiment!lasted!thirty!days.!

Experiments! were! run! using! control;!light,! heavy,!large! and! small! cubes.! Some! experiments!were!also!run!using!an!equally!distributed!population!of! the! three! differently!weighed!cubes!or!the!three!different!sized!cubes.!Mixture!of!weighted! and! sized! cubes! were! not! studied.! The! experiments! were! essentially! simple!in! concept,!although!very!tedious!to!execute.!

From! the! motion! pictures! of! each! experiment,! measurements! were! taken;! and! three! basic! kinds! of! behaviour! were! studied:! activity,! ethnology! or! social! behaviour!and!psychology.! The!qualitative!difference!between!these!behaviours! an d!the!effects!of!changing!the!two!parameters!of!weight!and!size!on!these!three! behaviour s!are!reported!in!the!results!section!below.!

RESULTS '

'

I.'Psychomotor'Activity.

A.'Control'Cubes. '

These!studies!pertained! to! the! overall!amount! of!activity!shown!by! the!control! cubes!without!consideration!of!the!quality.!The!estimates!were!derived!by! super! positioning!with!the!computer!a!fine!grid!over!each!frame!of!the!serial!sequence! of!film!and!anal yzing!the!number!of!cubes!crossing!a!line!of!the!grid!within!each! five!minute! unit! of! time.! The! procedure!was! similar! to! that! used! to! record! the! psychomotor! behaviour! of! animals.! The! general! overall! activity! of! the! cubes! analyzed! in! this! way! showed! several ! interesting! features.! The! activity,! for! example,! showed! diurnal! rhythm,! an! orientation! reflex! (this! is! a! period! of! heightened!activity!early!in!the!experiment!when!the!cubes!are!unfamiliar!with! the!environment!and!becoming!acquainted!with!each!other),!and!a! tendency! to! stabilize!at!a!certain!constant!activity!level.!(Thermodynamic!equilibrium?)!

The!average!daily!psychomotor!activity!taken!from!ten!studies!of!control!cubes!is!

shown!in!Figure!1.!There!is!a!clear!indication!that!the!cubes!become!increasingly!

frenzied!until!around!the!fifth!day!at!which!time!the!overall!daily!activity!settles! down! to! what! might! be! considered! the! energy! level! of! the! total! population! of! controls.!The!activity!of!the!first!five!days!is!the!orienting!reflex.!

Figure! 2! shows! a! more! detailed! hourP byP hour! analysis! of! an! average! day’s! activity! from! such! studies.!Data! from! the! first! five! days’! activity! or! orientation! period!have!been!withheld!from!this!analysis.!The!cubes!show!two!distinct!peaks! of!activity! P !one!at!8.00!pm.!and!another!at!4.00!a.m.! Night!time!activities!average! considerably!higher!than!those!during!the!day!when!cubes!appear!to!rest.!

B.'The'effect'of'size'on'psychomotor'activity.''

Interestingly,!smaller!cubes!were!much!more!active! than!larger! ones.!Although! less! intelli gent! (see! analysis! below),! they! showed! both! a! much! higher! level! of! orienting! reflex! and! of! general! activity.! On! the! other! hand,! larger! cubes! were!

more!sluggish!and!never!as!highly!active.!(See!Chart!1.)!

C.'The'effect'of'weight'on'psychomotor'activity. '

Weight! was! found! to! be! an! important! variable! in! that! heavier! cubes! showed! lessened!psychomotor!activity.!Light!cubes!showed! considerable!orienting!reflex! and!activity.! (See!Chart!2)!

II' Ethnology '

A.'Control'Cubes'

! The! analysis! of! locomotor! behaviour! presented! above! made! no! distinction!
!
The! analysis! of! locomotor! behaviour! presented! above! made! no! distinction!
among!types!of!behaviours.!Psychomotor!activity!does!not!differentiate!between!
a! positive! (social)! and! a! negative! (antisocial)! response! of! one! cube! towards!
another.!One!of!the!most!striking!discoveries!of!these!studies!is!the! existence!of!
selfP organizing! properties! among! the! cubes.! Initially! at! the! beginning! of! each!
experiment! the! cubes! are! scattered! equidistant! from! and! symmetrical! with!
regard! to! one! another.! If! the! camera! film! is! projected! on! a! screen! at! several!
frames!per!second,!a!moving!picture! results!that!makes!it!clearly!evident!that !the!
overall!movement!of!the!cubes!is!not!random.!Indeed,!their!effect!on!each!other!
and! on! the! organic! constituents! of! the! system! is! such! that! at! unpredictable!
intervals!the!cubes!aggregate!at!one!point!or!another!on!the!floor!of!the!chamber.!
!
The!size!of! the!aggregates!varies,!but! the!average!aggregate!of! ten!experiments!
was! composed! of! 130! cubes! (S.E.! ±! 27).! Aggregates! of! the! cubes! wander! as!
“tribes”!one!cube!following!the!other,!about!the! cage!floor;!and!they!may!settle!or!
disperse.!The!cubes!did!not!often!show!“cueing”!behaviour,!the!usual!effect!was!
that! one! cube! would! leave! a! tribe! and! settle! somewhere.! It! would! then!
communicate! with! others! of! its! group! and! cause! them! to! follow! and! settl e!
nearby,!sometimes!a!tribe!was!seen!to!divide!into!several!aggregates!or!one!may!
coalesce!with!another!forming!larger!stable!communities.!
!

The! cube! aggregates! present! fascinating! parallels! to! human! colonies! or! civilizations.!After!the!fifth!day!the!tribes!have!stabilized!to!certain!regions!of!the! cage! floor! and! the! attractions! among! unit! cubes! of! each! tribe! seem! more! enduring.!We! have! observed,! however,! on! rare! occasions,! sudden,! unexplained! activity!on!the!part!of!the!cubes!to!form!new!social!relationP ships!and!new!tribes! after!a!period!of!inactivity!by! the!members!of! the!group.!This!begins!when!one! member!ventures!out!and!this!act!promotes!a!rapid!following!by!the!rest!of!the! herd,! one! at! a! time.! It! appears! that! there! is! some! kind! of! seeding! or! catalytic! effect! in! that! if! a! little! group! gets! together,! it! forms! the! nucleus! for! the! organization! or! accumulation! of! other! cubes! to! form! a! larger! aggregate.! There! appears!also!to!be!a!“law!of!exponential!aggregation”!in!that!once!a!small!society! is! formed,! there!is! an!increasingly! rapid! rate! of! accretion! until! some! optimum! size!is!reached!after!which!activity!among!the!involved!cubes!ceases.!Some!cubes! were!observed!to!oscillate,!to!not!settle!down!at!one!place!or!another.!Such!cubes! showed! frenzied! activity! and! in stability.! It! is! interesting! that! these! were! the! cubes! that!most!often!ceased! their!restless!search!only!after! they!had!achieved! some! unusual! or!improbable! position!in! the! cage!and!were! therefore! often! the! more!intelligent. !

B.'The'effect'of'cube'size'on'the'quality'of'behaviour.'

Both! weight! and! size! affect! the! quality! of! behaviour.! For! example,! among! different P sized! cubes,! like! attracts! like;! e.g.,! cubes! of! a! similar! size! aggregate! together.!Small!cubes!tend!to!show!more!activity!but!move!more!randomly!than! control! cubes;! they! show! less! stability! and! organization.! Larger! cubes! often! aggregate! together! without! much! random! movement! once! a! seed! is! formed.! Their!colonies!are!resistant!to!change.!

C.'The'effect'of'weight'on'the'quality'of'behaviour. '

When!popula tions!of!mixed!weighted!cubes!were!studied,!their!discrimination!of! one!another!was!not!found!to!be!as!great!as!that!found!among!cubes!of!different! size.! There! was! a! noted! tendency! for! heavier! cubes! not! to! increase! their! negentropy,! e.g.,! they! were! found! t o! aggregate! less! and! therefore! contain! less! structure,!less!information!in!their!groups.!The!control!cubes!and!lightP weighted! cubes!occasionally!formed!conglomerate!societies.!

III.'Intelligence. '

The!above! data!and! that!which! follows!is!admittedly! difficult! to! quantify .! After! the! investigators! had! developed! a! familiarity! with! the! behaviours,! the! entire! sequences!of!film!were!reviewed!and!the!number!of!times!in!each!experiment!a! particular! strategy! was! observed! was! recorded.! The! observations! and! generalities! presented! in! this! pilot! study! are! based! on! these! analyses .! Intelligence! was! estimated! on! the! basis! of! the! frequency! and! degree! of! improbable!and!complex!behaviour.!As!has!been!noted,!the!activity!of!the!small! and! the!light! cubes!was! often! very!great! P ! but!it!appeared! random,!almost!like! Brownian!movement.! !

However,! other! cubes! as! they! moved! about! seemed! to! gather! information,! to! attempt!strangely!unlikely!acts!for!example;!and!(this!was!most!noted!among!the! control! cubes)! the! cubes! occasionally! assumed! three P dimensional ! configurations.! E .g.,! one! cube! mounted! another! and! rested! on! it.! Even! piles! of! three!cubes,!a!very!improbably!event,!were!observed.!Most!rarely,!but!on!several! occasions,! arches! were! observed! two! or! three! layered! levels;! that! is,! two! columns!were!bridged!over!at!the!top!with!a!cube.!During!every!experiment!the! emergence! and! temporal! duration! of! these! columns! or! improbable! threeP dimensional!structures!were!recorded.!Intelligence!was! estimated!on!the!basis!of! the!frequency!and!degree!of!improbable!and!complex!behaviour.!On!such!a!scale,! in!terms!of!our!evaluation,!the!variables!have!the!following!effect!on!intelligence:!

Either!increasing!or!decreasing!the!weights!lessened!the!likelihood!of!intelligent! behaviour.!Increasing!or!decreasing!the!size!lessened!the!likelihood!of!intelligent! behaviour.! In! other! words! it! would! appear! that! in! the! case! of! either! size! or! weight!there!had!to!be!a!critical!amount!of!plastic!present! for!the!generation!of! mood!and!complex!behavioural! stratagems.!There!was!a!nonP linear!complexity! involved! here.! In! spite! of! our! clear! definition! of! intelligence! in! terms! of! the! behaviour! of! the! cubes! (their! readiness! to! form! complex! associations)! the!

internal! factors! responsible! for! their! behavioural! traits! in! this! matter! have! escaped!us.!Why!should!the!removal!of!a!small!plug!of!material!from!the!centre! of! the! cube! render! it! more! stupid?! Why! should! a! different! bodily! dimension! cause!either!sluggish,!unimaginative!or!hypera ctive,!unstable!behaviour?!

DISCUSSION '

It!must!be!understood! that! this!is!a!new! field!of!exploration,!and! that! the!work! presented!here!is!a!pilot!study!which!should!be!developed!in!future!work.!There! are! exciting! implications! in! the! observation! that! in! suitable! environments,! intelligence!can!be!found!in!relatively!undifferentiated!matter!and!form,!namely! in!the!plastic!cores!of!the!cubes. !

Some!comment!must!be!made!in!regard!to!the!results!presented!here.!Although! the!experiment!is!unconventional,! the!data! are!sound.!The!cubes!behave!under! these! conditions! in! the! manner! presented! here.! They! show! social! aggregation,! negentropy! increase,! diurnal ! rhythm,! etc.! These! behaviours! are! made! no! less! remarkable!if!it!is!noted!that!it!would!not!be!so!to!a!different!environment.!This! is!true!of!all!behaviours.!

When! we! investigate! some! aspect! of! the! universe,! the! way! we! sub P divide! the! system! is! arbitrary iv ! and! a! matter! of! convention! and! convenience.! Things! are! identified! by! their! looseness! of! coupling! with! other! things! or! by! degrees! of! decomposition v . !Much!of!this!depends!on!mechanistic!assumptions!of!causation. !

It!is! necessary!in! this! discussion! to! digress! for!just! a!moment! and! consider! an! interesting! phenomenon! of! mathematics.! This! is! necessary! because! in! science,! once!we!establish!our!categories!and!our!variables,!the!rest!is!mathematics.!Let! us!consider!the!mathematical!properties!of!the!surface!of!a!sphere.! ! From!measurements!made!on!the!surface!a!consistent!set!of!relationships!can!be! worked! out,! all! describing! the! surface;! these! measurements! even! indicate! a! property!called!curvature!while!telling!nothing!of!what!is!inside!and!outside!or!of! a! third! dim ension.! The!measurements! or! pointer! readings! provide! a! discipline! and! knowledge! about! intrinsic! properties! of! the! sphere’s! surface,! properties! present! in! the! information! gathered! at! the! surf! ace.! In! science! we! deal! with! a! three! dimensional! world.! Measurements! of! this! physical! space! also! indicate! curvature!as! one! of!its!intrinsic! properties vi . !We!measure!and! draw! our! proofs! from! this!intrinsic!information!because! acme! tells!us! that!by!definition!space!is! everything! and! everywhere.! The! universe! has! no! extrinsic! properties;! we! can! know!of!none,!we!can!conceive!no!fourth!dimension. !

Yet!obviously,!contrary!to!the!above!doctrine!we!all!know!of!something!extrinsic! to!the!mathematical!systems!of!physical!science.!We!know!we!are!conscious!(or! something!)! P ! our! thoug hts,! our! intelligence,! our! being! we! know.! They! are! extrinsic! to! our! present! scientific! paradigms.! The! words! to! express! conscience! and!its!qualities!are!inadequate!because!words!suggest!things! P ! spaceP occupying ! things!with!dimension!and!duration;!and!“they” !are!not!of!this!substance.!“They! are!extrinsic! to!physical!reality!and!in! that!sense!do!not!exist.!But! this!suggests! there!may!be!a!discrepancy!in!how!we!are!handling!our!thinking!about!reality.!

How!is!a!dyadic!or!higher!order!feedback!relationship!to!be !studied!or!divided!in! regard!to!behaviour?!Many!of!our!sciences!may!be!blind!to!this!problem.!Do!the! men! cause! the! ghettos! or! do! the! ghettos! produce! the! men?! Does! a! family! constellation! cause! the! psychotic! or! does! the! psychotic! promote! the! family! constellation?!Did!society!evolve!the!brain!or!does!the!brain!create!society?!Who! is! the! controller! and! by! when! controlled?! Where! is! the! stimulus? ! If! it! can! be! traced! back! to! the! creature! which! is! stimulated?! What! point! of! view,! what! hypothesis,!what!demon!or!ghost!has!the!greatest!validity!in!regard!to!a!systems! approach!to!behaviour? !

We! may! be! leaving! out! something! in! our! worldview ! and! in! our! scientific! dogma vii . !We! did! not! consider! the!mice!in! our! cubology;! they!were!extrinsic! to! the!cubes!part! of! the!environment .! In! studying! the! behaviour! of!men!and! their! affairs! and! artefacts ! we! find! a! lot! that! resembles! the! cubes.! Are! we! leaving! something!out?!Is!something!important!extrinsic!to!our!data?!!

CONCLUSION '

The!experiments!reported!here!represent!a!departure!from!more!classical!points! of!view.! It!is!ingrained!in!the!dogma!o!the!behavioural!sciences!that!in!a!feedback! relationship!(where!event!A!affects!B,!and!event!B!is!affecting!A)! the!important! behavi our! especially! if! it! is! intelligent,! selfP organizing,! or! goal P directed,! is! a! property!of!the!organic!part.! The!control!or!mind!or!brain!is!presupposed!to!lie! in! the! organic! part.! There! appears! no! valid! basis! for! this! assumption viii . ! The! mouse!cube!experiment!shows!that!intelligence!of!a!sort!(mind,!and!the!like)!can! be!foun d!as!well!in!solid!blocks!of!plastic!in!the!proper!environment.!!

The!idea!at!fault!seems!to!be!that!mind!or!behaviour!or!control!are!attributed!to! parts! of!a!system.!The!conclusion! tentatively! reached!by! this!author!is! that! the! concepts! of! most! at! our! behavioural! sciences! are! rooted! in! a! culturally! determined! point! of! view! and! advancement! or! intellectual! change! with! some! reward! is! possible! only! when! these! hardened! dogmas! of! the! life! sciences! are! broken! by! other! frames! of! reference,! other! consciouslyP perceived,! accidentally! discovered!realities,!transcultural!and!metalinguistic. !

It! is! perhaps! impossible! for! the! straightP jacketed! minds! of! pure! scientists! to! consider! the! revolutionary! import! of! this! attitude;! but! those! who,! along! with! their! being! scientists! are! also! philosophers,! or,! more! importantly,! sorcerers,! understand!the!depths!and!dangers!it!por tends!to!us!and!our!society ix . !

FIGURES '

!

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
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!
Day!
Figure" 1:! Mean! daily! psychomotor! activity! of! a! control! cube! population.! The!
ordinate! represents! the! percent!mean!activity!index! obtained! by!averaging! the!
five!minute!activities! of! ten! populations! for!each! day! of!a! typical! control! study!
and!expressing!this!as!a!perc ent!of!the!highest!daily!(24!hour)!activity!shown!by!
any!of!the!populations!throughout!the!study.!The! abscissa !is!time!in!days. !
Activity!Index !

! !

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
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!
!
!
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!
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!
Time!of!Day!06:00!to!06:00!
!
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Figure" 2:! An! average! 24P hour! activity! record! showing! the! diurnal! effect.! The!
ordinate!in! this! case!is! the!mean! percent!activity! computed! on!an! hourly! basis!
for! ten! studies.! The! records! for! the! first! five! days! of! these! studies! were! not!
averaged!because!of!the!orient ation!reflex!(Pig.!1).!The!abscissa!represents!time!
in!hours. !
!
Activity!Index !

Chart"1" "

THE!EFFECT!OF!SIZE!ON!PSYCHOMOTOR!ACTIVITY !

 

Orienting!Reflex !

Small !

37.0!±!0.8!

Control !

17.3!±!0.2!

Large!

4.2!±!0.7!

Daily!Activity !

Small !

30.3!±!0.3!

Control !

12.7!±!0.1!

Large!

2.7

!±!1.2 !

This! chart! indicates! the! mean! counts/hour! value! (±! SEM)! of! the! psychomotor! activity!during!the! first! five!days!of!the!study!(orientation!reflex)!and!the!mean! daily! activity! (±! SEM)! for! the! remainder! of! the! study.! It! can! be! seen! that! the! smaller!cu bes!are!generally!more!active!and!reactive!compared!with!the!control! and!larger!cubes.!The!differences!bet!en!the!behaviours!of!the!treated!cubes!and!

the!control!cube!behaviours!here!always!significant!P!<!0.05!and!in!some!cases!

were!highly!significant. !

Chart"2" "

Orienting!Reflex !

Small !

23.9!±!0.3!

Control !

16.4!±!0.6!

Large!

14.2!±!0.3!

Daily!Activity !

Small !

20.3!±!0.2!

Control !

12.3!±!0.2!

Large!

9.9!±!0.8!

This!chart!indicates!the!mean,!counts!per!hour!value!(±!SEM)!of!the!psychomotor! activity! during! the! first! five! days! of! the! study! (Orienting! reflex)! and! the! mean! daily! activity! (±! SEM! for! the! remainder! of! the! study.! It! can! be! seen! that! the! lighter!cubes!are!generally!more!active!and!reactive!compared!with! the!control! and!heavier!cubes,!The!difference! from!control!value!all!achieved!P<0.05.!

FOOTNOTE '

*This!has!been!modified!from!an!original!article!published!in !

The!Worm!Runner’s!Digest ! Vol.!15,!No.!1,!Dec.!1973,!122P 126!

Which !was!in!turn!also!published!in !

 

Systems!and!Management!Annual ! 1975,!C.!West!Churchman!Ed., ! Petrocelli/Charter,!N.Y.!511P 518. !

Additional'Information 'by' David'Walker '

This!paper! was!given!to!me!by !my!mother!when!she!was!on!a!psychology!course! in! the! early! eighties,! and! has! sat! around! in! my! files! ever! since.! In! September! 1998! I! had! some! time! and! so! decided! to! scan!it!in! and! check!it! out.! I! sent! the! following!eP mail!to!Loyola!University!Medical!Centre:!

!

!

I" was" handed" a" copy" of" a" paper" entitled" 'A" study" of" the" activity," ethology" and"

psychology"of"fluorescent"plastic"cubes'"by"C"L"Scudder"(1976)"at"'Institute"for"the"

study"of"mind,"drugs"and"behaviour,"Loyola"University"Medical"Centre,"2160"S"First"

Avenue,"Maywood,"Ill"60153."I"was"trying"to"find"out"if"this"is"the"real"accreditation"

for"this"paper,"or"if"this"is"as"much"spoof"as"the"article"itself . "

"

to!which!I!got!the!following!reply: !

!

I'm" unable" to" locate" a" CL" Scudder" here" at" the" medical" centre" cur rently," and" we" don't"have"an"institute"by" that"name." It"would"be"difficult"for"us" to"determine" the"

authenticity"of"something"from"1976"without"more"information."Sorry"we"couldn't"

be"of"more"help. "

"

Jacqueline"LaSota" " Director " Public"Relations"and"WWW"Market ing"Department "

Loyola"University"Health"System "

In!2009!I!decided!to!create!a!PDF!version!of!the!document!and!also!looked!into!

it s!history !a!little!further .!I !found!more!references!to!the!Worm!Runner’s!Digest! including!one!at! Wikipedia !that!says!the!journal! published!both!satirical!articles ! and!scientific!papers .! !

As!someone!involved!in!Business!Intelligence!I!have!periodically!used!this!article! as!an!example!of!how!analysis!without!assessing! all!the!information!can!lead!to! false!conclusions!

In! the! scanning! process! I! have! allowed! the! spell! checker! to! change ! the! words! from!US!English!to!UK!English;! I!have!also!redrawn!the!three!graphics;! otherwise! it!is!a!faithful!reproduction!of!the!document!I !was!handed.! !

BIBLIOGRAPHY '

!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

i ! Scudder,!C.L.!and!Richardson,!D.! On!the!behavioural!effects!of!bilateral!glossopharyngealectomy!in!mice.!! Psychon.!Sci,!16!(3):!141P 143,1969. !

!

ii ! Scudder,!C.L.,!Avery,!D.!and!Karczmar,!A.G. ! Study!of!avoidance!conditioning!in!five!genera!and!strains!of!mice. ! Agressologia!10;!135P 144,!1969. !

!

iii ! Scudder,!CL. ! The!Mind:!An!Evolving!System!of!Models.!In!Fields!Within!Fields!Within!Fields, ! Julius!Stedma n,!Ed.!14:!49P 53,!Winter,!1975.!

!

iv ! Ashby,!W.R.! Design!for!a!brain.! London:!Chapman!and!Hall,!1952. !

!

v ! Glassman,!R.E. ! Persistence!and!loose!coupling!in!living!systems. ! Behaviou ral!Science,!18(2),!83P 98,!1973. !

!

vi ! Callahan,!J.J! The!curvature!of!Space!in!a!Finite!Universe; ! Sci.!Amer.!Vol.!235!90P 100.!1976. !

!

vii ! Scudder,!C.L. ! On!the! Environmental!Mind. !

Systems!and!Management!Science!Annual,!C.!West!Churchman,!Editor.!pg.!5P 15.!

! Scudder,!C.L. ! Mindless!Meaning,!Meaningless!Mind. ! Perspectives!In!Biology!and!Medicine,!19(4),!533P 536,!1976!

! Scudder,!C.L.!Kelipoth, ! in!World!Union, !Vol.!XVI,!No.!7,!2 P 16,!1976!