67%(3)Il 67% ha trovato utile questo documento (3 voti)

987 visualizzazioni322 pagineproject

Nov 05, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

project

© All Rights Reserved

67%(3)Il 67% ha trovato utile questo documento (3 voti)

987 visualizzazioni322 pagineproject

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 322

A PROJECT REPORT ON

REINFORCED CEMENT CONCRETE AND

STEEL BUILDING

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN

CIVIL ENGINEERING

BY

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

ABDULLAH

MOHAMMED JAWAD HUSSAIN

SUFIAN ASHER KHAN

SYED AAMER HUSSAIN

SYED ABDUL HANNAN

SYED MUSHTAQ HUSSAIN SAJJAD

MOHAMMADABDUL RAHEEM

08E01A0102

08E01A0120

08E01A0139

08E01A0140

08E01A0141

08E01A0152

09E05A0103

ASST VICE PRESIDENT-ENGG

HYDERABAD

B.E (CIVIL); ME (STRUCT)

NIZAM INST OF ENGG AND TECH

(Affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad)

Near Ramoji Film city, Deshmukhi (V) Nalgonda 508284

2008-2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Mir Mujahid Ali H.O.D of

Civil Engineering Department for having permitted us to carry out this project work.

Needless to mention that, Mr. S. Khalid Hashmi, Assistant vice-president of

Kirby Building India(P) Ltd, who had been a source of inspiration and for his

timely guidance in the conduct of our project work, I take this opportunity to thank for

his guidance toward us throughout the project period.

I take this opportunity to thank Mr. Syed Muneer Hussain, G.M Associates for

his esteem guidance and support throughout the project period during the program

would be nothing without the enthusiasm and imagination from you.

I acknowledge the untiring of Mr. S. Khalid Hashmi (External Guide) for his

excellent guidance without which the completion of this project would have been

impossible. His continuous encouragement and support has always been an

inspiration and a source of energy for us. We thank him for all of his valuable time,

effort and help. Without which the project could not have been completed.

The Materialization of ideas and views of the project work has been valuable

contributing of numerous friends and academics in the form of selfless criticism, well

wishes and above all words of inspiration. I am deeply indebted to all of them for

their support and guidance and sincerely thank each of them. Also my sincere thanks

to all other people who were directly or indirectly associated with the same in any

other way.

CONTENTS

PAGE N0

INTRODUTION

MODULE I

1. INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF REINFORCED

CONCRETE STRUCTURE

2. INTRODUCTION TO LIMIT STATE DESIGN

25

3. ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED

31

CONCRETE STRUCTURE

4. DESIGN OF SLABS

80

5. DESIGN OF BEAMS

96

6. DESIGN OF COLUMNS

132

7. DESIGN OF FOOTINGS

152

8. DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

168

178

MODULE II

10. INTRODUCTION TO STEEL STRUCTURES

179

185

12. ANALYSIS OF STEEL STRUCTURE

189

205

215

238

252

267

273

275

MODULE III

20. ESTIMATION OF QUANTITIES OF R.C.C MEMBERS

276

294

22. CONCLUSION

297

But when one does reflect, one realizes that one is a master of nothing.

-Voltaire

INTRODUCTION

Sociological changes, new technology in industry and commerce, new

building codes, other new laws and regulations, inflationary economics of nations,

and advances in building technology place an ever-increasing burden on building

designers and constructors. They need more and more knowledge and skill to cope

demands placed on them.

The public continually demands more complex buildings than in past. They

must serve more purposes, last longer and require less maintenance and repair. As in

past they must look more attractive. Yet, both building construction and operation

cost must be kept within acceptable limits or new construction will cease. To meet

this challenge successfully continual improvement in building design and construction

must be made.

One advance of note to building design is the adaption of operation research,

or system design and comparison of different type constructions. In the past, design of

a new building was mainly an imitation of the design of an existing building.

Innovations were often developed fortuitously and by intuition and were rare

occurrences. In contrast, systems design encourages innovation. It is a precise

procedure that guides creativity towards the best decisions. As a result, it can play

significant role in meeting the challenges posed by increasing building complexity

and costs.

I. PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURE

A building is an assemblage that is firmly attached to the ground and the

ground that provides total or nearly total shelter for machines, processing equipment

performance of human activities, storage of human possessions, or any combination

of these.

Building design is the process of providing all information necessary for

construction of a building that will meet its owners requirements and also satisfy

public health, welfare, and safety requirements. Architecture is the art and science of

building design. Building design and construction is the process of assembling

members and materials to form a building.

Architects are persons legally permitted to practice architecture. Engineers

are experts in specific scientific disciplines and are legally permitted to design parts of

buildings; in some cases, complete buildings. Building construction is generally

performed by laborers and crafts people engaged for the purpose by an individual or

organization, called a contractor.

2. The design should be constructed by known techniques and with available

labor and equipment, within an acceptable time.

3. The building should be capable of withstanding the elements and normal usage

for a period of time specified by client.

4. Both inside and outside, the building should be visually pleasing.

5. No part of the building should pose a hazard to the safety or health of its

occupants under normal usage, and the building should provide for safe

evacuation or refuge in emergencies.

6. The building should provide the degree of shelter from the elements and of

control of the interior environment-air, temperature, humidity, light and

acoustics-specified by the client and not less than the minimums required for

safety and health of the occupants.

7. The building should be constructed to minimum adverse impact on the

environment.

8. Operation of the building should consume a minimum of energy while

permitting the structure to serve its purposes.

9. The sum of costs of construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and

anticipated future alterations should be kept within the limit specified by the

client.

The ultimate observation objective of design is to provide all

the information necessary for the construction of a building. This objective is

achieved by the production of drawing, or plans, showing what are to be

constructed, specifications stating what materials and equipment are to be

incorporated in the building, and a construction contract between the client

and a contractor. Designer also should observe construction of the building

while it is in process. This should be done not only to assist the client in

ensuring that the building is being constructed in accordance with plans and

specifications but also to obtain information that will be useful in design of

future buildings.

Systems design comprises a logical series of steps that leads to the best

decision for a given set of conditions. The procedure requires:

Analysis of a building system.

Synthesis, or selection of components, to form a system that meets

specific objectives while subject to constrains, or variables controlled by

designers.

Appraisal of system performance, including comparisons with

alternatives systems.

Feedback to analysis and synthesis of information obtained in system

evaluation, to improve the design.

subject to constraints and restrictions and consisting of two or more

components that are interrelated and compatible, each component being

essential to the required performance of the system.

Building components, such as walls, floors, roofs, windows and doors,

are interrelated and compatible with each other. The existence of any of the

three components affects to some extent the performance of the others. And

the required performance of the building as a whole imposes restrictions on

the components. Consequently, a building has the basic characteristics of a

system, and system-design procedures should be applicable to it.

System design of buildings requires a different approach to design and

construction than that used in traditional design. Because traditional design

and construction procedures are still widely used, however, it is desirable to

incorporate as much of those procedures in systems design as is feasible

without destroying its effectiveness. The basic traditional design procedure

usually starts when a client recognizes the need for and economic feasibility of

a building and engages an architect, a professional with a broad background in

building design. The architect, in turn, engages consulting engineers and other

consultants.

A Structural engineer is a specialist trained in the application of

scientific principles to the design of load-bearing walls, floors, roof,

foundations, and skeleton framing needed for the support of buildings and

building components.

A Mechanical engineer is a specialist trained in application of

scientific principles to the design of plumbing, elevators, escalators, horizontal

walkways, dumbwaiters, conveyors, installed machinery, and heating,

ventilation, and air conditioning.

An Electrical engineer is a specialist trained in the application of

scientific principles to the design of electric circuits, electric controls and

safety devices, electric motors and generators, electric lighting, and other

electric equipment.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM, The portion of a building that extends

above the ground level outside it is called superstructure. The portion below

the outside ground level is called the substructure. The parts of the

substructure that distribute building loads to the ground are known as

foundation.

Foundations may take the form of walls. When the ground under the

building is excavated for a cellar, or basement, the foundation walls have the

additional task of retaining the earth along the outside of the building. The

superstructure in such cases is erected atop the foundation walls

i.

ii.

iii.

Composite construction

Frame construction which can be either with reinforced concrete or steel

The first method has got the limitation that will be economical only up to 2 to

3 storey's. With composite construction technique, the economy is achieved even if 6

storey's or more has to be necessarily dealt with framed type of construction.

ADVANTAGES OF FRAMED CONSTRUCTION OVER OTHER TYPES

1)

2)

3)

4)

Rate of construction is faster.

Floor area will be more due to reduction in thickness of wall

Greater feasibility with respect of:

a) Location and size of window

b) Location of glazing area is obtained

5) Interior partition wall can be independent of doors on the floors above or below,

thus permitting their removal to suit varying requirement or change in the tenancy.

IV. CHOICE OF MATERIALS:

i.

ii.

Because of its resistance to corrosion, it is widely favored in cold climates too.

STEEL FRAMES: If the number of floors exceeds twenty five, the

experience of designers, reveals that steel frames are more economical due to

the fact that these frames can be fabricated quickly in the workshop and can be

transported to work spot in convenient parts.

residential and both types of frames are used for the comparison of its choice which is

divided in different modules further.

MODULE I

CONCRETE

The design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures in India is governed by the

Indian Standard Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete IS: 456. The fourth

revision of this code IS: 456-2000 incorporates the Limit State Method of design

based on serviceability and safety requirements associated with the design loads and

design strengths of the materials. These design loads and design strengths are obtained

by applying partial safety factors for characteristic loads and strengths of the materials

concrete and steel.

Concrete structures have become very common in civil engineering

construction concrete has established as a universal building material because of its

high compressive strength, its adoptability to take any form and shape and resistant to

fire and carrion with negligible maintenance cost. Concrete is very strong in

compression but very weak in tension. Its low tensile strength is compensated by

introducing steel reinforcement in the tension zone. Thus, the concrete is strengthened

by steel and extensively in construction of buildings, bridges, tanks, dams etc. it is

therefore, necessary that every civil engineer should know the basic principles

involved in the design of Reinforced Concrete Structures.

1.1 CONCRETE:

Concrete is a composite material consisting of cement, aggregate and water in

suitable proportions. The chemical interaction between cement and water binds the

aggregates in to a solid mass. Fresh concrete will be plastic, so that it can be moulded

to any desired shape in the moulds and compacted to form a dense mass. Water has to

be applied for few days over the concrete surface soon after its setting because the

hydration reactions between cement and water continue for a longer period due to

which hardening of concrete takes place. This period when concrete is kept moist

during which concrete gains strength is called curing period. Hence, the strength of

concrete increases with age. The process of solidification of concrete from plastic

stage is called setting while gaining of strength after setting is called hardening.

Usually, setting completes within a maximum duration of 10 hours, while about 90%

of hardening is completed by 28 days.

The properties and quality of cement concrete are influenced by the

properties of its ingredients and quality control maintained during its making and

curing. Hence, it is necessary to study the ingredients of concrete.

The main ingredient materials in concrete are:

(a) Cement

(b) Aggregates

(c) Water

a) Cement:

Cement is the building material which is obtained by burning

calcareous, siliceous and argillaceous materials together in definite proportions

at high temperatures and grinding the resultant clinker in to a fine powder.

Various types of cements have been developed for the use in different types of

structures under different situations. According to IS: 456-2000, the types of

cements and their suitability for specific situations are given Table below.

Table 1.1 TYPES OF CEMENTS AND THEIR SUITABILITY

S.NO.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Types of Cement

Ordinary Portland

Cement

33 Grade

43 Grade

53 Grade

(for OPC,

compressive strength

of cement at 28 days

in N/mm2 is called as

grade of cement)

Rapid hardening

cement

Low heat Portland

cement

Port land slag cement

IS Code

IS: 269

IS: 8112

IS: 12269

works

Multi storey structures

Bridges, Tall structures,

Pre-stressed concrete work.

IS: 8041

IS: 12600

Mass concreting-Dams

IS: 455

Marine structures

General building works,

Mass concrete,

Marine structures

Marine structures

foundations in sulphate

bearing soils

Swimming pools, floors of

food processing plants

Marine structures

Marine structures,

construction of sewers

5.

Portland pozzolana

cement

IS: 1489

6.

Sulphate resisting

Portland cement

IS: 12330

7.

Hydrophobic cement

IS: 8043

8.

Supersulphated

cement

IS: 6452

9.

Where Used

IS: 6909

b) Aggregates:

Around 75% volume of concrete is occupied by the aggregates. Hence, the

structural behavior of concrete is significantly influenced by the type of aggregates

used. The aggregates used for the concrete should be durable, strong, hard, chemically

inert and well graded.

Aggregates whose particle size varies from 0.075 mm to 4.75 mm are called as

fine aggregate. Aggregates with particle sizes more than 4.75 mm are called as

coarse aggregates. Usually sand is used as fine aggregate whereas crushed rock and

gravel is used as coarse aggregate.

Type of

aggregate

Coarse aggregate

Fine aggregate

Size of aggregate

Size bigger than 4.75 mm

4.75 mm and less

TABLE 1.2

possible but it should be limited to 1/4th of the maximum thickness of the member.

The various properties of aggregates like specific gravity, strength, toughness,

hardness, soundness, particle size distribution and grading should comply with the IS

code IS: 383- 1979.

c) Water:

Water plays an active role in the chemical process of hydration of cement and

curing concrete. Hence, the water used for mixing and cutting of concrete should be

clean and free from injurious amount of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic matter etc.

that may be deleterious to concrete and steel.

Drinking water is generally considered satisfactory for mixing of concrete. Sea

water should not be used for mixing and curing because of presence of harmful salts

in it. The PH values of water should not be less than 6. The physical and chemical tests

for water should be done as per IS: 3025.

d) Admixtures:

Admixture is defined as a material, other than cement, water and aggregates.

Admixture is an ingredient of concrete and added to batch immediately before or

during mixing. Additive is a material which is added at the time of grinding cement

clinker at the factory. Admixture is used to modify the properties of ordinary concrete

so as to make it more suitable for any situation.

Admixtures are added to the concrete before or during mixing, to modify one

or more of the specific properties of concrete in the fresh or hardened states. IS: 9103-

1979 lays down the procedures for evolution of admixtures for concrete. The different

types of admixtures used are given below.

1. Accelerating Admixtures: These are added to concrete to increase the rate of

early strength development, which in turn facilitates earlier removal of

formwork. Common accelerators are calcium chloride, flu silicates and

trietanlamine.

2. Retarding Admixtures: These are added to slow down the rate of setting of

cement. They are useful in hot weather concreting. Common types of retarders

are starches and cellulose products, sugar and hydroxyl-carboxylic acids.

3. Water Reducing or Plasticizing Admixtures: The addition of plasticizer

allows greater workability for given water cement ratio or alternatively retains

the workability while reducing the water content. The basic ingredients of

water reducing agents are either lignosulphonate slats or polyhydroxy

compounds.

4. Air-Entraining Admixtures: These are used to incorporate air in the form of

minute bubbles in concrete usually to increase workability and resistance to

freezing and thawing. Commonly used air-entraining agents are animal and

vegetable oils, natural wood resin and their sodium salts of sulphated and

aulphonated organic compounds.

Action of plasticizers:

Improve the workability of concrete

Reduction in the surface tension of water

Sequence of addition of plasticizer.

Problem with crusher dust and crushed sand.

Compatibility with cement.

Slump loss.

Compaction at site.

Finishing.

Removal of formwork.

GRADES OF CONCRETE

Group

Grade Designation

M 10

M 15

M 20

M 25

M 30

M 35

M 40

M 45

M50

M 55

M 60

M 65

M 70

M 75

M 80

TABLE 1.3

Ordinary

Concrete

Standard Concrete

High

Strength

Concrete

Specified Characteristic

Compressive Strength of

150 mm Cube at 28 Days

in

N/mm2

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

Strain x 10-3

Formwork:

Formwork shall be designed and constructed so as to remain sufficiently rigid

during placing and compaction of concrete. The joints are plugged to prevent the loss

of slurry from concrete.

Stripping time of formwork:

TYPE OF FORMWORK

a.

b.

c.

d.

walls and beams

Soffit formwork to slabs (props

to refixed immediately after

removal of formwork)

Soffit formwork to beams (props

to refixed immediately after

removal of formwork)

Props to slab

STRIKING FORMWORK

16 24 hours

3 days

7 days

Spanning up to 4.5 m

7 days

e. Props to beam and arches

Spanning up to 6 m

Spanning over 6 m

TABLE 1.4

14 days

14 days

21 days

The following are the advantages of concrete due to which concrete is extensively

used in construction industry.

1. Compressive strength of concrete is very high.

2. Concrete can be moulded to any desired shape.

3. The materials for concrete are easily available.

4. It is easy to make.

5. It is durable.

6. By proper proportioning of mix, concrete can be made watertight.

7. It is fire resistant

8. Its maintenance cost is practically nil.

9. Strength of concrete increases with age.

10. Its monolithic character gives it more rigidity.

10

1. Tensile strength of concrete is very low and hence plain concrete cannot be

used in situations where tensile stresses are developed.

2. Strict quality control has to be maintained during production, placing and

compaction.

3. Curing has to be done far at least 14 days and hence time of construction

increases.

4. Once the members caste with concrete, it is very difficult to dismantle it.

It is emphasized that any structure to be constructed must satisfy the

need efficiently for which it is intended and shall be durable for its desired life. Thus,

the design of any structure is categorized into the following main types.

1. Functional design

2. Structural design

1. Functional design:

The structure to be constructed should primarily serve the basic purpose for

which it is to be used and must have a pleasing look.

The building should provide happy environment inside as well as outside.

Therefore, the functional planning of a building must take into account the proper

arrangements of rooms/halls to satisfy the need of the client, good ventilation,

lighting, acoustics, etc.

Bearing all these aspects in mind, the architect/engineer (i.e. Designer) has to

decide whether it should be a load bearing structure or R.C.C. framed structure or a

steel structure. He should also decide the system of covering the structure, whether the

roof shall consist of steel roof trusses and girders or R.C.C. folded plates or R.C. shell

or a beam-slab construction or a grid system or a pre-stressed concrete hanging roof or

combination of above.

After deciding the tentative form of the structure the designer should select

appropriate material for it construction. The properties of the available materials have

to be determined to decide their stability and suitability.

2. Structural Design:

Once the architectural planning task is completed further structural designing

task for all structural components of the building will be proceeded.

11

structural members subjected to loads and designing them with economy and

elegance to give a safe, serviceable and durable structure.

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Beams to support slabs and walls

Columns to support beams

Footing to distribute concentrated column loads over large area of the

supporting soil such that the bearing capacity of soil is not exceeded.

12

beam to column and then to the foundation and soil below it

Structural planning

Action of forces and computation of loads

Methods of analysis

Design of members

Detailing, drawing and preparation of schedules.

Structural planning:

After getting architectural plan of the building, the structural planning of the

building frame is done. This involves determination of the following:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Positioning of beams.

Spanning of slabs.

Layout of stairs.

Selecting proper type of footing.

13

A FLOWCHART ON

INVESTIGATION OF

BUILDING

14

etc. that has a foundation, wall, roof etc. that protect human being and their properties

from direct harsh effect of weather like rain, wind, sun etc.

(1) Foundation (Sub-structure)

(2) Plinth

(3) Superstructure

(1) Foundation: It is the lowest artificially prepared part, below the surface of the

surrounding ground, which is in direct contact with substrata and transmits all

the loads coming from super structure to the subsoil.

(2) Plinth: It is the middle part of the structure, above the surface of the

surrounding ground up to the surface at the floor (i.e. floor level), immediately

above the ground.

(3) Superstructure: The part of the structure constructed above the plinth level

(or ground floor level) is termed as superstructure.

Buildings are generally classified as residential, educational, institutional,

assembly, business, and mercantile industrial storage and hazardous.

According to National Building Code of India 1970, buildings on the basis of

occupancy are classified into following groups:.

1.

accommodation is provided for residing permanently or temporarily

with or without cooking or dining or both facilities are termed as

residential buildings, for e.g. apartments, flats, bungalows, dormitories,

private houses, hostels, hotels etc.

2.

college or day- care purposes involving assembly for institution,

education or recreation and which is not covered by assembly buildings.

3.

such as medical or other treatment or care of persons suffering from

physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity, care of infants,

convalescents or aged persons and for penal or correctional detention in

which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. Institutional buildings

ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the occupants. They

15

jails, prisons and mental asylums.

4.

Assembly Buildings: These are the buildings where the groups of people

meet or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, political, civil

halls, marriage halls, town halls, auditoriums, exhibition halls, museums,

skating rinks, gymnasiums, restaurants (also used as assembly halls),

places of working, dance halls, club rooms, passenger stations and

terminals of air, surface and other public transportation services,

recreation places and stadia etc.

5.

(other than that covered by mercantile buildings), for keeping of accounts

and records for similar purposes; offices, banks, professional

establishments, court houses and libraries. The principal function of these

buildings is transaction of public business and keeping of books and

records.

6.

for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail, office,

shops, storage service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and

located in the same building.

7.

all kinds and properties are fabricated, assembled, manufactured or

processed, as assembly plants, laboratories, dry cleaning plants, and

power plants, pumping stations, smoke houses, laundries, gas plants,

refineries, dairies and saw mills.

8.

Storage Buildings: These buildings are used primarily for the storage or

sheltering (including servicing, processing or repairs incidental to

storage) of goods, wares or merchandise (except those that involve

highly combustible or explosive products or materials) vehicles and

animals, as warehouse, cold storage plants, freight depots, transit sheds,

store houses, truck and marine terminals, garages, hangers (other than

aircraft repair hangars), grain elevators, barns and stables.

9.

handling, manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive

materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidly

and/or which may produce poisonous elements or explosives; for storage

handling, manufacturing or processing of highly corrosive, toxic or

noxious alkalis, acids or other liquids or chemicals producing flame,

fumes and explosive, poisonous, irritant or corrosive gases; and for the

16

mixtures of dust which result in the division of matter into fine particles

subjected to spontaneous ignition.

Residential building is one in which people reside permanently or for a

considerable time. It is the venues where all the members of a family live

together and have their various activities as eating, relaxing, sleeping, washing,

cleaning, bathing, easing and share their passions.

These shall include any building in which sleeping accommodation is

provided for normal residential purpose with or without cooking or dining

facility.

It includes one or more multi-family dwellings, apartment houses

(flats), lodging houses, restaurants, hostels, dormitories and residential hostels.

10.

11.

effect is achieved if the approach from the main road is kept open and

light and fresh air flow of uninterrupted by fences and walls. If proper

coordination with adjoining house were done, each house would present

aesthetic presentation.

12.

separate unit as well as reduction in the cost of construction as two

dwelling units have a common entrance and staircase. And additional

advantage is the sense of security that is felt by dwellers.

13.

This type of construction is an improvement over the semi-detached unit.

A terrace unit is the row of three or more dwelling units in continuity.

14.

case of conventional group vertical divisions or partitions achieve

housing the separation.

15.

They can be detached, semi-detached or in multi-storied buildings where

corridors can be provided in alternate floors.

17

INTO THREE TYPES:

1.

2.

3.

Composite constructions

Framed constructions, which can be with either Steel or Concrete.

An engineering structure is on assembly of members or elements transferring

the load or resisting external actions and providing a form to serve the desired

function.

The structural design is a science and art of designing with economy and

elegance. A durable structure, which can safely carry the forces and can serve the

desired function satisfactory during its expected service life span.

Object and basic requirements of structural design:

Serviceability

Safety

Durability

Economy

Aesthetic beauty

1.10 PLANNING:

Once the site is chosen of accepted, the architects or engineers aim to fix the

direction of plan of building and finally to play the building keeping in view the local

bye-laws, principles of planning and requirements of owner.

Orientation is defined as a method of setting or fixing the direction of the plan

of the building in such a way that it devices maximum benefits from the elements of

nature. The knowledge of orientation is the first prerequisite of a good planning. It

should be noted that poor orientation of the buildings results in uncomfortable

conditions inside the building.

Bye-laws are certain rules and regulations laid down the by the municipalities

or town planning authorities in their jurisdiction. These have to be considered while

planning and designing the layout of buildings.

Building line, which is often known as set back refers to the line up to which

the plinth of a building adjoin a street may lawfully extend. Building line facilities

future widening of street and keeps away the noise and dust of the streets.

18

Open space requirements should be left inside and around a building to meet

the lightening and ventilation requirements of the rooms. The open space left on front,

rear serve the purpose of future widening of streets.

1.11 DESIGNING:

Designing of structures is an art and science of designing a safe, durable and

elegant structure with economy. This not only requires imaginations but also good

knowledge of science of designing besides practical aspects, like the relevant codes

and local municipal bye-law with experience and judgment.

The architect whereas the requirement of safety, serviceability, durability and

economy are taken care of by the structural engineer looks after the design of structure

of planning of the structure and the aesthetics.

As mentioned earlier stages in structural design

Structural planning

Estimation of loads

Analysis of the structure

Design of the members

Drawings and preparation of schedules

Loading:

This stage involves determination of various types that are acting on the

structures. The values of types of loads are taken from relevant IS-codes.

Types of loads:

Various types of loads on a structure and requiring consideration in design

1.

2.

3.

4.

Dead load

Live load

Wind load

Seismic load

1. Dead loads:

finishes and partition walls. These are usually dependent upon the constructional

features and have to be assumed in order to design various structural concrete

members.

The unit weight of some of the commonly used building materials are

compiled in Table 1.1 based on IS: 875(PART I)-1987.

19

The imposed loads of different types of floors and roofs according to IS:

875(PART II) - 1987 in Table 1.2a and Table 1.2b respectively.

3. Wind loads:

The revised code IS: 875 (PART III) -1987 deals with wind loads that have to

be considered while designing while designing structures. The wind load acting on

structural member is expressed as

= ( )

F = wind load acting in a direction normal to the structural element

Cpe = external pressure coefficient

CPI= internal pressure coefficient

A = surface area of structural element or cladding unit

Pd = design wind pressure

The design wind pressure depends upon the design wind velocity which in turn

is insufficient by the type of terrain, height and class of structure.

The external pressure coefficient for different types of buildings and sloping

roofs are presented in IS: 875. The internal pressure coefficient depends upon degree

of permeability of cladding and may be positive or negative depending upon the

direction of air flow in relation to openings in the buildings. In the case of buildings

where claddings permit the flow of air through openings not more than 5% of the wall

area (without large openings) a positive and negative internal pressure coefficient of

0.2 is recommended in design.

4.

computed in accordance with IS: 1893 for monolithic reinforced concrete structures

located in seismic zone ii, and iii with not more than 5 storey high, and importance

factor less than 1, the seismic forces are not critical ( see IS: 13920 sect. 1.1).

DESIGN:

Construction is an ultimate objective of design. An engineer is a key person of

successful completion of any kind of project undertaken. Hence, he should adopt all

means to reduce cost of project to minimum, without reducing serviceability aspect of

project.

An engineering structure is an assemble of members for elements transferring

the load and providing from a space, of enclosure and/or a cover to serve the desired,

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

20

function. The objective of structural design is to plan a structure that meets the basic

requirements such as serviceability, safety, durability, economy, aesthetic beauty,

feasibility and acceptability.

Structural planning is first stage in any structural design. It involves the

determination of appropriate form of structure, material to be used, the structural

system, the layout of its components and the method of analysis.

As the success of any engineering project is measured in terms of safety and

economy, the emphasis today being more on economy. Structural planning is the first

step towards successful structural design.

Structural Planning of Reinforced Concrete Framed Building:

Structural planning of R.C framed building involves determination of

1. COLUMN POSITIONS

Positioning of columns

Orientation of columns

2. BEAMS LOCATIONS

3. SPANNING OF SLABS

4. LAYOUT AND PLANNING OF STAIRS

5. TYPE OF FOOTING

1. COLUMN POSITIONING:

Positioning of columns:

Following are some guidelines principles for positioning of columns

a) Columns should be preferably located at or near of the building and at

intersection of the walls, because the function of the columns is to support

beams which are normally placed under walls to support them. The columns,

which are near to property line, can be exception from above consideration as

the difficulties are encountered in providing footing for such columns.

b) When Centre to Centre distance between the intersection of the walls is large

or where there are no cross walls, the spacing between two columns is

governed by limitations on spans of supported beams because spacing of

columns beside the span of the beams. As the span of the beam increases in

total load is negligible in case of column due to increase in length. Therefore,

columns are generally cheaper compared to beams on basis of unit cost.

Therefore, large spans of beams should be avoided for economy reasons.

21

Orientation of columns:

Columns normally provided in the building are rectangular, width of columns

not less than the width of support for effective load transfer. As far as possible, the

width of column shall not exceed the thickness of the walls to avoid the offsets.

Restrictions on the width of the column necessitate the other side (the depth) of the

column to be larger to get desired load carrying capacity. This leads to the

problems of orientation of columns.

2. BEAMS LOCATIONS:

Following are some of the guiding principles for the positioning of beams:

a. Beams shall, normally be provided under the walls and below a heavy

concentrated load to avoid these loads directly coming on slabs. Basic

principle in deciding the layout of a component member is that heavy loads

should be transferred to the foundation along the shortest path.

b. Since beams are primarily provided to support slabs, its spacing shall be

decided by the maximum spans of slabs. Slabs require the maximum

volume of concrete to carry a given load (i.e. its volume/load ratio is very

large compared to other components). Therefore the thickness of slab is

required to be kept minimum.

c. Avoid larger spacing of beams from deflection and cracking criteria.

Larger spans of beams shall also be avoided from the considerations of

controlling and cracking. This is because it is well known that the

deflection varies directly with the cube of the span and inversely with the

cube of the depth i.e. L3/D3. Consequently, increase in D is less than

increase in span L which results in greater deflection for large span.

However, for large spans, normally higher L/D ratio is taken to restrict the

depth from considerations of headroom, aesthetics and psychological effect

( a long, heavy, deep beam creates a psychological feeling of crushing load

leading to a fear of collapse). Therefore, spans of beams which require the

depth of beam greater than one meter should as far as possible be avoided.

3. SPANNING OF SLABS:

Span of slabs is decided by the position of supporting beams of walls. The slab

can be made to span in one direction (one-way) or two directional (two-way),

depending on support conditions aspect ratio that is Lx/Ly, ratio of reinforcement

in the two directions. The designer is free to decide as to whether slab should be

designed as one-way or two-way.

The points to be considered in making a decision i.e. whether slab should be

designed as one-way or two-way.

22

a. The slab acts as two way slab when (Lx/Ly) < 2, a slab acts as one-way

(Lx/Ly) > 2.

b. A two-way slab is economical compare to one-way slab, because steel

along with directions act as main steel and transfers loads to all the

supports, while in one-way slab, main steel is provided along short

span only and load is transferred to either of two supports.

c. Two-way is advantageous, essentially for large spans (greater than 3m)

and for live loads greater than 3 KN/Sq. m. For short spans and light

loads steel required for two-way slab does not appreciably differ as

compare to steel for one-way slab because of requirement of main

steel.

d. Spanning of slab is also decided by the necessity of continuity to

adjacent slab

e. Canopy or porch: while designing any slab as cantilever slab, it is of

utmost importance to see whether adequate anchorage to the same is

available or not.

f. Decide type of slab

While deciding the type of slab, whether a cantilever or a simply supported or a

continuous slab, loaded by udl it should be borne in mind that the maximum bending

moment in a cantilever (M=wL2/2) is four times that of a simply supported slab

(M=wL2/8), while it is five to six times that of a continuous or fixed slab

(M=wL2/12) for the same span length.

Similarly, deflection of a cantilever loaded by a uniformly distributed load is given

by:

= wL4/ 8EI = (48/5) x( 5wL4/384EI)

Which is 9.6 times that of a simply supported slab ( = 5wL4/384EI) for the

same span and load ( besides, additional reduction in deflection is obtained in simply

supported slab due to partial fixity at supports).

In case of cantilevers, on the contrary, there is a probability of increase in

deflection due to probable rotation of the supporting beam due to lack of adequate end

restraint for the beam.

23

4. FOOTING:

The type of footing depends upon the load carried by the column and

the bearing capacity of the supporting soil. Even under one small building the soil

may vary from soft clay to a hard morum. The nature and properties of soil may

change with season and weather, like swelling in wet weather. Increase in moisture

content results in substantial loss of bearing capacity in case of certain soils which

may lead to differential settlements. It is necessary to conduct the survey in the areas

for soil properties. For framed structure, isolated column footings are normally

preferred except in case of exists for great depths, pile foundations can be an

appropriate choice. If columns are very closely spaced and bearing capacity of the soil

is low, raft foundation can be an alternative solution. For a column on the boundary

line, a combined footing or a raft footing may be provided.

24

2.1 STRUCTURAL DESIGNING:

The object of reinforced concrete design is to achieve a structure that will

result in a safe and economical solution. Structural designing for framed R.C.C

structures can be done by three methods.

1. WORKING STRESS METHOD.

2. ULTIMATE STRENGTH METHOD.

3. LIMIT STATE METHOD.

1.

element is so designed that the stress resulting from the action of service load as

computed in linear elastic theory using modular ratio concept does not exceed a predesigned allowable stress which is kept as some fraction of ultimate stress, to avail a

margin of safety. Since this method does not utilize full strength of the material it

results in heavy section, the economy aspect cannot be fully utilized in the method.

2. ULTIMATE STRENGTH METHOD OF DESIGN:

This method is primarily based on strength concept. In this method the

structural element is proportioned to with stand the ultimate load, which is obtained

by enhancing the service load of some factor referred to as load factor for giving

desired margin of safety. Since this method is based on actual stress, strain behavior

of the material, of the member as well as of the structure that too right up to failure,

the values calculated by this method agree well the experiments results.

In the limit state method, the structural elements are designed for ultimate load

and checked for serviceability (deflections, cracking etc.) at working loads so that

structures is fit for use throughout its life period.

Philosophy of limit state design:

A structure may become unfit for use not only when it collapses but when it

violate the serviceability requirements such as deflections, cracking etc. The

philosophy of limit state method design is to see that the structure remains fit for use

throughout its life period by assuring safety against strength and serviceability

requirement before failure occurs is called limit state. All the relevant limit states

have to be considered in the design. The loads of strength of materials are to be

estimated by probabilistic approach (characteristic values). The design loads and

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

25

strengths are derived from the characteristic values through us e of partial safety

factors.

The various limit state to be considered in the design are

1. LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE

2. LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILITY

1. Limit State of Collapse:

It is the limit state at which the structure is likely to collapse. The structure

may collapse due to rupture of one or more critical sections or loss of overall stability

due to buckling or overturning. This limit state may correspond to

a. Flexure.

b. Compression.

c. Shear.

d. Torsion.

2. Limit State of Serviceability:

Limit state of serviceability relate to the performance of the structure at

working loads. It is the limit state at which the structure undergone excessive

deflection, which adversely affect the finishes causing discomfort to the users and

excessive cracking which effects the efficiency or appearance of structure. This limit

state may correspond to

a. Deflection

b. Cracking.

c. Other limit states (vibrations, fire resistance, and durability)

ASSUMED:

The notation adopted throughout the work is same as in IS-456-2000.

Materials: The design strength of materials is obtained by dividing the

characteristic strength by a factor known as partial safety factor. The partial safety

takes in to account variation of material strength, local weakness etc.

The design strength of the materials, d is given by

=

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

26

d= f / f

f Partial safety factor appropriate to the material and limit state being considered.

Material

Steel

Concrete

1.15

1.5

TABLE 2.1

Limit state of

Serviceability

1.0

1.0

1. Using partial safety factors for loads in accordance with clause 36.4 of

IS:456-2000 as f=1.5

2. Partial safety factor material in accordance with clause 36.4.2 of IS: 4562000 is taken as 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for steel.

3. Using partial safety factor in accordance with clause 36.4 of IS: 456-2000

combination of load.

Load

combination

D.L+L.L

D.L+W.L

D.L+L.L+W.L

D.L

1.5

1.5 or

0.9

1.2

L.L

1.5

W.L

---

D.L

1.0

L.L

1.0

W.L

---

---

1.5

1.0

---

1.0

1.2

1.2

TABLE 2.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

reversal is critical

* While considering earthquake effects, substitute E.L for W.L.

S.NO

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

MATERIAL

Plain concrete

Reinforced concrete

Flooring material

Brick masonry

Fly ash

DENSITY

24.0 KN/m3

25.0 KN/m3

20.0 KN/m3

19.0 KN/m3

5.0 KN/m3

TABLE 2.3

27

In accordance with IS: 875 (PART II)

i.

Roof slab

= 1.5 KN/m2

= 2.0 KN/m2

ii.

iii.

Live load on stairs

= 3.0 KN/m2

= 3.0 KN/m2

Using M20 and Fe415 grade of concrete and steel for beams, slabs, footings,

columns.

Therefore:fck = Characteristic strength for M20 Grade concrete 20 N/mm2

fy = Characteristic strength of steel 415 N/mm2

i.

ii.

edges, due to monolithic construction and due to construction of walls over it.

Beams are assumed to be continuous over interior support and they frame into

the column at ends.

1.

Grades of concrete:

Concrete is known by its grade which is designated as M15, M20 etc. in which

letter M refers to concrete mix and number 15, 20 denotes the specified compressive

strength (fck) of 150mm cube at 28 days, expressed in N/mm2. Thus, concrete is

known by its compressive strength. M20 and M25 are the most common grades of

concrete, and higher grades of concrete should be used for severe, very severe and

extreme environments.

2. Compressive strength:

Like load, the strength of the concrete is also a quality which varies

considerably for the same concrete mix. Therefore, a single representative value,

known as characteristic strength is used.

28

3.

Characteristic strength:

It is defined as the value of the strength below which not more than 5% of the

test results are expected to fall (i.e. there is 95% probability of achieving this value

only 5% of not achieving the same)

4. Characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member:

The characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member is taken as 0.67

times the strength of concrete cube

5. Design strength (fd) and partial safety factor for material strength:

The strength to be taken for the purpose of design is known is known as

design strength and is given by

Design strength (fd) = characteristic strength/ partial safety factor for material strength

The value of partial safety factor depends upon the type of material and upon the type

of limit state. According to IS code,

Partial safety factor ( fs ) is taken as

1.5 for concrete

1.15 for steel

Design strength of concrete in member = 0.45 fck

6. Tensile strength:

The estimate of flexural tensile or the modulus of rupture or the cracking

strength of concrete from cube compressive strength is obtained by the relations.

fcr = 0.7 fck N/mm

cylinder. It varies between 1/8 to 1/12 of cube compressive strength..

7. Creep :

Creep is defined as the plastic deformation under sustain load. Creep strain

depends primarily on the duration of sustained loading. According to the code, the

value of the ultimate creep coefficient is taken as 1.6 at 28 days of loading..

8. Shrinkage:

The property of diminishing in volume during the process of drying

and hardening is termed Shrinkage. It depends mainly on the duration of

exposure. If this strain is prevented, it produces tensile stress in the concrete

and hence concrete develops cracks.

29

9. Modular ratio:

Short term modular ratio is the modulus of elasticity of steel to the modulus of

elasticity of concrete.

Short term modular ratio = Es / Ec

Es = modulus of elasticity of steel (2x10 5 N/mm )

2

2

As the modulus of elasticity of concrete changes with time, age at loading etc.

the modular ratio also changes accordingly. Taking into account the effects of creep

and shrinkage partially IS code gives the following expression for the long term

modular ratio.

Long term modular ratio (m) = 280/ (3fcbc)

Where, fcbc = permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in N/mn2

10. Poissons ratio:

Poissons ratio varies between 0.1 for high strength concrete and 0.2 for weak

mixes. It is normally taken as 0.15 for strength design and 0.2 for serviceability

criteria.

11. Durability:

Durability of concrete is its ability to resist its disintegration and decay. One of

the chief characteristics influencing durability of concrete is its permeability to

increase of water and other potential y deleterious materials. The desired low

permeability in concrete is achieved by having adequate cement, sufficient low

water/cement ratio, by ensuring full compaction of concrete and by adequate curing.

12. Unit weight of concrete:

The unit weight of concrete depends on percentage of reinforcement, type of

aggregate, amount of voids and varies from 23 to 26KN/m . The unit weight of plain

and reinforced concrete as specified by IS: 456 are 24 and 25KN/m respectively.

2

30

STRUCTURE

The intermediate structure can be analyzed by the following methods.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Slope Deflection Method.

Kanis Method or Rotation Contribution Method.

Column Analogy Method.

Strain Energy Method.

Matrix Method.

Finite Element Method (STAAD PRO)

Out of the above mentioned methods here Finite Element Method is adopted.

The finite element method analysis is a numerical technique. In this method all

the complexities of problem like varying shape, boundary conditions and loads are

maintained as they are but the solutions obtained approximately. Some of the popular

packages are STAAD-PRO, GT-SRTUDEL, NASTRAN, NISA, ETABS etc.

The finite element analysis originated as a method of stress analysis in the

design of air craft. Today this method is used not only for the analysis in solid

mechanics, but even in analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer, electric and magnetic field

and many others. Civil engineers use this method extensively for the analysis of

beams, space frames, plates, shells, floated plates, foundation, rock mechanic

problems and seepage analysis of fluid through porous media.

This is a time saving method of analysis, with consideration of shape,

boundary condition and loading.

FEM possess some definite advantages over other methods as follows:

a) In classical method exact equations are formed and exact solutions are

obtained where in FEM exact equations are formed but approximate

solutions are obtained.

b) Solutions have been obtained for few standard cases by classical

method whereas solution can be obtained for all problems by FEM.

c) Whenever the following complexities are faced, classical method

makes the drastic assumptions and looks for the solutions:

Shape

Boundary conditions

Loading

d) when material property is not isotropic the solution for the problem

become very difficult in classical method

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

31

classical method but Fem can be used without difficulty.

f) Problems with materials and non-linearity cannot be handled by

classical method this is no difficulty in FEM.

3.2

INTEGRATED SOFTWARE FOR STRUCTURAL

ANALYSIS & DESIGN:

program for the analysis and design of civil structures. It offers an intuitive, yet

powerful user interface with many tools to aid in the quick and accurate construction

of models, along with the sophisticated analytical techniques needed to do the most

complex projects.

STAAD.PROV8i is controlled based, meaning that the models are

created with members that represent the physical reality. A beam with multiple

members framing into it is created as a single object; just as it exist in the real world,

and the sub-dividing needed to ensure that connectivity exists with the other members

is handled internally by the program. Results for analysis and design are reported for

the overall object, and not for each sub-element that makes up the object, providing

information that is both easier to interpret and more consistent with the physical

structure.

STAAD.PROV8i follows in the same tradition featuring a very

sophisticated, intuitive and versatile user interface powered by an unmatched analysis

engine and design tools for engineers working on transportation, industrial, public

works, sports, and other facilities.

From its 3D object based graphical modeling environment, to the wide

variety of analysis and design options completely integrated across one powerful user

interface, STAADPROV8i has proven to be the most integrated, productive and

practical general purpose structural program on market today.

The intuitive interface allows to create structural models rapidly and

intuitively without long learning curve delays. Complex models can be generated and

meshed with powerful templates built into the interface.

The advanced analytical techniques allow for step-by-step large

Deformation Analysis, Multiple P-Delta, Eigen and Ritz Analysis, Cable Analysis,

Tension or Compression only Analysis, Buckling Analysis, Blast Analysis, Fast

Nonlinear Analysis for Dampers, base Isolators and support Plasticity, Energy

Methods for Drift Control and Segmental Construction Analysis.

Bridge Designers can use STAADPROV8i bridge templates for

generating bridge models, Automated Bridge Live Load Analysis and Design, Bridge

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

32

Supported Bridge Analysis and Pushover Analysis

STAADPROV8i enables users to easily apply loads or assign

restraints/supports in skewed directions from the global axis. Even if you dont have

skewed restraints/supports, but have sloped beams or bracing, STAADPROV8i

analysis results are reported in local directions, making it easy to interpret the

direction of deflections or forces without having to do time consuming, error prone

transformations.

STAADPROV8i constraint options provide unique capabilities to

rigidly link joints which are offset from one another. In addition to rigid

diaphragms, STAADPROV8i also provides additional constraint types which rigidly

transfer forces and moments from one joint to another in all degree of freedom, or in

selected degrees of freedom, while accounting for secondary moments that occur due

to the distance between the joint locations (lever arm effect). This ability to transfer

secondary moments differentiates these constraints from traditional master-slave/rigid

diaphragm type of constraints.

This is particularly important when connecting beams with plate

elements, modeling composite behavior, or joint connections offset from an element

centerline which can cause secondary moments. STAADPROV8i constraint options

become especially critical for accurate reactions in a dynamic analysis.

STAADPROV8i enables users to review analysis results graphically

by clicking on individually members or joints, or generate output reports. Output

reports can be limited by graphically selected areas, or by pre-defined groups, by load

case/combination. Results can be printed, exported to Excel or Access database, as

well as generation of DXF drawings.

Fully integrated program that allows model creation, modification,

execution

of analysis, design optimization, and results review

from within a single interface.

Powerful graphical 3D model generation using plan, elevation and

developed

views.

A wide variety of automated templates allow a quick start for almost

any mode.

Object-based physical member modeling allows working with large

members that do not need to be broken up at each joint.

Powerful CAD-type editing features.

Compressive interactive spreadsheet editor.

Fully customized units that can be changed at any time.

33

sections.

State-of-the-art static, dynamic, linear and nonlinear analysis.

Fully interactive steel, concrete and aluminum frame member deign

for many American, Indian, Canadian and European design codes.

Onscreen results display.

Animated display of deformed shapes, mode shapes, stress contours

and time history results.

User customizable tables that can be displayed on screen or output in

multiple formats.

Context sensitive online help, documentation, tutorials and AVI

movie demonstrations.

Static Non-linear analysis

Model analysis

Dynamic response spectrum analysis

Dynamic linear and Non-linear time history analysis

Bridge analysis (Moving load analysis)

Buckling analysis

Fully interactive and graphical steel, concrete and aluminum frame

member design.

Design for static and dynamic load.

Ductile and non-ductile design.

Member grouping for design envelopes.

Automatic drift optimization for steel and aluminum members.

Compressive, color coded, graphical display of design results on the

model.

Detailed onscreen design information with aright button click.

Concrete column axial load biaxial load moment interaction diagram.

34

FOLLOWING:

DESIGN CODES:

3.7

AISC ASD 89

AISC LRFD 93

API RP2A WSD 2000

API RP2A LRFD 97

ASCE 10-97

BS59950-90

BSS5950-2000

CISC 95

Euro code 3-1993

Indian IS 800-1987

UBC 97 ASD

UBC 97 LRFD Etc.,

FOLLOWING:

DESIGN CODES:

ACI 318-99

BS 8110-89

BS 8110 97

CSA-A23 3-94

Euro code 2-1992

Indian IS 456-2000

Italian DM 14-2-92

Mexican RCDF 2001

NZS 3101-95

UBC 97 Etc.,

BUILDING:

This thesis portrays the design of an earthquake and wind resistant

structure. The structure taken for this thesis is a multistoried residential cum

commercial building located in the Hyderabad which comes under Zone II.

This building is taken as the reference for the design of against earthquake.

The building which has taken for the resident is prone to be most crowded area

in which Publics are likely to be gathered daily. Hence it is very important to

design building to resist against earthquake.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

35

Type of building

Number of storey's

Area of the Building

Total Height of the building

Height of each storey

Number of flats in each floor

Number of commercial stores

Area of each flat

Wall thickness

G+4 (+STAIR CAP)

354.783 m2

19.2 m

3.2 m

2

2

107.038 m2

External-0.300 m,

Internal- 0.150 m

0.400m x 0.300m

0.3m x0.5m & 0.3m x 0.4m

0.120 & 0.14m

32

Beam size

Column sizes

Thickness of slab

No. of Restraints/supports

TABLE 3.1

3.9

RESIDENTIAL CUM COMMERCIAL BUILDING:

STAADPROV8i is an effective software tool for the analysis and

design of structural members. Hence this software could be used to design a

structure against earthquake. The software follows the matrix stiffness

principle in analyzing the structure. The steps for analyzing a structure using

STAADPROV8i are given below.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

GENERATION OF NODES.

MODELING OF THE STRUCTURE.

ASSIGNING OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS.

RESTRAINTS.

APPLICATION OF LOADS.

RUN ANALYSIS.

1. Generation of nodes:

The nodes are generated based on the dimensions of the building. The

building is divided in to equal number of known grids. Then the grid spacing

is given on the STAADPROV8i window. The STAADPROV8i automatically

generates grids with specified spacing.

2. Modeling of the structure:

After the nodes are created they are joined with line elements. Based

on the dimension of the building the nodes are joined. Unwanted nodes could

be deleted.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

36

The STAADPROV8i has the facility to assign the structural elements.

The line elements have to be assigned as beams and columns and appropriate

dimensions are given.

4. Application of loads:

There are various loads acting on a structure. Current case study

constitute of the following loads:

a)

b)

c)

d)

Self-weight

Gravity Load

Wind Load

Seismic Load

The loads are applied on the structure as gravity loads (Dead & Live

Loads), Joint Loads (Seismic Load), Nodal Loads (Wind Load). After the

application of different load cases, combination of loads has to be specified as

mentioned in IS: 456 2000.

5. RUN ANALYSIS:

This is the last step in the analyzing of a structure using

STAADPROV8i software. When the run analysis is executed it shows

ANALYSIS COMPLETE, which indicated the termination of analysis

process.

STAAD SPACE

START JOB INFORMATION

ENGINEER Students of Nizam Institute of Engineering and Technology

DATE 29-Feb-12

JOB NAME comparative study on multi-storey RCC & STEEL Building

END JOB INFORMATION

INPUT WIDTH 79

UNIT METER KN

JOINT COORDINATES

1 0 0 0; 2 3 0 0; 3 6.7 0 0; 4 10.25 0 0; 5 11.9 0 0; 6 13.8 0 0; 7 17.5 0 0; 8 20.5 0 0; 9

6.7 0 2; 10 11.9 0 2; 11 13.8 0 2; 12 0 0 3.65; 13 3 0 3.65; 14 6.7 0 3.65; 15 10.25 0

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

37

3.65; 16 13.8 0 3.65; 17 17.5 0 3.65; 18 20.5 0 3.65; 19 0 0 7.15; 20 3 0 7.15; 21 6.7 0

7.15; 22 10.25 0 7.15; 23 13.8 0 7.15; 24 17.5 0 7.15; 25 20.5 0 7.15; 26 0 0 11.3; 27

3 0 11.3; 28 6.7 0 11.3; 29 10.25 0 11.3; 30 13.8 0 11.3; 31 17.5 0 11.3; 32 20.5 0

11.3; 33 0 1.5 0; 34 3 1.5 0; 35 6.7 1.5 0; 36 10.25 1.5 0; 37 11.9 1.5 0; 38 13.8 1.5

0;39 17.5 1.5 0; 40 20.5 1.5 0; 41 6.7 1.5 2; 42 11.9 1.5 2; 43 13.8 1.5 2;44 0 1.5 3.65;

45 3 1.5 3.65; 46 6.7 1.5 3.65; 47 10.25 1.5 3.65; 48 13.8 1.5 3.65; 49 17.5 1.5 3.65;

50 20.5 1.5 3.65; 51 0 1.5 7.15; 52 3 1.5 7.15; 53 6.7 1.5 7.15; 54 10.25 1.5 7.15; 55

13.8 1.5 7.15; 56 17.5 1.5 7.15; 57 20.5 1.5 7.15; 58 0 1.5 11.3; 59 3 1.5 11.3; 60 6.7

1.5 11.3; 61 10.25 1.5 11.3; 62 13.8 1.5 11.3; 63 17.5 1.5 11.3; 64 20.5 1.5 11.3; 65

6.7 3.1 0; 66 6.7 3.1 2; 67 0 4.7 0; 68 3 4.7 0; 69 6.7 4.7 0; 70 10.25 4.7 0; 71 11.9 4.7

0; 72 13.8 4.7 0; 73 17.5 4.7 0; 74 20.5 4.7 0; 75 6.7 4.7 2; 76 11.9 4.7 2; 77 13.8 4.7

2; 78 0 4.7 3.65; 79 3 4.7 3.65; 80 6.7 4.7 3.65; 81 10.25 4.7 3.65; 82 13.8 4.7 3.65;

83 17.5 4.7 3.65; 84 20.5 4.7 3.65; 85 0 4.7 7.15; 86 3 4.7 7.15; 87 3.85 4.7 7.15; 88

6.7 4.7 7.15; 89 10.25 4.7 7.15; 90 13.8 4.7 7.15; 91 16.65 4.7 7.15; 92 17.5 4.7 7.15;

93 20.5 4.7 7.15; 94 0 4.7 11.3; 95 3 4.7 11.3; 96 3.85 4.7 11.3; 97 6.7 4.7 11.3; 98

10.25 4.7 11.3; 99 13.8 4.7 11.3; 100 16.65 4.7 11.3; 101 17.5 4.7 11.3; 102 20.5 4.7

11.3; 103 6.7 6.3 0; 104 6.7 6.3 2; 105 0 7.9 0; 106 3 7.9 0; 107 6.7 7.9 0; 108 10.25

7.9 0; 109 11.9 7.9 0; 110 13.8 7.9 0; 111 17.5 7.9 0; 112 20.5 7.9 0; 113 6.7 7.9 2;

114 11.9 7.9 2; 115 13.8 7.9 2; 116 0 7.9 3.65; 117 3 7.9 3.65; 118 6.7 7.9 3.65; 119

10.25 7.9 3.65; 120 13.8 7.9 3.65; 121 17.5 7.9 3.65; 122 20.5 7.9 3.65; 123 0 7.9

7.15; 124 3 7.9 7.15; 125 3.85 7.9 7.15; 126 6.7 7.9 7.15; 127 10.25 7.9 7.15; 128

13.8 7.9 7.15; 129 16.65 7.9 7.15; 130 17.5 7.9 7.15; 131 20.5 7.9 7.15; 132 0 7.9

11.3; 133 3 7.9 11.3; 134 3.85 7.9 11.3; 135 6.7 7.9 11.3; 136 10.25 7.9 11.3; 137

13.8 7.9 11.3; 138 16.65 7.9 11.3; 139 17.5 7.9 11.3; 140 20.5 7.9 11.3; 141 6.7 9.5 0;

142 6.7 9.5 2; 143 0 11.1 0; 144 3 11.1 0; 145 6.7 11.1 0; 146 10.25 11.1 0; 147 11.9

11.1 0; 148 13.8 11.1 0; 149 17.5 11.1 0; 150 20.5 11.1 0; 151 6.7 11.1 2; 152 11.9

11.1 2; 153 13.8 11.1 2; 154 0 11.1 3.65; 155 3 11.1 3.65; 156 6.7 11.1 3.65; 157

10.25 11.1 3.65; 158 13.8 11.1 3.65; 159 17.5 11.1 3.65; 160 20.5 11.1 3.65; 161 0

11.1 7.15; 162 3 11.1 7.15; 163 3.85 11.1 7.15; 164 6.7 11.1 7.15; 165 10.25 11.1

7.15; 166 13.8 11.1 7.15; 167 16.65 11.1 7.15; 168 17.5 11.1 7.15; 169 20.5 11.1

7.15; 170 0 11.1 11.3; 171 3 11.1 11.3; 172 3.85 11.1 11.3; 173 6.7 11.1 11.3; 174

10.25 11.1 11.3; 175 13.8 11.1 11.3; 176 16.65 11.1 11.3; 177 17.5 11.1 11.3; 178

20.5 11.1 11.3; 179 6.7 12.7 0; 180 6.7 12.7 2; 181 0 14.3 0; 182 3 14.3 0; 183 6.7

14.3 0; 184 10.25 14.3 0; 185 11.9 14.3 0; 186 13.8 14.3 0; 187 17.5 14.3 0; 188 20.5

14.3 0; 189 6.7 14.3 2; 190 11.9 14.3 2; 191 13.8 14.3 2; 192 0 14.3 3.65; 193 3 14.3

3.65; 194 6.7 14.3 3.65; 195 10.25 14.3 3.65; 196 13.8 14.3 3.65; 197 17.5 14.3 3.65;

198 20.5 14.3 3.65; 199 0 14.3 7.15; 200 3 14.3 7.15; 201 3.85 14.3 7.15; 202 6.7 14.3

7.15; 203 10.25 14.3 7.15; 204 13.8 14.3 7.15; 205 16.65 14.3 7.15; 206 17.5 14.3

7.15; 207 20.5 14.3 7.15; 208 0 14.3 11.3; 209 3 14.3 11.3; 210 3.85 14.3 11.3; 211

6.7 14.3 11.3; 212 10.25 14.3 11.3; 213 13.8 14.3 11.3; 214 16.65 14.3 11.3; 215 17.5

14.3 11.3; 216 20.5 14.3 11.3; 217 6.7 15.9 0; 218 6.7 15.9 2; 219 0 17.5 0; 220 3

17.5 0; 221 6.7 17.5 0; 222 10.25 17.5 0; 223 11.9 17.5 0; 224 13.8 17.5 0; 225 17.5

17.5 0; 226 20.5 17.5 0; 227 6.7 17.5 2; 228 11.9 17.5 2; 229 13.8 17.5 2; 230 0 17.5

3.65; 231 3 17.5 3.65; 232 6.7 17.5 3.65; 233 10.25 17.5 3.65; 234 13.8 17.5 3.65;

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

38

235 17.5 17.5 3.65; 236 20.5 17.5 3.65; 237 0 17.5 7.15; 238 3 17.5 7.15; 239 3.85

17.5 7.15; 240 6.7 17.5 7.15; 241 10.25 17.5 7.15; 242 13.8 17.5 7.15; 243 16.65 17.5

7.15; 244 17.5 17.5 7.15; 245 20.5 17.5 7.15; 246 0 17.5 11.3; 247 3 17.5 11.3; 248

3.85 17.5 11.3; 249 6.7 17.5 11.3; 250 10.25 17.5 11.3; 251 13.8 17.5 11.3; 252 16.65

17.5 11.3; 253 17.5 17.5 11.3; 254 20.5 17.5 11.3; 255 6.7 20.7 0; 256 10.25 20.7 0;

257 11.9 20.7 0; 258 13.8 20.7 0; 259 11.9 20.7 2; 260 13.8 20.7 2; 261 6.7 20.7 3.65;

262 10.25 20.7 3.65; 263 13.8 20.7 3.65;

MEMBER INCIDENCES

1 33 1; 2 34 2; 3 35 3; 4 36 4; 5 37 5; 6 38 6; 7 39 7; 8 40 8; 9 41 9; 10 42 10; 11 43

11; 12 44 12; 13 45 13; 14 46 14; 15 47 15; 16 48 16; 17 49 17; 18 50 18; 19 51 19;

20 52 20; 21 53 21; 22 54 22; 23 55 23; 24 56 24; 25 57 25; 26 58 26; 27 59 27; 28 60

28; 29 61 29; 30 62 30; 31 63 31; 32 64 32; 101 33 67; 102 34 68; 103 65 69; 104 35

65; 105 36 70; 106 37 71; 107 38 72; 108 39 73; 109 40 74; 110 66 75; 111 41 66;

112 42 76; 113 43 77; 114 44 78; 115 45 79; 116 46 80; 117 47 81; 118 48 82; 119 49

83; 120 50 84; 121 51 85; 122 52 86; 123 53 88; 124 54 89; 125 55 90; 126 56 92;

127 57 93; 128 58 94; 129 59 95; 130 60 97; 131 61 98; 132 62 99; 133 63 101; 134

64 102; 201 67 105; 202 68 106; 203 103 107; 204 69 103; 205 70 108; 206 71 109;

207 72 110; 208 73 111; 209 74 112; 210 104 113; 211 75 104; 212 76 114; 213 77

115; 214 78 116; 215 79 117; 216 80 118; 217 81 119; 218 82 120; 219 83 121; 220

84 122; 221 85 123; 222 86 124; 223 88 126; 224 89 127; 225 90 128; 226 92 130;

227 93 131; 228 94 132; 229 95 133; 230 97 135; 231 98 136; 232 99 137; 233 101

139; 234 102 140; 301 105 143; 302 106 144; 303 141 145; 304 107 141; 305 108

146; 306 109 147; 307 110 148; 308 111 149; 309 112 150; 310 142 151; 311 113

142; 312 114 152; 313 115 153; 314 116 154; 315 117 155; 316 118 156; 317 119

157; 318 120 158; 319 121 159; 320 122 160; 321 123 161; 322 124 162; 323 126

164; 324 127 165; 325 128 166; 326 130 168; 327 131 169; 328 132 170; 329 133

171; 330 135 173; 331 136 174; 332 137 175; 333 139 177; 334 140 178; 401 143

181; 402 144 182; 403 179 183; 404 145 179; 405 146 184; 406 147 185; 407 148

186; 408 149 187; 409 150 188; 410 180 189; 411 151 180; 412 152 190; 413 153

191; 414 154 192; 415 155 193; 416 156 194; 417 157 195; 418 158 196; 419 159

197; 420 160 198; 421 161 199; 422 162 200; 423 164 202; 424 165 203; 425 166

204; 426 168 206; 427 169 207; 428 170 208; 429 171 209; 430 173 211; 431 174

212; 432 175 213; 433 177 215; 434 178 216; 501 181 219;502 182 220; 503 217

221; 504 183 217; 505 184 222; 506 185 223; 507 186 224; 508 187 225; 509 188

226; 510 218 227; 511 189 218; 512 190 228; 513 191 229; 514 192 230; 515 193

231; 516 194 232; 517 195 233; 518 196 234; 519 197 235; 520 198 236; 521 199

237; 522 200 238; 523 202 240; 524 203 241; 525 204 242; 526 206 244; 527 207

245; 528 208 246; 529 209 247; 530 211 249; 531 212 250; 532 213 251; 533 215

253; 534 216 254; 601 255 221; 602 256 222; 603 257 223; 604 258 224; 605 259

228; 606 260 229; 607 261 232; 608 262 233; 609 263 234; 1001 33 34; 1002 34 35;

1003 35 36; 1004 36 37; 1005 37 38; 1006 38 39; 1007 39 40; 1008 42 43; 1009 44

45; 1010 45 46; 1011 46 47; 1012 47 48; 1013 48 49; 1014 49 50; 1015 51 52; 1016

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

39

52 53; 1017 53 54; 1018 54 55; 1019 55 56; 1020 56 57; 1021 58 59; 1022 59 60;

1023 60 61; 1024 61 62; 1025 62 63; 1026 63 64; 1027 35 41; 1028 37 42; 1029 38

43; 1030 33 44; 1031 34 45; 1032 36 47; 1033 39 49; 1034 40 50; 1035 41 46; 1036

43 48;1037 44 51; 1038 45 52; 1039 46 53; 1040 47 54; 1041 48 55; 1042 49 56;1043

50 57; 1044 51 58; 1045 52 59; 1046 53 60; 1047 54 61; 1048 55 62; 1049 56 63;

1050 57 64; 1051 65 66; 2001 67 68; 2002 68 69; 2003 69 70; 2004 70 71; 2005 71

72; 2006 72 73; 2007 73 74; 2008 76 77; 2009 78 79; 2010 79 80; 2011 80 81; 2012

81 82; 2013 82 83; 2014 83 84; 2015 85 86; 2016 86 87; 2017 87 88; 2018 88 89;

2019 89 90; 2020 90 91; 2021 91 92; 2022 92 93; 2023 94 95; 2024 95 96; 2025 96

97; 2026 97 98; 2027 98 99; 2028 99 100; 2029 100 101; 2030 101 102; 2031 67 78;

2032 68 79; 2033 69 75; 2034 75 80; 2035 70 81; 2036 71 76; 2037 72 77; 2038 77

82; 2039 73 83; 2040 74 84; 2041 78 85; 2042 81 89; 2043 84 93; 2044 85 94; 2045

87 96; 2046 88 97; 2047 89 98; 2048 90 99; 2049 91 100; 2050 93 102; 2051 103

104; 3001 105 106; 3002 106 107; 3003 107 108; 3004 108 109; 3005 109 110; 3006

110 111; 3007 111 112; 3008 114 115; 3009 116 117; 3010 117 118; 3011 118 119;

3012 119 120; 3013 120 121; 3014 121 122; 3015 123 124; 3016 124 125; 3017 125

126; 3018 126 127; 3019 127 128; 3020 128 129; 3021 129 130; 3022 130 131; 3023

132 133; 3024 133 134; 3025 134 135; 3026 135 136; 3027 136 137; 3028 137 138;

3029 138 139; 3030 139 140; 3031 105 116; 3032 106 117; 3033 107 113; 3034 113

118; 3035 108 119; 3036 109 114; 3037 110 115; 3038 115 120; 3039 111 121; 3040

112 122; 3041 116 123; 3042 119 127; 3043 122 131; 3044 123 132; 3045 125

134;3046 126 135; 3047 127 136; 3048 128 137; 3049 129 138; 3050 131 140; 3051

141 142; 4001 143 144; 4002 144 145; 4003 145 146; 4004 146 147; 4005 147 148;

4006 148 149; 4007 149 150; 4008 152 153; 4009 154 155; 4010 155 156; 4011 156

157; 4012 157 158; 4013 158 159; 4014 159 160; 4015 161 162; 4016 162 163; 4017

163 164; 4018 164 165; 4019 165 166; 4020 166 167; 4021 167 168; 4022 168 169;

4023 170 171; 4024 171 172; 4025 172 173; 4026 173 174; 4027 174 175; 4028 175

176; 4029 176 177; 4030 177 178; 4031 143 154; 4032 144 155; 4033 145 151; 4034

151 156; 4035 146 157; 4036 147 152; 4037 148 153; 4038 153 158; 4039 149

159;4040 150 160; 4041 154 161; 4042 157 165; 4043 160 169; 4044 161 170; 4045

163 172; 4046 164 173; 4047 165 174; 4048 166 175; 4049 167 176; 4050 169 178;

4051 179 180; 5001 181 182; 5002 182 183; 5003 183 184; 5004 184 185; 5005 185

186; 5006 186 187; 5007 187 188; 5008 190 191; 5009 192 193; 5010 193 194; 5011

194 195; 5012 195 196; 5013 196 197; 5014 197 198; 5015 199 200; 5016 200 201;

5017 201 202; 5018 202 203; 5019 203 204; 5020 204 205; 5021 205 206; 5022 206

207; 5023 208 209; 5024 209 210; 5025 210 211; 5026 211 212; 5027 212 213; 5028

213 214; 5029 214 215; 5030 215 216; 5031 181 192; 5032 182 193; 5033 183 189;

5034 189 194; 5035 184 195; 5036 185 190; 5037 186 191; 5038 191 196; 5039 187

197; 5040 188 198; 5041 192 199; 5042 195 203; 5043 198 207; 5044 199 208; 5045

201 210; 5046 202 211; 5047 203 212; 5048 204 213; 5049 205 214; 5050 207 216;

5051 217 218; 6001 219 220; 6002 220 221; 6003 221 222; 6004 222 223; 6005 223

224; 6006 224 225; 6007 225 226; 6008 228 229; 6009 230 231; 6010 231 232; 6011

232 233; 6012 233 234; 6013 234 235; 6014 235 236; 6015 237 238; 6016 238 239;

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

40

6017 239 240; 6018 240 241; 6019 241 242; 6020 242 243; 6021 243 244; 6022 244

245; 6023 246 247; 6024 247 248; 6025 248 249; 6026 249 250; 6027 250 251;6028

251 252; 6029 252 253; 6030 253 254; 6031 219 230; 6032 220 231; 6033 221 227;

6034 227 232; 6035 222 233; 6036 223 228; 6037 224 229; 6038 229 234; 6039 225

235; 6040 226 236; 6041 230 237; 6042 233 241; 6043 236 245; 6044 237 246; 6045

239 248; 6046 240 249; 6047 241 250; 6048 242 251; 6049 243 252; 6050 245 254;

7001 255 256; 7002 256 257; 7003 257 258; 7004 259 260; 7005 261 262; 7006 262

263; 7007 255 261; 7008 256 262; 7009 257 259; 7010 260 258; 7011 260 263;

DEFINE MATERIAL START

ISOTROPIC CONCRETE

E 2.17185e+007

POISSON 0.17

DENSITY 23.5616

ALPHA 1e-005

DAMP 0.05

END DEFINE MATERIAL

MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN

3 4 6 14 16 20 21 23 24 27 28 30 31 103 TO 105 107 116 118 122 123 125 126 129

130 132 133 203 TO 205 207 216 218 222 223 225 226 229 230 232 233 303 304 TO

305 307 316 318 322 323 325 326 329 330 332 333 403 TO 405 407 416 418 422 423

425 426 429 430 432 433 503 TO 505 507 516 518 522 523 525 526 529 530 532

533 601 602 604 607 609 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.3

1 2 7 8 12 13 15 17 TO 19 22 25 26 29 32 101 102 108 109 114 115 117 119 TO 121

124 127 128 131 134 201 202 208 209 214 215 217 219 TO 221 224 227 228 231

234 301 302 308 309 314 315 317 319 TO 321 324 327 328 331 334 401 402 408

409 414 415 417 419 TO 421 424 427 428 431 434 501 502 508 509 514 515 517

519 TO 521 524 527 528 531 534 608 PRIS YD 0.3 ZD 0.5

5 9 TO 11 106 110 TO 113 206 210 TO 213 306 310 TO 313 406 410 TO 413 506

510 TO 513 603 605 606 1001 TO 1051 2001 TO 2051 3001 TO 3051 4001 TO 4051

5001 TO 5051 6001 TO 6050 7001 TO 7011 PRIS YD 0.4 ZD 0.3

CONSTANTS

MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL

SUPPORTS

1 TO 32 FIXED

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

41

ZONE 0.1 RF 3 I 1 SS 2 ST 1 DM 5 DT 1.5

SELFWEIGHT 1

MEMBER WEIGHT

1001 TO 1050 2001 2002 2005 TO 2008 2011 2012 2023 2024 2026 TO 2028 2030

2031 2036 TO 2038 2040 2042 2044 2047 2050 3001 3002 3005 TO 3008 3011 3012

3023 3024 3026 TO 3028 3030 3031 3036 TO 3038 3040 3042 3044 3047 3050 4001

4002 4005 TO 4008 4011 4012 4023 4024 4026 TO 4028 4030 4031 4036 TO 4038

4040 4042 4044 4047 4050 5001 5002 5005 TO 5008 5011 5012 5023 5024 5026

5027 TO 5028 5030 5031 5036 TO 5038 5040 5042 5044 5047 5050 6003 TO 6005 6008 6011 6012 6033 6034 6036 TO 6038 UNI 16

2009 2010 2013 TO 2022 2032 TO 2035 2039 2045 2046 2048 2049 3009 3010 3013

3014 TO 3022 3032 TO 3035 3039 3045 3046 3048 3049 4009 4010 4013 TO 4022

4032 TO 4035 4039 4045 4046 4048 4049 5009 5010 5013 TO 5022 5032 TO 5035

5039 5045 5046 5048 5049 UNI 8

6001 6002 6006 6007 6023 TO 6031 6040 6041 6043 6044 6050 7001 TO 7003 7005

7006 TO 7007 7010 7011 UNI 2

1051 2051 3051 4051 5051 UNI 20

FLOOR WEIGHT

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15

CHECK SOFT STOREY

DEFINE WIND LOAD

TYPE 1

INT 0.67 HEIG 19.2

EXP 1 JOINT 33 TO 263

LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ XP

1893 LOAD X 1

42

1893 LOAD X -1

LOAD 3 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ ZP

1893 LOAD Z 1

LOAD 4 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ ZN

1893 LOAD Z -1

LOAD 5 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL XP

WIND LOAD X 1 TYPE 1

LOAD 6 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL XN

WIND LOAD X -1 TYPE 1

LOAD 7 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL ZP

WIND LOAD Z 1 TYPE 1

LOAD 8 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL ZN

WIND LOAD Z -1 TYPE 1

LOAD 9 LOADTYPE None TITLE DEAD LOAD

SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 32 101 TO 134 201 TO 234 301 TO 334 401 TO

434 501 502 TO 534 601 TO 609 1001 TO 1037 1040 1043 TO 1051 2001 TO 2051

3001 TO 3051 4001 TO 4051 5001 TO 5051 6001 TO 6050 7001 TO 7011

FLOOR LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 GY

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3 GY

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15 GY

MEMBER LOAD

1001 TO 1026 1028 TO 1034 1036 TO 1050 2001 2002 2005 TO 2008 2011 2012

2023 2024 2026 TO 2028 2030 2031 2036 TO 2038 2040 2042 2044 2047 2050 3001

3002 3005 TO 3008 3011 3012 3023 3024 3026 TO 3028 3030 3031 3036 TO 3038

3040 3042 3044 3047 3050 4001 4002 4005 TO 4008 4011 4012 4023 4024 4026 TO

4028 4030 4031 4036 TO 4038 4040 4042 4044 4047 4050 5001 5002 5005 TO 5008

43

5011 5012 5023 5024 5026 TO 5028 5030 5031 5036 TO 5038 5040 5042 5044 5047

5050 6003 TO 6005 6008 6011 6012 6036 TO 6038 UNI GY -16

1027 1035 2009 2010 2013 TO 2022 2032 TO 2035 2039 2045 2046 2048 2049 3009

3010 3013 TO 3022 3032 TO 3035 3039 3045 3046 3048 3049 4009 4010 4013 TO

4022 4032 TO 4035 4039 4045 4046 4048 4049 5009 5010 5013 TO 5022 5032 TO

5035 5039 5045 5046 5048 5049 6033 6034 UNI GY -8

6001 6002 6006 6007 6023 TO 6031 6040 6041 6043 6044 6050 7001 TO 7003 7005

7006 TO 7007 7010 7011 UNI GY -2

1051 2051 3051 4051 5051 UNI GY -20

LOAD 10 LOADTYPE None TITLE LIVE LOAD

FLOOR LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 GY

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3 GY

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15 GY

LOAD COMB 11 SERVICE (DL+LL)

9 1.0 10 1.0

LOAD COMB 12 ULTIMATE 1.5 (DL+LL)

9 1.5 10 1.5

LOAD COMB 13 1.2 (DL+LL+WL XP)

9 1.2 10 1.2 5 1.2

LOAD COMB 14 1.2 (DL+LL+WL XN)

6 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2

LOAD COMB 15 1.2 (DL+LL+WL ZP)

9 1.2 10 1.2 7 1.2

LOAD COMB 16 1.2 (DL+LL+WL ZN)

9 1.2 10 1.2 8 1.2

LOAD COMB 17 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ XP)

1 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

44

9 1.2 10 1.2 2 1.2

LOAD COMB 19 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ ZP)

3 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2

LOAD COMB 20 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ ZN)

4 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2

LOAD COMB 21 1.5(DL+EQ XP)

9 1.5 1 1.5

LOAD COMB 22 1.5(DL+EQ XN)

2 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 23 1.5(DL+EQ ZP)

3 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 24 1.5(DL+EQ ZN)

4 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 25 1.5(DL+WL XP)

5 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 26 1.5(DL+WL XN)

6 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 27 1.5(DL+WL ZP)

7 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 28 1.5(DL+WL ZN)

9 1.5 8 1.5

LOAD COMB 29 0.9DL+1.5 EQ XP

9 0.9 1 1.5

LOAD COMB 30 0.9DL+1.5 EQ XN

9 0.9 2 1.5

LOAD COMB 31 0.9DL+1.5 EQ ZP

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

45

3 1.5 9 0.9

LOAD COMB 32 0.9DL+1.5 EQ ZN

4 1.5 9 0.9

LOAD COMB 33 0.9DL+1.5 WL XP

9 0.9 5 1.5

LOAD COMB 34 0.9DL+1.5 WL XN

9 0.9 6 1.5

LOAD COMB 35 0.9DL+1.5 WL ZP

9 0.9 7 1.5

LOAD COMB 36 0.9DL+1.5 WL ZN

8 1.5 9 0.9

PERFORM ANALYSIS

LOAD LIST 11 TO 36

PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT ALL

PRINT SUPPORT REACTION

FINISH

46

COMMERCIAL BUILDING FOR GRAVITY LOADS:

The structure is a residential building which comes under the category of

residential cum commercial building. Hence it has taken care of different types of

dead loads. The dead loads could be of its own self weight, furniture's, some

equipments, machineries, computers, store keeps, etc. Hence the building has to be

designed in such a way that it has to take care of all the loads imposed on it. The

easiest way to withstand these loads is by providing proper beams and columns. The

live load of the building could be taken from the standards.

FLOOR LOAD:

Floor load slab is distributed on the adjoining members as trapezoidal &

triangular loads depending on the length of the sides, as shown in figure. Internally

these loads are converted to multiple point loads. The loads are applied as area loads

over the building. These loads would be transferred to beams and columns.

FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING GRAVITY LOAD:

Area of triangle =

1

( )

2

Area of trapezoidal =

A+B

Weight of flooring = area X 0.02 X 20 + (area X 0.02 X 26.7)

Total dead load = weigth of ceiling plastering + weight of flooring

Live Load = 2.000 KN (As per IS code book)

Total load = Total Dead Load + Live Load

Factored load = 1.5 X Total load

47

TABLE 3.2 FOR FINDING AREA OF SLAB

SLAB

No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

0.65

0.05

0.1

6.75

0.3

0.45

0.6

3.65

3.70

3.65

10.25

4.15

4.15

4.15

1.5

1.825

1.775

1.75

1.925

1.85

1.775

3.0

3.65

3.55

3.50

3.85

3.70

3.55

slab.No

Wt. c.p

(tri)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

0.54

0.799

0.756

0.735

0.890

0.821

0.756

Wt.

floor

(tri)

2.10

3.11

2.94

2.86

3.465

3.196

2.943

Area of

triangle

2.25

3.331

3.151

3.0625

3.71

3.422

3.151

Area of

trapezoidal

3.225

3.421

3.328

14.875

4.283

4.578

4.215

T.D.L

(tri)

L.L

(tri)

T.L (tri)

F.L (tri)

2.64

3.90

3.696

3.595

4.355

4.017

3.699

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

4.64

5.90

5.696

5.595

6.355

6.017

5.699

6.96

8.85

8.544

8.393

9.533

9.026

8.548

AREA

48

TRAPEZOIDAL AREA

Slab.

No

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Wt. c.p

Wt. floor

T.D.L

L.L

T.L

F.L

0.774

0.821

0.798

3.57

1.027

1.098

1.012

3.012

3.195

3.108

13.893

4.00

4.275

3.936

3.786

4.016

3.906

17.463

5.027

5.373

4.948

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

5.786

6.016

5.906

19.463

7.027

7.373

6.948

8.679

9.024

8.859

29.194

10.541

11.061

10.423

49

GRAVITY LOADS

50

51

NO 5021 UNDER GRAVITY LOAD

GRAVITY LOAD

52

3.12

CUM COMMERCIAL BUILDING FOR WIND LOADS:

WIND LOADS:

Buildings and their components are to be designed to withstand the

code-specified wind loads. Calculating wind loads is important in design of the wind

force-resisting system, including structural members, components, and cladding,

against shear, sliding, overturning, and uplift actions.

DESIGN WIND LOADS:

The wind pressure on a structure depends on the location of the

structure, height of structure above the ground level and also on the shape of the

structure.

The code gives the basic wind pressure for the structures in various

parts of the country. Both the wind pressure viz. including wind of short duration and

excluding wind of short duration have been given. All structures should be designed

for the short duration wind. For buildings up to 10 m in height, the intensity of wind

pressure, as specified in the code, may be reduced by 25% for stability calculations

and for the design of framework as well as cladding. For buildings over 10 m and up

to 30m height, this reduction can be made for stability calculations and for design of

columns only.

The total pressure on the walls or roof of an industrial building will

depend on the external wind pressure and also on internal wind pressure. The

internal wind pressure depends on the permeability; the internal air pressure may be

neglected. In the case of buildings with normal permeability the internal pressure

can be 0.2p. Here + indicates pressure and _ suction, p is the basic wind

pressure. If a building has openings larger than 20% of the wind pressure. If a

building has openings larger than 20% of the wall area, the internal air pressure will

be 0.5 p.

WIND PRESSURE ON WALLS:

The wind pressure per unit area p on the wall is taken as 0.5p

pressure on the windward surface and 0.5p suction on leeward surface. When the

walls form an enclosure, the windward wall will be subjected to a pressure of 0.5p

and leeward wall to a suction of 0.5p. The total pressure on the walls will depend on

the internal air pressure also.

For buildings with small permeability, design pressure on wall = 0.5p

For buildings with normal permeability, design pressure on wall = 0.7p

For buildings with large openings, design pressure on wall = p

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

53

If the wind blows parallel to the ridge of the roof, the average external wind

pressure of the roof may be taken as -0.6p on both slopes of the roof over a length

from the gable end equal to the mean height of the roof above the surrounding ground

level and as-0.4p over the remaining length of the roof on both slopes.

When the wind blows parallel to a surface, a wind force acts on the

surface in the direction of the wind. This force is called the Wind Drag. In the case

of industrial buildings, when wind blows normal to the ridges, the wind drag is equal

to 0.5p measured on plan area of roof and when the direction of wind parallel to the

ridge, wind drag is equal to 0.025p measured on plan area of roof.

In the multi-span roofs with spans, heights and slopes nearly equal, the

windward truss gives shelter to the other trusses. For general stability calculations and

for the design columns, the windward slope of wind-ward span and leeward slope of

leeward span are subjected to the full normal pressure of suction as given in table and

on all other roof slopes, only wind drag is considered (see fig. ). For the design of

roof trusses however, full normal pressure or suction is considered on both faces,

presuming that there was only one span.

The wind pressures given above are the average pressures on a roof slope. For

designing the roof sheeting or the fastenings of roof sheeting, we may take a larger

wind pressure because these pressures may considerably exceed the average value on

small areas. For designing roof sheeting and its fastenings, the values given in Table.

May be increased numerically by 0.3p. In a distance equal to 15% of the length of the

roof from the gable ends, fastenings should be capable of resisting a section of 2.0p

on the area of the roof sheeting them support.

THE WIND LOAD GENERATOR:

The STAAD Wind Load generator is capable of calculating wind loads on the

structure from user specified wind intensities and exposures factors. Different wind

intensities may be specified for different height zones of the structure. Openings in the

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

54

with each joint of the structure and is defined as the fraction of the influence area on

which the wind load acts. Built-in algorithms automatically calculate the wind load on

a SPACE structure and distribute the loads as lateral joint loads.

GENERATION OF WIND LOADS:

The built in wind load generation facility can be used to calculate the wind

loads based on the parameters defined. The following general format should be used

to perform the wind load generation. Note that areas bounded by beam members only

(and ground), and exposed to the wind, are used to define loaded areas(plates and

solids are ignored). The loads generated are applied only at the joints at vertices of the

bounded areas.

BASIC WIND PRESSURES FOR A CITY

S.NO

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

HEIGHT IN METRES

UPTO 30

40

45

50

57

PRESSURE IN Kg/m2

200

209

217

222

228

For intermediate heights, interpolated values may be adopted.

Calculation of wind loads:

The wind speed in atmospheric boundary layer increases with height

from zero at ground level and to a maximum at a height called gradient height.

Design wind speed:

From IS 875-(PART -III) the Design wind pressure at any height

above mean ground level shall be obtained from the following relationship between

wind pressure and wind velocity.

Pz = 0.6Vz2

Where,

Pz = Design wind pressure in N/m2 at a height of z, and

Vz = Design wind velocity in m/s at a height of z.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

55

The Basic wind speed (Vb) for any site is obtained from Fig no 1 of IS 875(PART-III) and shall be modified to include the following effects to get a design

wind velocity at height.

Height of the building above ground level h= 19.2 m

Lateral dimensions of Building = 20.8m x 11.6 m

Design wind speed

Vz

Vb.K1.K2.K3

For Hyderabad as per IS 875-(PART-III) is 44 m/sec

K1= Probability factor (Risk coefficient)

(5.3.1 of IS 875-III)

=1

K2= Terrain, Height and Structure size factor

(5.3.2 of IS 875-III)

Category-4

Class -B

From Table no 2 of IS-875(PART-III) K2= 0.76

K3= Topographic factor

(5.3.3 of IS 875-III)

=1

Design wind speed Vz = 44x1x0.76x1

= 33.44 m/s

Design wind pressure (Pz) = 0.6Vz2

= 0.6 x 33.442

= 670 N/m2

= 0.670 KN/m2

56

57

WIND LOAD ACTING FROM Z +VE DIRECTION

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

58

TABLE 3.6

A TABLE FROM STAAD OUTPUT SUMMARY OF MAXIMUM BENDING

MOMENT FOR WIND LOAD

59

COMMERCIAL BUILDING FOR SEISMIC LOADS:

Reinforced concrete buildings have become more common in India. These

structures mainly consist of beam-column frames with slabs and walls and are

supported by foundation that rest on the ground. The RC frame participates in resting

the earthquake forces and the earthquake shaking generates inertia forces in the

building, which are proportional to the building mass. Since most of the building mass

is concentrated at floor levels. These forces travel downwards to reach the foundation

from where they are dispersed in to the ground. The structural elements, beams,

columns, slabs, and walls at lower storeys experience higher earthquake forces and

hence are designed to be stronger than those at higher levels.

Buildings are mostly provided with Shear walls in lower storey levels to resist

the earthquake loads.

Earthquake Design Consideration:

The building will be designed for horizontal seismic force only.

The structure in analyzed as an earthquake static approach employing the

use of a seismic coefficient Method.

EARTHQUAKE: An earthquake is vibration of earth surface by waves emerging

from the source of disturbance in the earth by virtue of release of energy in the earths

crust. It is essentially a sudden and transient motion or series of motions of the earth

surface originating in a limited under ground motion due to disturbance of the elastic

equilibrium of the earth mass and spreading from there in all directions.

REASONS FOR HIGH CASUALITY:

1) Urbanization is rapidly increasing and due to increase in land cost,

many multi storied buildings are being constructed.

2) Code is not mandatory.

3) Construction as such is governed by municipal bye-laws.

4) Seismic provisions are not incorporated.

5) Non enforceation of elaborated checks proper ways.

6) No checks even for simple ordinary design.

GENERAL GUIDE LINES:

DRIFT: It is the maximum lateral displacement of the structure with respect to

total height or relative inter-storey displacement. The overall drifts index is the ratio

of maximum roof displacement to the height of the structure and inter-storey drift is

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

60

the ratio of maximum difference of lateral displacement at top and bottom of the

storey divided by the storey height.

Nonstructural elements and structural non seismic members

primarily get damaged due to drift. Higher the lateral stiffness lesser is the likely damage.

The storey drift in any storey due to minimum specified design lateral force with partial

safety factor of unity shall not exceed 0.004 times the storey height.

Separation between adjacent units or buildings:

Two adjacent buildings or two adjacent units of the same

building with separation joint in between shall be separated by distance equal to the

amount R times the sum of the calculated storey displacements as specified above of

each of them to avoid damaging contact when the two units deflect towards each

other.

Soft storey:

Soft storey or flexible storey is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than

70% of that in the storey above or less than 80% of the average lateral stiffness of the

three storey's above. In case of buildings with a flexible storey such as ground storey

consisting of open spaces for parking i.e. stilt buildings, special arrangements are

need to be made to increase the lateral strength and stiffness of the soft storey.

For such buildings, dynamic analysis is carried out including the

strength and stiffness effects of infill s and inelastic deformations in the members

particularly those in the soft storey and members designed accordingly. Alternatively,

the following design criteria are to be adopted after carrying the

earthquake analysis neglecting the effect of infill walls in other storey's. When the

floor levels of two similar adjacent buildings are at the same elevation levels, factor R

can be taken as R/2.

a) The columns and beams of the soft storey are to be designed for 2.5 times the

storey shear and moments calculated under seismic loads specified.

b) Besides the columns designed and detailed for calculated storey shears and

moments, shear walls placed symmetrically in both feasible to be designed

exclusively for 1.35 times the lateral storey shear calculated.

Foundation:

The use of foundations vulnerable to significant differential settlement due to

ground shaping shall be avoided for structures in seismic zones-III, IV & V.

individual spread footings or pile caps shall be interconnected with ties except when

individual spread footings are directly supported on rock. All ties shall be capable of

carrying in tension and in compression an axial force equal to Ah/A times the larger

of the column or pile cap load in addition to the otherwise computed forces where Ah

is the design horizontal spectrum value.

61

Projections:

a) Vertical projections: Tanks, towers parapets, chimneys and other vertical

cantilever projections attached to buildings and projecting the

above roof shall be designed and checked for stability for 5 times the

design horizontal seismic co-efficient Ah. In the analysis of the building,

the weight of these projecting elements will be lumped with the roof

weight.

b) Horizontal projections: All horizontal projections like cornices and

balconies shall be designed and checked for stability for 5 times the

design vertical co-efficient equal to 10/3 Ah. These increased design

forces either for vertical projection or horizontal projection are only

for designing the projecting parts and their connection with the

main structures. This means that for the design of main structure such

increase need not to be considered.

Shape of the building:

Very slender buildings should be avoided. Large overhangs and projections

attract large earthquake forces. Heavy masses like water tanks, etc., at the top shall be

avoided. Small water tanks, if provided, should be properly connected with the

framing system. Building should be sufficiently be away from steep slopes. It should

be built on filled up soil.

Symmetry should be avoided as they undergo torsion and extreme corners are

subjected to very large earthquake forces.

Damping:

Damping is the removal of kinetic energy and potential energy from a

vibrating structure and by virtue of which the amplitude of vibration diminishes

steadily. Some vibrations are due to initial displacement or initial velocity. Due to

damping, these vibrations decay in amplitude.

1. When there are harmonic applied forces and its period is nearly equal to

the natural period of the structure. The vibration will grow from zero

displacement and velocity. Damping limits the vibration maximum

amplitude.

2. More damping less is the amplitude.

3. Negative damping arise while the vibration is small, followed by positive

damping at large amplitude vibrations. The code adopted for design of

multistoried buildings considering a seismic force is IS: 1893 (part I)

2002. More than 60% area of India is earthquake prone. According to IS:

1893(part I) -2002, India is divided into several zones to their magnitude

of intensities.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

62

a) There cannot be entirely scientific basis for zonation in view of the

scanty data available.

b) Though the magnitudes are known there is little instrumental evidence

for comparing damage.

c) Hence, magnitudes and epicenters are used.

REVISION OF PAST CODES:

It is very difficult to predict the occurrence time an exact location of

next earthquake. More than 60% area is earthquake prone. Various problems are

generated after an earthquake. The magnitudes of these problems are very severe.

In order to reduce this effective counter measures are to be taken. Enough steps

should be taken by the concerned authorities for code compliance so that the

structures being constructed are earthquake resistant. Especially during the past 15

years there were severe earthquake with a less time gap and high intensity. Based

on the technology advancement and knowledge gained after earthquake

occurrences, the seismic code is usually revised. The fifth revision of IS: 1893

with severe zone was done in 2002 after along gap of 18 years. According to the

present revision, the latest map has only 4 zones.

Fifth Revision in 2002:

Code has been split into 5 parts :Part 1: General provisions and buildings.

Part 2: Liquid retaining tanks-elevated and ground supported.

Part 3: Bridges and retaining walls.

Part 4: Industrial structures including stack like structures.

Part 5: Dams and embankment.

Response spectra for three types of founding strata

Empirical expression for fundamental natural period

Concept of response reduction factor

Lower bound for design base shear

Model combination rule is revised

Other clauses revised and redrafted

63

Design philosophy:

The design approach is IS: 1893 is

minor earthquake (<DBE) without damage.

To resist moderate earthquake (DBE) without significant structural

damage through some nonstructural damage may occur, and

To withstand a major earthquake (MCE) without Lapse.

Horizontal seismic co-efficient, Ah = z

is a

2Rg

Where,

z- Zone factor

i- Importance factor

sa/ g Spectral acceleration coefficient

R Response reduction factor

From clause 6.4 of IS: 1893 2002

T = 0.075 h0.75

Time period,

The soil is medium soil, hence 5% damping.

From staad pro analysis we have the base shear

TIME PERIOD FOR X 1893 LOADING =

SA/G PER 1893 =

SA/G PER 1893=

0.72785 SEC

0.72785 SEC

0.72785 SEC

64

SA/G PER 1893=

0.72785 SEC

65

X+VE DIRECTION

66

67

BEAM

NO.

BEAM

CROSSSECTION(M)

BEAM

LENGTH

(M)

@ star support

(-ve)

@mid-span

(+ve)

@end support

(-ve)

1001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

32.633

12.755

38.451

1002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

42.931

18.381

49.323

1003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

47.176

17.581

46.029

1004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

35.415

18.726

26.626

1005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

27.417

14.725

34.632

1006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

46.584

19.181

43.995

1007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

38.217

15.495

33.055

1008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

32.145

15.876

28.055

1009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

32.499

15.690

38.837

1010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

43.873

18.733

43.340

1011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

48.911

16.683

40.533

1012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

40.323

16.603

48.598

1013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

47.889

18.800

44.362

1014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

38.558

15.561

32.823

1015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

34.200

15.375

41.380

1016

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

48.839

17.834

48.759

1017

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

46.786

16.887

41.569

1018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

41.262

16.823

47.103

1019

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

48.336

17.897

49.281

1020

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

40.932

15.246

34.624

1021

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

33.292

15.252

41.749

1022

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

48.087

17.954

48.228

68

1023

1024

0.300 x 0.400

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

46.685

15.548

41.293

3.55

42.012

16.975

45.438

1025

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

47.744

17.867

48.969

1026

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

41.037

15.181

33.763

1027

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

47.496

19.257

51.048

1028

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

49.395

19.338

49.154

1029

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

26.778

12.837

24.410

1030

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

24.985

15.658

26.386

1031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

47.104

19.794

49.502

1032

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

27.293

16.304

27.534

1033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

29.104

17.433

25.351

1034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

24.795

12.282

25.963

1035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

46.528

19.588

50.348

1036

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

48.458

19.562

52.575

1037

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

47.051

16.230

47.764

1038

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

38.479

14.152

40.940

1039

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

33.676

14.710

43.132

1040

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

49.624

16.748

51.377

1041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

33.749

14.566

42.512

1042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

39.300

14.441

41.661

1043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

47.974

16.487

49.310

1044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

58.106

23.535

54.393

1045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

52.402

25.886

44.739

1046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

56.028

25.938

48.960

1047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

59.694

23.878

58.167

1048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

55.994

25.911

47.463

1049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

52.929

26.020

45.073

69

1050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

58.937

23.701

55.853

1051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

44.458

30.724

45.315

2001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

44.777

21.253

48.630

2002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

57.491

27.412

63.879

2003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

42.468

22.840

41.874

2004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

39.687

25.887

35.022

2005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

37.754

22.386

48.304

2006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

64.115

27.015

57.696

2007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

47.533

21.009

45.748

2008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

46.531

22.873

32.731

2009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

43.859

21.023

47.790

2010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

55.686

26.349

67.464

2011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

80.267

30.346

61.970

2012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

60.548

28.923

78.189

2013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

65.963

26.551

57.008

2014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

47.208

20.694

44.612

2015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

45.403

19.854

60.963

2016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

88.301

18.140

9.784

2017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

9.783

32.812

72.969

2018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

65.875

23.159

50.008

2019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

49.543

23.055

68.584

2020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

72.414

33.136

9.775

2021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

9.774

18.160

89.713

2022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

60.260

19.559

46.144

2023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

44.992

20.696

58.999

2024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

69.573

18.609

9.438

2025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

9.440

31.847

51.178

70

2026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

62.004

23.731

53.353

2027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

53.822

22.783

63.285

2028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

70.429

31.324

9.447

2029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

9.448

29.151

86.157

2030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

60.467

19.998

45.328

2031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

70.180

27.990

66.314

2032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

65.620

26.092

64.743

2033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

35.945

29.585

36.845

2034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

46.035

22.382

33.786

2035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

63.504

27.080

55.150

2036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

36.505

27.069

37.662

2037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

42.999

28.258

37.525

2038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

42.703

38.899

35.313

2039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

68.375

27.096

68.005

2040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

71.746

28.999

68.925

2041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

38.700

27.031

40.014

2042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

60.319

23.991

72.120

2043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

40.166

29.430

42.655

2044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

76.690

34.407

80.259

2045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

36.152

52.264

39.547

2046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

61.352

40.680

66.587

2047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

91.337

44.480

94.345

2048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

63.880

40.679

66.183

2049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

37.463

55.264

39.314

2050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

78.020

34.553

82.853

2051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

44.511

32.654

45.356

3001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

46.268

20.177

45.654

71

3002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

56.798

27.003

64.658

3003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

39.836

24.131

43.900

3004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

37.935

33.052

34.612

3005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

38.098

27.134

43.990

3006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

65.218

27.143

57.669

3007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

43.975

19.762

47.717

3008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

46.461

31.613

27.074

3009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

45.119

20.023

45.586

3010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

55.998

26.507

67.003

3011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

83.471

30.452

58.268

3012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

56.403

29.011

81.434

3013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

65.076

26.762

58.063

3014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

44.606

19.522

46.279

3015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

46.416

18.980

56.710

3016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

88.620

31.885

9.558

3017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

9.558

31.973

71.594

3018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

67.217

23.368

47.818

3019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

47.172

23.289

67.958

3020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

70.907

32.289

9.550

3021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

9.548

30.745

90.227

3022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

55.896

18.928

47.268

3023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

45.032

19.877

55.933

3024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

69.076

30.018

9.139

3025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

9.140

31.291

49.686

3026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

63.359

22.977

51.358

3027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

52.675

22.686

62.902

3028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

68.126

30.532

9.148

72

3029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

9.150

27.788

86.956

3030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

56.452

19.114

45.950

3031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

70.383

27.566

67.030

3032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

65.577

25.428

64.582

3033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

32.698

27.174

35.342

3034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

48.503

40.553

32.134

3035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

68.220

28.692

50.237

3036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

34.009

25.656

36.889

3037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

43.586

26.820

36.930

3038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

43.444

37.758

33.029

3039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

68.309

26.399

67.938

3040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

71.730

28.594

69.708

3041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

39.278

28.086

39.610

3042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

59.195

25.121

74.234

3043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

40.585

30.414

42.382

3044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

77.232

33.865

80.927

3045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

36.012

55.884

40.115

3046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

61.819

39.257

69.348

3047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

89.968

43.670

97.419

3048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

64.652

39.257

68.250

3049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

37.334

54.882

39.933

3050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

78.414

34.048

83.601

3051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

39.013

27.093

41.106

4001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

44.051

18.662

41.045

4002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

54.284

26.384

61.740

4003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

35.363

21.481

41.824

4004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

31.181

27.346

30.938

73

4005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

33.781

21.212

37.280

4006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

62.992

26.759

55.403

4007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

38.913

18.846

45.931

4008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

42.206

27.381

18.962

4009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

42.772

18.238

41.122

4010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

53.929

26.579

63.660

4011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

82.479

30.595

53.088

4012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

50.951

29.350

80.428

4013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

61.506

26.875

56.463

4014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

39.944

17.867

44.185

4015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

42.970

18.677

49.971

4016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

84.948

29.420

8.073

4017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

8.073

31.538

66.797

4018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

64.888

23.417

43.116

4019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

42.484

23.350

65.579

4020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

66.101

31.891

8.067

4021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

8.064

28.238

86.600

4022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

49.202

18.666

43.793

4023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

40.963

18.251

49.509

4024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

64.897

27.590

7.585

4025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

7.585

28.895

45.008

4026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

60.549

21.820

46.958

4027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

48.865

21.764

59.236

4028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

62.778

29.148

7.593

4029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

7.596

25.081

83.356

4030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

49.885

17.608

42.058

4031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

64.988

26.256

61.232

74

4032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

59.346

25.553

58.989

4033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

25.547

21.860

32.463

4034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

46.892

37.667

26.458

4035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

67.440

28.555

42.537

4036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

27.892

20.797

32.450

4037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

39.300

21.659

33.220

4038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

40.712

33.635

27.283

4039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

61.348

25.583

61.747

4040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

65.816

26.749

63.550

4041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

34.604

23.221

34.237

4042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

53.594

24.493

72.348

4043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

35.453

24.879

36.684

4044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

72.047

33.940

76.186

4045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

33.986

54.961

38.069

4046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

57.503

39.556

65.534

4047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

84.811

33.780

94.726

4048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

60.353

39.556

63.857

4049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

35.170

54.958

37.752

4050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

72.815

33.914

78.527

4051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

30.265

19.115

33.648

5001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

38.112

17.132

36.016

5002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

50.657

26.463

54.747

5003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

29.423

14.537

35.869

5004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

19.307

19.073

24.840

5005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

25.689

11.592

28.653

5006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

57.571

26.471

51.657

5007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

33.188

16.956

40.486

75

5008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

34.587

19.403

9.000

5009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

37.235

17.655

35.622

5010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

50.109

26.755

57.027

5011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

77.849

30.701

46.623

5012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

44.271

29.721

75.860

5013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

54.889

27.016

53.010

5014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

34.108

17.476

38.941

5015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

35.652

18.684

40.636

5016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

77.703

25.403

5.403

5017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

5.403

31.555

58.809

5018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

59.030

23.461

36.886

5019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

36.432

23.387

59.558

5020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

58.252

31.967

5.399

5021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

5.396

24.286

79.206

5022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

40.106

18.647

36.286

5023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

32.975

17.986

39.907

5024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

57.765

23.178

4.906

5025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

4.906

24.546

37.582

5026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

53.739

21.945

41.115

5027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

43.592

21.357

52.385

5028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

54.710

28.915

4.904

5029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

4.908

20.903

76.100

5030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

40.958

17.047

33.817

5031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

55.184

25.360

51.351

5032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

49.757

25.364

49.748

5033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

15.534

14.669

28.846

5034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

42.350

31.563

17.089

76

5035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

61.350

27.431

32.453

5036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

18.787

14.796

25.745

5037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

31.786

13.822

27.277

5038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

34.862

25.084

18.961

5039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

50.777

25.369

51.608

5040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

55.462

25.383

53.005

5041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

26.622

14.426

25.750

5042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

44.420

21.296

66.045

5043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

26.968

15.345

27.578

5044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

63.158

34.172

67.198

5045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

30.355

54.860

34.149

5046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

49.977

39.168

57.224

5047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

76.977

43.601

86.958

5048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

52.281

39.168

55.153

5049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

31.285

54.855

33.619

5050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

63.475

3.150

68.891

5051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

18.228

12.216

25.151

6001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

16.864

8.389

9.912

6002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

18.660

12.199

30.269

6003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

40.641

23.416

54.548

6004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

19.806

6.237

21.137

6005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

18.701

6.304

14.139

6006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

29.414

13.671

20.523

6007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

7.964

8.484

18.330

6008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

26.206

13.521

3.436

6009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

19.038

13.946

20.892

6010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

29.858

19.652

39.189

77

6011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

70.503

31.136

42.801

6012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

39.441

30.108

71.122

6013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

37.182

20.325

32.218

6014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

20.250

13.656

19.975

6015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

18.221

14.848

25.236

6016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

49.153

114.921

2.598

6017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

2.597

22.457

38.337

6018

0.300 x 0.400

3. 55

40.408

17.448

22.966

6019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

22.633

17.531

40.576

6020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

37.860

22.483

2.595

6021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

2.593

14.535

49.828

6022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

24.976

14.841

18.452

6023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

12.185

8.056

17.665

6024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

34.914

13.850

2.264

6025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

2.285

16.439

25.753

6026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

27.475

9.754

12.706

6027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

14.746

10.961

22.266

6028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

22.254

15.709

2.277

6029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

2.279

12.294

38.417

6030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

16.619

8.114

13.044

6031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

22.963

12.394

21.781

6032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

27.416

19.730

27.079

6033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

6.758

9.806

26.053

6034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

34.073

20.634

11.753

6035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

44.125

20.295

12.262

6036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

7.557

11.811

19.413

6037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

21.499

10.437

21.095

78

6038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

26.767

14.239

10.396

6039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

27.520

19.875

27.827

6040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

22.940

12.431

22.585

6041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

17.6693

5.954

16.418

6042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

11.360

25.230

32.006

6043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

17.783

6.295

17.358

6044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

27.160

18.164

28.724

6045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

17.313

41.062

20.635

6046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

24.514

32.698

29.9411

6047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

32.224

27.250

42.507

6048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

25.930

32.697

28.414

6049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

17.336

41.056

20.624

6050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

27.223

18.137

29.659

7001

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

14.656

12.971

27.847

7002

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

4.571

1.847

12.022

7003

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

9.068

4.339

3.742

7004

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

13.668

11.256

2.290

7005

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

29.325

14.452

6.797

7006

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

4.983

12.407

31.235

7007

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

12.701

19.062

16.717

7008

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

28.585

20.730

17.301

7009

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

1.942

9.086

9.953

7010

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

6.852

3.226

7.671

7011

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

10.162

3.788

3.788

79

4. DESIGN OF SLABS

4.1 GENERAL:

Slabs are usually supported on two parallel sides or an all the four sides.

Beams or walls are the common supports for slabs. If a slab is supported on two

opposite edges, it bends in only one direction. Hence it needs reinforcements in only

one direction. However distribution steel is to be provided at right angles to main

reinforcement so that load is distributed properly. Apart from this distribution steel

helps in distributing secondary stresses like temperature stresses. Hence slab

reinforcement is provided in both directions. Thus, Slabs supports mainly transverse

loads and transfer them to the supports by bending action in one or more directions.

Beams or walls are the common supports for the slab.

If the slab is supported on all the four sides, it bends in both directions and

needs reinforcement in both directions. In such case the reinforcements are to be

designed in for both directions. However, from the analysis of slabs by plate theory it

is found that if the ratio of larger span to smaller span (ly/lx) is more than 2, the

bending moment in the direction of larger span is very small. The main reinforcement

required works out to be less than that required as distribution steel for one-way slab.

The bending moment in shorter span is almost equal to bending moment in one way

slab and hence the slab may be designed as one-way slab if the ratio of larger span(ly)

to shorter span (lx) is more than 2.

The slabs in which main reinforcement is to be designed in only one direction

is called one-way slab. If main reinforcement is to be designed in both directions, the

slab is called two-way slab. Slabs may be a roof or a floor depending on its location in

the building, the design value of live load on slab panels as per IS: 875 part-II is as

follows:

1) Design L.L for roof slab

2) Design L.L for typical floor slab

: 1.5 KN/m

: 2.0 KN/m

bending moments at critical sections are to be found and reinforcements designed.

Slab is usually designed as a beam of one meter width to carry moment over a strip of

1 meter. Instead of number of bars, spacing of bars is to be found. 8 mm or 10 mm are

commonly used.

A slab may be classified according to the method of support:

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Two-way slabs spanning in both directions.

Circular slabs.

Flat slabs resting directly on columns with no beams.

Grid floor & Ribbed slabs.

80

Slabs are designed by using the same theories of bending and shear as they are

used for beams. The following methods of analysis are available:

a) Elastic Analysis idealization into strips or beams.

b) Semi Empirical co-efficient as given in code.

c) Yield line Theory.

General Design Requirements for Slabs as per IS 456: 2000

1. Effective span:

The effective span of a simply supported slab shall be taken as clear

span plus effective depth of the slab or center to center distance between the

supports whichever is less.

The effective span of a cantilever slab shall be taken as its length to the face of

the support plus half the effective depth except where it forms the end of a

continuous slab where the length to the Centre of support shall be taken.

2. Limiting stiffness:

The stiffness of slab is governed by the span to depth ratio. As per

Clause 23.2 of IS: 456 for spans not exceeding 10 m, the span to depth ratio

(basic values) should not exceed the limits given below.

Cantilevers

-7

Simply supported

- 20

Continuous

- 26

Depending upon the type of steel and percentage of steel, the above

values have to be modified as per fig.4 of IS: 456 2000.For two-way slabs,

the shorter span should be used for calculating the span to effective depth

ratio.

3. Minimum Reinforcement:

The reinforcement in either direction of span shall not be less than

0.15% of gross cross-sectional area if mild steel is used. However, this value is

reduced to 0.12% where high strength deformed bars (HYSD) are welded by

fabrics are used. (Clause 26.5.2.1 of IS: 456 2000).

4. Maximum Diameter of Bars:

The diameter of bars shall not exceed one eighth of the total thickness

of slab (Clause 26.5.2.2 of IS: 456 2000)

5. Spacing of Main Reinforcement:

The spacing of main reinforcement in slabs shall not be more than

three times the effective depth of solid slab or 300 mm whichever is less.

(Clause 26.3.3 of IS: 456 2000)

81

6. Distribution Reinforcement:

The area of distribution reinforcement shall not be less than 0.15% of

gross cross-sectional area if plane bars are used and 0.12% if high yield

strength deformed bars are used. The spacing of distribution reinforcement in

slabs shall not be more than five times of the effective depth of slab or 450

mm whichever is less.

7. Cover to Reinforcement:

Reinforcement shall have concrete cover of thickness as follows:

a) At each end of reinforcement bar not less than 25 mm nor less than

twice the diameter of such bar.

b) The bottom cover for reinforcement shall not be less than 20 mm nor

less than the diameter of such bars.

One way slab are those in which the length is more than twice the breadth. A

continuous one-way slab can be analyzed in a similar manner to that used for a

continuous beam. The general recommendation for curtailment of bars is given in

clause 26.2.3 of the code applies for slab also. As stated earlier, if the ratio of longer

span to the shorter span (ly/lx) is greater than 2, is called as one-way slab. One-way

slab bends only in one direction across the span, and acts like a wide beam.

Design Procedure for One-way Slab:

1) Assume the sustainable depth based on the stiffness consideration and

calculate the effective span.

Required effective depth

Factor).

supported slabs.

2) Considering one meter width of slab, calculate the loads acting on the slab.

Find the factored Moment and Shear force. For simply supported slabs.

Mu

wul2/8

Bending Moment

Vu

wul/2

Shear Force

3) Determine the minimum depth required to resist the bending moment by

equating

Mu

Mu, lim

k. fck.b. d2

82

1000 mm,

Provided depth should be more than this value. Otherwise increase the depth.

4) Calculate the area of steel per meter width of slab by using

Mu

S

=

(ast /Ast) x1000

Where

ast

area of bars used.

Ast

total area of steel required.

Spacing should be not more than 3d or 300 mm whichever is less.

6) Distribution Steel :

Provide distribution reinforcement at 0.12% (for HYSD bars) of gross

cross sectional area and find the spacing of these bars. If mild steel bars are

used, provide 0.15% of gross cross sectional area of distribution steel. Spacing

of distribution steel should not be more than 5d or 450 mm whichever is less.

7) Check for Deflection :

Calculate the Pt % corresponding maximum mid span moment, take

the modification factor (F1) from fig.4 of IS: 456 2000

(l/d) provided < (l/d) max = basic value x F1

8) Check for Shear :

Maximum shear force at the edges of one-way slab given by

Vu

wul/2

Shear Force

Vu/ b. d

Pt

ast/ S. d

-------

concrete for beams

c

--------

83

For solid slabs, the shear strength of concrete shall be c.k. Value of k should

be taken from clause 40.2.1.1 depending depth of slab, which is given below.

Overall

depth

K

300 or

more

1.00

275

250

225

200

175

1.05

1.10

1.15

TABLE 4.1

1.20

1.25

150 or

less

1.30

Also note for slabs, nominal shear stress (c) shall not exceed 0.5 c max, where

c max is as given as table-20 IS: 456. Shear reinforcements in slabs should be

avoided, since they work out cumbersome and expensive. Hence, if v > c,

increase the thickness of slab and redesign.

9) Check for Development Length :

Ld (M1 V) + Lo

The check for shear and check for development length are mostly

satisfied in all cases of slabs subjected to uniformly distributed loads and

therefore omitted in design calculations

Continuous slabs are subjected to negative moments at supports and to

positive moments at mid span. Hence design is required for all critical sections.

However to avoid problems in construction, usually design is made for the maximum

bending moment and shear force and the reinforcement is provided.

IS: 456 (table-12 & 13) gives expressions for finding moments and shear

forces at critical sections. These are presented in table- 6.2 & 6.3 also. However it

may be noted that these coefficients are for beams/slabs of uniform cross sections

which supports substantially uniformly distributed loads over 3 or more spans which

do not differ by more than 15 % of the longest span. For all other cases, rigorous

structural analysis is required.

It may be noted that if all spans are equal maximum is at support next to end

support.

Mmax =

(wdl2/12) + (wLl2/9)

Vmax

0.6wd+0.6wL

Design Procedure:

I.

II.

Effective span shall be found as explained in Art. 6.3 (clause 222

IS:456)

84

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

Design for Moment.

Check for shear.

Check for deflection.

Design distribution steel.

Sketch reinforcement details.

Common example of cantilever slabs are chajjas and balcony slabs. These

slabs are free at one end and may be treated as fixed at other ends to lintel beams.

They may be overhanging portions of interior slabs. They need reinforcement to top

since in cantilevers subjected to vertical downward loads, tension in on top. Moment

is maximum at fixed/continuous end. Hence design is for the section at the end. We

know in cantilevers moment reduces to zero at free end. Hence the thickness of

cantilever slab may be reduced gradually towards free end. Hence minimum thickness

of 75 mm is maintained at free end.

In the design the following points are to be noted:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

For uniformly distributed loads, the bending moment and shear force is

Mu

=

wul2/8

Bending Moment

Vu

=

wul

Shear Force

Basic value of span to depth ratio for cantilever = 7

To find the trial depth, l/d ratio may be taken as 10 taking the modification

factors in to consideration.

Main bars are to be provided at top and distribution bars are to be provided in

the transverse direction.

There should be check for anchorage length of main bars at the support.

When slab is supported on all four sides and the ratio of long span (ly) to short

span (lx) is less than 2, the bending moment developed in both x & y directions is

predominant and hence design should be made for reinforcement in both directions.

For the analysis of such slab various theories have been developed and expressions

for bending moment Mx & My presented. Among all those theories plate theory is

quite precise.

The moment developed depends upon the edge conditions also. In buildings,

we come across the following boundary conditions.

1. All four edge continuous (interior panel)

2. One short edge discontinuous

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

85

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Two adjacent edges discontinuous

Two short edges discontinuous

Two long edges discontinuous

Three edges discontinuous and one long edge continuous.

Three edges discontinuous and one short edge continuous.

Four edges discontinuous but corners held down by providing torsional

reinforcements.

10. Simply supported slab without torsion reinforcements.

Note: simply supported slabs have tendency to lift at corners due to torsion

moment in the slab. Lifting of corners may be prevented by providing torsion

reinforcement in the form of two mats. If such precaution is taken, the simply

supported slab falls under category 9 otherwise it falls under category 10.

4

5

7

FIG4.1

bottom) develops and at supports ve moment developed in slabs with various edge

conditions. The maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are given by

Mx=x w lx2

My=y w lx2

Where Mx & My are the design moments along short and long spans

w = uniformly distributed load on slab

lx & ly are the lengths of short and long spans.

x & y are the moment coefficients given in table 26 of IS: 456.

86

Bending moment coefficients for rectangular panel supported on four sides with

provision of torsion at corners

(IS 456:2000 Clause D-1.1 and 24.4.1)

Ca

se

No

.

Type of Panel

and Moments

considered

(1)

(2)

Interior Panels:

Negative

moment at

continuous edge.

Positive moment

at mid span

Discontinuous:

Negative

moment at

continuous edge.

Positive moment

at mid span

One Long Edge

Discontinuous:

Negative

moment at

continuous edge.

Positive moment

at mid span

Two Adjacent

Edges

Discontinuous:

Negative

moment at

continuous edge.

Positive moment

at mid span

Two Short

Edges

Discontinuous:

Negative

moment at

continuous edge.

(Values of ly/lx)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Long

span

coefficie

nts y

for all

values

of ly/lx

(11)

0.032

0.037

0.043

0.047

0.051

0.053

0.060

0.065

0.032

0.024

0.028

0.032

0.036

0.039

0.041

0.045

0.049

0.024

0.037

0.043

0.048

0.051

0.055

0.057

0.064

0.068

0.037

0.028

0.032

0.036

0.039

0.041

0.044

0.048

0.052

0.028

0.037

0.044

0.052

0.057

0.063

0.067

0.077

0.085

0.037

0.028

0.033

0.039

0.044

0.047

0.051

0.059

0.065

0.028

0.047

0.053

0.060

0.065

0.071

0.075

0.084

0.091

0.047

0.035

0.040

0.045

0.049

0.053

0.056

0.063

0.069

0.035

0.045

0.049

0.052

0.056

0.059

0.060

0.065

0.069

--

0.035

0.037

0.040

0.043

0.044

0.045

0.049

0.052

0.035

87

Positive moment

at mid span

Two Long

Edges

Discontinuous:

Negative

moment at

continuous edge.

Positive moment

at mid span

Three Edges

Discontinuous

(One Long

Edge

Continuous):

Negative

moment at

continuous edge.

Positive moment

at mid span.

Three Edges

Discontinuous

(One Short

Edge

Continuous):

Negative

moment at

continuous edge.

Positive moment

at mid span

Four Edges

Discontinuous:

Positive moment

at mid span.

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

0.045

0.035

0.043

0.051

0.057

0.063

0.068

0.080

0.088

0.035

0.057

0.064

0.071

0.076

0.080

0.084

0.091

0.097

--

0.043

0.048

0.053

0.057

0.060

0.064

0.069

0.073

0.043

0.057

0.043

0.051

0.059

0.065

0.071

0.076

0.087

0.096

0.043

0.056

0.64

0.072

0.079

0.085

0.089

0.100

0.107

0.056

TABLE 4.2

88

1. The maximum bending moments per unit width in a slab are given by the

following equations.

Mx=x w lx2

My=y w lx2

2. Slabs are considered as divided in each direction in to middle strips and edge

strips. The middle strip being of the width and edge strip of the 1/8 width

of the slab.

3. The maximum moment applies to only to middle strip.

4. Tension reinforcements provided at mid strip shall extend in the lower part of

the slab to within 0.25l of a continuous edge or 0.15l of discontinuous edge.

5. Over the continuous edges of a middle strip, the tension reinforcement shall

extend in the upper part of the slab a distance of 0.15l from the support and at

least 50% shall extend a distance of 0.3l.

6. Due to imperfection of boundary conditions, negative moment may occur at

discontinuous edges. To take care of such moments, tension reinforcement

equal to 50% of that provided at mid span extending to 0.1l in to the span will

be sufficient.

7. Reinforcement in edge strip, parallel to that edge, shall comply with the

minimum requirement.

8. Torsion Reinforcement:

Torsion reinforcement is to be provided at corners where two adjacent edges

are discontinuously/simply supported. It consists of two layers of

reinforcement mesh at top and other at bottom of slab with required cover. The

area of reinforcement in each of these four layers shall be th of the area

required for the maximum mid span in the slab and shall be of length 1/5th of

the shorter span.

1. Assume the depth of the slab based on the stiffness.

(a) For two way slabs with shorter span less than 3.5 m and L.L < 3

KN/m2, the allowable lx/d ratio is

Type

Simply supported slabs

Fixed or Continuous

slabs

Fe 250

35

40

Fe 415

28

32

TABLE 4.3

(b) If lx > 3.5 m and L.L >3 3 KN/m2, the allowable lx/d ratio is same as

that of one-way slabs.

2. Find the effective spans lx and ly

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

89

4. Obtain the design moment coefficients along short and long spans

depending on the boundary conditions given in table 26 of IS: 456 as

applicable. Calculate the bending moments by multiplying the coefficients

by wlx2.

5. Calculate the minimum depth required to resist the absolute maximum

design moment (Mx and My) which should be less than the depth provided,

otherwise increase the depth.

6. Calculate the area of steel at the mid span (and at support if the slab is

continuous) in both the directions using

Mu = 0.87 FY Ast d {1 [(FY Ast) (fck b d)]}

The short span bars are provided in the bottom layer and long span bars are

provided above the short span bars in the mid span regions.

Thus for

short span d = D clear span /2

Long span d1 = (D clear span /2) = d

The main reinforcement shall be provided in the middle strips of width

equal to of slab width.

7. Torsion steel:

(a) At corners where slab is discontinuous over both the edges At =

Astx

(b) At corners where slab is discontinuous over one edge At = 3/8

Astx

(c) At corners where slab is continuous over both edges, At = 0,

i.e., no torsion steel is required.

Where Astx = Area of steel for maximum mid span moment.

This area of torsion reinforcement will be provide at corners in the

form of mesh, one at top and the other at bottom for a length of lx/5 in each

orthogonal direction, parallel to the sides of the slab.

8. Check for Deflection:

Calculate the Pt % corresponding maximum mid span moment

Take the modification factor (MF) from figure-4 IS: 456

(l/d) provided < (l/d) maximum = basic value x MF

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

90

9.

Maximum shear force at the edges of two way slab is given by

Vux = wv [r4 (1 + r4)] (lx/2), where r = (ly/lx)

v < c

10. Check for Development Length:

Ld (M1 V) + Lo

The check for shear and check for development length are mostly

satisfied in all cases slabs subjected to uniformly distributed loads and

therefore omitted in design calculations. The general arrangement of

reinforcement in two-way.

4.7 CALCULATIONS:

SLAB PANEL: S1

Length of longer span ( ly ): 3.65 m

Length of shorter span (lx ): 3.00 m

Now ratio of longer span to shorter span i.e.,

lx

3.65

3.00

= 1.217 < 2

Loads acting on the slab:

Live load

2 KN/m2

Floor finish

fck

fy

=

=

=

1.5 KN/m2

20 N/mm2

415 N/mm2

Thickness of slab:

Assume effective depth d =

span

32

3000

32

= 93.75

Adopt d = 100 mm

Effective Cover = 20 mm

Overall depth D = 120 mm

Loads per unit area of slab

Self-weight of the slab = 0.12 x 25

Live load

= 3.0 kN/m2

= 2 N/m2

91

Floor finish

= 1.5 KN/m2

Total load

= 6.5 KN/m2

Factored load (wu)= 1.5 x 6.0 = 9.75 KN/m2

Type of panel: Two adjacent edges discontinuous

Moment and Area of Steel calculations:

Mu = .wu .lx

By using SP 16

Span

Spacing

Ast pro

mm

mm

mm

0.56

0.16%

157.04

120

200

251.33

4.20

0.42

0.12%

116.77

120

200

251.33

0.045

3.98

0.40

0.11%

110.54

120

200

251.33

0.034

2.98

0.30

0.08%

82.42

120

200

251.33

Mu

Mu/bd

Pt

Coefficient

kN.m

N/mm2

0.064

5.60

0.048

x

shorter

Min

Ast

mm

Dia

Ast

reqd

mm

Moment

(-ve)

x

(+ve)

y

longer

(-ve)

y

(+ve)

TABLE 4.4

Check for deflection:

Basic value of Lx/d ratio = 26

From figure 3 of I.S 456:1978 modification factor is 1.66

Maximum permitted l/d ratio =

1.66 26 =

43.16

Lx/d provided > Lx/d required

Hence deflection control is safe.

92

SLAB PANEL: S4

Length of longer span ( l y )

10.25 m

3.50 m

lx

10.25

3.50

= 2.92 > 2

Loads acting on the slab:

Live load

= 2 KN/m2

Floor load

= 1 KN/m2

Characteristic strength of steel (fy)

= 415 N/mm2

Thickness of slab:

Assume effective depth d =

span

28

3500

28

= 125

Adopt d = 125 mm

Cover = 20 mm

Overall depth = 145 mm

Loads: per unit area of slab

Self-weight of the slab = 0.145 x 25 = 3.3.625 kN/m2

Live load

2 kN/m2

Floor finish

1 kN/m2

Total load

6.625 kN/m2

Factored load = 1.5 x 6.625 = 9.9735 kN/m2

Max B.M Mu= wl2/8 = 15.22 kN-m

93

By using SP 16

TABLE 4.5

Ast

reqd

mm

Min

Ast

mm

Dia of

bar

mm

0.28%

352.46

150

Mu

Mu/bd

Pt

kN.m

N/mm2

15.22

0.97

Spacing

Ast pro

mm

mm

140

359.04

Distribution reinforcement:

Minimum percentage of steel as per IS 456 Is 0.12% of gross cross sectional area

Ast

174 mm2

Check for deflection:

For simply supported slabs basic l/d ratio is 20

From figure 3 of I.S 456:1978 modification factor is 1.43

Maximum permitted l/d ratio

1.43 20 = 28.6

28.6

Hence deflection control is safe.

94

Reinforcement

slab

Lx

(m)

Ly

(m)

Effecti

ve

depth

d (mm)

Type of

slab

Along X-direction

Along Y-direction

-ve

+ve

-ve

+ve

S1

3.00

3.65

100

Two way

Continues

8 -200 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -200 c/c

S2

3.65

3.70

100

Two way

Continues

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

S3

3.55

3.65

100

Two way

Continues

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

S4

3.50

10.25

125

One way

-----

8 -140 c/c

-----

8 -280 c/c

S5

3.85

4.15

100

Two way

Continues

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

S6

2.85

4.15

100

Two way

Continues

8 -250 c/c

8 -300 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -300 c/c

S7

3.55

4.15

100

Two way

Continues

8 -250 c/c

8 -300 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -300 c/c

TABLE 4.6

Note :

Effective cover for all slabs is 20 mm

Total depth for two way slabs is 120 mm

Total depth for one way slabs is 145 mm

Diameter of bar and spacing is in mm

95

5. DESIGN OF BEAMS

5.1 INTRODUCTION:

In a building frame at every floor level, there can be large number of

beams with different spans, end conditions, and loadings. It would not be

practicable to design all beams serially from first to last. It is quite likely

that some of the beams may have the same end conditions, spans, and/or

loadings. Under such circumstances, it is always advisable to categorize

them and group them to facilitate design, and reduce the computational

efforts.

Design of reinforced concrete beams involves sizing and finding

required quantity of steel based on the consideration of strength and

serviceability requirements. It also involves detailing. The major

consideration in the design of beams is bending moment. Hence first

beams are designed for bending moment and then the design for shear is

taken up. Checks are applied for deflection and crack width. If the

requirement for any limit state fails redesign is to be made. The detailing

of reinforcement is to be made with neat sketches/drawings taking into

account bond, cracking and durability considerations.

Concrete is fairly strong in compression but very weak in tension.

Hence plain concrete cannot be used in situations where considerable

tensile stresses develop. If flexural members like beams and slabs are

made of plain concrete their load carrying capacity is very low due to its

low tensile strength. Since steel is very strong in tension, steel bars are

provided to resist tensile stresses at a place where the maximum tensile

stresses are developed.

In case of simply supported beam, tensile stresses are induced in

bottom layers because of positive bending moment (sagging bending

moment) and hence steel bars are provided near the bottom of the beam.

In cantilever beams steel bars are placed near the top of the beam to resist

the tensile stresses developed in top layers due to the negative bending

moment (hogging bending moment).

A

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -

- -- --- --- -- NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

- -- - -- --- --

96

Positioning of beams:

Some of the guiding principles for the positioning of beams are as

follows:

(a) Beams are generally provided under walls or below heavy

concentrated loads to avoid these loads directly coming on slabs.

(b) The spacing of the beams is governed by the maximum spans of the

slabs.

(c) For larger spans and heavier loads the two-way action is advantageous,

as the steel required is minimum.

(d) For designing the cantilever slabs, availability adequate anchorage

should be checked.

Categorization of beams:

The categorization of beams may be done on the basis of design which

depends on the following factors:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Span

Load type (UDL, point load, triangular/trapezoidal load etc.)

Section type (rectangular/flanged)

Load magnitude.

conditions of beam it is necessary, in the beginning, to take certain

decisions or make suitable simplifying assumptions regarding the

following:

(i)

(ii)

designed as a whole or as made up of independent beams with

appropriate end conditions

What will be the end conditions of the beam?

The decision would depend upon the following:

(1) Whether detailed calculations are required by the client (as in

case of public buildings) for future/office record.

(2) Whether the client requires only result in the form of schedules

of members as in case of residential buildings constructed by

private owners or builders.

(3) What is the accuracy required? It depends upon the importance

of the building and magnitude and repetitious nature of work.

97

For example, if it is to be used for a big residential complex with large number

of such units, then small excess of concrete and/or steel that may occur by using

simplifying assumption in design of one unit can lead to appreciable increase in

overall cost of materials in the entire big scheme.

The decisions regarding the assumptions made for the end conditions of the

beam materially affects the design procedure and designs itself.

Bearing the above points in mind, the decision has to be taken very carefully

whether to use the methods of structural analysis or simplifying assumptions and

approximations. A beam may be assumed as simply supported at discontinuous end

for simplicity on safer side, simultaneously taking care to provide steel at top at least

equal to 1/3rd the mid-span steel to account for partial fixity developed.

For approximate method, the beams may be categorized on the basis of end

conditions as follows:

5.2 CATEGORY:

(1) Beam simply supported at both ends and carrying only UDL.

(2) Beam simply supported at one end and continuous at the other end

and carrying UDL.

(3) Beam continuous at both ends and carrying UDL only.

(4) Miscellaneous beams such as overhanging beams, beams with any end

condition but carrying unusual loading like UDL over part of the

length of beam, continuous beams with abnormally unequal spans

etc.

The beams under each category may further be divided into different groups

on the basis of approximate equality of spans and loads. For beams with uniform

cross section and having the same end conditions the equality of spans may be

assumed when they do not differ more than 15% of the longest.

Types of Beams:

Designer has to decide whether the section of the beam is going to act as

rectangular or L or T-beam. A single span beam supported on masonry wall can be

considered as simply supported beam. It has zero moments at ends and sagging (+ve)

moment throughout. If slab is cast over it monolithically, the slab is on compression

side. Hence when beam bends part of slab acts as flange of the beam in resisting

bending moment. If the slab is on both sides, it becomes T-beam and if it is only on

one side it is L-beam.

If the beam is part of a framed structure or is continuous over a number of

supports, it will be having sagging (+ve) moment in mid-span and hogging (-ve)

moment near the supports. If as usual slab is on the top of the beam and is cast

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

98

monolithically with beam, the mid-span section of the beam becomes flanged section.

At interior supports, the flange is on tension side and hence will not assist in resisting

moment. In such cases the beam is to be designed as a rectangular section for negative

moment.

The designer has to decide whether the section is to be designed as Singly

reinforced or Doubly reinforced. For this the depth of balanced section may be

found. If this depth cannot be permitted from the consideration of head room

requirement or from architectural consideration then the section is to be designed as

doubly reinforced. Otherwise it may be designed as singly reinforced.

Beam Section:

The cross-sectional dimensions of the beam consist of fixing breadth and

depth of the beam. The breadth of the beam is generally kept equal to the thickness of

the wall to avoid offset inside the room. It shall not exceed the width of the column

for effective transfer of load from beam to column. The minimum width of beam shall

be 200 mm to meet the requirements of fire resistance of 0.5 hours. (See fig.1 of IS:

456 2000).

FIG5.2

The depth of the beam is taken between L/10 to L/16. The types of beams

having different sections are kept minimum to facilitate reuse work. Even in some

cases, especially in residential buildings, the depth of the beam is provided equal to

the difference between the top of the floor and top of the door/ window. The

advantages are there is no need to provide lintel, the depth of the formwork remains

the same so that they can be reused and the top of the formwork being at the same

level there is considerable saving in labor.

99

5.3 ASSUMPTIONS:

The analysis and design of a reinforced concrete section for flexure is based

on the following assumptions. (IS: 456 2000, Clause 38.1)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

The maximum strain in concrete at outermost compression fiber is taken as

0.0035 in bending regardless of strength of concrete.

The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.

The relationship between stress-strain distributions in concrete is assumed

to be parabolic as shown in fig below. Compressive strength of concrete in

the structure (size effect) is assumed to be 0.67 times the characteristic

strength of concrete. The partial safety factor m equal to 1.5 is applied

to the strength of concrete in addition to it. Therefore, the design

compressive strength of concrete is 0.67 fck/1.5 = 0.446 fck.

The stress in reinforcement is derived from the representative stress-strain

curve for the type of steel used as shown in fig. The partial safety factor m

equal to 1.15 is applied to the strength of reinforcement. Therefore, the

design strength of steel is fy/1.15 = 0.87 FY.

The maximum strain in tension reinforcement in the section at failure

should not be less than the

(FY/ 1.15Es) + 0.002

Where FY = Characteristic strength of steel

Es = Modulus of elasticity of steel

100

If the reinforcing bars are provided only on tension side in the beam section, it

is called as singly reinforced beams.

Consider a simply supported beam subjected to bending under factored loads.

Since plane sections are assumed to remain plane before and after bending, strain is

proportional to distance from the neutral axis. Above the neutral axis the entire cross

section is in compression and below the neutral axis, the cross section is in tension.

All the tensile stresses are assumed to be resisted by steel bars as the tensile strength

of concrete is ignored. The resultant tensile force, thus acts at the centroid of

reinforcing bars.

Effective Depth:

Effective depth of a beam is the distance between the centroid of tension

reinforcement and the maximum compression fibre, excluding thickness of finishing

material placed monolithically with the member.

Effective depth, d = D clear cover /2

Where

D= Gross depth or overall depth.

= Diameter of the bar.

Effective span:

For calculation of bending moment and shear force, effective span is to be

considered. IS: 456 Clause No.22.2 specifies effective span, various cases as given

below:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Effective span = clear span + effective depth

Or

Centre to centre distance between the supports, whichever is less.

Continuous beams or slabs:

(a) If width of support, w < 1/12th of clear span, the effective span

is same as for simply supported case.

(b) For end span with one end simply supported and other end

continuous.

Effective span = clear span + d/2

Or

Clear span + (1/2) x width of simple support.

Whichever is less.

In case of roller supports:

Effective span = distance between the supports.

Cantilevers:

Effective span = clear span + d/2

101

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Effective span = centre of support to free end.

Frames:

Effective span = centre to centre distance.

The depth of neutral axis can be obtained by considering the equilibrium of

internal forces of compression and tension.

Force of compression C = Average stress x area of beam in compression

= 0.36 fck b xu

Force of tension T = Design yield stress x area of steel

= 0.87 fy Ast

Force of compression should be equal to force of tension

Xu = (0.87 FY Ast) / (0.36 fck b xu)

Lever Arm (z):

The forces of compression and tension form a couple. The distance between

the lines of action of compression and tension forces is called as lever arm.

Lever arm,

z = d 0.42 xu

A reinforced concrete member is considered to have failed when the strain in

concrete in extreme compression fiber reaches its ultimate value equal to 0.0035.

1. Balanced section: when the maximum strains in steel and concrete reach their

maximum values simultaneously, the section is known as a balanced section.

The percentage of steel provided for balanced section is called as limiting

percentage of steel.

xu = xu, max.

2. Under reinforced section (tension failure or ductile failure): when the amount

of steel in a section is less than that required for a balanced section, the section

is called as under reinforced section.

In under reinforced sections, the strain in concrete does not reach its maximum

value while the strain in steel reaches its maximum value. The position of

neutral axis will shift upwards to maintain equilibrium between force of

compression and tension.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

102

So failure of the section is initiated by steel reaching its yield value. Before

failure, beam undergoes substantial deflection excessive cracking of concrete

giving sufficient warning of impending failure. For this reason and from

economy point of view the under reinforced sections are designed. IS code

prefers design of under reinforced sections and at the most it can be a balanced

section (xu xu, max).

3. Over Reinforced section (compression Failure or brittle failure):

When the amount of steel is more than that required for balanced section, the

section is called over reinforced section.

In over reinforced sections, the strain in concrete reaches its ultimate value

before steel reaches its yield value. Neutral axis shift downwards to maintain

equilibrium

xu > xu, max

hence, in over reinforced sections sudden failure occurs by crushing of

concrete out giving any warning. So this type sections should be avoided. IS

code recommends avoid of over reinforced sections.

Maximum Depth of Neutral Axis ( xu, max):

The maximum depth of neutral axis is limited to ensure that tensile steel will

reach its yield stress before concrete fails in compression, thus brittle failure

(sudden failure with less alarming deflection) is avoided.

From strain diagram of IS: 456

,

,

=

0.0035 (087 /E ) + 0.02

,

=

0.0035

087

+ 0.0055

E

is dependent on grade of steel only.

103

fy (N/mm2)

250

0.53

415

0.48

500

0.46

Grade of

concrete

Fe 250 steel

Fe 415 steel

Fe 500 steel

0.148fckbd2

0.138 fckbd2

0.133 fckbd2

2.96 bd2

3.45 bd2

3.33 bd2

3.7 bd2

3.45 bd2

3.33 bd2

General

M20

M25

Table 5.2 Limiting Moment of Resistance for Singly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections

Limiting Percentage of Steel:

The percentage of tensile reinforcement corresponding to the limiting

moment resistance is known as limiting percentage of steel. It can be

obtained by equating force of tension and compression.

0.87 , = 0.36 ,

, = 0.36 , /0.87

Limiting percentage of steel , =

=

100

0.36 ,

100

0.87

to different grades of concrete and steel in a singly reinforced rectangular

beam are given below.

104

Grade of

concrete

Fe 250

Fe 415

Fe 500

M15

1.32

0.72

0.57

M20

1.76

0.96

0.76

M25

2.20

1.19

0.94

5.5 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BEAMS:

1. Effective span:

The effective span of a simply supported beam shall be taken as clear

span plus effective depth of the beam or center to center distance between

the supports whichever is less.

The effective span of a cantilever shall be taken as its length to the face

of the support plus half the effective depth except where it forms the end

of a continuous beam where the length to the centre of support shall be

taken.

2. Limiting stiffness:

The stiffness of beams is governed by the span to depth ratio. As per

Clause 23.2 of IS: 456 for spans not exceeding 10 m, the span to effective

depth ratio should not exceed the limits (basic values) given below:

Cantilever

7

Simply supported 20

Continuous

26

For spans above 10 m, the above values may be multiplied by 10/span

in m.

Depending on the amount and type of steel, the above values shall be

modified by multiplying with the modification factors obtained from fig.4

& 5 of IS: 456.

3. Minimum Reinforcement:

The minimum area of tension reinforcement should not be less than the

following (Clause 26.51 of IS: 456)

0.85

=

This works out only 0.2% for Fe 415 steel and 0.34% for Fe 250 steel.

105

4. Maximum Reinforcement:

The maximum area of tension reinforcement should not exceed 4% of

the gross cross sectional area (Clause 26.51 of IS: 456)

Ptmax < 0.04 bD

Where D = gross depth of the beam

5. Spacing of Bars:

The horizontal distance between two parallel main reinforcing bars

shall usually be not less than the greatest of the following:

(a) Diameter of the bar if the diameters are equal.

(b) Diameter of the largest bar if the bars are unequal

(c) 5 mm more than the nominal maximum size of the aggregate

When there are two or more rows of bars, the bars shall be vertically in

line and the minimum vertical distance between the bars shall be 15 mm,

two-thirds of nominal maximum size of aggregate or the maximum size of

the bars whichever is greater.

The maximum spacing of bars in tension for beams is taken from

Table-15 of IS: 456 depending on the amount of redistribution carried

out in analysis and fy.

6. Cover to Reinforcement:

Reinforcement shall have concrete cover of thickness as follows:

(a) At each end of reinforcement bar not less than 25 mm nor less

than twice the diameter of such bar.

(b) For longitudinal reinforcing bar in beam, not less than 25 mm

nor less than the diameter of such bar.

7. Side Face Reinforcement:

Where the depth of the beam exceeds 750 mm, side face reinforcement

shall be provided along the two faces. The total area of such reinforcement

shall not be less than 0.1% of the beam area and shall be distributed

equally on two faces at a spacing not exceeding 300 mm or width of the

beam whichever is less.

Use of SP16 for Design and Analysis of Singly Reinforced Beams:

The Indian standards Institutions special publication SP16, Design aids for

Reinforced concrete of IS: 456, contains a number of charts and tables for design of

reinforced concrete members.

The following are the data presented in SP16 for design and analysis singly

reinforced beams.

106

(i)

of (

(ii)

varying depths (5 to 80 cm) and varying percentage of steel, for

various values of

fck= 15 & 20 using steel grades of fy= 250,415 & 500.

Beams which are reinforced in both compression and tension asides are called

as doubly reinforced beam. These beams are generally provided when the dimensions

of the beam are restricted and it is required to resist moment higher than the limiting

moment of resistance of a singly reinforced section. The additional moment of

resistance required can be obtained by providing compression reinforcement and

additional tension reinforcement.

Situations under which doubly reinforced beams are used:

1. When the depth of the beam is restricted due to architectural or any

construction problems.

2. At the supports of a continuous beam where bending moment changes its

sign.

3. In precast members (during handling bending moment changes its sign).

4. In bracing members of a frame due to changes in the direction of wind

loads.

5. To improve the ductility of the beams in earth quake regions.

6. To reduce long term deflections or to increase stiffness of the beam.

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Beams

Doubly Reinforced section can be considered to be composed of two sections

given below.

(a) A singly reinforced section with Mu,lim

(b) A section with compression steel and additional tension steel to resist

additional moment 2 = , , i.e., a steel beam without

concrete.

Hence, moment of resistance of doubly reinforced beam.

= , + 2

Where, , = Limiting moment of resistance of singly reinforced section.

2 = Additional moment of resistance to be resisted by compression steel and

additional tension steel.

107

The lever arm for the additional moment of resistance 2 is equal to the

distance between the centroid of the tension and compression reinforcements,

i.e., d-d,. Hence the additional moment of resistance is given by

2 = = 0.87 2

Where,

fsc = stress in compression steel

d = Distance of centroid of compression reinforcement from the maximum

compression fiber (effective cover to compression reinforcement)

Asc= Area of compression reinforcement required to resist Mu2

Ast2 = Area of additional tensile reinforcement to balance compression steel

Ast1= Area of tensile reinforcement for a balanced singly reinforced section

1. Neutral Axis:

The depth of neutral axis can be calculated by equating total force of

compression to total force of tension.

Compression force of concrete = 0.36

Compressive forces in compression steel =

Tensile force = 0.87

Equate force of Compression with Tension

+ =

Therefore, =

0.87

0.36

The ultimate Moment of resistance of doubly reinforced section is

given by:

= 1 + 2

= 0.36 0.42 +

When xu > xu,max is limited to xu,max

= 0.36 , 0.42, +

3. Area of Compression steel:

Additional moment of resistance 2 =

2

=

The maximum area of compression reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04 bD

i.e., 4% of gross cross sectional area.

108

The limiting moment of resistance of singly reinforced section is given

by:

M, = 0.87 A1 (d 0.42, )

M,

A1 =

0.87 (d 0.42, )

Additional area of tensile steel (Ast1) can be calculated by equating the

compressive force in compression steel and tensile force in additional tension

steel.

0.87 A2 = A

A

A2 =

0.87

Ast2 can also be calculated by using

M2 = 0.87 A2 (d d)

M2

A2 =

0.87 (d d)

Total area of tension steel A = A1 + A2

Stress in Compression Steel:

If sc is the strain at the level of compression steel, from the strain diagram at

failure

0.0035

=

x

x

Knowing the strain, the stress in compression steel can be obtained from

stress-strain curve of corresponding steel or from Table-A of SP-16 which is given

below

Stress level

Fe415

Fe500

Strain

Stress N/mm2

Strain

Stress N/mm2

0.80fyd

0.00144

288.7

0.00174

347.8

0.85fyd

0.00163

306.7

0.00195

369.6

0.90fyd

0.00192

324.8

0.00226

391.3

0.95fyd

0.00241

342.8

0.00277

413.0

0.975fyd

0.00276

351.8

0.00312

423.9

1.0fyd

0.00380

360.9

0.00417

434.8

109

Table 5.4 Salient points on the design stress strain curve for cold worked bars

(Table-A SP-16)

Note: Linear interpolation may be done for intermediate values

fyd = Design yield strength = 0.87fy

So fsc and xu are interrelated and cannot be found directly. Trial and error

procedure should be adopted.

For mild steel direct relation can be established between stress and strain since

the idealized stress strain curve is linear up to fy and then it is constant equal to fy

= starin x E

Substituting the value of strain and E for steel = 2x105 N/mm2

= 0.0035 (1-d/xu) 2x105

= 700(1-d/xu), subjected to a maximum of 0.87fy

Stress in Compression Steel (fsc) based on d/d :

As per SP-16, in designing doubly reinforced beam (by assuming xu= xu,max)

the following table gives the values of fsc for different values of d/d.

Grade of Steel

d'/d

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Fe415

355

353

342

329

Fe500

424

412

395

370

Table 5.5 Stress in Compression Steel (fsc) N/mm2 in Doubly Reinforced beams

with cold worked bars (Table-F in SP-16) when d/d < 0.2

For d/d < 0.2, fsc for mild steel is 0.87fy

Use of Design Aids SP-16:

SP-16 design tables 45 to 56 gives the percentage of tension and compression

reinforcement (Pt and Pc) for different ratios of (d/d) varying from 0.05 to 0.20 and

for various grades of concrete (fck= 15 to 30 N/mm2) and different grades of steel (fy=

250, 415 and 500 N/mm2) covering the moment of resistance factor (Mu/bd2) varying

from 2.24 to 8.30

110

Design of plinth beams:

Beam no's 1001, 1007, 1009,1014, 1015, 1020, 1021, and 1026

Length

3000 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

375 mm

41.037 KN-m

15.561 KN-m

41.749 KN-m

Mu

bd 2

41.037 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.97 KN/m2

Limiting moment of resistance

Mu,lim

0.138x fckxbxd2

0.138 x20x300x3752

117 KN-m

Actual moment is less than the limiting moment.

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

From linear interpolation we get the actual %pt

%pt

0.95

0.280

1.00

0.295

0.7822

0.287

Area of steel =

pt xbxd

100

100

111

322 mm2

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

322

2

4x12

2.84 ~ 3 nos

15.561 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.37 KN/m2

Mu,lim

0.138x fckxbxd2

0.138 x20x300x3752

117 KN-m

Actual moment is less than the limiting moment.

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

%pt = 0.085

Area of steel =

=

100

100

95.625 mm2

As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

230

2

4x12

2.03 ~ 3 nos

41.749 x 10 6

=

2

300x375 2

112

= 0.99 KN/m2

Limiting moment of resistance

Mu,lim

0.138x fckxbxd2

0.138 x20x300x3752

117 KN-m

Actual moment is less than the limiting moment.

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

From linear interpolation we get the actual %pt

%pt

0.95

0.280

1.00

0.295

0.92

0.292

Area of steel =

=

100

100

328 mm2

No of bars

328

2

4x12

2.90 ~ 3 nos

Beam no's 1002,1006, 1010, 1013, 1016, 1017, 1022, and 1025

Length

3700 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

375 mm

48.839 KN-m

19.181 KN-m

49.323 KN-m

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

113

48.839 x 10 6

=

bd 2

300x375 2

Mu

= 1.16 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

Percentage of steel = 0.384 %

pt xbxd

Area of steel =

100

100

389 mm2

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

389

2

4x12

3.44 ~ 4 no's

19.181 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.45 KN/m2

%pt = 0.128

Area of steel =

=

100

100

144 mm2

As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

230

2

4x12

= 2.03 ~ 3 no's

114

49.323x 10 6

=

2

300x375 2

= 1.17 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.349 %

Area of steel =

100

100

393 mm2

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

393

2

4x12

3.47 ~ 4 nos

Length

3550 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

375 mm

48.911 KN-m

17.581 KN-m

48.598 KN-m

48.911 x 10 6

=

bd 2

300x375 2

Mu

= 1.16 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

Percentage of steel = 0.346 %

Area of steel =

=

pt xbxd

100

100

389 mm2

115

No of bars

389

2

4x12

3.44 ~ 4 no's

17.581 x 10 6

=

2

300x375 2

= 0.42 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

%pt = 0.118

Area of steel =

100

100

133 mm2

=

Check for Area of steel

0.85

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

230

2

4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

48.598 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 1.15 KN/m2

percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.344 %

Area of steel =

=

100

100

387 mm2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

116

No of bars

387

2

4x12

3.42 ~ 4 nos

Length

1650 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

375 mm

35.415 KN-m

18.726 KN-m

26.626 KN-m

35.415 x 10 6

=

bd 2

300x375 2

Mu

= 0.84 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

Percentage of steel = 0.254 %

pt xbxd

Area of steel =

100

100

276 mm2

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

276

2

4x12

2.44 ~ 3 no's

18.726 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.45 KN/m2

%pt = 0.128

117

Area of steel =

100

100

142 mm2

=

Check for Area of steel

0.85

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

230

2

4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

26.626 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.63 KN/m2

percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.182%

Area of steel =

=

100

100

204 mm2

0.85

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

230

2

4x12

2.03 ~ 3 nos

Length

Cross section =

1900 mm

300x400 mm

118

Clear cover

25 mm

375 mm

32.145 KN-m

15.876 KN-m

34.632 KN-m

Mu

bd 2

32.145 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.76 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

Percentage of steel = 0.221 %

Area of steel =

=

pt xbxd

100

100

249 mm2

No of bars

249

2

4x12

2.20 ~ 3 no's

15.876 x 10 6

=

2

300x375 2

= 0.38 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

%pt = 0.107

Area of steel =

=

100

100

120 mm2

119

0.85

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

230

2

4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

34.632 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.82 KN/m2

percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.239 %

Area of steel =

=

100

100

269 mm2

No of bars

269

2

4x12

2.37 ~ 3 nos

Length

3650 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

375 mm

49.395 KN-m

19.794 KN-m

52.575 KN-m

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

120

49.395 x 10 6

=

bd 2

300x375 2

Mu

= 1.17 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

Percentage of steel = 0.350 %

pt xbxd

Area of steel =

100

100

394 mm2

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

394

2

4x12

3.38 ~ 4 no's

19.794 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.47 KN/m2

%pt = 0.134

Area of steel =

=

100

100

150 mm2

As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

230

2

4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

121

52.575 x 10 6

=

2

300x375 2

= 1.25 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.374 %

Area of steel =

100

100

421 mm2

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

421

x12 2

4

.3.72 ~ 4 nos

Length

4150 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

375 mm

59.694 KN-m

19.794 KN-m

52.575 KN-m

Mu

bd 2

59.694 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 1.41 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

Percentage of steel = 0.431 %

Area of steel =

=

pt xbxd

100

100

484 mm2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

122

No of bars

484

2

4x12

4.28 ~ 5 no's

19.794 x 10 6

300x375 2

= 0.47 KN/m2

%pt = 0.134

Area of steel =

=

100

100

150 mm2

As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

230

2

4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

52.575 x 10 6

=

2

300x375 2

= 1.25 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.374 %

Area of steel =

=

100

100

421 mm2

123

No of bars

421

2

4x12

3.72~ 4 nos

Length

2000 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

375 mm

44.458 KN-m

30.724 KN-m

45.315 KN-m

44.458 x 10 6

=

bd 2

300x375 2

Mu

= 1.05 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

Percentage of steel = 0.312 %

Area of steel =

=

pt xbxd

100

100

351 mm2

No of bars

351

2

4x12

3.10 ~ 4 no's

30.724 x 10 6

=

2

300x375 2

= 0.73 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

%pt = 0.211

124

Area of steel =

100

100

237 mm2

=

Using 12 mm dia bars

No of bars

237

2

4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

45.315 x 10 6

=

2

300x375 2

= 1.07 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415

percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.319 %

Area of steel =

=

100

100

359 mm2

No of bars

359

2

4x12

= 3.17~ 4 nos

Beam no

2001, 2007, 2009, 2014,

2015, 2022, 2023, 2030,

3001, 3007, 3009, 3014,

3015, 3022, 3023,3030,

4001, 4007, 4009, 4014,

4015, 4022, 4023, 4030,

50001, 5007, 5009, 5014,

5015, 5022, 5023, 5030

2002, 2006, 2010, 2013,

3002, 3006, 3010, 3013,

4002, 4006, 4010, 4012,

5002, 5006, 5010, 5013

Length

(m)

3.00

3.70

Position of

Max B.M

Max B.M

(KN-m)

Reinforcement

@ Start

support(-ve)

60.47

#3-16

@ Mid span

(+ve)

21.253

#3 -12

@ End

support(-ve)

60.963

#3-16

65.963

#3-16

27.412

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

@ Mid span

(+ve)

125

2019, 2026, 2027, 3003,

3011, 3012, 3018, 3019,

3026, 3027, 4003, 4011,

4012, 4018, 4019, 4026,

4027, 5003, 5011, 5012,

5018, 5019, 5026, 5027

3034, 3038,4004, 4034,

4038, 5004, 5034, 5038

4005, 4008, 5005, 5008

3016, 3021, 3024, 3029,

4016, 4021, 4024, 4029,

5016, 5021, 5024, 5029

3017, 3020, 3025, 3028,

4017, 4020, 4025, 4028,

5017, 5020, 5025, 5028

2040, 3031, 3032, 3035,

3039, 3040, 4031, 4032,

4035, 4039, 4040, 5031,

5032, 5035, 5039, 5040

2033, 2036, 2037, 2051,

3033, 3036, 3037, 3051,

3.55

1.65

1.90

0.85

2.85

3.65

2.00

@ End

support(-ve)

67.464

#3-16

@ Start

support(-ve)

83.471

#4-16

@ Mid span

(+ve)

30.701

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

81.434

#4-16

@ Start

support(-ve)

48.503

@ Mid span

(+ve)

40.553

#4-12

35.313

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

@ Start

support(-ve)

@ Mid span

(+ve)

@ End

support(-ve)

@ Start

support(-ve)

46.531

#3-16

#4-12

31.613

#3-12

48.304

#4-12

88.620

#4-16

@ Mid span

(+ve)

31.885

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

90.227

#4-16

@ Start

support(-ve)

72.414

@ Mid span

(+ve)

33.136

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

72.969

#3-16

@ Start

support(-ve)

71.746

#4-16

@ Mid span

(+ve)

28.99

#3-12

67.938

#3-16

@ End

support(-ve)

@ Start

support(-ve)

44.511

#3-16

#4-12

126

5033, 5036, 5037, 5051

3042, 3043, 4041. 4042,

4043, 5041, 5042, 5043

2044,2045, 2046, 2047,

2048, 2049, 20503044,

3045, 3046, 3047, 3048,

3049, 3050, 4044, 4045,

4046, 4046, 4047, 4048,

4049, 4050, 5044, 5045,

5046, 5047, 5048, 5049,

5050

@ Mid span

(+ve)

@ End

support(-ve)

@ Start

support(-ve)

@ Mid span

(+ve)

@ End

support(-ve)

3.50

4.15

32.654

#3-12

45.356

#4-12

60.319

#3-16

30.414

#3-12

74.234

#4-16

@ Start

support(-ve)

91.337

#4-16

@ Mid span

(+ve)

55.884

#3-16

@ End

support(-ve)

97.419

#3-16

Position of

Max B.M

Max B.M

(KN-m)

Reinforcement

@ Start

support(-ve)

24.96

#3-12

14.848

#3-12

25.236

#3-12

37.182

#3-12

Beam no

6015, 6023, 6030

Length

(m)

3.00

3.70

@ Mid span

(+ve)

@ End

support(-ve)

@ Start

support(-ve)

127

6019, 6026, 6027, 7001,

7005, 7006

7011

6040

3.55

1.65

1.90

0.85

2.85

3.65

@ Mid span

(+ve)

20.325

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

39.189

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

70.503

#3-16

@ Mid span

(+ve)

31.136

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

71.122

#3-16

@ Start

support(-ve)

34.073

#3-12

@ Mid span

(+ve)

20.634

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

21.137

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

26.206

#3-12

@ Mid span

(+ve)

13.521

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

14.139

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

49.153

#3-12

@ Mid span

(+ve)

14.921

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

49.828

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

37.860

#3-12

@ Mid span

(+ve)

22.483

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

38.337

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

44.125

#3-12

128

7010

6048, 6049, 6050

2.00

3.50

4.15

@ Mid span

(+ve)

20.730

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

27.827

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

21.499

#3-12

@ Mid span

(+ve)

11.811

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

26.053

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

17.783

#3-12

@ Mid span

(+ve)

25.230

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

32.006

#3-12

@ Start

support(-ve)

32.224

#3-12

@ Mid span

(+ve)

41.062

#3-12

@ End

support(-ve)

42.507

#3-12

The Following table shows the summary of all loads under gravity, seismic

and wind forces. Shear force acting on the member along the direction of Global Y.

The maximum shear force is acting on member no 5016 is 130.305 KN under

Ultimate load combination(12) and minimum shear force is acting on beam no 5021 is

-130.764 KN under Ultimate load combination (12).

129

130.305 KN

1.58 N/mm2

From table no 61 of SP 16

Design shear strength of concrete

c = 0.438

From table no J of SP 16

Max shear stress

As v > c shear reinforcement has to be designed

Shear resistance of concrete Vuc= c.bd = 49 KN

Vus

Vu- Vuc

81 KN

4

130

Sv =

0.87fy .Asv .d

Vus

= 151.1 mm

Max allowed spacing = 0.75d = 281.25 mm

= 300 mm whichever is less

Hence provide 2 legged 6 mm stirrups @ 150 mm c/c at ends and 2 legged 6 mm

stirrups @ 200 mm c/c

131

6. DESIGN OF COLUMN

6.1 INTRODUCTION:

Concrete is strong in compression and steel is strong in tension. Longitudinal steel

rods are always provided to assist the direct loads. A minimum area of longitudinal

steel is provided in the column, to resist tensile stresses caused by some eccentricity

of the vertical loads. There is also an upper limit of amount of reinforcement in R.C.

columns, because higher percentage of steel may cause difficulties in placing and

compacting of concrete. Longitudinal reinforcing bars are tied laterally by ties or

stirrups at suitable interval, so that the bars do not buckle.

The design of column necessitates determination of loads transferred from

beam at different floors levels. Loads are transferred from slabs to beams and then to

columns. Hence, slabs and beams are normally designed prior to the design of

columns. This method is called as Exact method which enables one to assess the loads

on columns more accurately and thereby the design of columns becomes realistic and

economical.

However, in practice, many times situations arise which require the design of

columns and footings are required to be assessed using judgment based on past

experience and using approximate methods. The loads on the columns can be

determined approximately on the basis of floor area shared by each column. These

loads are normally calculated on higher side so that they are not less than the actual

loads transferred from slabs/beams. In such cases, the design of column is likely to be

uneconomical

The design procedure using both these approaches of column load calculation

has been explained.

Design of columns involves following steps:

(1) Categorization of columns:

(a) Category I: Internal columns or Axially Loaded Columns.

(b) Category II: Side columns or Columns subjected to Axial Load

and Uniaxial Bending.

(c) Category - III: Corner Column or Columns subjected to Axial Load

and Biaxial Bending.

(2) Computation of Loads on Columns

(3) Calculation of Moments in Columns

(4) Determination of Effective Length and Type of Column Short or Long

(5) Grouping of Columns

(6) Design of Column Section

132

Categorization of columns is extremely helpful because the procedure for

design of column in each of the three categories is different.

The columns shall be first divided into the following three categories:

(I)

Internal columns carrying beams either in all four directions or only in opposite

directions are predominantly subjected to axial compression because moments

due to loads on beams on opposite sides balance each other. Judgment should be

used to place a column under this category because if span and/ or loads on

beams on opposite sides vary appreciably the beam moments on opposite sides

may not balance each other and the column will be subjected to bending

moment, and it will be required to be placed under the second category.

Structurally, these columns can be termed as Axially Loaded Columns.

Therefore, they require practically very little or no allowance in axial load.

(II)

uniaxial bending. Columns along the sides of a building, which carry beams

either in three orthogonal directions or a single beam in one direction, are

subjected predominantly to axial load and uniaxial bending due to unbalanced

opposite directions balance each other provided their spans and loads on them

are approximately equal. If such columns are to be designed as axially loaded

columns using approximate method, the axial load is required to be increased to

account for the effect of uniaxial bending in column. The load thus arrived is

called Equivalent axial load for the purpose of design of column section.

(III)

and Biaxial Bending. Corner Columns or the columns which carry beams in two

perpendicular directions are subjected to biaxial bending due to beams in

orthogonal directions. They require large increase in axial load to account for

the effect of biaxial bending for obtaining an Equivalent axial load.

compression member, the effective length of which exceeds three times the least

lateral dimension. A compression member with effective length less than three times

the least lateral dimension is called pedestal.

A column is generally defined as a member carrying direct axial load which

causes compressive stresses of such magnitude that these stresses largely control its

design. A column or strut is a compression member. Difference between columns and

strut is that column transfers the load to footing and strut transfers the load to some

other member as in case of compression members of trusses. A column is considered

as short, if its effective length to least lateral dimension is less than 12. If the ratio

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

133

carrying mainly axial load is vertical is termed as column. If the axial load is inclined

or horizontal, it is termed as strut.

Depending upon the structural or architectural requirements columns are

designed of various shapes. Columns positioning completely depends on the

architectural plan. In some cases floating columns are assigned for the architectural

requirements of the plan and to provide the necessary open space depending upon the

requirements of the architectural plan.

Types of columns shapes considered:

Circular

Rectangular

Square

Hexagonal

The unsupported length of column is taken as clear distance between ends restrains.

1. Flat slab construction:

It is clear distance between the floor and the lower extremity of the capital,

the drop panel or slab whichever is less.

FLAT SLAB

FLAT SLAB

Column

capital

C

O

L

U

M

N

C

O

L

U

M

N

FLAT SLAB

Drop

panel

C

O

L

U

M

N

2. Beam and slab construction:

In this case l is the clear distance between the floor and underside of the

shallow beam framing into the column in each direction at next higher level.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

134

BEAM

BEAM

lx

ly

3. Columns restrained laterally by struts:

In these cases unsupported length (l) is clear distance between

consecutive struts in each vertical plane, provided that two struts meet column

approximately at the same level and the angle between the vertical planes shall

not vary more than 300 from a right angle.

Strut

STRUT

Column

L

Strut

COLUMN

Plan

In this case unsupported length l shall be the clear distance between the

floor and lower edge of the bracket, provided that the bracket width equals that

of the beam or strut and at least half of the column.

135

BEAM

BEAM

BRACKET

COLUMN

Functions of longitudinal and transverse reinforcements in a column:

a.

Longitudinal reinforcement:

b.

To share the vertical load, thereby reducing the overall size of the

column

To resist tensile stresses caused in the column due to

1. Eccentric load

2. Moment

3. Transverse load

To prevent sudden brittle failure of the column

To reduce the effects of creep and shrinkage due to sustained loading.

Transverse reinforcement:

To resist diagonal tension caused due to transverse, moment.

To hold the longitudinal reinforcement in position at the time of

concreting.

To impart ductility to the column.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Column with Longitudinal steel and spirals.

Composite columns.

Based on type of loading.

Based on slenderness ratio

136

lateral ties

FIG6.6

FIG6.5

FIG6.7

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

d. Composite column

FIG6.8

137

a. Axially loaded columns: when the line of action of the resultant compressive force

coincides with center of gravity of the cross section of the column, it is called axially

loaded column.

b. Eccentricity loaded columns (uniaxial or Biaxial ) : when the line of action of

the resultant compressive force doesn`t coincide with the center of gravity of the

cross-section of the column. Eccentricity loaded columns have to be designed for

combined axial force and bending moments.

According to IS 456 clause 25.3 impose the following slenderness limits for columns:

i.

ii.

The unsupported length l shall not exceed 60 times the least lateral

dimension of the column ( l 60b ).

If in any given plane , one end of the column is unrestrained 100 2 /

With the reference from strength of materials Euler`s buckling load for

column with different end conditions works out to be form

=

2

2

2

2

idealized conditions. But when it comes to practice end conditions are never ideal.,

but in case of frame structures it is difficult to idealize ends as fixed, free or hinged.

IS 456 gives a method of determining the effective length for such cases in terms of

stiffness of members meeting at joint.

In normal usage idealized end conditions may be assumed and effective length

determined as shown from table 28 in IS 456.

138

Degree of end

restraint of

compression

members

Effectively held in

position and

restrained against

rotation in both

ends

Effectively held in

position at both

ends, restrained

against rotation at

one end

Effectively held in

position at both

ends, but not

restrained against

rotation

Effectively held in

position and

restrained against

rotation at one end,

and at other

restrained against

rotation but not

held in position

Symbol

Theoretical

Recommended

value of

value of effective

effective length length

0.50 L

0.70 L

1.00 L

1.00 L

Effectively held in

position and

restrained against

rotation at one end,

and at other

partially restrained

against rotation but

not held in position

0.65 L

0.80 L

1.00 L

1.20 L

1.50 L

139

Effectively held in

position at one end

but not restrained

against rotation,

and at other end

restrained against

rotation but not

held in position

2.00 L

2.00 L

Braced and unbraced columns

etc.

If the lateral supports are provided at the ends of the columns, the

lateral loads are borne entirely by the lateral supports. Such columns

are known as braced columns.

Where the lateral loads have to be resisted by them, in addition to

axial loads and end moments are considered as unbraced columns.

Bracing can be one direction or in more than one direction, depending

on the direction of the external loads.

A braced column is not subjected to side sway because the column is

braced in both the directions i.e. X and Y directions.

An unbraced column is subjected to side sway or lateral drift, i.e.

there is significant lateral displacement between top and bottom ends

of the column.

COMPRESSION:

1.

remains plan after deformation. This means strain at any point is

proportional to its distance from the neutral axis.

2. The relationship between compressive stress distribution in concrete

and strain in concrete is represented by stress-strain curve.

3. For design purpose, the compressive strength of concrete is assumed

to be 0.67 times of the characteristic strength. The partial safety factor

is added mc = 1.5 is added.

0.67

1.5

= 0.446 ck

140

4. The stress in reinforcement is derived from representative stressstrain curve for the type of steel used. Factor of safety 1.15 is applied

for steel

5. The maximum compressive strain in concrete in axial compression is

taken as 0.002, and is uniform in section. Hence maximum

compressive stress in concrete, assumed to be uniform across the

section is taken equal to 0.446*fck according to assumption.

Short column:

A compression member may be considered as short when both the slenderness

ratio lex/D and ley/D are less than 12, where

lex = effective length in bending with respect to major axis ( i.e. x- axis )

ley = effective length in bending with respect to major axis ( i.e. y- axis )

D = depth of the section in respect of major axis.

d = width of the section in respect of minor axis.

COMPRESSION:

Experiments on columns show that load carrying capacity ( Pu ) of an

axially loaded R.C. member at collapse is made up of ultimate strength of concrete

member (Puc ) at collapse plus the ultimate strength of steel ( Pus ) in compression.

= + = + s

c fck = fc = stress in concrete at failure, at uniform of 0.002

s fy = fs = stress in steel at failure, at uniform of 0.002

Ac = area of concrete ; As = area of steel reinforcement

When a short column is axially loaded, the strain distribution across

the section will be rectangular. At failure, the strain in concrete will be uniform at a

value of 0.002. When concrete attains a limiting strain of 0.0002, the mild steel

reinforcement may develop full design stress ( fyd = 0.87 fy ) . In general therefore

stress fs in steel reinforcement at strain of 0.002, can be taken equal to s fy, where

the value of s will depend upon the type of reinforcement as given below ;

141

Value of (s )

0.87

0.79

0.75

TABLE 6.2

Type of reinforcement

Mild steel

Fe 415

Fe 500

0.87 fy

0.79 fy

0.75 fy

Hence the load carrying capacity of a member, subjected to an axial load only, is

given by

= 0.446 + s

From IS CODE ( IS : 456-2000) adopts only the lowest value of s ( = 0.75

), which is for steel Fe 500 grade . Also the code has redesigned Pu as Puz in section

39.6 of the code, and has given the following expression in design aids ( SP : 16

1980 ).

= . + . s = . +

. .

Ac = net area of concrete = Ag As

ECCENTRRICITY:

According to IS: 456-2000, compression members are to be designed

for the minimum eccentricity of the load in two principal directions. From the clause

25.4 of the code specifies the following minimum eccentricity emin for the design of

the columns :

min =

500

30

, subject

to minimum of 20 mm

D = lateral dimension of the column in direction under consideration

Here L is in both x and y direction i.e. lx and ly

If the value of minimum eccentricity is less than or equal to 0.05 D ,

from clause 39.3 of the code permits the design of short axially loaded compression

member

by

the

equation

:

= 0.4 + 0.67 s = 0.4 +

0.67 0.4

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

142

= .

+ .

Where,

Ag = gross area of cross section = b * D for rectangular section

4

Compression members with helical reinforcement:

The code permits larger load in short compression members with

helical reinforcement because columns with helical reinforcement have greater

ductility or toughness when they are loaded concentrically or with small eccentricity.

As per code, the strength of the short compression members with helical

reinforcement shall be taken as 1.05 times the strength of similar members with lateral

ties.

Requirement:

shall not be less than

0.36

= area of core of the helically reinforced column measured to the

outside diameter of the helix =

cover

= characteristic strength of helical reinforcement but not exceeding

415 /2

Load carrying capacity of axially loaded short columns:

1. Short column with lateral ties :

The ultimate load on the short column with lateral ties, when the minimum

eccentricity does not exceed 0.005 times the lateral dimensions,

= . + .

Where,

Pu = factored axial load on column

Ac = area of concrete = gross area area of steel = Ag - Asc

Asc = area of longitudinal reinforcement

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

143

= characteristic strength of steel

2. Short column with helical reinforcement:

The strength of column with helical reinforcement shall be 1.05 times

the strength of similar columns with lateral tie, provided the ratio of volume of

helical reinforcement to the volume of the core shall not be less than

Ak = area of the core of helically reinforced column measured to the out-side

diameter of the helix.

Long columns or slender columns:

If the ratio of effective length to its least lateral dimension is more than 12 the

columns are called long columns. A column under the action of axial loads deflects

laterally causing maximum lateral deflection at the center ( ). This makes the load

eccentric at the central section of the column by a distance, subjecting a bending

moment P *

Pu

Pu

= DEFLECTION

FIG6.11

= 0 (NO DEFLECTION )

CURVE.

deflection shall be calculated by

Max =

144

May =

= effective length in respect of the major axis

b = width of the cross section

The above values may be multiplied by reduction factor

=

Where

Pu = axial load on member

Puz = 0.45 fck Ac + 0.75 fy Asc

Pu = axial load corresponding to the condition of maximum compressive strain

0.0035 in concrete and tensile strain of 0.002 in outer most layer of tension steel.

OF IS 456):

1. Longitudinal reinforcement:

a. The cross sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not be

less than 0.8 % and not more than 6 % of gross sectional area of

column.

b. In any column that has large cross sectional area that required to

support the load, the minimum percentage of steel shall be 0.8 % of

required area and not the area actually provided.

c. Minimum number of longitudinal bars to be provided is 4 for

rectangular columns and 6 for circular columns.

d. Minimum diameter of longitudinal bar is 12 mm.

e. Spacing of longitudinal bars measured along the periphery of the

column shall not exceed 300 mm.

145

2. Transverse reinforcement :

A reinforced concrete compression member shall have transverse or helical

reinforcement so disposed that every longitudinal bar nearest to the compression face

has effective lateral support against buckling. The effective lateral support is given by

transverse reinforcement either in form of circular rings capable of taking up

circumferential tension or by polygonal links (lateral ties) with internal angles not

exceeding 1350. The ends of the transverse reinforcement shall be properly anchored.

i.

Lateral ties:

a. The diameter of lateral ties shall not less than of the diameter of

largest longitudinal bar and in no case less than 6 mm.

b. The pitch of ties shall not exceed the following

ii.

Sixteen times the smallest longitudinal bar

300 mm

Helical reinforcement :

a. The diameter is same as that of lateral ties

b. The pitch of the helical reinforcement shall not be more the

following

75 mm

1/6 of core diameter of the column

c. And the pitch of helical reinforcement shall not be less than the

greatest of the following

25 mm

Three times the diameter of helical bar.

Cover:

For longitudinal reinforcing bars in a column nominal cover shall in any case

not be less than 40 mm, or less than the diameter of such bar. In case of columns

of minimum dimension of 200 mm or under, whose reinforcing bars do not exceed

12 mm, a nominal cover of 25 mm may be used. Ref (clause 26.4.2.1 of IS: 456200)

SP 16 design charts 24 to 26 shall be used for designing of axially loaded short

columns. These charts cover different grades of steel ( fy =250, 415 and 500 ) and

concrete grades

fck = 15,20,25,30,35 and 40.

In lower section of these charts Pu /Ag has been plotted against percentage of steel

( p) for different grades of concrete. If the cross-section of column is known, Pu /Ag can be calculated and reinforcement percentage can be read from the chart.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

146

Categorizations of Columns:

Cate

gory

Type

Internal Column or

Axially Loaded

II

III

Side Column or

Axially Loaded

with Uniaxial

Bending

Column Nos

Size of

column

Max Ultimate

load

22, 23, 24

300 x 500 mm

1637.006 KN

9,10,11

300 x 400 mm

818.406 KN

25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31

300 x 500 mm

1249.386 KN

300 x 400 mm

818.406 KN

1, 8, 26, 32

300 x 500 mm

790.593 KN

Corner column or

Axially Loaded

Biaxial

TABLE 6.3

Category I(a): (13,14,15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24)

Axially loaded columns

Factored axial load = 1637 KN

Breadth (B) = 300 mm

Depth (D) = 500 mm

Length (L) = 3200 mm

Gross area (Ag) = 300 x 500 = 150000 mm2

Area of concrete (Ac) = 150000- Asc

For a axially loaded short columns

Pu = 0.4 fck.Ac+0.67.fy.Asc

1637 x 103 = 0.4x20x (150000- Asc) + 0.67x 415x Asc

Asc = 1618.21 mm2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

147

= 0.008 x 300 x 500 = 1200 mm2

Max reinforcement = 6% of gross area

= 0.06 x300 x500 = 9000 mm2

Provide 10 bars of 16 mm dia.

Lateral ties

Diameter of lateral ties should not be less than

1. one fourth of longitudinal bar =

1

4

x16 = 4 mm

2. 6 mm

Hence, adopt 6 mm diameter of bars

Pitch of the lateral ties shall be minimum of:

1. Least of the lateral dimension = 300 mm

2. 16 x dia of longitudinal bar 16 x 16 = 256 mm

3. 300 mm

Provide 6 mm lateral ties @ 250 mm c/c

Category I(b): (9,10,11)

Factored axial load = 818.406 KN

Breadth (B) = 300 mm

Depth (D) = 400 mm

Length (L) = 3200 mm

Gross area (Ag) = 300 x 400 = 120000 mm2

Area of concrete (Ac) = 120000- Asc

For a axially loaded short columns

Pu = 0.4 fck.Ac+0.67.fy.Asc

818.406 x 103 = 0.4x20x (120000- Asc) + 0.67x 415x Asc

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

148

Min reinforcement = 0.8 % of gross area

= 0.008 x 300 x 400 = 960 mm2

Max reinforcement = 6% of gross area

= 0.06 x300 x400 = 7200 mm2

Provide 10 bars of 12 mm dia.

Lateral ties

Diameter of lateral ties should not be less than

1. one fourth of longitudinal bar =

1

4

x12 = 3 mm

2. 6 mm

Hence, adopt 6 mm diameter of bars

Pitch of the lateral ties shall be minimum of:

1. Least of the lateral dimension = 300 mm

2. 16 x dia of longitudinal bar 16 x 12 = 192 mm

3. 300 mm

Provide 6 mm lateral ties @ 250 mm c/c

Category III:

Axial load (Pu) = 790.593 KN

About X

KN-m

About Y

KN-m

15.79

7.12

Eccentric Moments

15.81

18.24

15.81

18.24

Initial Moments

TABLE 6.4

Mx = 15.79 KN-m

My = 7.21 KN-m

Column size = 300 mm X 500 mm

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

149

M20 Fe415

Assume clear cover = 40 mm

Assume dia. Of main steel = 12 mm

Dia. Of link = 8 mm

Therefore effective cover = 40+8+ 12/2 = 54 mm

Assume % steel as p = 1.2 %

Emin.x = L/500 + d/30

= 3200 /500 + 500/30

= 23.066 mm

Emin.y= L/500 + d/30

= 3200/500 + 300/30

= 16.4 mm

P/fck = 1.2/20 = 0.06

Pux

[Ac= Ag - Asc

= [(300 x 500) (0.012 x 300 x 500)]

=148200 mm2]

= [(0.45 x 20 x 148200) + (0.75 x 415 x 1800)]

=1894.04 KN

P

P

=0.417

n= 1.36

For bending about X-axis

d' /d = 54/500 = 0.108

Selecting appropriate chart- 44 for d/d = 0.1 from SP-16

Mu

f ck bd 2

= 0.081

For bending about y-axis

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

150

Selecting appropriate chart from SP-16

Mu

f ck db 2

= 0.075

M ux

M ux 1

M uy

M uy 1

= 0.11 < 1

Reinforcement

Asc = 1800 mm2

Assuming 16 mm bars,

Hence provide # 8-16 mm bars

Lateral ties

Provide lateral ties of dia 6 mm

Provide # 6 mm bars @ 250 mm c/c

Schedule of columns:

category

Cross section

Longitudinal

reinforcement

300 x 500 mm

10-16

300 x 400 mm

10-12

300 x 500 mm

8-16

300 x 400 mm

8-12

300 x 500 mm

8-16

II

III

Lateral ties

(2 Legged)

6 250 C/C

6 250 C/C

6 250 C/C

TABLE 6.5

151

7. DESIGN OF FOOTINGS

A Building is generally composed of super structure above the

ground and sub-structure, which forms the foundation below ground. The safe bearing

capacity of the soil must not be exceeded; otherwise settlement may occur, resulting

in damage to building and its facility ex. gas mains, water etc

It is important to have an engineer survey made of soil under a

proposed structure so that variation in strata and soil properties can be determined.

The design of foundation ,the areas of bases in contact with ground should be such

that the safe bearing pressure will not be exceeded ,If these loads are to properly

transmitted ,footing must be designed to prevent excessive settlement or rotation, and

provide safety against sliding, overturning.

Foundation or footing is an important part of the structure which transfer the

load of the super- structure to the foundation soil .It may be shallow or deep footing,

depending upon the load and type of foundation soil.

Example: if the soil with adequate bearing capacity at reasonable depth; then shallow

footing is provided.

If,

Shallow foundation

If,

Deep foundation

Footings are classified as follows;

Isolated footing

Combined footing

Strap footing

Mat footing

152

1) Isolated footing:

Footing which are provided under each column independently is

called isolated footing. It may be square, rectangle, or circular in plan. Its

comprised of thick slab which may be flat or stepped or sloped as shown in

fig..

P

P

P

FLAT

Stepped

Slopped

2) Combined footing:

Footing that supports two or more columns is combined footing. These

may be rectangular or trapezoidal in shape, as shown in fig. This type of footing

is provided when isolated footing of adjacent columns overlap each other and

when exterior column close to boundary line.

P1

P2

P1

P2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

153

3) Strap footing:

It is also one of the types of combines footing. It consists of an

isolated footing of two columns connected by beam called strap beam.

P1

P2

Connecting beam

Cantilever slab

4) Mat footing:

It is a solid re-in forced concrete slab covering entire area beneath the

structure and supporting all the columns. When the column loads are heavy or the safe

bearing capacity of soil is very low, the required footing area become very large and

the footing of adjacent column may overlap. In such case, for all the columns a

common footing may be provided.

154

Rankins formula is used to determine the min. depth of foundation which is

given below,

(1 ) 2

(1+ )

Where,

h = Min depth

p = Safe bearing capacity

w = Unit weight of soil

= Angle of friction of soil

Loads for foundation:

For,

a) Dead load + Imposed load case, 1.0 DL + 1.0 IL

b) Dead load + Wind load case, 1.0 DL +1.0 WL

c) Dead + Imposed + Wind load case, 1.0 DL + 0.8 DL + 0.8WL

10% of load from column may take as self-weight of footing for determining

the area of footing required.

In case of multi-storey Building, one should take advantage of allowable

reduction in the live load for residential and office buildings

General design requirements for footing (IS 456-2000):

I.

In reinforcement and plain concrete footing, the min. thickness at the edges shall be

taken as given below.

For footing on soil 150 mm

For footing on piles 300 mm

II.

the section a vertical plane which extends completely across the footing, and

computing the moment of forces acting over entire area of footing on one side of said

plane. The critical section for determination of bending moment shall be as follows.

155

i.

At the face of the column, pedestal or wall, for footing supporting concrete

column, pedestal or wall

ii. Halfway b/w the center-line and edge of the wall, for footings under masonry

walls

iii. Halfway b/w the face of the column or pedestal and the edge of the gusseted

base, for footing under gusseted bases

III. Shear:

The shear strength of footing is governed by the more serve of the

following 2 conditions.

For one way or beam action, the critical section for shear shall be assumed as a

vertical section located from face of the column. i.e. {pedestal or wall at a

dist. Equal to effective depth for footing on soil and dist. equal to half effective

depth in case of footing on piles}.

For 2 way action of the footing, the critical section for shear shall be at a dist.

Of D/2 from the periphery of the column perpendicular to the plane of the

slab.{where d = effective depth of section}

IV.

Bond:

The critical section for checking the development length in a footing shall

be assumed at the same planes as those prescribed for bending moment and also at

other planes where minimal changes of section occur.

Tensile reinforcement:-

V.

obtained in (II) above. The total tensile reinforcement shall be distributed across

the corresponding resisting section as given below;

a.

b.

uniformly across the full width of footing.

In Two ways reinforced rectangular footing, the reinforcement in the long

direction is placed uniformly across the full width of the footing. For

reinforcement in short direction ,a central band equal to the width of footing

shall be marked along the length of the footing and portion of reinforcement

determined in accordance with the equation given below shall be uniformly

distributed across the central band.

= (

2

+1

156

footing as shown in fig.

L

ee

End Band

Central band

FIG7.5

)

End band

VI.

transferred by bearing to the top of the supporting footing. The bearing pressure

on the loaded area shall not exceed the permissible bearing stress in direct

compression multiplied by value equal to

P

Column

A2 = loaded area at the column face.

Footing

A1= Max. Area of supporting surface

2d

2d

A2

157

Min. reinforcement:-

VII.

solid slab. Min. dia of bar to be used is 10 mm.

Nominal cover to reinforcement:-

VIII.

Column Bar

Development length of column bars

Dowel

Bars

The Footing for an axially loaded column is designed as an inverted

cantilever slab projecting from column and loaded with uniform upward soil pressure.

These are usually square or rectangular in shape. They may have uniform thickness

throughout or may have sloping surface.

1) Size of the Footing:

Size of the footing is determined based on service loads or working loads and not

the factored loads. Take 10% of the load as self-weight.

Area of the footing required;

=

Where

1.1

P = working load

=

1.5

=

158

Calculate the depth required for bending moment and check the depth

for single shear and double shear. The depth is kept uniform. If the footing size is

small and is made slopping, if the footing is large.

The maximum bending moment is calculate at the face of the column

by passing a section extends completely across the footing as shown in fig.

)

b

B-b / 2

b

aa

B

Qu

FIG7.8 CRITICAL SECTION OF BENDING MOMENT

Projection of the footing =

()

2

2

2

Mu =

.( 2 )2

2

()2

8

Mu = 0.87 (1

Using the bars of dia not less than 10 mm, find the spacing of bars.

Spacing =

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

159

B = width of the footing

D = effective depth of footing

NOTE: - Provide same reinforcement in both directions.

5) Check for one way shear:

The check for one way shear is carried out similar to that of beams or

slabs. The critical section for one way shear is at a distance d from the column

extending the full width of the footing as shown in fig.

B

Vu = soil pressure from the shaded area

= Qu B

=

Vu

bd

Bb

2

(B-b/2)-d

B

b

FIG7.9

6) Check for Two way shear:

Two way shears is also known as Punching shear. if the footing

depth is less, the column may punch through the footing because of the shear

stresses in the footing around the perimeter of the column. As per IS 456-2000,the

critical section for two way shear is at a distance d/2 from the periphery of the

column as shown in the fig.

Perimeter of the punching area = 4(b+d)

Area of concrete resisting punching force = perimeter of punching x depth

A=4 b+d d

Force of punching S = Qu shaded area

= [2 - ( + )2 ]

Punching shear stress,

Permissible value of punching shear stress is

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

p =0.25

.

160

d/2

d/2

d/2

b+d

d/2

b+d

B

FIG7.10 Critical section of two way shear

7) Check for bond length:

Since the footing is designed as a cantilever with reinforcement

subjected to deigned strength at the column face, sufficient bond length should be

available from the face of the column.

Ld =

0.87fy

4 bd

The compressive stress in concrete at the base of the column is

transferred by bearing to the top of the supporting footing; the bearing pressure on

the loaded area shall not exceed the permissible bearing stress.

Actual bearing pressure =

<

=0.45

Where,

1

2

, in which

1

2

161

In case of rectangular footing, footing is provided when the

boundary line restricts one side of the footing. In such cases the projections of the

footing will be unequal. The dimensions of the footing are proportional in the same

ration of column dimensions. The depth of footing is to be calculated based on longer

projection. Reinforcement has to be designed for both the directions separately. The

reinforcement in the long direction is placed uniformly across the full width of the

footing. But in short direction, the reinforcement is distributed as explained in above

(5).the critical sections for bending and shear.

Critical section

(a)

For bending

a+d

B-b / 2

B

b

d/2

d

b

L-a/2

d/2

(b)

FIG7.11 critical section for one way shear; FIG7.12critical section for two way shear

Bending moment along longer direction = M1 = Q u

B(La)2

()2

8

The maximum B.M shall be taken for calculating the depth of footing. The

depth calculated should be checked for one way shear and two way shear similar to

that of square/isolated footing.

The following are the reactions of nodes/columns obtained from

STAAD PRO. Footings of the columns having same sizes and variation of loads of

about 10% are grouped together and designed for the maximum load in that group.

162

b+d

NODES

Fx (KN)

Fy (KN)

Fz (KN)

Mx (KNm)

My (KNm)

Mz (KN-m)

16.254

739.600

24.614

31.044

0.229

9.252

16.191

1046.546

22.836

22.386

0.255

13.294

16.392

1146.586

13.988

16.481

0.193

27.988

15.314

834.852

23.547

19.712

0.288

33.174

20.698

681.782

13.669

12.918

0.128

18.742

28.706

960.644

13.785

14.3

0.170

25.731

12.083

1039.918

22.933

28.382

0.080

15.051

5.696

749.144

25.288

32.406

0.106

14.775

2.826

770.377

18.641

16.520

0.153

12.038

10

16.323

665.521

8.274

10.354

0.087

14.016

11

10.261

818.406

14.191

12.940

0.067

15.740

12

16.470

838.848

20.098

29.327

0.129

9.106

13

16.524

1178.568

15.828

24.937

0.185

12.937

14

15.173

1212.995

28.885

23.043

0.150

27.362

15

13.614

1637.006

22.396

33.776

0.065

13.704

16

17.264

1239.291

21.983

18.184

0.127

26.632

17

11.970

1180.815

15.879

26.009

0.058

14.999

18

5.750

842.925

21.148

31.041

0.092

14.831

19

17.832

903.807

23.072

31.145

0.085

9.309

20

21.037

1225.531

19.100

15.719

0.116

27.221

21

17.198

1361.846

22.471

19.967

0.162

27.370

22

13.826

1586.945

26.535

35.947

0.068

13.791

23

17.147

1367.383

18.648

16.853

0.103

27.433

24

17.231

1225.577

19.854

16.375

0.398

29.104

25

6.348

906.918

24.121

32.666

0.145

15.649

163

26

17.284

788.709

7.832

22.196

0.076

9.110

27

21.470

986.219

4.293

6.199

0.105

26.112

28

16.008

1056.792

6.420

9.360

0.268

26.894

29

14.089

1249.386

10.368

26.330

0.088

13.121

30

17.391

1201.954

5.169

7.041

0.137

26.234

31

16.685

1020.677

4.528

6.523

0.343

27.889

32

6.211

790.593

8.410

23.730

0.395

15.087

Group

Column Nos

1, 8, 26, 32

II

27, 28, 29, 30, 31

Size of column

Max Ultimate

load

300 x500 mm

790.593 KN

1249.386 KN

300 x500 mm

III

23, 24

300 x500 mm

1637.006 KN

IV

5,9,10,11

300 x 400 mm

818.406 KN

164

Step

1.

2.

3.

Design calculations

Group I

Group II

Group III

Group IV

General Data

Max column load Pu

KN

Design working load (P)=Pu/1.5 KN

Column section (b x D) mm x mm

S.B.C of soil

KN/m2

790.593

527.062

300 x 500

200

1249.386

832.924

300 x 500

200

1637.006

1091.133

300 x 500

200

818.406

545.604

300 x 400

200

2.64

2.88

1.80

1.60

0.650

4.16

4.83

2.30

2.10

0.90

5.46

5.75

2.50

2.30

1.00

2.64

3.06

1.80

1.70

0.70

189

172

190

178

kN-m

17.40

40.16

59.31

19.66

kN-m

15.46

36.67

54.57

18.57

mm

62.77

121

147

84

360

470

470

360

410

520

520

410

135

242

361

155

0.205

0.205

0.205

0.205

431

12

557

12

554

16

425

12

200

180

180

200

Area of footing required

Af =Pu/SBC

m2

Area of footing provided

m2

Length of footing

Lf

m

Breadth of footing

Bf

m

Projection from column face (Cx) m

Net upward soil pressure

wu=Pu/ Af KN/m2

Depth of footing required from

B.M consideration

w B Cx 2

MuL =

8

w L Cx 2

MuB =

Depth d =

0.138. .

Effective depth d

mm

4.

Total depth

mm

Reinforcement along:

(Ast )y=

0.5 f ck

fy

4.6

.. 2

1

xBxd mm2

(0.85 x100)/fy

Min Ast

mm2

Diameter of bars

mm

Spacing of bars, S= (astx B)/Ast

mm

c/c

in both directions

165

5.

critical section for one way shear is

at a distance d from the face of the

column

Factored shear force

Vu = wuBf(Cx-d)

KN

Nominal shear stress

V

v = N/mm2

Bd

Percentage of steel,

Pt =

85

183

235

105

0.148

0.162

0.221

0.174

0.157

0.157

0.237

0.157

0.260

0.260

0.332

0.260

safe

safe

safe

Safe

3040

3480

3480

2840

1094.4x103

1635.6 x

103

1635.6 x

103

1022.4 x

103

423

0.389

706

0.440

952

0.598

458

0.459

1.118

1.118

1.118

1.118

safe

safe

safe

safe

ast x 100

Sxd

c >v

Hence it is safe with respect to one

way shear.

6.

critical section is at a distance of

d/2 from the face of the column.

Perimeter of the critical section

=2{(b+d)+(D+d)}

Area of critical section

(A)=Perimeter x d

Two way shear Vu2= wu x area of

shaded portion= {(LxB(b+d)x(D+d)}

Two way shear stress = Vu2/A

Permissible punching shear stress

p=0.25

Two way shear is less than the

permissible punching shear stress,

hence, it is safe w.r.t two way shear.

166

Astx

Group

Length

Lf m

Breadth

Bf m

D mm

d mm

1.80

1.60

410

II

2.30

2.10

III

2.50

IV

1.80

Asty

Clear

cover

(mm)

Dia

spacing

Dia

spacing

360

12

200

12

200

50

520

470

12

180

12

180

50

2.30

520

470

16

180

16

180

50

1.70

410

360

12

200

12

200

50

167

8. DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

8.1 INTRODUCTION:

Stairs are provided in a building to afford a means of communication

between the various floors, they are called staircase. Since they have to

perform the very important function, the slab over which the steps rests should

be designed properly to provide maximum comfort, easy and safety.

Staircase provides access for the various floors of the building. The

stair consists of series of steps with landings at appropriate intervals. The

stretch between the two landings is called flight. The room or space where

stairs are provided is called stair case.

The width of stair depends up on the type of building in which it is

provided. Generally in residential buildings, the width of stair is kept as 1 m

and in case of public buildings it may be up to 2 m. to allow free flow of users,

the width of landings should be at least equal to the width of stairs.

Each step has one tread (going) and one rise. Rise and tread are

proportioned so as to provide convenient and easy access. The rise may vary

from 150 mm to 200 mm. the tread is in between 250 mm to 300 mm. as per

IS: 456, the slope or pitch of the stairs should be in between 250 to 400.

The most important aspect in providing staircase is its location. The

location of stair should be such as to provide as easy access so that in case of

any causality, e.g. fire break, earth, food etc. occupation should be placed in

the center or to the side of a building. The location depends upon the position

of the rooms ant type of approach needed. In residential buildings, it should

be placed centrally so as to:

1. Provide easy access from all rooms,

2. Maintain privacy.

3. In public building, the staircase should be located near the main entrance.

Depending up on the geometry/shape:

The stair cases are classified into the following categories depending up on the

geometry.

168

1. Single Flight Stair Case:

This type of stair is used in cellars or where the height between the

floors is small and the frequency of its use is less.

2. Quarter Turn Stair Case:

In this stair case, flights run adjoining the walls and provide

uninterrupted space at the centre of the room. Generally, quarter turn stair

case is used in domestic houses where floor heights are limited to 3 m.

3. Doglegged Stair Case:

The most common type of stair arranged with two adjacent flights

running parallel with a mid-landing. Where space is less, dog legged stair

case is generally provided resulting in economical utilization of available

space

4. Open Well Stair Case:

In public buildings where large spaces are available, open well stair

case is generally preferred due to its better accessibility, comfort and

ventilation due to its smaller flights with an open well at the center.

5. Geometrical Stair Case:

It is aesthetically superior compared to other types and is generally

used in the entrance of cinema theatres and shopping malls.

6. Spiral Stair Case:

In congested locations, where space available is small, spiral stairs are

ideally suited. It comprises a central post with precast treads anchored to

the central column.

Based on Structural Behavior (support condition):

The stirs are classified into the following categories depending up on

the structural behavior.

1. Stairs Spanning Horizontally (with Side Supports):

When the stair slab (waist slab) is supported on sides by side

walls or by a stringer beam on one side and wall on other side, the stars

are said to be spanning horizontally. Hence, each step behaves as an

independent simply supported beam spanning horizontally

Sometimes cantilever steps are used which projects from inclined

beam (stringer beam). Steps may cantilever on only one side or may

both side of supporting inclined beam. In such stairs, design of steps is

done as a cantilever.

2. Stairs Spanning Longitudinally (with supports along sloping line):

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

169

In this type, the inclined stair slab together with the landings is

supported (on walls or beams along sloping line) at the top and bottom

of the flight without any support on the sides. Dog legged, open well and

quarter turn stair cases comes under this category.

A well planned and designed stair should provide an easy, quick and

safe mode of communication between the various floors. The general

requirements of a stair are given below:

1. Location:

It should be so located that sufficient light and ventilation is ensured

on the stair case. If possible it should be located centrally so as to be easy

accessible from the different corners of the building.

2. Width of Stair Case:

Width of stair case varies with the situation and the purpose for which

it is provided. Obviously in a building where there is a regular traffic of

people using the stair case its width should be sufficient while in a

residential building it may be the just minimum. The widths of stair case

for public building normally vary between 1.5 to 2.0 m. For residential

building a width of 900 mm to 1000 mm is considered adequate.

3. Length of Flight:

For the comfortable ascend of a stairway to stair the number of steps

in a flight should be restricted to a maximum of 12 and a minimum of 3.

4. Pitch of Stair:

The pitch of long stair should be made flatter by introducing landing to

make ascend less tiresome and less dangerous. In general the slope of stair

should never exceed 40 degrees and should not be flatter than 25 degrees.

5. Head Room:

The head room or clear distance between the tread and the off it of the

flight immediately above it should not be less than 2.13 m.

6. Materials:

The stair should preferably construct of materials, which possess fire

resisting qualities.

7. Balustrade:

The open well stairs should provide with balustrade so as to minimize

the danger of accidents.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

170

8. Landing: The width of landing should not be less than width of stair.

9. Winders:

The introduction of winders in stairs should be provided as far

as possible. They are liable to be dangerous and involve extra expenses in

construction. They are difficult to carpet and are especially unsuitable for

public buildings. However, where the winders cannot be dispensed with, they

should preferably be provided near the lower end of flight. Thus instead of

quarter space landing three winders may be used and for a half/space landing 5

winders and four radiating risers may be adopted.

10. Step Proportions:

The rise and tread of each step in a stair should be uniform dimension

throughout. The ratio of going and the rise of a step should so proportioned as

to ensure a comfortable access of the stair way.

1. Depth of the Section:

The depth of the section shall be taken as the minimum thickness

perpendicular to the soffit of the stairs.

2. Effective Span:

(a) If supported at top and bottom risers by beams spanning parallel

with risers, the effective span is the distance between the centre to

centre of beams

(b) If landing slab spans in the same directions as the stairs, they shall

be considered as acting together to form a single slab. The effective

span is the distance centre to centre of the supporting beams or

walls, the going being measured horizontally.

(c) When spanning on to the edge of a landing slab, which spans

parallel with the rises, the effective span of the stairs depend upon

the width x and y of landing.

171

TABLE 8.1

X

Span

<1m

< 1m

G+X+Y

<1m

> 1m

G+X+1

> 1m

<1m

G+Y+1

>1m

>1m

G+1+1

3. Loads on Stairs:

Live loads:

Stairs are prescribed in IS: 875 which is given per unit horizontal area.

Generally the following values of live loads on stairs may be taken.

(a) 5 KN/m2, if crowded.

(b) 3 KN/m2, if not crowded.

Dead loads:

These are to be calculated per unit horizontal area. If T, R and D are tread, rise

and thickness of waist slab in m, then the dead load can be calculated as given below.

(a) Weight of waist slab per unit horizontal area

2 + 2

x25 = D 1 + [ ]2 x25

1 =

w2 =

1

xRxTx

2

25

1

2

xRx25

Where R in meter

Providing load (0.5 to 1 KN/m2) may be added to the above values

4. Distribution of Loading on the Stairs:

In case of stairs with open wells, where spans cross at right angles, the load on

areas common to any two such spans may be taken as one half in each direction.

172

LONGITUDINALLY:

1. Determine the effective span of the stairs as explained before

2. Assume the thickness of waist slab based on stiffness. Span/thickness ratio can be

selected in the range of 20 to 25.

3. Determine the load wu per meter length on waist slab, which includes the weight of

waist slab, weight of step and live load.

Weight of waist slab per meter length D 1 + (R T)2 x 25

1

2

w u l2

8

5. Determine the minimum depth required to resist the bending moment by equating

Mu = Mu,lim = k fck bd2

b = 1000 mm, k = 0.138 for Fe415 steel & 0.148 for mild steel

Provided depth should be more than this value. Otherwise increase the depth.

6. Calculate the area of steel per meter width of slabs by using

Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d[1

fy Ast

]

fck bd

S=

1000xast

Ast

Ast = total area of steel required

8. Providing distribution reinforcement perpendicular to the span direction at 0.12%

(for HYSD bars) of gross cross sectional area find the spacing of these bars. If mild

steel bars are used, provide 0.15% of gross cross sectional area as distribution steel.

173

For stairs spanning horizontally, the waist slab is supported on sides by side

walls or by a stringer beam on one side and wall on other side. Hence, each step

behaves as an independent simply supported beam spanning horizontally. For design

purpose each step is considered as a rectangular beam of width b and effective depth

D/2.

Where, b =

R2 + T 2

R.T

consists of one rod in each step and distribution reinforcement is provided

perpendicular to the direction of spanning.

LONGITUDINALLY:

1. Assume the thickness of waist slab based on stiffness.

Span/thickness ratio can be selected in the range of 20 to 25.

2. Determine the dimensions of equivalent beam as follows.

b=

R.T

3. Determine the load wu on each step per meter width (span direction), which

includes the weight of waist slab, weight of step and live load.

Weight of waist slab = t.b.25KN/m

1 R. T. 25 KN/m

Weight

of

step

per

meter

width

=

2

4. Determine the maximum bending moment M =

w l2

8

equating

M = M, = k. 2

Where, k = 0.138 for Fe415 steel & 0.148 for mild steel

Provided depth should be more than this value. Otherwise increase depth.

6. Calculate the area of steel by using

M = 0.87 A [1

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A

]

.

174

%( for HYSD bars) of gross cross sectional area and find the spacing of these

bars. If mild steel bars are used, provide 0.15% of gross area as distribution

steel.

Width of staircase

1000 mm

= 3200 mm

Live load

= 3 KN/2

Let,

Riser (R)

= 160 mm

Tread (T)

= 250 mm

sec =

250 2 +160 2

250 2

3200

160

= 1.1877

= 20

No. of Treads per Flight

= 10 1 = 9

Therefore,

Going = 250 x 9 = 2250 mm

Assuming, width of landing at end = 800 mm

Flight I is supported on beam

a) Mid-landing level

Total span L = 2250 + 800 + 300 = 3350 mm {Horizontally}

Design of Flight I:

Type one way single span simply supported inclined slab.

L = 3350 mm ~ 3.35 m

Trial depth of waist slab

Basic

ratio = 20

Assuming = 0.4%

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

175

Modification factor

456:2000}

3350

1.32 20

= 130 mm

D = 130 + 20 = 150 mm

Loads:

= 4.45 KN/2

Weight of steps = 25

R

2

= 2 KN/2

= 25 x 0.16 / 2

= 5 KN/2

Live load

= 1 KN/2

Floor finish

Total working load

12.45 KN/2

Mu =

2

8

18.68 x 3.35 2

8

= 26.20 KN.m

= 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x 1302

= 46.64 KN-m

Mu max > Mu Safe

Main Steel:

Required area of steel Ast =

0.5 x 20

4.5

4.6 x 26.20 x 10 6

20 x 1000 x 130 2

x 1000 x 130

= 619.66 m2

176

Assuming, 10 mm Bars

ast =

x 102 = 78.57 m2

Spacing:

A st

a st

X 1000 =

78.57

619.66

x 1000 = 126 mm

Therefore,

Provide # 10 mm @ 120 mm c/c

Ast Provided = 654.762 m2

Distribution Steel:

For, Fe415

Ast =

0.12

100

Pt = 0.12%

Ast Provided = 182 m2

Design of Flight II:

Same as flight I

177

MODULE II

10.1 Introduction:

Structural steel has been used in the construction of structures for well over a

century. It is perhaps the most versatile of structural materials and has been used

extensively in the construction of multi-storeyed buildings, railways, bridges,

industrial structures, transmission towers, overhead tanks, chimneys, bunkers, silos,

etc.,

In many situations, lighter steel structures are invariably preferred to the

heavier alternatives such as reinforced concrete or pre-stressed concrete. The main

advantages of steel structures are its intrinsic strength, prefabrication and quicker

transportability to the work site and faster erection. Steel structures can be easily

dismantled without loss to the integrity of the original structure. Most structural steel

units are prefabricated in a workshop with superior quality control compared to in situ

construction.

Tolerances specified for steel structural components during fabrication and

erection are small compared to similar reinforced concrete structures. Steel also plays

an important role in composite construction in conjunction with reinforced and prestressed concrete structures.

The advantages of steel members are as follows:

1. The steel members have high strength. Therefore, the steel members can resist

high loads with comparatively light weight and small size of members. The

steel members can be conveniently handled and transported because of their

small size.

2. The steel members are gas and water-tight, because of high density of steel.

3. The steel members have long service life. This is because of high and

homogeneous strength and density properties of steel.

4. The steel members can be used as pre-fabricated members, because of ease of

handling, fabrication and erection.

5. The steel members can be readily disassembled or replaced.

6. The existing steel structures and structural components may be strengthened

by connecting additional sections or planes.

7. The steel structures may be inspected quickly and conveniently.

The disadvantages of steel members are as follows:

1. The steel members are susceptible to corrosion. The corrosion necessitates

their painting or the use of other methods of their protection.

2. The steel members are costly.

178

Structural Steel:

The structural steel is the steel used for the manufacture of rolled structural

steel sections, fastenings and other elements for use in structural steel works. This

material steel is an alloy of iron and carbon (small percentage) and other elements in

varying percentages. The strength, hardness and brittleness of steel increase and

ductility of steel decreases with the increase of percentage of carbon. Depending on

the chemical composition, the different type of steels are classified as mild steel,

medium carbon steel, high carbon steel, low alloy steel and high alloy steel. The mild

steel, medium carbon steel and low alloy steel are generally used for steel structures.

The copper bearing quality of steel contains small percentage of copper contents. The

corrosive resistance of such steel is increased.

1. Mild steel: The mild steel is used for the manufacture of rolled structural steel

sections, rivets and bolts. Following operations can be done easily on mild

steel :

1. Cutting

2. Punching

3. Drilling

4. Machining

5. Welding

6. Forging when heated

The mild steel cannot be used for manufacture of cutting tools.

All structural steels used in general construction, coming within the

preview of IS: 800-84 shall, before fabrication, comply with one of the

following Indian Standard Specifications.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

IS: 1977- 1975 structural steel (ordinary quality)

IS: 2062- 1984 weldable structural steel

IS: 961- 1975 structural steel ( high tensile)

IS: 8500- 1977 weldable structural steel (medium and high strength

qualities)

The steel sections manufactured in rolling mills and used as structural

members are known as rolled structural steel sections. The steel sections are named

according to their cross- sectional shapes. Many steel structures are readily available

in the market and have frequent demand. Such sections are known as regular steel

sections. Some steel sections are rarely used. The special requisition and are known as

special sections.

179

weight and geometrical properties of various rolled structural steel sections. This

handbook also gives other additional data required by the designers and architects.

The various types of rolled structural steel sections manufactured and used as

structural members are given below:

1. Rolled Steel I Sections

2. Rolled Steel Channel Sections

3. Rolled Steel Tee Sections

4. Rolled Steel Angle Sections

5. Rolled Steel Bars

6. Rolled Steel Tubes

7. Rolled Steel Flats

8. Rolled Steel Sheets and Strips

9. Rolled Steel Plates

10.2.1 ROLLED STEEL BEAM (I)SECTIONS

The rolled steel beams are classified into the following four series as per BIS:

(IS: 808- 1989)

a. Indian Standard Junior Beams-------------------------ISJB

b. Indian Standard Light Beams -------------------------ISlB

c. Indian Standard Medium Weight Beams-------------ISMB

d. Indian Standard Wide Flange Beams-----------------ISWB

The rolled steel columns/heavy weight beams are classified into the following

two series as per BIS (IS: 808-1989)

1. Indian Standard Column Sections--------------------ISSC

2. Indian Standard Heavy Weight Beams---------------ISHB

The cross-section of a rolled steel beam has been given below. The

beam section consists of web and two flanges. The junction between the flange and

the web is known as fillet. These hot rolled steel beam sections have sloping flanges.

The outer and inner faces are inclined to each other and they interest at an angle

varying from to 80 depending on the section and rolling mill practice. The angle of

intersection of ISMB section is 80. Abbreviated reference symbols (JB, LB, MB, WB,

SC and HB) have been used in designating the Indian Standard Sections as per BIS

(IS: 808-1989)

180

10.2.2 ROLLED STEEL CHANNEL SECTIONS

The rolled steel channel sections are classified in the following four series as per

ISI:

1.

Indian Standard Junior Channels----------------------------ISJC

2.

Indian Standard Light Channels-----------------------------ISLC

3.

Indian Standard Medium Weight Channels----------------ISMC

4.

Indian Standard Medium Weight Parallel -----------------ISMCP

Flange Channels

The cross-section of rolled steel channel section been shown below. The

channel section consists of web and two flanges. The junction between the flange

and the web is known as fillet.

Note: As per IS: 808-1989, following channel sections have also been additionally

adopted as Indian Standard Channel Sections

1.

parallel flanges

181

2.

3.

4.

Medium weight channels with parallel flanges---------ISMCP

Indian Standard Gate Channels---------------------------ISPG

In MC and MCP channel sections, some heavier sections have been

developed for their intended use in wagon building industry. The method of

designating MC and MCP channels is also same as that for IS-channels described

above.

10.2.3 ROLLED STEEL TEE SECTIONS

The rolled steel tee sections are classified into the following five series as per

ISI:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Indian Standard Wide flange Tee Bars-------------ISHT

Indian Standard Long Legged Tee Bars------------ISST

Indian Standard Light Tee Bars---------------------ISLT

Indian Standard Junior Tee Bars--------------------ISJT

The cross-section of a rolled steel tee section has been shown above. The tee

section consists of web and flange. The junction between the flange and the web is

known as fillet.

Note: As per IS: 808-1984, following T-sections have also been additionally

adopted as Indian Standard T-sections.

1.

2.

3.

Indian Standard Slit medium weight Tee bars------------ISMT

Indian Standard Slit Tee bars from I-sections-------------ISNT

It is to note that as per IS: 808- 1978 (part II), H beam sections have been deleted.

10.2.4 ROLLED STEEL ANGLE SECTIONS

The rolled steel angle sections are classified into the following three series.

1. Indian Standard Equal Angles---------------ISA

2. Indian Standard Unequal Angles------------ISA

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

182

The cross-section of a rolled equal angle section has been shown

above, unequal angle section and that of bulb angle section. The lengths of the legs

in case of equal sections are equal and in case of unequal section, length of one leg

is longer than the other. The thickness of legs of equal and unequal angle sections

are equal. The bulb angle shown in fig consists of web flange and a bulb projecting

from end of web. The thickness of web of bulb angle may or may not be equal tp

the thickness of flange.

Note: As per IS: 808- 1984, some supplementary angle sections have also

additionally adopted as Indian Standard angle sections. However prefix ISA has

been adopted. These sections are designated by the size of legs followed by

thickness.

10.2.5 ROLLED STEEL BARS

The rolled steel bars are classified into the following two series:

1. Indian Standard Round Bars------------ISRQ

2. Indian Standard Square Bars------------ISSQ

183

The rolled steel tubes are used as columns and compression members

and tension members in tubular trusses. The rolled steel tubes are efficient

structural sections to be used as compression members. The steel tube sections

have equal radius of gyration in all directions.

10.2.7 ROLLED STEEL FLATS

The rolled steel flats are used for lacing of elements in built-up

members, such as columns and are also used as ties.

STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN INVOLVES THE FOLLWING STEPS:

1. Choice of materials such as the type and grade of structural steel.

2. Selection of the configuration of the structural system such as trusses, griders,

portal frames, stanchions, grid frames, cable structures, space frames, folded

plates, muti-storey framed structures, mill bents and foundation systems.

3. Computation of various types of loads acting on the structure.

4. Preliminary analysis of forces and moments developed in the structural

elements under the most unfavorable loading conditions using elementary

procedures, followed by rigorous analysis using computer software and other

design procedures.

5. Structural design of elements conforming to the latest national codes.

6. Final evaluation of strength, serviceability and safety of the structure as per the

code requirements.

7. Preparation of detailed structural and architectural drawings using AUTO

CAD programs with suitable specifications.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

184

STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBERS

The recently revised Indian Standard code IS: 800-2007 specifies that

in general structures and elements should be designed by the limit state

method. In case where the limit state method cannot be conveniently adopted,

the working stress method may be used.

Limit state design is a method of designing structures based on a

statistical concept of safety and the associated statistical probability of failure.

Structures designed by this method should satisfy the dual criterion of

(a)

Limit state of strength and

(b)

Limit state of serviceability.

The limit states of strength are those associated with failure (or

imminent failure), under the action of probable and most unfavorable

combination of loads on the structure using the appropriate partial safety

factors, which may endanger the safety of life and property. The limit sate of

strength includes:

(a) Loss of equilibrium of the structure as a whole or any of its parts or

components.

(b) Loss of stability of the structures (including the effect of sway

where appropriate and overturning) or any of its parts, including

supports and foundations.

(c) Failure by excessive deformation, rupture of the structure or any of

its parts or components.

(d) Fracture due to fatigue

(e) Brittle fracture

The limit state of serviceability comprises the following criteria:

(a) Any deformation and deflection which adversely affect the

appearance or effective use of the structure or may cause

improper functioning of equipment or services or may cause

damages to finishes and non-structural members.

(b) Vibrations in the structure or any of its components causing

discomfort to people, damage to the structures, its contents or

which may limit its functional effectiveness. Special consideration

shall be given to systems susceptible to vibration, such as large

open floor areas free of use and occupancy (Refer to Annex C of

the Code).

(c) Repairable damage or crack due to fatigue.

(d) Corrosion, durability.

(e) Fire.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

185

1. For steel:

(a) Structural steel as per

IS: 226, IS: 2062, IS: 3502, IS: 1977, IS: 961, IS: 8500

(b) Steel for reinforced concrete

IS: 432, IS: 1139, IS: 1786, IS: 2090.

(c) Steel for bars, rivets etc.

IS: 1148, 1149, 1570, 2073, 7383, 4431, and 5517.

(d) Steel for tubes and pipes.

IS: 1239, 1914 and 1978.

2. For code of practice for design of steel structures:

IS: 800- 1984, IS: 800-2007

3. For size of weld and stresses in weld

IS: 816- 1969

4. For code of practice for design loads:

IS: 875- 1987

Part I:

materials

Part II:

imposed loads

Part III:

wind loads

Part IV:

snow loads

Part V:

Permissible Stresses:

not exceed the corresponding permissible stresses specified by IS: 800-1984

1. Axial Tensile stress (at) (clause 4.1 of IS: 800):

The permissible stress in axial tension, at in MPa on the net effective area of

the sections shall not exceed

= 0.6

Where fy = minimum yield stress of steel, in MPa.

2. Axial Compression Stress (ac) (clause 5.1 of IS: 800):

The direct stresses in compression on the gross cross sectional area of axially

loaded compression members shall not exceed 0.6 fy nor the permissible stress,

ac calculated using the formula

= 0.6

1

[ + ]

Where ac

=

permissible stress in axial compression, in MPa

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

186

fy

fcc

2E

The permissible compressive or tensile bending stress is given by

= 0.66

If the compression flange is not restrained laterally against buckling, bc or bt

should not exceed the values given by the above equation nor the values given

in table 6.1 A to 6.1 F and 6.2 of IS: 800.

4. Bearing stress (p) (clause 6.3 of IS: 800):

The bearing stress in any part of a beam when calculated on the net area of

contact shall not exceed the values determined by the formula.

= 0.75

Where, p = maximum yield stress of steel, in MPa

5. Maximum Shear Stress (vm) (clause 6.4.1 of IS: 800):

The maximum shear stress in a member shall not exceed the value given by

the formula

= 0.45

Where,

vm

=

maximum permissible shear stress

fy =

minimum yield stress of steel, in MPa

Average Shear Stress (va):

The average shear stress in a member calculated on the cross section of the

web shall not exceed the value given by the formula

= 0.4

Where,

va = average shear stress

fy = minimum yield stress of steel, in MPa

Increase in Permissible Stresses (clause 3.10.2.1 IS: 800):

When the effect of wind or earthquake load is taken into account in the design

1. The permissible stresses in structural steel may be increased by 33% and

2. Permissible stress in rivets, bolts and tension maybe increased by 25%

Load combinations:

The following combinations of loads which ever produces maximum effect

maybe assumed for general design of most of the structures.

187

1.

2.

3.

Dead load + partial or full live load which ever causes the most critical

condition in the structure

Dead load + wind or seismic load and

4.

The partial safety factors for loads (f) for the limit states of strength and

serviceability for different load combinations is shown in table below:

Limit state of

serviceability

LL

DL+ER

(2)

1.5

(3)

1.5

1.2

1.2

1.5

(0.9)

1.2

(0.9)

AL

DL

Accomp

anying

DL+WL/EL

WL/E

L

Leading

(1)

DL+LL+CL

DL+LL+CL+WL/

EL

DL+LL+CL+WL/

EL

DL

WL/E

L

(4)

1.05

(5)

---

(6)

---

(7)

1.0

(8)

1.0

(9)

1.0

(10)

---

1.2

1.05

0.6

---

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.2

0.53

1.2

---

---

1.5

---

1.0

---

---

1.0

1.2

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Accomp

anying

Combination

Leading

LL

0.3

0.35

--1.0

--------5

(1) When action of different live loads is simultaneously considered, the leading live

load shall be considered to be the one causing the higher load effects in the

member/section.

(2) This value is to be considered when the dead load contributes to stability against

overturning is critical or the dead load causes reduction in stress due to other

loads.

Abbreviations:

DL= Dead Load, LL=Imposed Load (live load), WL= Wind Load, CL= Crane

Load (vertical/horizontal), AL= Accidental Load, ER= Election Load, EL=

Earthquake Load.

Note: The effects of actions (load) in terms of stresses resultant may be obtained

from an appropriate method of analysis.

DL+LL+AL

1.0

188

Analysis of a steel structure is same as analysis of RCC structure by using

STAAD PRO v8i explained in chapter 3 of Module I.

12.1 INPUT COMMANDS IN STAAD PRO EDITOR

STAAD SPACE

START JOB INFORMATION

ENGINEER DATE 29-Feb-12

JOB NAME comparative study on multistorey R.C.C and STEEL Building

JOB CLIENT NIET

ENGINEER NAME NIET

END JOB INFORMATION

INPUT WIDTH 79

UNIT METER KN

JOINT COORDINATES

1 0 0 0; 2 3 0 0; 3 6.7 0 0; 4 10.25 0 0; 5 11.9 0 0; 6 13.8 0 0; 7 17.5 0 0; 8 20.5 0 0; 9

6.7 0 2; 10 11.9 0 2; 11 13.8 0 2; 12 0 0 3.65; 13 3 0 3.65; 14 6.7 0 3.65; 15 10.25 0

3.65; 16 13.8 0 3.65; 17 17.5 0 3.65; 18 20.5 0 3.65; 19 0 0 7.15; 20 3 0 7.15; 21 6.7 0

7.15; 22 10.25 0 7.15; 23 13.8 0 7.15; 24 17.5 0 7.15; 25 20.5 0 7.15; 26 0 0 11.3; 27

3 0 11.3; 28 6.7 0 11.3; 29 10.25 0 11.3; 30 13.8 0 11.3; 31 17.5 0 11.3; 32 20.5 0

11.3; 33 0 1.5 0; 34 3 1.5 0; 35 6.7 1.5 0; 36 10.25 1.5 0; 37 11.9 1.5 0; 38 13.8 1.5 0;

39 17.5 1.5 0; 40 20.5 1.5 0; 41 6.7 1.5 2; 42 11.9 1.5 2; 43 13.8 1.5 2; 44 0 1.5 3.65;

45 3 1.5 3.65; 46 6.7 1.5 3.65; 47 10.25 1.5 3.65; 48 13.8 1.5 3.65; 49 17.5 1.5 3.65;

50 20.5 1.5 3.65; 51 0 1.5 7.15; 52 3 1.5 7.15; 53 6.7 1.5 7.15; 54 10.25 1.5 7.15; 55

13.8 1.5 7.15; 56 17.5 1.5 7.15; 57 20.5 1.5 7.15; 58 0 1.5 11.3; 59 3 1.5 11.3; 60 6.7

1.5 11.3; 61 10.25 1.5 11.3; 62 13.8 1.5 11.3; 63 17.5 1.5 11.3; 64 20.5 1.5 11.3; 65

6.7 3.1 0; 66 6.7 3.1 2; 67 0 4.7 0; 68 3 4.7 0; 69 6.7 4.7 0; 70 10.25 4.7 0; 71 11.9 4.7

0; 72 13.8 4.7 0; 73 17.5 4.7 0; 74 20.5 4.7 0; 75 6.7 4.7 2; 76 11.9 4.7 2; 77 13.8 4.7

2; 78 0 4.7 3.65; 79 3 4.7 3.65; 80 6.7 4.7 3.65; 81 10.25 4.7 3.65; 82 13.8 4.7 3.65;

83 17.5 4.7 3.65; 84 20.5 4.7 3.65; 85 0 4.7 7.15; 86 3 4.7 7.15; 87 3.85 4.7 7.15; 88

6.7 4.7 7.15; 89 10.25 4.7 7.15; 90 13.8 4.7 7.15; 91 16.65 4.7 7.15; 92 17.5 4.7 7.15;

93 20.5 4.7 7.15; 94 0 4.7 11.3; 95 3 4.7 11.3; 96 3.85 4.7 11.3; 97 6.7 4.7 11.3; 98

10.25 4.7 11.3; 99 13.8 4.7 11.3; 100 16.65 4.7 11.3; 101 17.5 4.7 11.3; 102 20.5 4.7

11.3; 103 6.7 6.3 0; 104 6.7 6.3 2; 105 0 7.9 0; 106 3 7.9 0; 107 6.7 7.9 0; 108 10.25

7.9 0; 109 11.9 7.9 0; 110 13.8 7.9 0; 111 17.5 7.9 0;112 20.5 7.9 0; 113 6.7 7.9 2;

114 11.9 7.9 2; 115 13.8 7.9 2; 116 0 7.9 3.65; 117 3 7.9 3.65; 118 6.7 7.9 3.65; 119

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

189

10.25 7.9 3.65; 120 13.8 7.9 3.65; 121 17.5 7.9 3.65; 122 20.5 7.9 3.65; 123 0 7.9

7.15; 124 3 7.9 7.15; 125 3.85 7.9 7.15; 126 6.7 7.9 7.15; 127 10.25 7.9 7.15; 128

13.8 7.9 7.15; 129 16.65 7.9 7.15; 130 17.5 7.9 7.15; 131 20.5 7.9 7.15; 132 0 7.9

11.3; 133 3 7.9 11.3; 134 3.85 7.9 11.3; 135 6.7 7.9 11.3; 136 10.25 7.9 11.3; 137

13.8 7.9 11.3; 138 16.65 7.9 11.3; 139 17.5 7.9 11.3; 140 20.5 7.9 11.3; 141 6.7 9.5 0;

142 6.7 9.5 2; 143 0 11.1 0; 144 3 11.1 0; 145 6.7 11.1 0; 146 10.25 11.1 0; 147 11.9

11.1 0; 148 13.8 11.1 0; 149 17.5 11.1 0; 150 20.5 11.1 0; 151 6.7 11.1 2; 152 11.9

11.1 2; 153 13.8 11.1 2; 154 0 11.1 3.65; 155 3 11.1 3.65; 156 6.7 11.1 3.65; 157

10.25 11.1 3.65; 158 13.8 11.1 3.65; 159 17.5 11.1 3.65; 160 20.5 11.1 3.65; 161 0

11.1 7.15; 162 3 11.1 7.15; 163 3.85 11.1 7.15; 164 6.7 11.1 7.15; 165 10.25 11.1

7.15; 166 13.8 11.1 7.15; 167 16.65 11.1 7.15; 168 17.5 11.1 7.15; 169 20.5 11.1

7.15; 170 0 11.1 11.3; 171 3 11.1 11.3; 172 3.85 11.1 11.3; 173 6.7 11.1 11.3; 174

10.25 11.1 11.3; 175 13.8 11.1 11.3; 176 16.65 11.1 11.3; 177 17.5 11.1 11.3; 178

20.5 11.1 11.3; 179 6.7 12.7 0; 180 6.7 12.7 2; 181 0 14.3 0; 182 3 14.3 0; 183 6.7

14.3 0; 184 10.25 14.3 0; 185 11.9 14.3 0; 186 13.8 14.3 0; 187 17.5 14.3 0; 188 20.5

14.3 0; 189 6.7 14.3 2; 190 11.9 14.3 2; 191 13.8 14.3 2; 192 0 14.3 3.65; 193 3 14.3

3.65; 194 6.7 14.3 3.65; 195 10.25 14.3 3.65; 196 13.8 14.3 3.65; 197 17.5 14.3 3.65;

198 20.5 14.3 3.65; 199 0 14.3 7.15; 200 3 14.3 7.15; 201 3.85 14.3 7.15; 202 6.7 14.3

7.15; 203 10.25 14.3 7.15; 204 13.8 14.3 7.15; 205 16.65 14.3 7.15; 206 17.5 14.3

7.15; 207 20.5 14.3 7.15; 208 0 14.3 11.3; 209 3 14.3 11.3; 210 3.85 14.3 11.3; 211

6.7 14.3 11.3; 212 10.25 14.3 11.3; 213 13.8 14.3 11.3; 214 16.65 14.3 11.3; 215 17.5

14.3 11.3; 216 20.5 14.3 11.3; 217 6.7 15.9 0; 218 6.7 15.9 2; 219 0 17.5 0; 220 3

17.5 0; 221 6.7 17.5 0; 222 10.25 17.5 0; 223 11.9 17.5 0; 224 13.8 17.5 0; 225 17.5

17.5 0; 226 20.5 17.5 0; 227 6.7 17.5 2; 228 11.9 17.5 2; 229 13.8 17.5 2; 230 0 17.5

3.65; 231 3 17.5 3.65; 232 6.7 17.5 3.65; 233 10.25 17.5 3.65; 234 13.8 17.5 3.65;

235 17.5 17.5 3.65; 236 20.5 17.5 3.65; 237 0 17.5 7.15; 238 3 17.5 7.15; 239 3.85

17.5 7.15;240 6.7 17.5 7.15; 241 10.25 17.5 7.15; 242 13.8 17.5 7.15; 243 16.65 17.5

7.15; 244 17.5 17.5 7.15; 245 20.5 17.5 7.15; 246 0 17.5 11.3; 247 3 17.5 11.3; 248

3.85 17.5 11.3; 249 6.7 17.5 11.3; 250 10.25 17.5 11.3; 251 13.8 17.5 11.3; 252 16.65

17.5 11.3; 253 17.5 17.5 11.3; 254 20.5 17.5 11.3; 255 6.7 20.7 0; 256 10.25 20.7 0;

257 11.9 20.7 0; 258 13.8 20.7 0; 259 11.9 20.7 2; 260 13.8 20.7 2; 261 6.7 20.7

3.65;262 10.25 20.7 3.65; 263 13.8 20.7 3.65;

MEMBER INCIDENCES

1 33 1; 2 34 2; 3 35 3; 4 36 4; 5 37 5; 6 38 6; 7 39 7; 8 40 8; 9 41 9; 10 42 10; 11 43

11; 12 44 12; 13 45 13; 14 46 14; 15 47 15; 16 48 16; 17 49 17; 18 50 18; 19 51 19;

20 52 20; 21 53 21; 22 54 22; 23 55 23; 24 56 24; 25 57 25; 26 58 26; 27 59 27; 28 60

28; 29 61 29; 30 62 30; 31 63 31; 32 64 32; 101 33 67; 102 34 68; 103 65 69; 104 35

65; 105 36 70; 106 37 71; 107 38 72; 108 39 73; 109 40 74; 110 66 75; 111 41 66;

112 42 76; 113 43 77; 114 44 78; 115 45 79; 116 46 80; 117 47 81; 118 48 82; 119 49

83; 120 50 84; 121 51 85; 122 52 86; 123 53 88; 124 54 89; 125 55 90; 126 56 92;

127 57 93; 128 58 94; 129 59 95; 130 60 97; 131 61 98; 132 62 99; 133 63 101; 134

64 102; 201 67 105; 202 68 106; 203 103 107; 204 69 103; 205 70 108; 206 71 109;

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

190

207 72 110; 208 73 111; 209 74 112; 210 104 113; 211 75 104; 212 76 114; 213 77

115; 214 78 116; 215 79 117; 216 80 118; 217 81 119; 218 82 120; 219 83 121; 220

84 122; 221 85 123; 222 86 124; 223 88 126; 224 89 127; 225 90 128; 226 92 130;

227 93 131; 228 94 132; 229 95 133; 230 97 135; 231 98 136; 232 99 137; 233 101

139; 234 102 140; 301 105 143; 302 106 144; 303 141 145; 304 107 141; 305 108

146; 306 109 147; 307 110 148; 308 111 149; 309 112 150; 310 142 151; 311 113

142; 312 114 152; 313 115 153; 314 116 154; 315 117 155; 316 118 156; 317 119

157; 318 120 158; 319 121 159; 320 122 160; 321 123 161; 322 124 162; 323 126

164; 324 127 165; 325 128 166; 326 130 168; 327 131 169; 328 132 170; 329 133

171; 330 135 173; 331 136 174; 332 137 175; 333 139 177; 334 140 178; 401 143

181; 402 144 182; 403 179 183; 404 145 179; 405 146 184; 406 147 185; 407 148

186; 408 149 187; 409 150 188; 410 180 189; 411 151 180; 412 152 190; 413 153

191; 414 154 192; 415 155 193; 416 156 194; 417 157 195; 418 158 196; 419 159

197; 420 160 198; 421 161 199; 422 162 200; 423 164 202; 424 165 203; 425 166

204; 426 168 206; 427 169 207; 428 170 208; 429 171 209; 430 173 211; 431 174

212; 432 175 213; 433 177 215; 434 178 216; 501 181 219; 502 182 220; 503 217

221; 504 183 217; 505 184 222; 506 185 223; 507 186 224; 508 187 225; 509 188

226; 510 218 227; 511 189 218; 512 190 228; 513 191 229; 514 192 230; 515 193

231; 516 194 232; 517 195 233; 518 196 234; 519 197 235; 520 198 236; 521 199

237; 522 200 238; 523 202 240; 524 203 241; 525 204 242; 526 206 244; 527 207

245; 528 208 246; 529 209 247; 530 211 249; 531 212 250; 532 213 251; 533 215

253; 534 216 254; 601 255 221; 602 256 222; 603 257 223; 604 258 224; 605 259

228; 606 260 229; 607 261 232; 608 262 233; 609 263 234; 1001 33 34; 1002 34 35;

1003 35 36; 1004 36 37; 1005 37 38; 1006 38 39; 1007 39 40; 1008 42 43; 1009 44

45; 1010 45 46; 1011 46 47; 1012 47 48; 1013 48 49; 1014 49 50; 1015 51 52; 1016

52 53; 1017 53 54; 1018 54 55; 1019 55 56; 1020 56 57; 1021 58 59; 1022 59 60;

1023 60 61; 1024 61 62; 1025 62 63; 1026 63 64; 1027 35 41; 1028 37 42; 1029 38

43; 1030 33 44; 1031 34 45; 1032 36 47; 1033 39 49; 1034 40 50; 1035 41 46; 1036

43 48; 1037 44 51; 1038 45 52; 1039 46 53; 1040 47 54; 1041 48 55; 1042 49 56;

1043 50 57; 1044 51 58; 1045 52 59; 1046 53 60; 1047 54 61; 1048 55 62; 1049 56

63; 1050 57 64; 1051 65 66; 2001 67 68; 2002 68 69; 2003 69 70; 2004 70 71; 2005

71 72; 2006 72 73; 2007 73 74; 2008 76 77; 2009 78 79; 2010 79 80; 2011 80 81;

2012 81 82; 2013 82 83; 2014 83 84; 2015 85 86; 2016 86 87; 2017 87 88; 2018 88

89; 2019 89 90; 2020 90 91; 2021 91 92; 2022 92 93; 2023 94 95; 2024 95 96; 2025

96 97; 2026 97 98; 2027 98 99; 2028 99 100; 2029 100 101; 2030 101 102; 2031 67

78; 2032 68 79; 2033 69 75; 2034 75 80; 2035 70 81; 2036 71 76; 2037 72 77; 2038

77 82; 2039 73 83; 2040 74 84; 2041 78 85; 2042 81 89; 2043 84 93; 2044 85 94;

2045 87 96; 2046 88 97; 2047 89 98; 2048 90 99; 2049 91 100; 2050 93 102; 2051

103 104; 3001 105 106; 3002 106 107; 3003 107 108; 3004 108 109; 3005 109

110;3006 110 111; 3007 111 112; 3008 114 115; 3009 116 117; 3010 117 118; 3011

118 119; 3012 119 120; 3013 120 121; 3014 121 122; 3015 123 124; 3016 124 125;

3017 125 126; 3018 126 127; 3019 127 128; 3020 128 129; 3021 129 130; 3022 130

131; 3023 132 133; 3024 133 134; 3025 134 135; 3026 135 136; 3027 136 137; 3028

137 138; 3029 138 139; 3030 139 140; 3031 105 116; 3032 106 117; 3033 107 113;

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

191

3034 113 118; 3035 108 119; 3036 109 114; 3037 110 115; 3038 115 120; 3039 111

121; 3040 112 122; 3041 116 123; 3042 119 127; 3043 122 131; 3044 123 132; 3045

125 134; 3046 126 135; 3047 127 136; 3048 128 137; 3049 129 138; 3050 131 140;

3051 141 142; 4001 143 144; 4002 144 145; 4003 145 146; 4004 146 147; 4005 147

148; 4006 148 149; 4007 149 150; 4008 152 153; 4009 154 155; 4010 155 156; 4011

156 157; 4012 157 158; 4013 158 159; 4014 159 160; 4015 161 162; 4016 162 163;

4017 163 164; 4018 164 165; 4019 165 166; 4020 166 167; 4021 167 168; 4022 168

169; 4023 170 171; 4024 171 172; 4025 172 173; 4026 173 174; 4027 174 175; 4028

175 176; 4029 176 177; 4030 177 178; 4031 143 154; 4032 144 155; 4033 145 151;

4034 151 156; 4035 146 157; 4036 147 152; 4037 148 153; 4038 153 158; 4039 149

159; 4040 150 160; 4041 154 161; 4042 157 165; 4043 160 169; 4044 161 170; 4045

163 172; 4046 164 173; 4047 165 174; 4048 166 175; 4049 167 176; 4050 169 178;

4051 179 180; 5001 181 182; 5002 182 183; 5003 183 184; 5004 184 185; 5005 185

186; 5006 186 187; 5007 187 188; 5008 190 191; 5009 192 193; 5010 193 194; 5011

194 195; 5012 195 196; 5013 196 197; 5014 197 198; 5015 199 200; 5016 200 201;

5017 201 202; 5018 202 203; 5019 203 204; 5020 204 205; 5021 205 206; 5022 206

207; 5023 208 209; 5024 209 210; 5025 210 211; 5026 211 212; 5027 212 213; 5028

213 214; 5029 214 215; 5030 215 216; 5031 181 192; 5032 182 193; 5033 183 189;

5034 189 194; 5035 184 195; 5036 185 190; 5037 186 191; 5038 191 196; 5039 187

197; 5040 188 198; 5041 192 199; 5042 195 203; 5043 198 207; 5044 199 208; 5045

201 210; 5046 202 211; 5047 203 212; 5048 204 213; 5049 205 214; 5050 207 216;

5051 217 218; 6001 219 220; 6002 220 221; 6003 221 222; 6004 222 223; 6005 223

224; 6006 224 225; 6007 225 226; 6008 228 229; 6009 230 231; 6010 231 232; 6011

232 233; 6012 233 234; 6013 234 235; 6014 235 236; 6015 237 238; 6016 238 239;

6017 239 240; 6018 240 241; 6019 241 242; 6020 242 243; 6021 243 244; 6022 244

245; 6023 246 247; 6024 247 248; 6025 248 249; 6026 249 250; 6027 250 251; 6028

251 252; 6029 252 253; 6030 253 254; 6031 219 230; 6032 220 231; 6033 221 227;

6034 227 232; 6035 222 233; 6036 223 228; 6037 224 229; 6038 229 234; 6039 225

235; 6040 226 236; 6041 230 237; 6042 233 241; 6043 236 245; 6044 237 246; 6045

239 248; 6046 240 249; 6047 241 250; 6048 242 251; 6049 243 252; 6050 245 254;

7001 255 256; 7002 256 257; 7003 257 258; 7004 259 260; 7005 261 262; 7006 262

263; 7007 255 261; 7008 256 262; 7009 257 259; 7010 260 258; 7011 260 263;

DEFINE MATERIAL START

ISOTROPIC STEEL

E 2.05e+008

POISSON 0.3

DENSITY 76.8195

ALPHA 1.2e-005

DAMP 0.03

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

192

MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN

1044 1045 1047 1049 TO 1051 2009 TO 2022 2024 2029 2031 TO 2035 2037 TO

2040 2044 2050 2051 3009 TO 3022 3024 3031 TO 3035 3037 TO 3040 3051 4009

TO 4022 4024 4031 TO 4035 4037 TO 4040 4046 TO 4048 4051 5009 TO 5022

5024 5031 TO 5035 5037 TO 5040 5044 5046 TO 5048 5050 5051 6045 6049

TABLE ST ISHB250

1001 TO 1030 1032 1034 TO 1043 2001 TO 2008 2023 2025 TO 2028 2030 2036

2041 2042 TO 2043 3001 TO 3008 3023 3025 TO 3028 3030 3036 3041 TO 3043

4001 TO 4008 4023 4025 TO 4028 4030 4036 4041 TO 4043 5001 TO 5008 5023

5025 5026 TO 5028 5030 5036 5041 TO 5043 6001 6002 6004 TO 6010 6012 TO

6044 6046 6047 TO 6048 6050 7001 TO 7011 TABLE ST ISHB200

1 TO 32 101 TO 134 201 TO 234 301 TO 334 401 TO 434 501 TO 534 601 TO 608

609 TABLE ST ISWB600A

2045 2049 3045 3049 4045 4049 5045 5049 TABLE ST ISHB300

1031 1033 1046 1048 2046 TO 2048 3029 3044 3046 TO 3048 3050 4029 4044 4050

5029 6003 6011 TABLE ST ISHB400

CONSTANTS

MATERIAL STEEL ALL

SUPPORTS

1 TO 32 PINNED

DEFINE 1893 LOAD

ZONE 0.1 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 1 DM 5 PX 0 DT 1.5

SELFWEIGHT 1

MEMBER WEIGHT

1001 TO 1050 2001 2002 2005 TO 2008 2011 2012 2023 2024 2026 TO 2028 2030

2031 2036 TO 2038 2040 2042 2044 2047 2050 3001 3002 3005 TO 3008 3011 3012

3023 3024 3026 TO 3028 3030 3031 3036 TO 3038 3040 3042 3044 3047 3050 4001

4002 4005 TO 4008 4011 4012 4023 4024 4026 TO 4028 4030 4031 4036 TO 4038

4040 4042 4044 4047 4050 5001 5002 5005 TO 5008 5011 5012 5023 5024 5026

5027 TO 5028 5030 5031 5036 TO 5038 5040 5042 5044 5047 5050 6003 TO 6005

6008 6011 6012 6033 6034 6036 TO 6038 UNI 16

2009 2010 2013 TO 2022 2032 TO 2035 2039 2045 2046 2048 2049 3009 3010 3013

3014 TO 3022 3032 TO 3035 3039 3045 3046 3048 3049 4009 4010 4013 TO 4022

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

193

4032 TO 4035 4039 4045 4046 4048 4049 5009 5010 5013 TO 5022 5032 TO 5035

5039 5045 5046 5048 5049 UNI 8

6001 6002 6006 6007 6023 TO 6031 6040 6041 6043 6044 6050 7001 TO 7003 7005

7006 TO 7007 7010 7011 UNI 2

1051 2051 3051 4051 5051 UNI 20

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 TOWARDS 7007

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15

CHECK SOFT STOREY

DEFINE WIND LOAD

TYPE 1

INT 0.67 HEIG 19.2

EXP 1 JOINT 33 TO 263

LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ XP

1893 LOAD X 1

LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ XN

1893 LOAD X -1

LOAD 3 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ ZP

1893 LOAD Z 1

LOAD 4 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ ZN

1893 LOAD Z -1

LOAD 5 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL XP

WIND LOAD X 1 TYPE 1

LOAD 6 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL XN

WIND LOAD X -1 TYPE 1

LOAD 7 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL ZP

WIND LOAD Z 1 TYPE 1

LOAD 8 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL ZN

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

194

LOAD 9 LOADTYPE None TITLE DEAD LOAD

SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 32 101 TO 134 201 TO 234 301 TO 334 401 TO 434

501 502 TO 534 601 TO 609 1001 TO 1037 1040 1043 TO 1051 2001 TO 2051 3001

TO 3051 4001 TO 4051 5001 TO 5051 6001 TO 6050 7001 TO 7011

MEMBER LOAD

1001 TO 1026 1028 TO 1034 1036 TO 1050 2001 2002 2005 TO 2008 2011 2012

2023 2024 2026 TO 2028 2030 2031 2036 TO 2038 2040 2042 2044 2047 2050 3001

3002 3005 TO 3008 3011 3012 3023 3024 3026 TO 3028 3030 3031 3036 TO 3038

3040 3042 3044 3047 3050 4001 4002 4005 TO 4008 4011 4012 4023 4024 4026 TO

4028 4030 4031 4036 TO 4038 4040 4042 4044 4047 4050 5001 5002 5005 TO 5008

5011 5012 5023 5024 5026 TO 5028 5030 5031 5036 TO 5038 5040 5042 5044 5047

5050 6003 TO 6005 6008 6011 6012 6036 TO 6038 UNI GY -16

1027 1035 2009 2010 2013 TO 2022 2032 TO 2035 2039 2045 2046 2048 2049 3009

3010 3013 TO 3022 3032 TO 3035 3039 3045 3046 3048 3049 4009 4010 4013 TO

4022 4032 TO 4035 4039 4045 4046 4048 4049 5009 5010 5013 TO 5022 5032 TO

5035 5039 5045 5046 5048 5049 6033 6034 UNI GY -8

6001 6002 6006 6007 6023 TO 6031 6040 6041 6043 6044 6050 7001 TO 7003 7005

7006 TO 7007 7010 7011 UNI GY -2

1051 2051 3051 4051 5051 UNI GY -20

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 GY TOWARDS

7007

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3 GY

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15 GY

LOAD 10 LOADTYPE None TITLE LIVE LOAD

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 GY TOWARDS 7007

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3 GY

ONEWAY LOAD

YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15 GY

LOAD COMB 11 SERVICE (DL+LL)

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

195

9 1.0 10 1.0

LOAD COMB 12 ULTIMATE 1.5 (DL+LL)

9 1.5 10 1.5

LOAD COMB 13 1.2 (DL+LL+WL XP)

9 1.2 10 1.2 5 1.2

LOAD COMB 14 1.2 (DL+LL+WL XN)

6 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2

LOAD COMB 15 1.2 (DL+LL+WL ZP)

9 1.2 10 1.2 7 1.2

LOAD COMB 16 1.2 (DL+LL+WL ZN)

9 1.2 10 1.2 8 1.2

LOAD COMB 17 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ XP)

1 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2

LOAD COMB 18 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ XN)

9 1.2 10 1.2 2 1.2

LOAD COMB 19 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ ZP)

3 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2

LOAD COMB 20 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ ZN)

4 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2

LOAD COMB 21 1.5(DL+EQ XP)

9 1.5 1 1.5

LOAD COMB 22 1.5(DL+EQ XN)

2 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 23 1.5(DL+EQ ZP)

3 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 24 1.5(DL+EQ ZN)

4 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 25 1.5(DL+WL XP)

5 1.5 9 1.5

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

196

6 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 27 1.5(DL+WL ZP)

7 1.5 9 1.5

LOAD COMB 28 1.5(DL+WL ZN)

9 1.5 8 1.5

LOAD COMB 29 0.9DL+1.5 EQ XP

9 0.9 1 1.5

LOAD COMB 30 0.9DL+1.5 EQ XN

9 0.9 2 1.5

LOAD COMB 31 0.9DL+1.5 EQ ZP

3 1.5 9 0.9

LOAD COMB 32 0.9DL+1.5 EQ ZN

4 1.5 9 0.9

LOAD COMB 33 0.9DL+1.5 WL XP

9 0.9 5 1.5

LOAD COMB 34 0.9DL+1.5 WL XN

9 0.9 6 1.5

LOAD COMB 35 0.9DL+1.5 WL ZP

9 0.9 7 1.5

LOAD COMB 36 0.9DL+1.5 WL ZN

8 1.5 9 0.9

PERFORM ANALYSIS

LOAD LIST 11 TO 36

PARAMETER 1

CODE INDIAN

STEEL TAKE OFF ALL

FINISH

197

The structure is a residential building which comes under the category of

residential cum commercial building. Hence it has taken care of different types of

dead loads. The dead loads could be of its own self weight, furnitures, some

equipment, machineries, computers, store keeps, etc. Hence the building has to be

designed in such a way that it has to take care of all the loads imposed on it. The

easiest way to withstand these loads is by providing proper beams and columns. The

live load of the building could be taken from the standards.

LOADS

198

LOADS

199

200

WIND LOADS:

Building and their components are to be designed to withstand the

code-specified wind loads. Calculating wind loads is important in design of the wind

force-resisting system, including structural members, components, and cladding

against shear, sliding, overturning, and uplift actions.

201

125 WIND LOAD ACTING FROM Z -VE DIRECTION

202

Z+VE DIRECTION

203

FROM Z -VE DIRECTION

204

13.1 Introduction

The principal merit of steel-concrete composite construction lies in the

utilization of the compressive strength of concrete in conjunction with steel sheets 0r

beams, in order to enhance the strength and stiffness.

Composite floors with profiled decking consist of the following structural

elements in addition to in-situ concrete and steel beams:

Profiled decking

Shear connection

Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses

competitive where the concrete floor has to be completed quickly and where medium

level of fire protection to steel work is sufficient. However, composite slabs with

profiled decking are unsuitable when there is heavy concentrated loading or dynamic

loading in structures such as bridges. The alternative composite floor in such cases

consists of reinforced or pre-stressed slab over steel beams connected together using

shear connectors to act monolithically.

There is presently no Indian standard covering the design of composite floor

systems using profiled sheeting. The structural behaviour of Composite floors using

profiled decks is similar to a reinforced concrete slab, with the steel sheeting acting as

the tension reinforcement. The main structural and other benefits of using composite

floors with profiled steel decking are:

Construction

Greater stiffness of composite beams results in shallower depths for the same

span. Hence lower storey heights are adequate resulting in savings in cladding

costs, reduction in wind loading and savings in foundation costs.

The steel deck is normally rolled into the desired profile from 0.9 mm to 1.5

mm galvanised sheets. It is profiled such that the profile heights are usually in the

range of 38-75 mm and the pitch of corrugations is between 150 mm and 350 mm.

Generally, spans of the order of 2.5 m to 3.5 m between the beams are chosen and the

beams are designed to span between 6 m to 12 m. Trapezoidal profile with web

indentations is commonly used.

The steel decking performs a number of roles, such as:

It develops adequate composite action with concrete to resist the imposed

205

Loading

It transfers in-plane loading by diaphragm action to vertical bracing or shear

walls

It stabilizes the compression flanges of the beams against lateral buckling,

until concrete hardens.

It reduces the volume of concrete in tension zone

It distributes shrinkage strains, thus preventing serious cracking of concrete.

Profiled sheet decking as permanent form work

Construction stage: During construction, the profiled steel deck acts alone to

carry the weight of wet concrete, self weight, workmen and equipments. It must be

strong enough to carry this load and stiff enough to be serviceable under the weight of

wet concrete only. In addition to structural adequacy, the finished slab must be

capable of satisfying the requirements of fire resistance.

Design should make appropriate allowances for construction loads, which

include the weight of operatives, concreting plant and any impact or vibration that

may occur during construction. These loads should be arranged in such a way that

they cause maximum bending moment and shear. In any area of 3 m by 3 m (or the

span length, if less), in addition to weight of wet concrete, construction loads and

weight of surplus concrete should be provided for by assuming a load of 1.5 kN/m2.

Over the remaining area a load of 0.75 kN/m2 should be added to the weight of wet

concrete.

Composite Beam Stage: The composite beam formed by employing the

profiled steel sheeting is different from the one with a normal solid slab, as the

profiling would influence its strength and stiffness. This is termed composite beam

stage. In this case, the profiled deck, which is fixed transverse to the beam, results in

voids within the depth of the associated slab. Thus, the area of concrete used in

calculating the section properties can only be that depth of slab above the top flange

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

206

of the profile. In addition, any stud connector welded through the sheeting must lie

within the area of concrete in the trough of the profiling. Consequently, if the trough

is narrow, a reduction in strength must be made because of the reduction in area of

constraining concrete. In current design methods, the steel sheeting is ignored when

calculating shear resistance; this is probably too conservative.

Composite Slab Stage: The structural behaviour of the composite slab is

similar to that of a reinforced concrete beam with no shear reinforcement. The steel

sheeting provides adequate tensile capacity in order to act with the concrete in

bending. However, the shear between the steel and concrete must be carried by

friction and bond between the two materials. The mechanical keying action of the

indents is important. This is especially so in open trapezoidal profiles, where the

indents must also provide resistance to vertical separation. The predominant failure

mode is one of shear bond rupture that results in slip between the concrete and steel.

13.2 Design method

As there is no Indian standard covering profiled decking, we refer to Euro

code 4 (EC4) for guidance. The design method defined in EC4 requires that the slab

be checked first for bending capacity, assuming full bond between concrete and steel,

then for shear bond capacity and, finally, for vertical shear. The analysis of the

bending capacity of the slab may be carried out as though the slab was of reinforced

concrete with the steel deck acting as reinforcement. However, no satisfactory

analytical method has been developed so far for estimating the value of shear bond

capacity. The loads at the construction stage often govern the allowable span rather

than at the composite slab stage.

The width of the slab b shown in Figure is one typical wavelength of profiled

sheeting. But, for calculation purpose the width considered is 1.0 m. The overall

thickness is ht and the depth of concrete above main flat surface hc. Normally, ht is not

less than 80 mm and hc is not less than 40 mm from sound and fire insulation

considerations.

The neutral axis normally lies in the concrete in case of full shear connection.

For sheeting in tension, the width of indents should be neglected. Therefore, the

effective area 'Ap' per meter and height of centre of area above bottom 'e' are usually

based on tests. The plastic neutral axis ep is generally larger than e.

The simple plastic theory of flexure is used for analysis of these floors for

checking the design at Limit State of collapse load. IS 456:2000 assumes the

equivalent ultimate stress of concrete in compression as 0.36 (fck) where (fck) is

characteristic cube strength of concrete.

207

Full shear connection is assumed. Hence, compressive force Ncf in concrete is

equal to steel yield force Npa.

= 0.36 . .

= =

Where

Ap

Fy

ap

=

=

=

yield strength of steel

partial safety factor (1.15)

(0.36)

This is valid when x hc, i.e natural axis lies above steel decking.

=

Mp.Rd is the design resistance to sagging bending moment and is given by:

. = ( 0.42)

The shear resistance of composite slab largely depends on connection

between profiled deck and concrete. The following three types of mechanisms

are mobilised:

(i) Natural bond between concrete and steel due to adhesion.

(ii) Mechanical interlock provided by dimples on sheet and shear connectors.

(iii) Provision of end anchorage by shot fired pins or by welding studs when

sheeting is made to rest on steel beams.

Natural bond is difficult to quantify and unreliable, unless separation at the

interface between the sheeting and concrete is prevented. Dimples or ribs are

incorporated in the sheets to ensure satisfactory mechanical interlock. These are

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

208

effective only if the embossments are sufficiently deep. Very strict control during

manufacture is needed to ensure that the depths of embossments are consistently

maintained at an acceptable level. End anchorage is provided by means of shot-fired

pins, when the ends of a sheet rest on a steel beam, or by welding studs through the

sheeting to the steel flange.

Quite obviously the longitudinal shear resistance is provided by the combined

effect of frictional interlock, mechanical interlock and end anchorage. No

mathematical model could be employed to evaluate these and the effectiveness of

the shear connection is studied by means of load tests on simply supported composite

slabs as described in the next section.

serviceability criteria:

Cracking, Deflection and Fire endurance. The crack width is calculated

for the top surface in the negative moment region using standard methods prescribed

for reinforced concrete. Normally crack width should not exceed 3 mm. IS 456: 2000

gives a formula to calculate the width of crack. Provision of 0.4 % steel will normally

avoid cracking problems in propped construction and provision 0.2 % of steel is

normally sufficient in unpropped construction. If environment is corrosive it is

advisable to design the slab as continuous and take advantage of steel provided for

negative bending moment for resisting cracking during service loads.

The IS 456: 2000 gives a stringent deflection limitation of l/350 which may

be un- realistic for un-propped construction. The Euro code gives limitations of l/180

or 20 mm whichever is less. It may be worthwhile to limit span to depth ratio in the

range of 25 to 35 for the composite condition, the former being adopted for simply

supported slabs and the later for continuous slabs. The deflection of the composite

slabs is influenced by the slip-taking place between sheeting and concrete. Tests seem

to be the best method to estimate the actual deflection for the conditions adopted.

The fire endurance is assumed based on the following two criteria:

by conduction

Integrity criterion concerned with preventing the flames and hot gases to

nearby compartments.

materials. R (time in minutes) denotes the fire resistance class of a member or

component. For instance, R60 means that failure time is more than 60 minutes. It is

generally assumed that fire rating is R60 for normal buildings.

209

Metal decking are corrugated steel panels used as a working platform during

construction and eventually as formwork for site cast concrete slab. The decking

panels are secured with puddle-welds or shear welded through the decking to the

supporting steel joist or beams. The panels are fastened to each other along their sides

with screws, weld, or button punching standing seams. If the deck is to serve as a

structural diaphragm and transfer lateral loads to shear walls. Its entire perimeter is

welded to steel supports. In addition, more stringent requirements to support and side

lap fastening may apply. There are three major types of metal

1. Form Decking:

Serves as a permanent formwork for a reinforced concrete slab until

the slab can support itself and its live load.

210

2. Composite Decking:

Serves as a tensile reinforcement for the concrete slab to which it is bonded

with embossed rib pattern. Composite action between the concrete slab and

the floor beams or joists can be achieve by welding shear studs through the

decking to the supporting beam below.

3. Cellular Decking:

Is manufactured by welding a corrugated sheet to a flat steel sheet, forming a

series of spaces or raceways for electrical and communications wring; special

cutouts are available for floor outlets. The decking may serve as an acoustic

ceiling when the perforated cells are filled with glass fiber.

From KIRBY TECHNICAL HANDBOOK kirby decking (KD) section

properties and load tables page no 5.9

Assuming 0.7 mm thick Kirby Decking sheet

Weight of sheet

=

6.99 kg/m2 =

Dead load on Deck slab

Self weight of deck slab=

0.1x25 =

Self weight of decking sheet =

Floor finish

=

Live load on deck slab

=

Total load on deck slab

Width of deck slab

=

=

0.06857 kN/ m2

2.5 kN/m2

1 kN/m2

2 kN/m2

5.568kN/m2

1.2 m

211

=

6.82 kN/m2

Properties of decking sheet

For Panel nominal thickness of 0.7 mm,

Girth

=

11.45 mm

212

Weight

Shear and web crippling

6.99 /2

= 26.19 kN

= 17.54 kN

Top flat in compression:

Deflection in 4 =

12.55

3

Sx (top) in

=

10.01

3

Sx (bot) in :

=

4.03

Ma (kN-m)

=

0.83

Bottom flat in compression

Deflection in 4 =

12.58

3

Sx (top) in

=

11.28

3

Sx (bot) in

=

3.95

Ma (kN-m)

=

0.81

Provide 0.7 mm thick Kirby decking sheet and 100 mm thick slab

Reinforcement in slab

Provide nominal reinforcement 8 mm dia @ 250 mm C/C in both directions

GIRTH CONNECTIONS

The decking sheet is connected to beams and columns with suitable nuts and

bolts. The typical drawing of connection of girth to column and beam is shown below.

213

214

14.DESIGN OF BEAMS

14.1 INTRODUCTION:

A member subjected to bending moment and shear force due to transverse

loads is called a Beam (or) the member carrying loads perpendicular to its axis is

called a Beam.

Classification of Beams:

The steel beams are generally classified as follows:

1. Simple Beams

2. Compound beam/ Built-up beam/ Plated beam.

3. Plate girders

1. Simple beam

When a single rolled section is provided to support the lateral load is called a

simple beam.

2. Compound Beam (or) Built up Beam:

When two or more rolled sections (or) rolled sections with plates are used as

flexural member is called a compound beam (or) built up beam. A rolled

section with one (or) more crown plates on its flange, when used as a beam is

called plated beam.

3. Plate griders:

When heavy loads are to be carried on large span, it may not be possible to

provide simple (or) compound beams. In such cases plate griders made up of

plates either riveted (or) welded together are used.

A beam is said to be laterally restrained, when its compression flange is

supported laterally and it is not allowed to have moments in the lateral direction.

Because, the tendency of the compression flange to buckle under axial compressive

stresses is prevented, the safe allowable bending stress in compression may be taken

the same as that for tension.

If the compression flange of the beam is restrained laterally (or) (flat) for

laterally restrained beam the bending stress in the compression may be taken same as

that of bending stress in tension.

i.e., = 0.66

where fy= minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

215

if

= 0.66x250 = 165 .

Effective Span:

Effective span of beam shall be taken as the length of the beam between the

centres of the support (or) the length between assumed points of applications of

reactions. It is denoted by l.

A beam section is usually chosen which can resist maximum bending moment

occurring over its span. The shear stress and deflection for the chosen sections are

then checked to be with in the permissible limits. Check for web crippling and web

buckling are the secondary design requirements to be checked in some cases of beams

with heavy concentrated loads (or) reaction of supports.

(i)

The bending stress bc (or) bt at any point on a cross-section of a beam due

to bending moment M is given by.

M

xY = (or)

I

Where,

(cal)(or) (cal)= bending stress (compressive or tensile) calculated

at a point at a distance y from the neutral axis.

M

= bending moment

I

= moment of inertia of the cross-section of beam.

The point of maximum bending stress occurs at the extreme fibre and the

I

Y

M

= (cal)(or) (cal)

Z

Since the calculated bending stress (cal)(or) (cal) is lesser than the

permissible bending (or) .

M

or

Z

M

Z

M

Z

slightly more than Z calculated from the equations.

216

14.3Moment of Resistance:

It is the bending moment which a beam can resist.

Moment of resistance = Z x or

The external loads should not cause a bending moment more than the moment of

resistance of the beam.

1. From the strength consideration, the load carrying capacity of the beam

is calculated by the equation.

Moment of resistance = Zxx x or

2. Calculate the max. Bending moment in the beam depending upon the

type of the beam and loading.

i.

ii.

Simply supported carrying point load Max. B.M.=

iv.

iii.

14.4 Shear:

1. Calculate maximum shear force in the beam depending upon the type of

loading .

i.

ii.

iii.

Cantilever carrying u.d.l, Max. S.F. =

iv.

Cantilever carrying point load Max. S.F. =

2. Calculate average shear stress ,

V

, =

x

3. , should be less than permissible avg. Shear stress.

= 0.4

i.

ii.

4

iii.

iv.

8EI

384 EI

1 3

48 EI

3

3EI

217

=

span

325

To satisfy the strength and stiffness requirements of the beam should not

be greater than of the beam.

A beam may fail under a concentrated load or at end reaction due to crippling

of web or by buckling of web.

14.6 Web Crippling:

The depression of load is assumed to be at 300

The bearing stress in the web at the root of the fillet will be equal to

(+2 2 3)

(+2 2 3)

for end supports.

R= end reaction at supports (N)

tw= thickness of web (mm)

a= bearing length (mm)

h2= depth of the root of the fillet from the top of the flange (mm).

p= maximum permissible bearing stress = 0.75

fy= yield stress of steel.

14.7 Web Buckling:

Load bearing stiffeners at all points of concentrated loads (including points of

support) should be provided where,

W or R > x x B

Where W or R= concentrated load or reaction at support respectively.

ac= maximum permissible axial stress for columns in Table 5.1 of IS: 800 for

slenderness ratio =

218

B= the length of the stiff portion of the bearing + additional length + thickness

of seating angle

h1= clear depth of the web between root fillets normally check for web

crippling and web buckling is not required for rolled steel sections under normal

loading.

Tension members subjected to axial forces may fail by rupture at a critical

section or it may become non-functional due to excessive elongation. Plates and other

rolled sections in tension may also fail by block shear of end bolted regions.

The factored design tension T in the member should comply with the

following criteria:

<

Where = lowest design strength of the member due to yielding of gross section

under axial tension.

design strength of the member under axial tension Tdg, as governed by yielding of

gross section, is expressed as

= gross area of cross-section

= partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding as compiled in the

following table.

Table 14.1: Partial safety factor for materials (m)

Sl

No.

1

2

3

4

Definitions

Resistance of member to buckling,

Resistance, governed by ultimate stress,

ml

Resistance of connection

1.10

1.10

b. Bolts: bearing type, mb

c. Rivets, mr

1.25

Type of fabrications

Shop

Field

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

219

d. Welds, mw

1.25

1.50

a. Plates: the design strength of a plate Tdn, as governed by rupture of the net

cross- sectional area. An at the hole is given by

0.9

1

Where m1= partial safety factor for failure at ultimate stress as compile in the table

above

Fu= ultimate stress of the material

An= +

2

1

4

dh = diameter of the bolt hole (2mm in addition to the diameter of the hole in

case of directly punched hole).

g = gauge length between the bolt holes as shown in the figure below

ps = staggered pitch length between line of the bolt holes as shown in the

figure below

n = number of bolt holes as shown in the figure below

I = subscript for summation of all the inclined legs.

governed by rupture is expressed as

220

0.9

1

c. Single Angles: the rupture strength of an angle connected through one leg is

affected by shear lag. The design strength Tdn as governed by the rupture at

net section is given by the relation

0.9

+

1

0

Where

= 1.4-0.076

0.7

bs = shear lag width, as shown in figure below

Lc = length of end connection, that is, the distance between the outermost bolts

in the end joint measured along with the load direction or length of the weld along the

load direction.

For preliminary sizing, the rupture strength of net section may be approximately taken

as :

Where = 0.6 for one or two bolts, 0.7 for three bolts and 0.8for four or more bolts

along the length in the end connection or equivalent weld length

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

221

Anc= net area of the connected leg

Ago= gross area of the outstanding leg

t= thickness of the leg

in the case of double angles, channels, I-sections and other rolled steel sections,

connected by one or more elements to an end gusset, the rupture strength is also

governed by tearing of net section may also be calculated using the above- mentioned

equation. However the value of is calculated based on the shear leg distance bs taken

from the farthest edge of the outstanding leg to the nearest bolt/weld line in the

connected leg of the cross- section.

Design strength due to block shear: The design strength controlled by block shear

end connection of plates and angles is computed using the following equations:

a)

the smaller value of

30

0.9

0

Where, Avg= minimum gross and net area in shear along bolt line parallel to

external force respectively (1-2 and 3-4 as shown in the figure a. and 1-2 as

shown in the fig b)

Atn= minimum gross and net area in tension from the bolt hole to the

toe of the angle, end bolt line, perpendicular to the line of force, respectively

(2-3 as shown in the figure b.)

fu= ultimate and yield stress of the material, respectively

222

b) Welded connections: the block shear strength, Tdb shall be checked for

welded end connections by taking an approximate section in the member

around the end weld which can shear off as a block.

Design of flexural members:

1. General aspects

Flexural members such as beams should have adequate design strength to

resist the bending moments and shear forces resulting from imposed loads. In

addition, they should satisfy the serviceability criteria comprising the

deflection limits specified in table. given below for different types of

structural members. The maximum deflection under service loads should not

exceed the limits expressed as a function of the span given in the code. The

effective span of a beam is generally taken as the distance between the centre

of the supports.

Maximu

Type of

Deflecti Design

Member

Supporting

m

building

on

load

(4)

(5)

deflection

(1)

(2)

(3)

(6)

Elastic

Live

Span/150

cladding

load/

Purlins and

wind

Brittle

girts

Span/180

load

cladding

Elastic

Span/240

cladding

Live

Simple span

load

Brittle

Span/300

cladding

Elastic

Span/120

cladding

Live

Cantilever

load

span

Brittle

Span/150

cladding

Profiled metal

Span/180

sheeting

Live

Rafter

Industrial

Vertical

load

supporting

Plastered

building

Span/240

sheeting

Crane

load

(manual

Gantry

Crane

Span/500

operatio

n up to

50 t)

Crane

load

(electric

Gantry

Crane

Span/750

operatio

n up to

50 t)

Crane

Gantry

Crane

Span/100

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

223

load

(electric

operatio

n over

50 t)

No

crane

Crane +

wind

Lateral

Crane +

wind

Live

load

Vertical

Live

load

Other

building

Wind

Lateral

Wind

Elastic

Height/15

cladding

0

Column

Masonry/brittl Height/24

e cladding

0

Relative

displacement

between rails

10 mm

Gantry

supporting

(lateral)

crane

Crane

Span/400

(absolute)

Gantry (elastic

cladding;

Height/20

pendent

0

Column/fram

operated)

e

Gantry (brittle

Height/40

cladding; cab

0

operated)

Elements not

susceptible to Span/300

cracking

Floor and

roof

Elements

susceptible to Span/360

cracking

Elements not

susceptible to Span/150

cracking

Cantilever

Elements

susceptible to Span/180

cracking

Elastic

Height/30

cladding

0

Building

Brittle

Height/50

cladding

0

Inter storey

Storey

---drift

height/300

The following specifications govern the design of flexural members. Flexural

members adequately supported against lateral torsional buckling(laterally

supported beams) is governed by the yield stress. The factored design

moment, M at any section, in a beam due to external loads should satisfy the

relation

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

224

M Md

Where Md = design bending strength of the section

a) The design bending strength of a section which is not susceptible to web

buckling under shear before yielding and factored design shear force does

not exceed 0.6 Vd, where Vd is the design shear strength of the crosssection, the bending strength Md is calculated by the relation

M =

0

Where = 1.0 for plastic and compact sections

=

respectively

0 = partial safety factor

To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads, Md

1.2

should be less than [

0 ]in case of simply supported and

[

1.5

0 ] in cantilever beams.

torsional buckling need not be checked separately in the following cases:

1) Bending is about the minor axis of the section,

2) Section is hollow (rectangular/tubular) or solid bars,

3) In case of bending about the major axis, the non-dimensional

slenderness ratio (LT) is less than 0.4

The design bending strength of laterally unsupported beams as

governed by lateral torsional buckling is calculated by the relation

M =

Where

=

torsional buckling, given by the relation:

1

+[2 + 2 ]0.5

1.0

= 0.5[1 + 0.2 + 2 ]

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

225

= 0.49 for welded steel section

The non-dimensional slenderness ratio, is given by the relation

1.2

Mcr = elastic critical moment calculated by the expression,

=

2

2

2

} = ,

2

The extreme fibre bending compressive stress fcr,b of non-slender rolled steel

sections in the above equation may be approximately calculated from the values

compiled in table in IS: 800 which has been prepared using the following equation:

, =

1.1 2

1

[1 +

20

( )2

]0.5

A simplified equation has been suggested by the Indian standard code IS: 8002007 for computing the elastic lateral buckling moment of prismatic members made

of standard rolled I-sections and welded doubly symmetric I-sections given as

2

[1 +

1

20

]0.5

ry = radius of gyration about the weaker axis

It = torsional constant =

Iw = warping constant

LLT = effective length for lateral torsional buckling

hf = centre to centre distance between flange

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

226

The Indian Standard Code IS: 800-2007 also recommends the use of a more

accurate method given in Annexure E of the code for computing the elastic critical

moment considering loading, support conditions and non-symmetric sections of the

member.

3. Effective length for lateral torsional buckling

In the case of simply supported beams and griders of span length, L,

where no lateral restraint to the compression flanges is provided, but where

each end of the beam is restrained against torsion, the effective length LLT to

be used for different types of restraint at supports and loading conditions are

compiled in table given below.

In the case of cantilever beams of projecting length L, the effective

length LLT to be used in tablefor different support conditions.

4. Shear

The factored shear force V, in a beam due to external actions should

satisfy the relation,

V Vd

0

The nominal shear strength of a cross-section, Vn may be governed by

plastic shear resistance or strength of the web influenced by shear buckling

outlined below;

Table on effective length for simply supported beams, LLT

SI

Conditions of restraint at

Loading condition

NO.

support

Torsional

Warping

Normal

Destabilizing

restraint

restraint

(1)

(4)

(5)

(2)

(3)

Both flanges

Fully

(i)

fully

0.70L

0.85L

restrained

restrained

Compression

Fully

(ii)

flange fully

0.75L

0.90L

restrained

restrained

Both flanges

Fully

(iii)

fully

0.80L

0.95L

restrained

restrained

Compression

Fully

flange

(iv)

0.85L

1.00L

restrained

partially

restrained

Warping not

Fully

(v)

restrained in

0.00L

1.20L

restrained

both flanges

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

227

(vi)

(vii)

Partially

restrained by

bottom flange

support

connection

Partially

restrained by

bottom flange

bearing

support

Warping not

restrained in

both flanges

1.0L+2D

1.2L+2D

Warping not

restrained in

both flanges

1.2L+2D

1.4L+2D

Notes:

1. Torsional restraint prevents rotation about the longitudinal axis

2. Warping restraint prevents rotation of the flange in its plane.

3. D is overall depth of the beam

228

The nominal plastic shear resistance under pure shear is expressed by the

relation,

Vn = Vp

Where =

Av = shear area

fyw = yield strength of the web

the shear area for various sections

is computed using the following relations:

a) I and channel sections

Major axis bending. Minor axis bending

Hot-rolled: h.tw

Hot-rolled or welded: 2b tf

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

229

Loaded parallel to depth (h): [Ah/(b+h)]

Loaded parallel to width (b): [Ab/(b+h)]

c) Circular hollow tubes of uniform thickness: [ 2 A/]

d) Plates and solid bars: A

Where

A = cross-section of area

b= overall depth of tubular section, breadth of I-section flanges

d= clear depth of web between flanges

h= overall depth of the section

tf= thickness of the flange

tw= thickness of the web

2) Resistance to shear buckling

The resistance to shear buckling should be verified when

> 67

5.35

=

250

The nominal shear strength, Vn of webs with or without intermediate

stiffeners as governed by buckling may be evaluated using one of the

following methods:

(a) Simple post-critical method

The simple post-critical method, based on shear buckling strength can

be used for webs of I-sections griders, with or without intermediate

transverse stiffeners, provided that the web has transverse stiffeners at

the supports.

The nominal shear strength is given by:

Vn = Vcr

Where

Vcr = shear force corresponding to web buckling

= (AvTb)

Tb = shear stress corresponding to web buckling determined as follows:

1) When w 0.8

=

= [1 0.8 0.8 ]

3) When w 1.2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

230

32

Where w = non-dimensional web slenderness ratio for shear

buckling stress, given by

=

3 ,

=

12(1 2 )

Where

= Poissons ratio

Kw= 5.35 when transverse stiffeners are provided only at supports

= 4+ 5.35/ (c/d)2 for (c/d) < 1.0

= 5.35 +4.0 / (c/d)2 for (c/d) 1.0

Where c, d are the spacing of transverse stiffeners and depth of

web, respectively.

(b) Tension field method

This method is based on the post-shear buckling strength. It is

normally used for webs with intermediate transverse stiffeners. In the

tension field method, the nominal shear resistance, Vn, is given by

Vn= Vtf

Where

= + 0.9 sin

Where Tb = buckling strength as computed from the simple postcritical method.

fv = yield strength of the tension field computed as

0.5

2

=

32 + 2

= 1.5 sin 2

= inclination of the tension field

= tan1

= cos + sin

fyw = yield stress of the web

c = spacing of stiffeners in the web

Tb= shear stress corresponding

sc, st = anchorage lengths of the tension flange respectively, obtained

from the relation:

2

=

sin

0.5

231

plate ( disregarding any edge stiffener) after accounting for the axial

force in the cross-section, and is calculated as:

=

0.25 2

1

/0

fyf = yield stress of the flange

CALCULATIONS:

Design:

The unit weight of reinforced concrete deck slab

= 25 kN/m3

= 2 kN/m2

3.00m

1.2 m

1.2 m

1.2 m

3.60m

(1) DESIGN OF SECONDARY BEAMS:

Each secondary beams supports load from strip 1.2 m wide. Uniformly

distributed load per meter length of the beam:

(a) Load Support:

= 1.2 x 1x

100

1000

x25 = 3 kN

= 1.2x1x2 = 2.4 kN

= 0.50 kN

232

The effective span of the beam is 3m the maximum bending moment, M

occurs at the centre.

2

=

8

M=

6x32

= 6.75 kN m

8

6x3

=

= 9 kN

2

2

F=

It is assumed that the value of yield stress fy for the structural steel is 250

N/mm2 (Mpa). The ratioss

&

may be assumed below.

= = 0.66x250 = 165 kN/mm2

(d) Section Modulus Required:

z=

M

6.75x1000x1000

=

= 40909.09 mm3

165

D

T

&

than 8 and 40, respectively. The trial section of beam selected may have

more of section, Z x 1.5 times more than that needed.

The trial section modulus

= 1.5 x 40909.09 = 61363.635 mm3

(e) Check for Section Modulus:

D

200

=

= 40

T

5.0

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

233

T

5.0

=

= 1.47 < 2.00

3.4

Also

1 179.5

=

= 52.79 < 85

3.4

The effective length of compression flange of beam may be assumed equal

to effective span,

0.7x3x1000

=

= 179.4

11.7

From Table 6.1(b), IS: 800-1984 maximum permissible bending stress.

= 170, = 75

= 180, = 71

= 179.4, =?

= 75

75 71

179.4 170 = 71.24 N/2

180 170

z=

6.75x1000x1000

= 94.75 cm3

71.24

purposes.

(f) Properties of Trial Sections:

From steel sections tables, ISJB 200 @ 0.99 kN/m

Section Modulus provided Zxx = 78.1 x 10 3 mm3

Moment of Inertia, Ixx = 780.7 x 104 mm4

Thickness of web tw = 3.4 mm

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

234

Mean Thickness of Flange, tf = 9.4 mm

(g) Check for Shear Force:

F

9

200x3.4

= 13.23 N/2

= 0.4x = 0.4 x 250 = 100 > . 13.23

(h) Check for Deflection:

5 4

=

342 EI

5x6x34 x(1000)4

= 3.959 mm

342x2.047x105 x780.7x104

Allowable deflection

=

3000

=

= 9.23 mm

325

325

Hence, design is satisfactory.

(2) DESIGN OF MAIN BEAM:

(a) Load Supported:

The effective span is taken as distance c/c of bearings

Effective span = 3.60 m

Load transferred from each secondary beam = 6 x 1.2 = 7.2 kN

Assume self-weight of beam = 2 kN/m

(b) Bending moment:

The maximum bending moment occurs at centre due to UDL

1 = 16 + 2 = 18

235

M1 =

1 2

18x3.62

=

= 29.16 kN m

8

8

7.2 x 1.2

2

= 4.32 kN

M2 = moment due to secondary beam

No. of secondary beams = 2

2 2

= 13.99 kN m

8

M2 =

The secondary beams are connected to the web at 1.2 m c/c. The

compression flange is assumed to the fully supported against lateral

deflection.

(c) Permissible Bending Stress:

It is assumed that the value of yield stress, fy for the structural steel is 250

N/mm2(Mpa). The ratioss

&

may be assumed as under (for laterally supported beam)

= = 0.66x250 = 165 kN/mm2

(d) Section Modulus Required:

z=

M

43.15x1000x1000

=

= 261515.1515 mm3

165

Section modulus provided

= 618.9 x 103 mm3

Moment of Inertia I = 7736.5 x 104 mm4

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

236

Depth of section, h = 250 mm

Total load on griders inclusive of its own weight

= 6.75x1.2x1.2 + 0.51x3.60 = 11.556 kN

Maximum Shear Force

=

11.556

= 5.778 kN

2

Avg. shear stress

, =

5.778x1000

= 3.349 N/mm2

250x6.9

= 0.4x = 0.4 x 250 = 100 > . 3.349

Hence, safe.

(f) Check for Moment:

z=

M = . =

165x618.9x1000

1000x1000

237

15.1 INTRODUCTION:

An element or a member subjected to primary compression is called a

compression member.

There are two main types of such members

1. Column and

2. Struts

1. Column: The vertical compression member in a building is called column

or stanchion.

2. Strut: The structural member carrying compressive load in a truss is

called strut.

15.2STEEL COLUMNS:

Steel columns are of the following types:

a. Struts of one or two angles:

These are used for compression members in roof trusses, light towers, and

lattice griders. The two angles of double struts are riveted together by

rivets driven through washers placed between the two angles at intervals of

4 to 6ft.

b. Starred angles:

Starred angles of two or four connected by batten plate spaced at intervals

of 3 to 4ft. these are used to support the light loads.

c. Latticed columns:

These are made up of channels or angles connected by lattice bars are

often used where light loads are to be supported on long columns.

d. Rolled H-columns:

These are obtainable with depths ranging from 6 to 16 and are now

commonly used instead of built-up columns in steel skeleton construction.

e. Built-up columns:

These are usually H-shaped section formed by a combination of plates and

angles although box-columns with two or more webs are not uncommonly

used in heavy building frames.

f. Top chord sections:

These are made up of heavy trusses are usually unsymmetrical and are

made of two rolled or built-up channel sections and cover plate. The

open(bottom) side of the section is latticed.

g. Columns for bents:

These are sometimes made up of a pair of channels and a I-beam with

batten plates at intervals of 3 to 4ft. connecting the flanges of the channels.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

238

Columns made of four angles and a web-plate are commonly used in mill

buildings bents.

h. Battened columns:

Battened columns are those in which two component parts of the column

are connected only by battened plates. They are decidedly inferior to

latticed columns and should be avoided if a continuous plate or latticing

can be used instead.

Effective length is defined as that length of column for which it acts as if both

the ends are hinged. At these points, the flexure changes its sign or in other words it is

the distance between two points of zero moments.

Effective length for different end conditions are enlisted in Table-5.2 of IS: 8001984

Radius of Gyration:

Radius of gyration of a section is given by

=

A= area of cross-section

Slenderness Ratio:

Slenderness ratio is the ratio of effective length to the least radius of gyration.

It is denoted by

=

The maximum slenderness ratio of a strut should not exceed the values given in table3.1 of IS: 800-1984.

Table 15.1: Maximum slenderness ratio

S.No.

1.

Member

A member carrying

compressive loads

resulting from dead and

imposed loads

Maximum slenderness

180

239

2.

3.

A member subjected to

compressive forces

resulting from wind/

earthquake forces provided

the deformation of such

member does not

adversely affect the stress

in any part of the structure

A member normally

carrying tension but

subjected to reversal of

stresses due to wind or

earthquake forces

250

350

The direct stress in compression on the cross-sectional area of axially loaded

compression members shall not exceed 0.6fy nor calculated using the formula.

fy= yield stress of steel, in Mpa.

fcc= elastic critical stress in compression =

2E

2

n = a factor assumed as 1.4 the values of ac for steel with various yield stress

are given in Table-4.3 of IS: 800-1984

strut):

The maximum axial compressive load P which can be permitted on a

compression member is given by

P = x A

Where P= axial compressive load (N)

ac= permissible stress in axial compression (Mpa)

A= effective cross-sectional area of the member (mm2)

Note: The axial compressive load (or) load carrying capacity of a column (or)

compression member depends on the following parameters

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

240

(i)

Slenderness rtatio, =

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Permissible stress in axial compression (ac)

Effective cross-sectional area of the member (A)

In design of steel columns the following should be taken into consideration:

No part of steel column should be less than thick

No material whether in a body of the column or used as a lattice bar or

stay plate, shall be of less thickness than 1/32 of its unsupported width,

measured between centers of rivets transversely, or 1/6 of the distance

between center of rivets in the direction of stress.

Tie-plates are to have not less than 4 rivets and are to be spaced so that

the ratio of length to the least radius of gyration of the parts connected

does not exceed 40, the distance between nearest rivets of two stay

plates in this case being considered as length

In built-up columns the thickness of any outstanding member (for

example, the outstanding legs of angles) shall not be less than 1/12 of

the width of the outstanding portion.

Base plates for steel column are usually made of steel plates and

shapes.

Cast-iron bases are sometimes used for very heavy columns. Ribbed

cases may also be used instead of plates and when bolted to the

columns, add greatly to the stability of the supporting members

because of their greater width.

Lally columns:

These are columns made up of a cylindrical steel pipe shell filled with

1

2

reinforced with only the steel pipe shell. Special types of columns are

obtainable with additional reinforcement consisting of steel pipe,

reinforcing bars or structural steel shapes. The light weight column of

1

inches in

Composite columns:

These are columns in which a concrete core is further reinforced with a

steel or cast-iron core designed to support a part of the load. Steel cores

may be structural H-sections or four angles, latticed or battened; cast-iron

cores are usually either solid shafts or hollow pipe sections. The column

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

241

circumference and enclosed by spirals.

1. Design strength: steel structural members carrying usually fail by flexural

buckling. The buckling strength is affected by the residual stresses, initial

curvature and accidental eccentricities if the load. These factors are considered

while computing the strength of structural steel members subjected to axial

compression by introducing an imperfection factor and categorizing the

columns under buckling class a, b, c or d as shown in the table no.1

Table 1:

Buckling class

0.21

0.34

0.49

0.76

<

Where

=

Where = effective cross-sectional area of the member

=design compressive stress computed by using the following equation:

Where =

0

=

2 2

0.5

0 0

0.5 1 + 0 + 2

Where

2

2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

242

Table 15.2

= imperfection factor compiled in table

= stress reduction factor as shown in the table for different buckling classes,

slenderness ratios and yield stresses.

1

+ 2 2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

0.5

243

The calculated values of the design compressive stress, fcd for different

buckling classes a, b, c or d are compiled in table no.2 for different types rolled steel

cross-section such as I, channel, angle, tee, solid and built up sections. The stress

reduction factor and design compressive stress fcd for different buckling classes,

yield stresses and effective slenderness ratios is compiled in the code book and these

are useful in design computations. In addition, the curves corresponding to different

buckling classes are shown in non- dimensional form in the figure below.

compression members depends upon the end support conditions influencing

the rotation and translation of the member. The end conditions are either

restrained or free depending upon the type construction at supports. The actual

length is generally taken from centre to centre of its intersections with a free

end, the free end standing length from the centre of the intersecting member at

the supported end is considered as the actual length.

If L is the actual length of the compression member, the effective length varies

from 0.65L to 2L depending upon the type of support and boundary conditions.

The effective length KL can be calculated using table no.3 for different types of

boundary conditions encountered in practice.

In case of bolted, riveted or welded trusses and braces frames, the effective

length, KL of the compression members should be taken as 0.7 to 1.0 times the

distance between centre's of connections, depending on the degree of end restraint

provided by the connection. In the case of members of trusses, effective length,

KL is taken as the distance between the centre's of intersection.

3. Column bases:column bases should be designed to have sufficient strength

and stiffness to transmit the axial force, bending moments and shear forces

developed at the base of the columns without exceeding the load carrying

capacity of the supports. Suitable anchor bolts and shear keys are designed

whenever necessary.

The nominal bearing pressure between the base plate and the support may be

determined on the basis of linearly varying distribution of pressure. The maximum

bearing pressure should not exceed the bearing strength should exceed the bearing

strength which is limited to 0.6fck, where

fck = smaller of the characteristic cube strength of concrete or bedding material

In case where the base plate is larger than the required to limit the bearing

pressure, an equal projection c of the base plate beyond the face of the column and

gusset may be taken as effective in transferring the column load as shown in the

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

244

table no.2, such that the bearing pressure on the effective area does not exceed the

bearing capacity of the concrete base.

When a column is provided with a slab base, the minimum thickness, ts of the

rectangular slab base supporting the column under axial compression is calculated

by the relation

(2.5(^2 0.3^2 ) 0 )

>

Table 15.3

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

245

Where w = uniform pressure from below, on th slab base under the factored load axial

compression.

, = larger and smaller projection, respectively of the slab base beyond the

rectangle circumscribing the column

= flange thickness of compression member.

When only the effective area of the base plate is used, 2 may be used in the above

equation instead of 2 0.3 2 .

4. Design of lacings: columns comprising two main components are generally

Tied together by lacings and battens for composite action. Typical examples of

different types of lacings used in columns are shown in the figure given below

The following specifications are applicable for design of laced columns:

a) The lacing is proportioned to resist a total transverse shear Vt at at any

point in the member equal to at least 2.5 percent of the axial force in the

member and shall be divided equality among all transverse lacing systems

in parallel planes.

b) The slenderness ratio (KL/r) of the lacing bars should not exceed 145. The

effective length of the lacing bars should be taken as he length between the

inner end fasteners of the bars for single lacing and 0.7 times the distance

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

246

between the inner ends of welds connecting the lacing bars to the member.

The effective slenderness ratio (KL/r)e, of laced columns should be taken

as 1.05 times the (KL/r)0 , the actual maximum slenderness ratio, in order

to account for shear deformation effects.

c) The minimum width of lacing bars in bolted/riveted connections should be

three times the nominal diameter of the end bolt or rivet.

d) The thickness of the lacing bars should be less not than one-fortieth of its

effective length for double lacings. The inclination of the lacings and onesixtieth of the effective length for double lacings. The inclination of the

lacing bars should lie in the range of 40 to 70 degrees to the axis of the

member.

The maximum spacing of lacing bars should be such that maximum

slenderness ratio of the components of the main member between consecutive

lacing connections is not greater than 50 to 0.7 times the most unfavorable

slenderness ratio of the member as a whole, whichever is less.

5. Design of battens: compression members built up of two components

connected by battens should preferably have the same cross-section

symmetrically arranged about their major axis.

The code also recommends that the compression member should have

a radius of gyration about the axis perpendicular to the plane of the batten not

less than the radius of gyration about the axis parallel to the plane of the batten

as shown in the figure

The following specifications are applicable for the design of battens:

(a.) Battens are designed to resist the bending moment and transverse shear

force Vt equal to 2.5 per cent of the total axial force on the whole

compression member. They are also designed to resist simultaneously a

shear force and a moment computed by the equations

And =

C = distance between centre- to-centre of battens in the longitudinal

direction

N = number of parallel planes of battens

S = minimum transverse distance between the centroid of the rivet/bolt

group/ welding connecting the batten to the main member.

247

(b.) The thickness of the plates used as battens should be not less than onefortieth of the distance between the inner-most connecting line of rivets,

bolts or welds, the end battens should have an effective depth,

longitudinally not less than the perpendicular distance between the

centroids of the main members.

The intermediate battens should have an effective depth of not more

than three quarters of this distance, but in no case should the effective depth of

any batten be less than twice the width of one member, in the plane of the

battens. The effective depth of the batten is taken as the longitudinal distance

between the outer-most bolts, rivets or welds at the ends.

(c.) The spacing of the battens, centre-to-centre of its end fastenings, should be

such that the slenderness ratio (KL/r) of any component over that distance

should not exceed a value of 50, nor be greater than 0.7 times the

slenderness ratio of the member as a whole about its axis parallel to the

battens (z z).

(d.) Tie plates, members provided at the ends of battened or laced members,

should also be designed in the same method as battens.

General aspects: flexural members such as beams should have adequate design

strength to resist the bending moments and shear forces resulting from impose loads.

In addition, they should satisfy the serviceability criteria comprising the deflection

limits specified in the table no.4 for different types of structural members. The

maximum deflection under service loads should not exceed the limits expressed as a

function of the span given in the code. The effective span of the beam is generally

taken as the distance the centre of the supports.

Design strength in flexure: the following specifications govern the design of flexural

members. Flexural members adequately supported against lateral torsion buckling

(laterally supported beams) are governed by the yield stress. The factored design

moment, M at any section, in a beam due to external loads should satisfy the relation

Where = design bending strength of the section

a.) The design bending strength of a section which is not susceptible to web

buckling under shear before yielding and factored design shear force does

not exceed 0.6 Vd, where Vd is the design shear strength of the crosssection, bending strength Md is calculated by the relation

248

=

respectively

= yield stress of the material

0 = partial safety factor

To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads Md should b less

[1.2_ _ ]

[1.5_ _ ]

than

in case of simply supported and

in cantilever beams.

0

0

b.) In the case of laterally supported beams, the resistance to lateral torsional

buckling need not be checked separately in the following cases:

1) Bending is about the minor axis of the section

2) Section is hollow (rectangular/tubular) or solid bars,

3) In case of bending about the axis, the non-dimensional slenderness

ratio (LT) is less than 0.4.

The design loading strength of laterally unsupported bemas as governed by

lateral torsional buckling is calculated by the relation

=

Where = design bending compressive stress, computed as

=

buckling, given by the relation:

1

2

2 0.5

1.0

= 0.5 1 + 0.2 + 2

The imperfection parameter is given by

= 0.21 for rolled steel section

= 0.49 for welded steel section

249

1.2

= elastic critical moment calculated by the expression

= ,

sections in the above equation may be approximately calculated from the

values from steel tables which have been prepared using the following

equation:

, =

1.1 2

1

1+

20

2 0.5

CALCULATIONS:

1. Selection of Trial Section:

Length of the column = 3.2 m

Effective length of column

Load = 574.253 kN

= . = . . =

In order to support load, the slenderness ratio of the rolled steel column

and the value of yield stress for the steel may be taken 60 and 250 N/mm2

respectively.

Allowable working stress from IS: 800-1984

= 122 N/mm2

Effective sectional area required =

574.253x100

122

= 4706.99 mm2

250

From steel table try ISWB600A @ 1.451 kN/m section.

Sectional area A = 18486 mm2

= 250.1

= 53.5

Radius of gyration

3. Slenderness Ratio:

= 53.5

Slenderness ratio

2720

53.5

= 50.84

From IS: 800-1984, allowable axial stress in compression for having yield stress

250 N/mm2

= 250 N/mm2

= 132

= 122

= ?

= 50

= 60

= 50.84

= 122

132 122

60 50.84 = 112.84 N/mm2

60 50

p=

112.84x18486

= 2085.96 kN

1000

Hence, safe.

251

Design of connections and splices is a critical aspect of the design process.

Because each fabricator has unique equipment and methods, the detailed

configuration of connections plays an important part in determining the cost of the

fabricated product. Consequently, the detailed design of these elements is a part of the

work performed by the fabricator. In the industry, this work is known as detailing.

Usually, the structural engineer indicates the type of connections and type and

size of fasteners required; for example, framed connections with 7/8 inches in A325

bolts in bearing-type joints, or the type of connection with reference to IS:800

requirements. For beams, the design drawings should specify the reactions. If, how

ever, the reactions are not noted, the detailer will determine the reactions from the

uniform load capacity (tabulated in IS steel manual), giving due considerations to the

effect of large concentrated loads near the connection. For connections resisting

lateral loads, live, wind, or seismic, the design drawing should stipulate the forces and

moments to be carried. Generally, the design should also include a sketch showing the

type of moment connection desired.

The various types of connections used for connecting the structural members

are given below:

1.

2.

3.

Riveted connections.

Bolted connections.

Welded connections.

These connections are named after the type of fastening (viz., rivets, bolts and

nuts, pins and welds) used for connecting the structural members.

1.

Rivets :

A piece of round steel forged in place to connect two or more than two steel members

together is known as rivet. The rivet for structural purposes are manufactured from

mild steel and high tensile rivet bars. A rivet consists of a head and a body. The body

of rivet is termed as shank. The rivets are manufactured in different lengths to suit

different purposes. The sizes of rivets is expressed by the diameter of the shank.

For driving the rivets, they are heated till they become red hot and are then

placed in the hole. Keeping the rivets pressed from one side, a number of blows are

applied and a head at other end is formed. The hot-driven rivets are divided into

following three types, according to the method of rivet-driving.

1.

2.

3.

Hand driven rivets.

Field rivets.

252

i)

Rivet heads:

The proportions of various shapes of rivet heads have been expressed in terms

of diameter D of shank of rivet. The snap head is also termed as round head and

button head. The snap heads are used for rivets connecting structural members. The

countersunk heads are used to provide a flush surface.

ii)

Rivet holes:

The rivet holes are made in the plates or structural members by one of the following

methods:

1.

Punching

2.

Drilling.

When the rivet holes are made by punching , the holes are not perfect, but

taper. A punch damages the material around the hole. The operation known as

reaming is done in the hole made by punching.

When the rivet holes are made by drilling, the holes are perfect and provide

good alignment for driving the rivets.

The diameter of a rivet hole is made larger than the nominal diameter of the

rivet by 1.5 mm of rivets less than or equal to 25 mm diameter and by 2 mm for

diameters exceeding 25 mm.

Riveted joint:

The riveted joints are of two types:

1.

a.

i.

b.

i.

2.

a.

b.

Lap joint

Single riveted lap joint

Chain riveted lap joint

Double riveted lap joint

Zigzag riveted lap joint

Butt joint

Single cover butt joint

Double cover butt joint

There are two modes of transmission of load in riveted joints. When the load is

transmitted by bearing between plates and shanks of rivets, the rivets are subjected to

shear. When the shear of rivets is only across one cross section of the rivet, it is

known as single shear. When the shear of rivet is across two cross-section of the

rivet, it is known as double shear.

253

The failure of a riveted joint may take place in any of the following ways:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Shear failure of plates

Tearing failure of plates

Bearing failure of plates

Splitting failure of plates at the edges.

Bearing failure of rivets

16.3 Arrangements of Rivets

The rivets in a riveted joint are arranged into two forms:

1. Chain riveting

2. Diamond riveting

16.4 Specifications for design of riveted joints:

1.

The centroidal axes of the members meeting at a joint should intersect at one

point, and if there is any eccentricity. Adequate resistance should be provided in the

connection.

2.

The centre of gravity of group of rivets should be on the line of action of load

whenever practicable.

3.

Pitch:

Minimum pitch: The distance between centres of adjacent rivets should not be

less than 2.5 times the gross diameter of the rivet.

Maximum pitch

(i) The maximum pitch should not exceed 12t or 200 mm whichever is less in

compression member, and 16t or 200 mm whichever is less in case of tension

member, when the line of rivets lies in the direction of stress. In the case of

compression members in which the forces are transferred through the butting faces,

this distance shall not exceed 4.5 times the diameter of the rivets for a distance from

the abutting faces equal to 1.5 times the width of the member.

(ii) The distance between centers of any two consecutive rivets in a line adjacent and

parallel to an edge of an outside plate shall not exceed (100mm + 4t) or 200 mm,

whichever is less in compression or tension members.

(iii)When the rivets are staggered at equal intervals and the gauges does not exceed 75

mm, the distances specified in Para i and ii between centres of rivets may be

increased by 50 percent.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

254

(iv) If the line of rivets (including tacking rivets) does lie in the direction of stress,

the maximum pitch should not exceed 32 t or 300 mm whichever is less where t is the

thickness of the thinner outside plate.

4.

Edge distance:

A minimum edge distance of approximately 1.5 times the gross diameter of

the rivet measured from the centre of the rivet hole is provided in the riveted joint

Table 16.1

Edge distance of holes

Gross diameter of rivet

Edge Distance of Hole

distance to sheared or

Distance to rolled

mm

hand flame cut edge

machine flame cut or

mm

planed edge

Mm

13.5 & below

19

17

15.5

25

22

17.5

29

25

19.5

32

29

21.5

32

29

23.5

38

32

25.5

44

38

29.0

51

44

32.0

57

51

35.0

57

51

5. Rivets through packings:

The rivets carrying calculated shear stress through a packing greater than 6

mm thick shall be increased above number required by normal calculations by 2.5

percent for each 2 mm thickness of packing. For double shear connections packed

on both sides, the number of additional rivets required shall be determined from the

thickness of the thicker packing. The additional rivets should preferably be placed in

an extension of the packing. When the properly fitted packing are subjected to direct

compression, then, the above mentioned specifications shall not apply.

6. Long grip rivets

When the grip of rivets carrying calculated loads exceeds 6 times the diameter

of the holes, then, the rivets are subjected to bending in addition to shear and bearing.

The number of rivets required by normal calculations shall be increased by not less

than one percent for each additional 1.6 mm of grip, but the grip shall not exceed 8

times the diameter of the holes.

7. Rivet line distance

255

When two or more parts are connected together, a line of rivet shall be

provided at a distance of not more than 37 mm + 4t from the nearest edge where t is

the thickness in mm of thinner outside plate. In case steel work is not exposed to

weather, this may be increased to 12t

8. Tacking rivets:

When the maximum distance between centres of two adjacent rivets

connecting the members subjected to either compression or tension exceeds the

maximum pitch, then, the tacking rivets not subjected to calculated stresses shall be

used

The tacking rivets shall have a pitch in line not exceeding 32 times the

thickness of the outside plate or 300 mm whichever is less. Wherever the plates are

exposed to the weather, the pitch in line not exceed 16 times the thickness of the

outside plate or 200 mm , whichever is less. In both cases, the lines of rivets shall not

be apart at a distance greater than these pitches.

For the design and construction composed of two flats, angles, channels or tees in

contact back or separated back to back by a distance not exceeding the aggregate

thickness of the connected parts, tacking rivets with solid distance pieces where the

parts are separated, shall be provided at a pitch in line not exceeding 1000 mm.

16.5 Design procedure for riveted joint:

For the design of a lap joint or butt joint the thickness of plates to be joined are

known and the joint is designed for the full strength of the plate. For the design of a

structural steel work, force (pull or push) to be transmitted by the joint is known and

riveted joint can be designed. Following are the usual steps for the design of a riveted

joint:

Step1: The size of the rivet is determined for the unwins formula i.e.,

1

= 6.04 ()

d = nominal diameter of rivet

The diameter of the rivet computed is rounded off to available size of rivets.

The rivets are manufactured in nominal diameters of 12, 14, 16 .18, 20, 22, 24, 30, 33,

36, 39, 42 and 48mm.

In structural steel work, rivets of nominal diameter of 16, 18, 20 and 22 mm are used.

The nominal diameter of rivets to be used in a joint is assumed.

Step 2: The strength of rivets in shearing and bearing are computed. The working

stress in rivets and plates are adopted as per BIS. The rivet value R is found. For

designing lap joint or butt joint tearing strength of plate is determined as under:

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

256

= . .

Where g = gauge of rivets to be adopted

t = thickness of plate

= working stress in direct tension for plate

The tearing strength of plate should not exceed the rivet value R( Ps or Pb which ever

is less) or

. .

From this relation gauge of the rivets is determined.

In structural steel work, force to be transmitted by the riveted joint and the

rivet value are known. Hence number of rivets requested to be provided in the joint

can be computed, as follows:

No. of rivets required in the joint =

force

rivet value

The number of rivets thus obtained is provided on one side of the joint and an

equal number of rivets is provided on the other side of joint also.

For the design of joint in a tie member consisting of a flat, width/thickness of

the flat is known. The section is assumed to be reduced by rivet holes, depending

upon the arrangement of rivets to be provided. The strength of flat at weakest section

is equated to the pull transmitted at the joint.

. . = P

16.6 Bolted Connections:

Introduction

Structural steel members are usually assembled using different types of

elements such as plates, angles, channels, tee and I-sections. Connections are made

using rivets or bolts to transfer the forces and moments from one member to another.

They are also required to extend the length of the members. The connections should

be designed to avoid the failure of the fasteners before the failure of the principal

member.

Design principals of connections

16.6.1 Design strength

The evaluation of design strength of connection should be evaluated using the

partial safety factors compiled in table of load combinations. In general, connection

failure may be avoided by adopting a higher safety for the joints than the members.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

257

The minimum spacing between the centre of a fastener should be not less than

2.5 times the diameter of the fastener. The maximum spacing between the centre of

any two adjacent fasteners should not exceed 32 t or 300 mm, whichever is less,

where f is the thickness of the thinner plate.

Also the distance between the centres of two adjacent fasteners (pitch ) in a

line lying in the direction of stress, should not exceed 16t or 200 mm, whichever less,

in tension members; and 12t or 200mm , whichever is less in compression members,

where f is the thickness of the thinner plate.

16.6.3 Edge and end distance

The minimum and end distances from the centre of any hole to the nearest

edge of a plate should be not less than 1.7 times the hole diameter in case of sheared

or hand-flame cut edge; 1.5 times the hole diameter in case of rolled, machine-flame

cut, sawn and plane edges.

The maximum edge distance to the nearest line of fasteners from an edge of

any un-stiffened part should not exceed 12t, where =(250/fy)0.5 and t is the

thickness of the thinner outer plate. This clause is not applicable to fasteners

interconnecting the components of back-to-back tension members. Where the

members are exposed to corrosive influences, the maximum edge distance should not

exceed 40 mm plus 4t, where t is the thickness of the thinner connected plate.

The bolt diameter, pitch edge distances as per IS: 800-2007 are compiled in

table given below.

Table :16.2 Bolt diameter, pitch and edge distances

Nominal diameter of bolt(mm)

12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 Above

36

Diameter of hole(mm)

13

15 18 20 22 24 26 30 33 Bolt dia.

+ 3 mm

20

26 30 34 37 40 44 51 56 1.7 x

hole

diameter

19

23 27 30 33 36 39 45 50 1.5 x

hole

diameter

Maximum pitch = 2.5 x nominal diameter of bolt

258

(a) Parts in tension = 16 t or 200 mm whichever is less

(b) Parts in compression = 12 t or 200 mm whichever is less

The design strength of the bolt Vdsb based on shear strength is given by the relation:

=

nn = number of shear planes with threads intercepting the shear plane

ns = number of shear planes without threads intercepting the shear plane

Asb = nominal plain shank area of the bolt

Anb = net shear area of the bolt at threads, may be taken as the area corresponding to

root diameter at the thread

ij = reduction factor for the overloading of end bolts

lg = reduction factor for the effect of large grip length

pk = reduction factor for packing plates in excess of 6mm

= 1.075

(200)

= 1.075 0.005

When the grip length, lg (equal to the total thickness of the connected plates) exceeds

5 times the diameter, d of the bolts, the design shear capacity should be reduced by a

factor lg, given by

=

8

8

=

3 +

(3 + )

Also should not exceed and the grip length, lg should in no case be greater

than 8d. the design shear capacity of bolts carrying shear through a packing plate in

excess of 6 mm should be decreased by a factor of given by a relation,

= (1 0.0125 )

Where tpk = thickness of the thicker packing expressed in mm.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

259

The nominal strength capacity of bolt Tnb depends on the ultimate tensile strength of

the bolt and the net tensile stress area. The factored tensile force, Tb should satisfy the

relation:

Where

=

(0.90 ) <

fyb = yield stress of the bolt

An = net tensile stress area at the bottom of the thread of the bolt

Asb = shank area of the bolt

mb = partial safety factor for ultimate stress = 1.25

m0 = partial safety factor yield stress = 1.10

The design capacity of ordinary bolts (Grade 4.6) based on the net cross-sectional

area in tension and single shear are compiled in Table

Table : 16.3 design capacity of ordinary bolts ( Grade 4.6)

Bolt size

diameter

d(mm)

Tensile

stress area

(Anb)(mm2)

Tension

capacity Tb

(KN) tnb =

272 Mpa

(12)

16

20

(22)

24

(27)

30

36

84.3

157.0

245.0

303.0

353.0

469.0

561.0

817.0

22.9

42.7

66.6

82.4

96.0

124.8

152.5

222.2

Single

shear

capacity,

Vsb(kN)

vnsb = 185

Mpa

15.6

29.0

45.3

56.0

65.3

84.9

103.8

151.1

Minimum

thickness of

ply for bolt

bearing vnpb

= 800 Mpa

tbb = tc, mm

1.6

2.3

2.8

3.2

3.4

3.9

4.3

5.2

Sizes in

brackets not

preferred

260

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

General features

Welded connections result in considerable savings in material. It has the added

advantage of rapidity of construction of complicated steel structures involving the

assembly of several individual steel components into an integrated steel structure.

Welding obviates the formation of holes in the member and permit design based on

continuity at supports resulting in economy of material. Welding offers airtight and

watertight jointing of structural elements and hence is employed in the construction of

water/oil storage tanks, ships etc. Welded connections are usually aesthetic in

appearance and appear less clustered in comparison with bolted connections.

In addition, welded connections improve the rigidity of the complete structure

resulting in superior structural behavior at various limit states. Proper workmanship is

essential to produce structurally sound and effective welds connecting structural, steel

components. In the case of normal steel structures arc welding is adopted and the

design of welds should conform to the Indian Standard Codes IS: 816 and IS: 9595.

16.7.1 Types of welds

The most common types of welds used in steel structures are

Fillet welds

Butt welds

Plug welds

Slot welds

Fillet welds are the most commonly used type to connect structural

components meeting at an angle (generally between 60 and 120 degrees), while butt

or groove welds are used to connect horizontal members.

The size of fillet weld should be not less than 3 mm. The size of the fillet

weld is generally taken as the minimum leg length and is related to the thickness of

the connected member as detailed in Table given below:

Table :16.4 minimum size of the fillet weld (Table 21 of IS: 800-2007)

SI

No.

Over

(1)

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

(2)

10

20

32

Thickness of

thicker part

(mm)

Up to and

including

(3)

10

20

32

50

Minimum size

of weld

(mm)

(4)

3

5

6

10

261

For purposes of stress calculation in fillet welds joining faces inclined to each other,

the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times the fillet size, where K is a

constant, depending upon the angle between the fusion faces. As compiled in Table

given below.

Table:16.4 values of K for different angles between fusion faces.

Angle

between

Fusion

Faces

Constant

K

600

to

910

910

to

1000

1010

to

1060

1070

to

1130

1140

to

1200

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

The effective length of fillet weld is taken as the length of specified size and

required throat thickness, with minimum length not less than four times the size of the

weld.

Design strength of a fillet weld, fwd is based on the throat area and is compute

as

Where =

= partial safety factor

(b) Butt welds

When the joining plates are of equal thickness, the butt weld size is defined by

the throat thickness, taken as the thickness of the plate. If the joining plates are of

unequal thickness, the size of the weld corresponds to the thickness of the thinner

plate. The design strength of butt welds depends upon the throat thickness and the

stresses are limited to those permitted in the parent metal. However for site welds, the

partial safety factor = 1.5.

(c) Plug and Slot welds

Plug and slot weld s are not used exclusively in steel construction. When it is

not possible to use fillet welds or when the length of the fillet weld is limited, plug

and slot welds are used to supplement fillet welds. Plug welds are occasionally used

to fill up holes in construction, such as beam-to-column seat angles where temporary

erection bolts have been placed to align members prior to welding. The penetration of

these welds into base metal is difficult to ascertain. Moreover the inspection of these

welds is difficult. Hence, they are normally not used to connect members subjected to

tensile forces. Slot and plug welds are useful in preventing overlapping parts from

buckling.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

262

Beam ISHB 200

D=250 mm;

b=250 mm;

tf =9.7 mm;

tw =6.9 mm;

D=600 mm;

b=250 mm;

yield stress

245 N/mm2

Moment

52 kN-m

Axial

71.80 kN

Shear

4 kN

Bolt Design

Flange force =

=

=

M

Dtw

52x1000

2506.9

4

2

237.4 kN

Tension on each bolts

237.4/4

59.35 kN

Allowable tension in SI units

=

=

44 x xd 2

4 x 25.4 2

x 4.448

61 kN

Hence safe

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

263

force on flange

(1.024 2 )

237.4 x10

(1.024 2 250)

4.64 mm weld

bf+50

250+50

300 mm

40 mm

Flange distance

(pf)

(Pe)

( ) -(

)-0.707x thickness of

weld

=

(40-9.7/2)-16/4-0.707x4.64

27.8719 mm

1.13

Partial safety factor

(Ca)

(Af/Aw)

(250x9.7)/(250x6.9)

1.41

1.74

0.83

(Pe)/(d)

27.8719/16

(Cb)

250/300

= .

1

3

1/4

)

= 1.212

Moment in plate Mp= x flange force x eff bolt distance/4

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

264

= 2002686.87 Nmm

6Mp

o.75fypb

6x2004686 .87

o.75x365x300

=12.45 mm

Beam to end plate weld size

Min weld size

5 mm

Required weld to develop max web tension stress (0.6fy) in web near flanges

=

0.6fy .tw

2x10.24

0.6x245

2x10.24x10

4.952 mm

Provide 5 mm weld

Provide 300 mm wide and 12.45 mm connection plate.

Use 4 No's 16 mm dia bolts each side

Welds

Flange to end plate =

4.64 mm

5.00 mm

Secondary beam ISJB 200@0.0971 kN/m

Main Beam ISHB 250@0.50 kN/m

Shear force on Main beam from joist =

17 kN

No of bolts on main beam (Nm)

345 N/mm2

fy

265

Allowable shear

=

=

Allowable shear

>

0.25d 2 Nm x0.4fy

1000

0.25d12 2 3 x0.4x345

1000

46.80 kN

Shear stress in cleat angle

1.5 x

F

2xdxt

17 10 3

1.5 x

17.7 N/mm2

2908

0.45fy = 0.45x250

266

Beams transfer the load to the column and the column transfer their loads to

the soil through column bases resting over concrete or masonry blocks. A column

base distributes the load over a greater area so that the pressure on the concrete block

does not exceed the permissible bearing stress

Column base should be designed to have sufficient strength and stiffness to

transmit the axial force, bending moments and shear forces developed at the base of

the columns without exceeding the load carrying capacity of the supports. Suitable

anchor bolts and shear keys are designed wherever necessary.

The nominal bearing pressure between the base plate and the support may be

determined on the basis of linearly varying distribution of pressure. The maximum

bearing pressure should not exceed the bearing strength which is limited to 0.6fck,

where.

fck= smaller of the characteristic cube strength of concrete

In cases where the base plate is larger than that required to limit the bearing

pressure, an equal projection c of the base plate beyond the face of the column and

gusset may be taken as effective in transferring the column load given in fig. below

such that the bearing pressure on the effective area does not exceed the bearing

capacity of the concrete base.

When a column is provided with a slab base, the minimum thickness, ts of the

rectangular slab base supporting the column under axial compression is calculated by

the relation

=

2.5(2 0.3 2 )0

>

There are three types of column bases which are generally used

1. Slab base

2. Gusseted base

3. Grillage foundation

The consists of a base plate underneath a column end which is machined so as

to have a complete bearing on the plate. The column is properly secured to the base

plate by means of fastenings as shown.

267

Fastenings are simply used to secure it with the base plate and secondly to

resist all moments and forces due to transit, unloading and erection. Those are not

designed to resist the direct compression in the column.\

Design of a Slab Base and Concrete block:

The following steps are to be followed when axial load to which the column is

subjected is known

1. Calculating the bearing area (A) of the base plate

Bearing Area =

permissible compressive stress in concrete

, =

2. Assuming the shape of base plate to be square calculating the size of one side.

If it is rectangular calculate the length and breadth of the base plate. Arrange

the section of the column centrally on the base plate

3. Calculate the thickness of base plate as per

IS: 800-1984 (5.4.3).

=

3 2 2

w= the pressure or loading on the underside of base (Mpa)

a= the greater projection of the plate beyond column

b= the lesser projection of the plate beyond column

bs= the permissible bending stress in slab bases = 185 Mpa for all

steels.

If a square base plate is used for solid round steel column, the

thickness of the plate will be taken as.

= 10

90

B

x

16 B d0

w= the total axial load, (kN)

B= the length of side of cape or base (mm)

bs = permissible bending stress in slab base = 185 Mpa for all

steels

d0= diameter of the reduced end (if any) of the column (mm)

The cap or base plate should not be less than 1.5 (d0 + 75) mm in

length or diameter.

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

268

17.2cGusseted Base:

A gusseted base consists of base plate connected to the column through gusset

plates. The thickness of base plate in this case will be less than the thickness of the

slab base for the same axial load as the bearing area of the column on the base plate

increases by the gusset plate.

As per IS: 800-1984 for the columns with gusseted base; gusset plates, angle

cleats, stiffeners, fastening, etc. In combination with the bearing area of the shaft

should be sufficient to take the loads, bending moment and reaction to the base plate

without exceeding the specified stresses. All bearing surfaces are machined to ensure

perfect contact. Where the ends of the column shaft and the gusset plate are not faced

for complete bearing, the fastening shall be sufficient to transmit all the forces to

which the base is subjected.

Design of Gusseted Base and Concrete Block:

Following design steps are to be followed:

1. Calculate the area (A) of base plate

=

2. Assume the materials used in gusseted base. Generally the thickness of

gusseted plate is assumed as 12 to 16 mm. The size of angle used generally is

ISA 150x115x12 mm or ISA 150x100x12 mm in rivet design and no gusset

angle is used in welds. The depth of column section, thickness of gusset plate

and length of leg of angle being known the width of gusset plate for these

distances can be calculated. Then calculate the length of gusset plate by

dividing area by width of gusset plate.

3. Provide suitable rounded size of gusset plate and calculate actual upward

concrete pressure.

4. See fig. let w be the upward reaction of concrete and l be the projection of

base plate beyond column face xx. Calculate the hogging bending moment at

column face as per mm width plate.

2

Mxx =

2

Calculate the moment of resistance per mm width of section xx.

Mxx = .

Equating B.M to M.R., find the thickness t.

5. Consider another section yy of base plate at the centre of column as shown in

fig.

Calculate Hogging B.M=

2

2

2

8

269

2 2

Myy =

8

2

Calculate the moment of resistance per mm width at section yy

1

M = . = x 2 x1

6

Equating max. B.M. (Myy), findt. Providing thicknesst whichever is

maximum (considering Mxx and Myy).

6. Calculate the thickness of concrete block and size of block as in case of slab

base.

7. Design the fastners.

17.3 CALCULATION:

Column section IM 350 225 12

Properties of column:

= 124 2 ; = 368 ; = 140

= 14 ; = 8 ; = 29902 104 4

Axial load = 1340

Bearing strength of concrete = 4 2

Bending stress for steel base plate

= 185 2

Area of the base plate required =

1340 10 3

4

Minimum width of the base plate = 368 + 2 12 + 2 90

= 572 575

Length of the base plate =

335 10 3

575

= 585 mm

Provide 575 585 base plate

Actual bearing pressure intensity on the base plate =

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1340 10 3

575 585

270

= 3.983 2

Cantilever projection = 90 12 = 78

Consider a cantilever strip of the base plate of 1mm wide and 78 mm long

Maximum cantilever moment =

30983 78 2

2

= 12107.16

1

1

6

185 1 2 = 12107.16

12107.16 6

185

= 19.81 20

Bending moment at critical section XX = 368 + 2 12

= 392

3922

902

= 3.98

3.98

8

2

= 60374.3

Equating the moment of resistance to the bending moment

=

1

6

185 1 2 = 60374.3

60374.3 6

185

= 44.25 45

Hence provide = 575 585 45

Design of concrete block:

Axial load = 1340

Self-weight of the foundation 10 % = 134

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

271

Area of concrete block =

=

1474

= 7.37 2

200

7.37

= 2.71

Adopt 2.75 m X 2.75 m square concrete block

Assuming 450 load dispersion

Depth of concrete block = 0.5 2750 5851

= 1082.5 1090

= 1.09

Provide the size of concrete pedestal as 2.75 X 2.75 X 1.09 m

Connections:

585360

= 108.5

Load on end connection =

1000

= 252.81

Single shear strength = 2

No. of bolts =

252.81

29

= 8.71 10

Adopt 10 bolts connecting gusset angles with gusset plates and same number of

anchor bolts to connect the gusset plate with column.

272

Floor to floor height (H)

3.2 m

1.0 m

0.80 m

3 kN/m2

Assuming

Riser (R)

160 mm

Tread

250 mm

Angle of inclination

=

sec

No of riser

2502 + 1602

1.187

3200/160

20 no's

10

10-1

Going

250x 9=2250 mm

From structural steel tables

Try ISMC 250

D = 250 mm

bf = 80 mm

wt = 0.351 kN/m

= 0.96 kN/m

Total load

3.0 kN/m

= 3.96 kN/m

Bending Moment (M) =

2

8

5.96 12

8

= 0.74 kN-m

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

273

Section modulus about y direction Zyy =

Allowable section modulus is 38.4 x103 mm3

Allowable section modulus is greater than required section modulus

Reaction of loads on stringer beam

Self weight of ISMC 250

0.298 kN/m

Load on stairs

5.96 kN/m

3.129 kN = 3.2 kN

10 x

(10 x3.2)/2.76

2 + (/2)2

2.252 + (1.6/2)2

=

Bending Moment of stringer

=

Section modulus about x is

Zxx =

2.76 m

2

8

11.6 x2.76 2

8

= 11.04 kN-m

= 66909.09 mm3

Allowable section modulus about x is Zxx = 403.2 x 103

Hence safe

274

MODULE III

20.1ESTIMATING:

Before undertaking a construction of a project it is necessary to know its

probable cost which is worked out by estimating, an estimate is computation or

calculation of the quantities required and expenditure likely to be incurred in the

construction of the work. Estimation can be done by various methods but accurate

estimate is prepared by detailed estimate method.

There are two methods of estimation:

Detailed estimate

Actual cost.

Abstract of the estimate cost

1. EARTHWORK

2. CONCRETE IN FOUNDATION

3. SOILING

4. DAMP PROOF COURSE

5. MASONARY

6. ARCH MASONARY WORK

7. LINTELS OVER OPENINGS

8. R.C.C AND R.B WORKS

9. FLOORING AND ROOFING

10. PLASTERING AND POINTING

11. CORNICE

12. PILLARS

13. DOORS AND WINDOWS

14. WOOD WORK

15. IRON WORK

276

20.2.1 EARTHWORK

separately upon different items.

Earthwork in excavation in foundation is calculated by taking the

dimension of each trench( ).

Earthwork in plinth filling is calculated by taking the internal dimensions

in between plinth wall which is usually less than internal dimension of

room.

Its units are cu-m.

The thickness of the concrete varies from 20 cm to 45 cm. But usually it

taken as 30 cm.

The proportion of the cement concrete in foundation may be 1:4:8 or

1:5:10.

20.2.3 SOILING

When the soil is soft or bad on layer of dry thick or stone soiling is

applied below foundation concrete

The soil layer is computed in sq-mts.

20.2.4 DAMP PROOF COURSE

Plinth levels are computed in sq-mts.

20.2.5 MASONARY

Masonry is measured in ( )

In taking out the quantities the walls are measured solid and deduction are

made for openings as doors and windows etc.

Masonry is computed in cu-m.

By product of the mean length of the arch by thickness of the arch and

width of the wall

277

Masonry work in arches is calculated in cu-m

Length of lintel = clear span + two bearings.

If dimension the bearing is not given the bearing may be taken as

thickness of lintel with the minimum of 12 cm.

L = s + 2t

Quantity of lintel = ( ).

It is measured in cu-m.

R.C.C and R.B work may be in roof or floor slab, in beams, lintels,

columns, foundations, etc.

Bearings are added with clear span to get the dimension.

It is measured in cu-m

R.C.C and R.B work may be estimated exclusively of steel, centering and

and shuttering for complete work.

Centering and shuttering are mainly used in R.B and R.C.C.

1. Ground floor :

The base line concrete and floor finishing of C.C or stone or marble or

mosaic are usually taken as one item.

It is calculated by multiplication of length and breadth

It is measured in sq-m.

2. FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR:

As R.C.C or R.B. and floor finishing is separately taken in sq-m as

2.5cms Supporting structure is taken separately in cu-m

3. ROOF

Supporting structure is taken in cu-m and line concrete terracing is computed in

sq-m with thickness specified. The compacted thickness of the lime concrete terracing is

7.5 12 cms.

278

Plastering usually 12 mm thick

Its calculated in sq-mts

For walls Measurement are taken for the whole of the wall or both sides as a solid

and deductions for the openings are in following manner

No deduction is made for Beams, rafters and posts

For small openings up to 0.5 sq-mts no deduction is made

For openings more than 0.5 sq-mts deductions are made

For openings more than 3 deductions are made both sides of the faces.

20.2.11 CORNICE

Ornamental or large cornice is measured in running meters for the complete work

which includes masonry, plastering, mouldings, etc. are paid in running meter.

Similarly, string course, drip course, cor-belling, coping, etc. are measured and

paid in running meter for the complete work.

20.2.12 PILLARS

Pillars are taken separately in cu-m for their net volume and quantities are calculated by

correct geometrical measurements.

2

Quantity = ( ) = (

) ,

d is dia.

= ( 2 ),

a is the side.

Plastering in pillars are calculated in sq.m multiplying the circumference of perimeter by

the height.

a. Chowkhat or frame It is measured in cu-m. Vertical members should be

inserted into the floor about (2.5 to 4 )cm. Length is obtained by adding the length

of all members of the frame, top and two verticals. Also by adding bottom and

this length is multiplied by the two dimensions of the cross-section of the

member.

279

calculated by multiplying the (breadth * height) of the structures

20.2.14 WOOD WORK

Wooden beams, burgahs, posts, wooden roof trusses come under this item.

It is measured in cu-m.

20.2.15 IRON WORK

This is measured in kilo grams. The quantities are calculated out correctly

by multiplying the weights per running meter by the length. For steel joint the length

is equal to clear span plus two bearings. The bearings may be taken as thickness of

the wall.

Accuracy to be observed in preparing an estimate depends upon the rate of item

and the unit of payment. The rate the greater should be accuracy with which

quantities are calculated.

Units of different works depend upon their nature, size and shape

Mass, voluminous and thick works shall be taken in cubic unit or volume.

The measurements of length, breadth, and height or depth shall be taken to

compute the volume.

Shallow, thin and surface works shall be taken in square unit. This can be

measured by length and breadth or height shall be taken to compute area.

Long and thin work shall be taken in linear

Piece work, job work etc.

Area of 6 mm bar = 2.827 x 10-5 m2 = 28.27 mm2

Area of 8 mm bar = 5.026 x 10-5 m2 = 50.26 mm2

Area of 10 mm bar = 7.853 x 10-5m2 = 78.53 mm2

Area of 12 mm bar = 1.130 x 10-4 m2 = 113.08 mm2

Area of 16 mm bar = 2.010 x 10-4 m2 = 201.0 mm2

Area of 18 mm bar = 2.544 x 10-4 m2 = 254.4 mm2

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

280

Depth

m

Quantity

m3

Remarks

3.15

0.12

14.364

3.65+0.15=3.8

3+3.15=3.15

3.85

0.12

16.863.

3.7+3.15=3.85

3.65

3.7

0.12

19.4472

3.55+0.15=3.7

10

3.65

10.25

0.14

52.3775

3.5+0.15=3.65

S5

10

4.3

3.15

0.12

16.254

4.15+0.15=4.30

3.00+0.15=3.15

S6

10

4.15

3.85

0.12

19.173

3.7 +0.15=3.85

S7

10

4.15

3.7

0.12

18.426

3.55 +0.15=3.7

10

3.8

S2

10

3.65

S3

12

S4

Item no

No

Length

m

Breadth

m

Particular and

items of work

SLABS

S1

156.904 M3

II

PLINTH

BEAMS

1001, 1007, 1009,

1014,1015, 1020,

1021, 1026.

3.00

0.3

0.4

2.88

1002,1006, 1010,

1013, 1016, 1017,

1022, 1025

3.70

0.3

0.4

3.552

1017, 1018, 1023,

1024

3.55

0.3

0.4

2.982

1.65

0.3

0.4

0.594

281

1005,1008

1.9

0.3

0.4

0.456

1027, 1028,

1031, 1035, 1036

3.65

0.3

0.4

2.19

1047, 1048, 1049,

1050

4.15

0.3

0.4

3.486

2.00

0.3

0.4

0.72

16.86 m3

III TYPICAL

BEAMS

2001, 2007, 2009,

2014, 2015, 2022,

2023, 2030, 3001,

3007, 3009, 3014,

3015, 3022, 3023,

3030, 4001, 4007,

4009, 4014, 4015,

4022, 4023, 4030,

5001 5007, 5009,

5014, 5015, 5022,

5023, 5030

2002, 2006, 2010,

2013, 3002, 3006,

3010, 3013, 4002,

4006, 4010, 4012,

5002, 5006, 5010,

5013

2003, 2011, 2012,

2018, 2019, 2026,

2027, 3003, 3011,

3012, 3018, 3019,

3026, 3027, 4003,

4011, 4012, 4018,

4019, 4026, 4027,

5003, 5011, 5012,

32

3.00

0.3

0.4

11.52

16

3.70

0.3

0.4

7.104

28

3.55

0.3

0.4

11.92

282

5027

2004, 2034,

2038,3004, 3034,

3038,4004, 4034,

4038, 5004, 5034,

5038

2005, 2008, 3005,

3008, 4005, 4008,

5005, 5008

2016, 2021, 2024,

2029, 3016, 3021,

3024, 3029, 4016,

4021, 4024, 4029,

5016, 5021, 5024,

5029

2017, 2020, 2025,

2028, 3017, 3020,

3025, 3028, 4017,

4020, 4025, 4028,

5017, 5020, 5025,

5028

2031, 2032, 2035,

2039, 2040, 3031,

3032, 3035, 3039,

3040, 4031, 4032,

4035, 4039, 4040,

5031, 5032, 5035,

5039, 5040

2051, 3033, 3036,

3037, 3051, 4033,

4036, 4037, 4051,

5033, 5036, 5037,

5051

12

1.65

0.3

0.4

2.376

1.90

0.3

0.4

1.824

16

0.85

0.3

0.4

1.632

16

2.85

0.3

0.4

5.472

20

3.65

0.3

0.4

8.76

16

2.00

0.3

0.4

3.84

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

283

4041. 4042, 4043,

5041, 5042, 5043

2044,2045, 2046,

2047, 2048, 2049,

2050,3044, 3045,

3046, 3047, 3048,

3049, 3050, 4044,

4045, 4046, 4046,

4047, 4048, 4049,

4050, 5044, 5045,

5046, 5047, 5048,

5049, 5050

12

3.50

0.3

0.4

5.04

29

4.15

0.3

0.4

14.442

73.93 m3

IV

ROOF BEAMS

6001, 6007, 6009,

6014, 6015, 6023,

6030

3.00

0.3

0.4

2.52

3.70

0.3

0.4

1.776

10

3.55

0.3

0.4

4.26

7002, 7011

1.65

0.3

0.4

0.99

7004

1.9

0.3

0.4

0.912

6029

0.85

0.3

0.4

0.408

2.85

0.3

0.4

1.368

3.65

0.3

0.4

2.19

6013

6003, 6011, 6012,

6018, 6019, 6026,

6027, 7001, 7005,

7006

6028

6031, 6032, 6035,

6039, 6040

284

7009, 7010

2.00

0.3

0.4

1.2

3.5

0.3

0.4

1.26

6047, 6048, 6049,

6050

4.15

0.3

0.4

3.486

20.36 m3

V

COLUMNS

GROUP

1A

10

17.5

0.3

0.5

26.25

1B

17.5

0.3

0.4

6.21

2A

14

17.5

0.3

0.5

36.75

2B

17.5

0.3

0.4

2.1

17.5

0.3

0.5

10.5

81.81 m3

VI

STAIR CASE

No of stair

cases= 6

24

3.56

1.0

0.15

12.81 m3

12.81 m3

VII

FOOTING

GROUP

I

1.80

1.60

0.4

4.608

II

14

2.30

2.10

0.52

35.162

III

10

2.50

2.30

0.52

29.90

IV

1.80

1.70

0.41

5.018

74.688 m3

285

SLABS

Slab

panel

(1)

S1

No. of

slabs

(2)

Dia

mm

(3)

No. of

bars

(4)

Length of

bar

m

(5)

Total

length of

bars

m

(6)=4 x 5

Quantity

m3

(7) =

Area of (3) x

(6)

Total

quantity

m3

(8) = (2)x(7)

15

3.184

47.76

2.40x10-3

0.024

3.834

72.846

3.67x10-3

0.0367

10

8

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

19

19

3.884

73.796

3.708 x10-3

0.03708

15

3.834

57.51

2.89 x10-3

0.0289

15

3.734

56.01

2.81 x10-3

0.03372

19

3.834

72.846

3.67 x10-3

0.04404

74

10.434

772.116

0.0388

0.388

13

3.604

46.852

2.36 x10-3

0.0236

20

4.034

80.68

4.06 x10-3

0.0406

-3

0.0458

-3

10

12

10

10

10

21

4.334

91.014

4.58 x10

12

3.034

36.408

1.83 x10

0.0183

17

4.334

73.678

3.703 x10-3

0.03703

15

3.734

56.01

2.815 x10-3

0.0281

17

4.334

73.678

3.703 x10-3

0.03703

10

286

BEAMS

(2)

Plinth Beams

(3)

3.00

3.70

3.55

1.65

1.90

3.65

4.15

2.00

(4)

Total length

of bars

m

No of

Beams

(1)

Length

Beam

(m)

Dia

Mm

Beam

Type

Quantity

m3

Total quantity

m3

(7)=5x6

(8) =

Area of (4) x (7)

(9) = (2)x(8)

3.56

17.8

2.01 x 10-3

16.08 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.314+0.9=2.214

4.428

5.00 x 10-4

4 x 10-3

3.70

18.5

2.09 x 10-3

16.73 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.075+1.075=2.15

4.3

4.85 x 10-4

3.88 x 10-3

3.55

17.75

2.00 x 10-3

14 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.04+1.04=2.08

4.16

4.70 x 10-4

3.29 x 10-3

1.65

8.25

9.32 x 10-4

2.79 x 10-3

1+1=2

0.42+0.42=0.84

1.68

1.89 x 10-4

5.6 x 10-4

1.95

9.75

1.10 x 10-3

2.2 x 10-3

1+1=2

0.63+0.63=1.26

2.52

2.84 x 10-4

5.68 x 10-4

3.65

18.25

2.06 x 10-3

10.3 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.48+1.063=2.55

5.1

5.76 x 10-4

2.88 x 10-3

4.71

23.55

2.66 x 10-3

18.62 x 10-3

5+4=9

1.60+1.18=2.78

25.02

2.82 x 10-3

19.74 x 10-3

3.56

17.8

2.01 x 10-3

6.03 x 10-3

2+2=4

1.06+0.65=1.71

6.84

7.72 x 10-4

2.31 x 10-3

No. of

bars

Length of bar

m

(5)

(6)

5

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

287

(2)

32

12

28

12

12

12

12

(3)

3.00

3.70

3.55

1.65

1.90

0.85

2.85

3.65

Total

length

of bars

m

Quantity

m3

Total quantity

m3

No. of

bars

No of

Beams

(1)

Length

Beam

(m)

Dia

Mm

Beam

Type

Length of bar

m

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7) =

(5) x (6)

(8) =

Area of (4) x (7)

(9) = (2)x(8)

12

3.56

10.68

1.20 x 10-3

38.4 x 10-3

16

1+1=2

1.50+0.9=2.4

4.8

9.64 x 10-4

30.84 x 10-3

16

3.75

7.5

1.50 x 10-3

48 x 10-3

12

3.70

11.1

1.25 x 10-3

15 x 10-3

16

1+1=2

1.075+1.075=2.15

4.3

8.64 x 10-4

10.36 x 10-3

16

3.70

7.4

1.48 x 10-3

17.76 x 10-3

12

3.55

10.65

1.20 x 10-3

33.6 x 10-3

16

2+2=4

1.04+1.04=2.08

8.32

1.67 x 10-3

46.76 x 10-3

16

3.55

7.1

1.42 x 10-3

39.76 x 10-3

12

1.65

6.6

7.45 x 10-4

86.94 x 10-3

16

1+1=2

0.42+0.42=0.84

1.68

3.37 x 10-4

4.04 x 10-3

16

1.65

3.3

6.63 x 10-4

7.95 x 10-3

1.90

5.7

6.44 x 10-4

5.15 x 10-3

2+2=4

0.63+0.63=1.26

5.04

5.69 x 10-4

4.55 x 10-3

1.90

3.8

4.29 x 10-4

3.43 x 10-3

12

0.85

2.55

2.88 x 10-4

3.45 x 10-3

16

2+2=4

0.37+0.37=0.74

2.96

5.94 x 10-4

7.12 x 10-3

16

0.85

1.7

3.41 x 10-4

4.09 x 10-3

12

2.85

8.55

9.66 x 10-4

11.59 x 10-3

16

1+1=2

0.87+0.87=1.74

3.48

6.99 x 10-4

8.38 x 10-3

16

2.85

5.7

1.14 x 10-3

13.68 x 10-3

12

4.40

13.2

1.49 x 10-3

17.88 x 10-3

16

2+1=3

1.7+1.06=2.76

8.28

1.66 x 10-3

19.92 x 10-3

16

4.40

8.8

1.76 x 10-3

21.12 x 10-3

12

288

12

28

16

3.50

4.15

2.00

12

3.50

10.5

11.86 x 10-3

142.32 x 10-3

16

2+1=3

1.03+1.03=2.06

6.18

1.242 x 10-3

14.90 x 10-3

16

3.50

1.40 x 10-3

`16.8 x 10-3

4.90

24.5

4.92 x 10-3

137.76 x 10-3

2+1=3

1.79+1.19=2.98

8.94

1.79 x 10-3

50.12 x 10-3

2.75

13.75

1.55 x 10-3

24.8 x 10-3

2+2=4

1.064+0.65=1.71

6.84

7.72 x 10-4

11.55 x 10-4

16

12

(2)

Length

of Beam

( m)

Dia

mm

No of

Beams

(1)

Roof Beams

Beam

Type

(3)

(4)

3.00

12

3.70

12

10

3.55

12

1.65

12

1.90

12

0.85

12

2.85

12

3.65

12

3.50

12

4.15

12

2.00

12

No. of

bars

Length of bar

m

Total

length

of bars

m

Quantity

m3

Total quantity

m3

(5)

(6)

(7)=5x6

(8) =

Area of (4) x (7)

(9) = (2)x(8)

5

1+1=2

5

3.56

1.314+0.9=2.21

3.70

17.8

4.42

18.5

2.01 x 10

4.99 x 10-4

2.09 x 10-3

14.07 x 10-3

3.49 x 10-3

8.36 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.075+1.075=2.15

4.3

4.85 x 10-4

1.94 x 10-3

5

1+1=2

5

1+1=2

3.55

1.04+1.04=2.08

1.65

0.42+0.42=0.84

17.75

4.16

8.25

1.68

2.0 x 10-3

4.7 x 10-4

9.32 x 10-4

1.89 x 10-4

20 x 10-3

4.7 x 10-3

4.66 x 10-3

9.45 x 10-4

5

1+1=2

5

1+1=2

5

1+1=2

5

1+1=2

5

1+1=2

5

1+1=2

5

1+1=2

1.95

0.63+0.63=1.26

0.85

0.36+0.36=0.72

2.85

0.86+0.86=1.72

3.65

1.48+1.063=2.55

3.5

1.025+1.025=2.05

4.71

1.60+1.18=2.78

3.56

1.06+0.65=1.71

9.75

2.52

4.25

1.44

14.25

3.44

18.25

5.1

17.5

4.1

23.55

5.56

17.8

3.42

1.10 x 10-3

2.84 x 10-4

4.80 x 10-4

1.62 x 10-4

1.61 x 10-3

3.88 x 10-4

2.06 x 10-3

5.76 x 10-4

1.97 x 10-3

4.63 x 10-4

2.66 x 10-3

6.28 x 10-4

2.01 x 10-4

3.86 x 10-4

4.4 x 10-3

1.13 x 10-3

1.92 x 10-3

6.48 x 10-4

6.44 x 10-3

1.55 x 10-3

10.3 x 10-3

2.88 x 10-3

5.91 x 10-3

1.38 x 10-3

18.62 x 10-3

4.39 x 10-3

1.0 x 10-3

1.9 x 10-3

-3

289

S.NO

(1)

TYPE (2)

Plinth

Beams

Typical

Floor

Beam

Roof

Beams

1

2

3

Dia

mm

(3)

No. of

stirrups

(4)

Length of

stirrups

m

(5)

Total

length of

stirrups

m

(6)=4 x 5

Quantity

m3

(7) =

Area of (3) x (6)

107

1.328

142.096

4.013x 10-3

127

1.328

168.656

4.767x 10-3

107

1.328

142.096

4.013x 10-3

Length of

bar

m

(5)

Total

length of

bars

m

(6)=4 x 5

Quantity

m3

(7) =

Area of (3) x (6)

Total

quantity

m3

(8) = (2)x(7)

COLUMNS

Longitudinal Reinforcement of column

Group

(1)

No of

columns

(2)

Dia

mm

(3)

No. of

bars

(4)

10

16

19.00

190.00

0.038

0.38

12

10

10

19.00

190.00

0.021

0.063

14

16

19.00

152.00

0.030

0.42

12

19.00

152.00

0.017

0.017

16

19.00

152.00

0.030

0.122

1.

2.

3

Group

(1)

1.

No of

columns

(2)

Dia

mm

(3)

No. of

stirrups

(4)

Length of

stirrups

m

(5)

Total

length of

stirrups

m

(6)=4 x 5

Quantity

m3

(7) =

Area of (3) x (6)

Total quantity

m3

(8) = (2)x(7)

10

70

1.338

93.66

2.648 x 10-3

0.0264

70

1.188

83.16

2.35 x 10

7.05 x 10-3

14

70

1.338

93.66

2.648 x 10-3

0.0370

70

1.188

83.16

2.35 x 10-3

2.35 x 10-3

70

1.338

93.66

2.648 x 10-3

0.0105

2.

3

-3

290

FOOTINGS

Group

(1)

1.

No of

footings

(2)

Dia

mm

(3)

No. of

bars

(4)

Length of

bar

m

(5)

Total

length of

bars

m

(6)=4 x 5

Quantity

m3

(7) =

Area of (3) x (6)

Total quantity

m3

(8) = (2)x(7)

12

1.892

17.028

1.925 x 10-3

7.7 x 10-3

1.692

16.92

1.913 x 10-3

7.65 x 10-3

4

12

2.

10

12

12

2.392

28.704

3.246 x 10-3

0.0454

12

13

2.192

28.496

3.222 x10-3

0.0451

16

13

2.592

33.696

6.774 x 10-3

0.0677

-3

14

10

16

14

2.392

33.488

6.733 x10

0.0673

12

1.892

17.028

1.925 x 10-3

7.7 x 10-3

12

10

1.792

17.92

2.026 x 10-3

8.107 x 10-3

STAIR CASE

Type

(1)

No of

flights

(2)

Main

Rein

12

Dist

Rein

12

Dia

mm

(3)

No. of

bars

(4)

Length

of bar

m

(5)

Total

length of

bars

m

(6)=4 x 5

Quantity

m3

(7) =

Area of (3) x

(6)

Total

quantity

m3

(8) = (2)x(7)

10

3.75

22.5

1.76 x 10-3

0.0212

1.74

10.44

8.198 x 10-4

9.838 x 10-3

0.95

12.35

6.207 x 10-4

7.449 x 10-3

10

8

6

13

291

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT

S.no

Dia of bar

Slab

Beam

Column

Footing

Stair

case

Quantity

Total

quantity

(cu-m)

--------

12.8x

10-3

0.084

-------

------

0.0968

7850

759.88

0.8229

5

-------

-------

------

7.449 x 10-3

0.8304

7850

6518.64

10

--------

-------

-------

------

0.031038

0.031038

7850

243.65

12

-------

0.622

0.08

0.130

3

------

0.8323

7850

6533.55

16

-------

0.500

0.922

0.135

-----

1.557

7850

12222.45

Density

(kg/m3)

Weight

kgs

s.no

Description of item

1

R.C.C M20 design mix using 20 mm graded HBG metal

from approved quarry including cost of conveyance of all

materials to the site(including labour charges, batching

machinery, vibrators, centering and water )

Foundations

Plinth beams

Beams

Columns

Slabs

2

Supplying, fitting and placing TMT bars reinforcement as

per drawings and technical specifications for Bars below

36 mm dia including binding wire, over laps and wastage,

where they are not welded.

Mild steel bars

Supplying, fitting and placing mild steel

bars

reinforcement

as per drawings and technical

specifications including binding wire, over laps and

wastage, where they are not welded.

6 mm diameter

unit

Rate

1 cu.m

1 cu.m

1 cu.m

1 cu.m

1 cu.m

6086.74

7550.84

8103.56

6601.02

8236.21

1 kg

65.042

1 kg

52.080

292

Abstract of Estimate

Item

no

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Particulars

slabs

Roof beams

Typical floor beams

Plinth beams

Columns

Footings

Stair case

TMT 8mm dia

TMT 10 mm dia

TMT 12 mm dia

TMT 16 mm dia

Mild steel 6mm dia

Quantit

y

156.904

20.36

73.93

16.86

81.81

74.688

12.81

6518.64

243.65

6533.55

12222.45

759.88

Unit

Rate

Per

Cost

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Kg

Kg

Kg

Kg

Kg

8236.21

8103.56

8103.56

7550.84

6601.02

6086.74

8103.56

65.042

65.042

65.042

65.042

52.080

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Cu.m

Kg

Kg

Kg

Kg

Kg

1292294.29

164988.48

599096.19

127307.16

540029.44

454606.43

103806.60

423985.38

15847.48

424955.15

794972.59

39574.55

Rs 49,81,463.74

Add 5% extra =

Rs 2,49,073.18

Total cost

Rs 52,30,537.00

commercial RCC building.

293

Structural steel members may be of single I section or double I sections,

channel sections, angles, tee sections, flat plates and other fastening accessories. The

cost estimates for steel structures are significantly different from calculation of the

estimated cost of RCC structures, as they need special designs. The most important

part of the design and construction of steel structure are the connections. It is well

known that connections costs are about 12% of major structural elements such as

stanchions (columns), beams in a building.

The connections , either through the use of welds or high-stress bolts, have the

largest share in the process of preparing detailed drawings, where the most important

and most critical phase is the accuracy of the details of the connection.

PROFILE

LENGTH(M)

WEIGHT( kN)

ST ISWB600A

588.80

836.327

ST ISHB200

508.10

185.402

ST ISHB400

66.75

50.610

ST ISHB250

351.00

175.264

ST ISHB300

33.20

19.077

TOTAL

1266.680 kN

294

S.

no

I

II

III

IV

Particulars

No

Length

m

Breadth

m

Qty

Wt.

per

unit

Total

weight

(kN)

836.33

Rolled steel

I sections

ISWB600A

588.80

-----

------

1.42

kN/m

ISHB200

508.10

----

----

0.364

185.41

ISHB400

66.75

-----

-----

0.758

50.61

ISHB250

351.00

-----

-----

0.499

175.30

ISHB300

33.20

-----

-----

0.574

19.1

32

0.575

0.585

10.76 m2

3.46kn/

m2

37.23

@ column bases

575 x 585 x 45 mm

thick base plate

Wt of 45 mm thick

plate =

0.045x7850=3.46

kN/m2

Connections (cleat

angles, stiffeners,

gusset plates anchor

bolts, welds)

Beam to columns,

Beam to Beam and

column to columns are

approximately 12 %

of the total weight of

beams and columns

Kirby Deck slab

Thickness of sheet 0.7

mm

Wt = 0.069 kN/m2

Total area = 5xarea of

each slab-5xarea of

staircase- 5 x area of

lift + cap slab

Steel Stair case

Stairs

ISMC250@

0.298kN/m

12 flights & 10 treads

175.30+ 19.1)/100

= 152. 01 kN

152. 01

1126.414 m2

kN/m2

77.73

120

1.0

-----

-----

0.298

35.76

295

in each flight

Stringer beams

ISLC 300 @

0.324 kN/m

2 stringer beams per

flight

Length of stringer

beam + width of

landing (2.76+0.8)

Connections

12% of total steel

quantity of stair case.

(12 x

(35.76+27.68))/100

24

3.56

------

-----

0.324

27.68

-----

-----

------

-----

-----

7.612

19.3 ABSTRACT OF ESTIMATE

From Standard schedule of rates 2011-2012 the cost of M.S

I section, Angles, channels etc.,

Fabrication charges

Rs 14.00 per kg

Erection charges

Rs 12.00 per kg

Total =

Rs 74.00 per kg

163585.11 x48

Rs 78,52,085.28

Rs 3,92,604.264

Rs 82,44,689.54

Rs 82,44,690.00

commercial STEEL Building

296

22. CONCLUSION

S.

NO

1

2

PARTICULARS

Grade/ Materials

STEEL BUILDING

M20

Fe250 & Fe415

Mild steel

300 x 400 mm

300 x 500 mm

ISHB 300

ISWB600A

300 x 400 mm

300 x 500 mm

------------

ISHB 200

ISWB 600 A

Max sizes of

sections

Beams

Columns

R.C.C BUILDING

Min sizes of

sections

Beams

Columns

Secondary beams

Reactions

ISJB 200

Maximum

Gravity

Wind

92.625 kN (Node 3)

104.611 kN (Node 3)

Seismic

152.811 kN (Node 3)

72.905 kN (Node 3)

Max Bending

moments

Gravity loads

Wind loads

Seismic loads

Max deflection

About X

About Y

About Z

Gravity loads

297

Wind loads

About X

5.065 mm (Node265)

About Y

0.246 mm (Node255)

About Z

About X

About Y

About Z

9.967mm(Node 243)

Seismic loads

Envelope load

case

Max BM

1.5(DL+EQ ZP)

1.5(DL+LL)

1.5(DL+LL)

1.5(DL+LL)

Max Reactions

1637.006 kN (Node3)

1.5(DL+EQ XN)

1.5(DL+LL)

Quantity of

material

Steel = 26,178.17 kgs

Approximate cost

( only structure )

Rs 52,30,537.00

Rs 82,44,690.00

298

BIBLOGRAPHY

Reinforced concrete design by S.Unnikrishna pillai and Devdas menon.

Limit state design by B.C.Punmia, Ashok.K.Jain and Arun.K.Jain.

Illustrated design of reinforced concrete buildings by Dr. V.L.Shah and

Dr.S.R.Karve

Standard method of detailing structural concrete by B.H.G.Cresswell

Riol.

Limit state design of R.C.C structures by Ramachandra.

Design for RCC slabs by K.C Jain.

Building Design and Construction by Fredrick S.Merritt and Jonathan

T.Ricketts

Design of R.C.C Structural Elements by S.S.Bhavikatti

Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures by M.R.Dheerendra Babu

Structural Design and Drawing Reinforced Concrete and Steel by

N.Krishna Raju.

Steel Structures by K.Naga Sreenivasa Rao.

Design of Steel Structures by S.Ramamrutham and R.Narayanan.

Design of Steel Structures by Ram Chandra

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.