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COMPARITIVE STUDY ON MULTISTOREY REINFORCED CEMENT

CONCRETE AND STEEL BUILDING

A PROJECT REPORT ON

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY


REINFORCED CEMENT CONCRETE AND
STEEL BUILDING
A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
BY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

ABDULLAH
MOHAMMED JAWAD HUSSAIN
SUFIAN ASHER KHAN
SYED AAMER HUSSAIN
SYED ABDUL HANNAN
SYED MUSHTAQ HUSSAIN SAJJAD
MOHAMMADABDUL RAHEEM

08E01A0102
08E01A0120
08E01A0139
08E01A0140
08E01A0141
08E01A0152
09E05A0103

Under the Guidance of

MR. S. KHALID HASHMI


ASST VICE PRESIDENT-ENGG

KIRBY BUILDING SYSTEM


HYDERABAD

MR. MIR AHMED ALI MUJAHID


B.E (CIVIL); ME (STRUCT)

H.O.D CIVIL ENGG DEPT


NIZAM INST OF ENGG AND TECH

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(Affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad)
Near Ramoji Film city, Deshmukhi (V) Nalgonda 508284
2008-2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Mir Mujahid Ali H.O.D of
Civil Engineering Department for having permitted us to carry out this project work.
Needless to mention that, Mr. S. Khalid Hashmi, Assistant vice-president of
Kirby Building India(P) Ltd, who had been a source of inspiration and for his
timely guidance in the conduct of our project work, I take this opportunity to thank for
his guidance toward us throughout the project period.
I take this opportunity to thank Mr. Syed Muneer Hussain, G.M Associates for
his esteem guidance and support throughout the project period during the program
would be nothing without the enthusiasm and imagination from you.
I acknowledge the untiring of Mr. S. Khalid Hashmi (External Guide) for his
excellent guidance without which the completion of this project would have been
impossible. His continuous encouragement and support has always been an
inspiration and a source of energy for us. We thank him for all of his valuable time,
effort and help. Without which the project could not have been completed.
The Materialization of ideas and views of the project work has been valuable
contributing of numerous friends and academics in the form of selfless criticism, well
wishes and above all words of inspiration. I am deeply indebted to all of them for
their support and guidance and sincerely thank each of them. Also my sincere thanks
to all other people who were directly or indirectly associated with the same in any
other way.

CONTENTS

PAGE N0

INTRODUTION

MODULE I
1. INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF REINFORCED

CONCRETE STRUCTURE
2. INTRODUCTION TO LIMIT STATE DESIGN

25

3. ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED

31

CONCRETE STRUCTURE

4. DESIGN OF SLABS

80

5. DESIGN OF BEAMS

96

6. DESIGN OF COLUMNS

132

7. DESIGN OF FOOTINGS

152

8. DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

168

9. DETAILING AND DRAWINGS

178

MODULE II
10. INTRODUCTION TO STEEL STRUCTURES

179

11. LIMIT STATE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

185

FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBERS


12. ANALYSIS OF STEEL STRUCTURE

189

13. DESIGN OF DECK SLABS

205

14. DESIGN OF STEEL BEAMS

215

15. DESIGN OF STEEL COLUMNS

238

16. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS

252

17. DESIGN OF COLUMN BASES

267

18. DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

273

19. DETAILING AND DRAWING

275

MODULE III
20. ESTIMATION OF QUANTITIES OF R.C.C MEMBERS

276

21. ESTIMATION OF QUNTITIES OF

294

STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBERS

22. CONCLUSION

297

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

If one does not reflect, one thinks oneself master of everything;


But when one does reflect, one realizes that one is a master of nothing.
-Voltaire

NIZAM INSTITUE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

INTRODUCTION
Sociological changes, new technology in industry and commerce, new
building codes, other new laws and regulations, inflationary economics of nations,
and advances in building technology place an ever-increasing burden on building
designers and constructors. They need more and more knowledge and skill to cope
demands placed on them.
The public continually demands more complex buildings than in past. They
must serve more purposes, last longer and require less maintenance and repair. As in
past they must look more attractive. Yet, both building construction and operation
cost must be kept within acceptable limits or new construction will cease. To meet
this challenge successfully continual improvement in building design and construction
must be made.
One advance of note to building design is the adaption of operation research,
or system design and comparison of different type constructions. In the past, design of
a new building was mainly an imitation of the design of an existing building.
Innovations were often developed fortuitously and by intuition and were rare
occurrences. In contrast, systems design encourages innovation. It is a precise
procedure that guides creativity towards the best decisions. As a result, it can play
significant role in meeting the challenges posed by increasing building complexity
and costs.

I. PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURE
A building is an assemblage that is firmly attached to the ground and the
ground that provides total or nearly total shelter for machines, processing equipment
performance of human activities, storage of human possessions, or any combination
of these.
Building design is the process of providing all information necessary for
construction of a building that will meet its owners requirements and also satisfy
public health, welfare, and safety requirements. Architecture is the art and science of
building design. Building design and construction is the process of assembling
members and materials to form a building.
Architects are persons legally permitted to practice architecture. Engineers
are experts in specific scientific disciplines and are legally permitted to design parts of
buildings; in some cases, complete buildings. Building construction is generally
performed by laborers and crafts people engaged for the purpose by an individual or
organization, called a contractor.

In the design of a building architect should be guided by following principles:

NIZAM INSTITUE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

1. The building should be constructed to serve purposes specified by the client


2. The design should be constructed by known techniques and with available
labor and equipment, within an acceptable time.
3. The building should be capable of withstanding the elements and normal usage
for a period of time specified by client.
4. Both inside and outside, the building should be visually pleasing.
5. No part of the building should pose a hazard to the safety or health of its
occupants under normal usage, and the building should provide for safe
evacuation or refuge in emergencies.
6. The building should provide the degree of shelter from the elements and of
control of the interior environment-air, temperature, humidity, light and
acoustics-specified by the client and not less than the minimums required for
safety and health of the occupants.
7. The building should be constructed to minimum adverse impact on the
environment.
8. Operation of the building should consume a minimum of energy while
permitting the structure to serve its purposes.
9. The sum of costs of construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and
anticipated future alterations should be kept within the limit specified by the
client.
The ultimate observation objective of design is to provide all
the information necessary for the construction of a building. This objective is
achieved by the production of drawing, or plans, showing what are to be
constructed, specifications stating what materials and equipment are to be
incorporated in the building, and a construction contract between the client
and a contractor. Designer also should observe construction of the building
while it is in process. This should be done not only to assist the client in
ensuring that the building is being constructed in accordance with plans and
specifications but also to obtain information that will be useful in design of
future buildings.

II. SYSTEMS DESIGN AND ANALYSIS:


Systems design comprises a logical series of steps that leads to the best
decision for a given set of conditions. The procedure requires:
Analysis of a building system.
Synthesis, or selection of components, to form a system that meets
specific objectives while subject to constrains, or variables controlled by
designers.
Appraisal of system performance, including comparisons with
alternatives systems.
Feedback to analysis and synthesis of information obtained in system
evaluation, to improve the design.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

A system is an assemblage formed to satisfy specific objectives and


subject to constraints and restrictions and consisting of two or more
components that are interrelated and compatible, each component being
essential to the required performance of the system.
Building components, such as walls, floors, roofs, windows and doors,
are interrelated and compatible with each other. The existence of any of the
three components affects to some extent the performance of the others. And
the required performance of the building as a whole imposes restrictions on
the components. Consequently, a building has the basic characteristics of a
system, and system-design procedures should be applicable to it.

III. TRADITIONAL DESIGN PROCEDURES


System design of buildings requires a different approach to design and
construction than that used in traditional design. Because traditional design
and construction procedures are still widely used, however, it is desirable to
incorporate as much of those procedures in systems design as is feasible
without destroying its effectiveness. The basic traditional design procedure
usually starts when a client recognizes the need for and economic feasibility of
a building and engages an architect, a professional with a broad background in
building design. The architect, in turn, engages consulting engineers and other
consultants.
A Structural engineer is a specialist trained in the application of
scientific principles to the design of load-bearing walls, floors, roof,
foundations, and skeleton framing needed for the support of buildings and
building components.
A Mechanical engineer is a specialist trained in application of
scientific principles to the design of plumbing, elevators, escalators, horizontal
walkways, dumbwaiters, conveyors, installed machinery, and heating,
ventilation, and air conditioning.
An Electrical engineer is a specialist trained in the application of
scientific principles to the design of electric circuits, electric controls and
safety devices, electric motors and generators, electric lighting, and other
electric equipment.
STRUCTURAL SYSTEM, The portion of a building that extends
above the ground level outside it is called superstructure. The portion below
the outside ground level is called the substructure. The parts of the
substructure that distribute building loads to the ground are known as
foundation.
Foundations may take the form of walls. When the ground under the
building is excavated for a cellar, or basement, the foundation walls have the

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

additional task of retaining the earth along the outside of the building. The
superstructure in such cases is erected atop the foundation walls

Broadly multi-storey buildings have been classified into three types:


i.
ii.
iii.

Load bearing construction


Composite construction
Frame construction which can be either with reinforced concrete or steel

The first method has got the limitation that will be economical only up to 2 to
3 storey's. With composite construction technique, the economy is achieved even if 6
storey's or more has to be necessarily dealt with framed type of construction.
ADVANTAGES OF FRAMED CONSTRUCTION OVER OTHER TYPES
1)
2)
3)
4)

Dead load on foundation will be less due to reduction in wall thickness.


Rate of construction is faster.
Floor area will be more due to reduction in thickness of wall
Greater feasibility with respect of:
a) Location and size of window
b) Location of glazing area is obtained
5) Interior partition wall can be independent of doors on the floors above or below,
thus permitting their removal to suit varying requirement or change in the tenancy.
IV. CHOICE OF MATERIALS:
i.
ii.

R.C.C. FRAMES: R.C.C frames are found to be economical up to 25 storey's.


Because of its resistance to corrosion, it is widely favored in cold climates too.
STEEL FRAMES: If the number of floors exceeds twenty five, the
experience of designers, reveals that steel frames are more economical due to
the fact that these frames can be fabricated quickly in the workshop and can be
transported to work spot in convenient parts.

This project work consists of design of a four storied commercial cum


residential and both types of frames are used for the comparison of its choice which is
divided in different modules further.

NIZAM INSTITUE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

MODULE I

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

1. INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN OF REINFORCED


CONCRETE
The design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures in India is governed by the
Indian Standard Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete IS: 456. The fourth
revision of this code IS: 456-2000 incorporates the Limit State Method of design
based on serviceability and safety requirements associated with the design loads and
design strengths of the materials. These design loads and design strengths are obtained
by applying partial safety factors for characteristic loads and strengths of the materials
concrete and steel.
Concrete structures have become very common in civil engineering
construction concrete has established as a universal building material because of its
high compressive strength, its adoptability to take any form and shape and resistant to
fire and carrion with negligible maintenance cost. Concrete is very strong in
compression but very weak in tension. Its low tensile strength is compensated by
introducing steel reinforcement in the tension zone. Thus, the concrete is strengthened
by steel and extensively in construction of buildings, bridges, tanks, dams etc. it is
therefore, necessary that every civil engineer should know the basic principles
involved in the design of Reinforced Concrete Structures.

1.1 CONCRETE:
Concrete is a composite material consisting of cement, aggregate and water in
suitable proportions. The chemical interaction between cement and water binds the
aggregates in to a solid mass. Fresh concrete will be plastic, so that it can be moulded
to any desired shape in the moulds and compacted to form a dense mass. Water has to
be applied for few days over the concrete surface soon after its setting because the
hydration reactions between cement and water continue for a longer period due to
which hardening of concrete takes place. This period when concrete is kept moist
during which concrete gains strength is called curing period. Hence, the strength of
concrete increases with age. The process of solidification of concrete from plastic
stage is called setting while gaining of strength after setting is called hardening.
Usually, setting completes within a maximum duration of 10 hours, while about 90%
of hardening is completed by 28 days.
The properties and quality of cement concrete are influenced by the
properties of its ingredients and quality control maintained during its making and
curing. Hence, it is necessary to study the ingredients of concrete.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

1.2 INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE:


The main ingredient materials in concrete are:
(a) Cement
(b) Aggregates
(c) Water
a) Cement:
Cement is the building material which is obtained by burning
calcareous, siliceous and argillaceous materials together in definite proportions
at high temperatures and grinding the resultant clinker in to a fine powder.
Various types of cements have been developed for the use in different types of
structures under different situations. According to IS: 456-2000, the types of
cements and their suitability for specific situations are given Table below.
Table 1.1 TYPES OF CEMENTS AND THEIR SUITABILITY
S.NO.

1.

2.
3.
4.

Types of Cement
Ordinary Portland
Cement
33 Grade
43 Grade
53 Grade
(for OPC,
compressive strength
of cement at 28 days
in N/mm2 is called as
grade of cement)
Rapid hardening
cement
Low heat Portland
cement
Port land slag cement

IS Code

IS: 269
IS: 8112
IS: 12269

All general concreting


works
Multi storey structures
Bridges, Tall structures,
Pre-stressed concrete work.

IS: 8041

Road work and repairs

IS: 12600

Mass concreting-Dams

IS: 455

Marine structures
General building works,
Mass concrete,
Marine structures
Marine structures
foundations in sulphate
bearing soils
Swimming pools, floors of
food processing plants
Marine structures
Marine structures,
construction of sewers

5.

Portland pozzolana
cement

IS: 1489

6.

Sulphate resisting
Portland cement

IS: 12330

7.

Hydrophobic cement

IS: 8043

8.

High alumina cement


Supersulphated
cement

IS: 6452

9.

Where Used

IS: 6909

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b) Aggregates:
Around 75% volume of concrete is occupied by the aggregates. Hence, the
structural behavior of concrete is significantly influenced by the type of aggregates
used. The aggregates used for the concrete should be durable, strong, hard, chemically
inert and well graded.
Aggregates whose particle size varies from 0.075 mm to 4.75 mm are called as
fine aggregate. Aggregates with particle sizes more than 4.75 mm are called as
coarse aggregates. Usually sand is used as fine aggregate whereas crushed rock and
gravel is used as coarse aggregate.
Type of
aggregate
Coarse aggregate
Fine aggregate

Size of aggregate
Size bigger than 4.75 mm
4.75 mm and less
TABLE 1.2

The nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate shall be as large as


possible but it should be limited to 1/4th of the maximum thickness of the member.
The various properties of aggregates like specific gravity, strength, toughness,
hardness, soundness, particle size distribution and grading should comply with the IS
code IS: 383- 1979.
c) Water:
Water plays an active role in the chemical process of hydration of cement and
curing concrete. Hence, the water used for mixing and cutting of concrete should be
clean and free from injurious amount of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic matter etc.
that may be deleterious to concrete and steel.
Drinking water is generally considered satisfactory for mixing of concrete. Sea
water should not be used for mixing and curing because of presence of harmful salts
in it. The PH values of water should not be less than 6. The physical and chemical tests
for water should be done as per IS: 3025.
d) Admixtures:
Admixture is defined as a material, other than cement, water and aggregates.
Admixture is an ingredient of concrete and added to batch immediately before or
during mixing. Additive is a material which is added at the time of grinding cement
clinker at the factory. Admixture is used to modify the properties of ordinary concrete
so as to make it more suitable for any situation.
Admixtures are added to the concrete before or during mixing, to modify one
or more of the specific properties of concrete in the fresh or hardened states. IS: 9103-

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1979 lays down the procedures for evolution of admixtures for concrete. The different
types of admixtures used are given below.
1. Accelerating Admixtures: These are added to concrete to increase the rate of
early strength development, which in turn facilitates earlier removal of
formwork. Common accelerators are calcium chloride, flu silicates and
trietanlamine.
2. Retarding Admixtures: These are added to slow down the rate of setting of
cement. They are useful in hot weather concreting. Common types of retarders
are starches and cellulose products, sugar and hydroxyl-carboxylic acids.
3. Water Reducing or Plasticizing Admixtures: The addition of plasticizer
allows greater workability for given water cement ratio or alternatively retains
the workability while reducing the water content. The basic ingredients of
water reducing agents are either lignosulphonate slats or polyhydroxy
compounds.
4. Air-Entraining Admixtures: These are used to incorporate air in the form of
minute bubbles in concrete usually to increase workability and resistance to
freezing and thawing. Commonly used air-entraining agents are animal and
vegetable oils, natural wood resin and their sodium salts of sulphated and
aulphonated organic compounds.

Action of plasticizers:

Fluidify the mix


Improve the workability of concrete
Reduction in the surface tension of water

Site problems in the use of plasticizers:

Slump of reference mix (i.e. concrete without plasticizer).


Sequence of addition of plasticizer.
Problem with crusher dust and crushed sand.
Compatibility with cement.
Slump loss.
Compaction at site.
Finishing.
Removal of formwork.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

GRADES OF CONCRETE

Group

Grade Designation
M 10
M 15
M 20
M 25
M 30
M 35
M 40
M 45
M50
M 55
M 60
M 65
M 70
M 75
M 80
TABLE 1.3

Ordinary
Concrete

Standard Concrete

High
Strength
Concrete

Specified Characteristic
Compressive Strength of
150 mm Cube at 28 Days
in
N/mm2
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80

STRESS STRAIN CURVE FOR DIFFERENT MIXES

(1 : 1 : 2 MIX) (1 : 21/2 : 3 MIX) (1 : 3 : 5 MIX)

Strain x 10-3

FIG1 Stress- Strain Relation

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Formwork:
Formwork shall be designed and constructed so as to remain sufficiently rigid
during placing and compaction of concrete. The joints are plugged to prevent the loss
of slurry from concrete.
Stripping time of formwork:

TYPE OF FORMWORK

a.
b.

c.

d.

Vertical formwork to columns


walls and beams
Soffit formwork to slabs (props
to refixed immediately after
removal of formwork)
Soffit formwork to beams (props
to refixed immediately after
removal of formwork)
Props to slab

MINIMUM PERIOD BEFORE


STRIKING FORMWORK
16 24 hours
3 days

7 days

Spanning up to 4.5 m

7 days

Spanning over 4.5 m


e. Props to beam and arches
Spanning up to 6 m
Spanning over 6 m
TABLE 1.4

14 days
14 days
21 days

1.3 ADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE:


The following are the advantages of concrete due to which concrete is extensively
used in construction industry.
1. Compressive strength of concrete is very high.
2. Concrete can be moulded to any desired shape.
3. The materials for concrete are easily available.
4. It is easy to make.
5. It is durable.
6. By proper proportioning of mix, concrete can be made watertight.
7. It is fire resistant
8. Its maintenance cost is practically nil.
9. Strength of concrete increases with age.
10. Its monolithic character gives it more rigidity.

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1.4 DISADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE:


1. Tensile strength of concrete is very low and hence plain concrete cannot be
used in situations where tensile stresses are developed.
2. Strict quality control has to be maintained during production, placing and
compaction.
3. Curing has to be done far at least 14 days and hence time of construction
increases.
4. Once the members caste with concrete, it is very difficult to dismantle it.

1.5 DESIGN CATEGORIES:


It is emphasized that any structure to be constructed must satisfy the
need efficiently for which it is intended and shall be durable for its desired life. Thus,
the design of any structure is categorized into the following main types.
1. Functional design
2. Structural design
1. Functional design:
The structure to be constructed should primarily serve the basic purpose for
which it is to be used and must have a pleasing look.
The building should provide happy environment inside as well as outside.
Therefore, the functional planning of a building must take into account the proper
arrangements of rooms/halls to satisfy the need of the client, good ventilation,
lighting, acoustics, etc.
Bearing all these aspects in mind, the architect/engineer (i.e. Designer) has to
decide whether it should be a load bearing structure or R.C.C. framed structure or a
steel structure. He should also decide the system of covering the structure, whether the
roof shall consist of steel roof trusses and girders or R.C.C. folded plates or R.C. shell
or a beam-slab construction or a grid system or a pre-stressed concrete hanging roof or
combination of above.
After deciding the tentative form of the structure the designer should select
appropriate material for it construction. The properties of the available materials have
to be determined to decide their stability and suitability.
2. Structural Design:
Once the architectural planning task is completed further structural designing
task for all structural components of the building will be proceeded.

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Structural design is an art and science of understanding the behavior of


structural members subjected to loads and designing them with economy and
elegance to give a safe, serviceable and durable structure.

The principal elements of a R.C. Building frame consists of:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Slabs to cover large area ,


Beams to support slabs and walls
Columns to support beams
Footing to distribute concentrated column loads over large area of the
supporting soil such that the bearing capacity of soil is not exceeded.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

In a frame structure the load is transferred from slab to beam, from


beam to column and then to the foundation and soil below it

1.6 STAGES IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN:

Structural planning
Action of forces and computation of loads
Methods of analysis
Design of members
Detailing, drawing and preparation of schedules.

Structural planning:
After getting architectural plan of the building, the structural planning of the
building frame is done. This involves determination of the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Positioning and orientation of columns.


Positioning of beams.
Spanning of slabs.
Layout of stairs.
Selecting proper type of footing.

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A FLOWCHART ON
INVESTIGATION OF
BUILDING

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

As a Civil Engineering structures such as a house, worship Centre, Factories


etc. that has a foundation, wall, roof etc. that protect human being and their properties
from direct harsh effect of weather like rain, wind, sun etc.

1.6 BUILDING CONSISTS OF THREE PARTS:


(1) Foundation (Sub-structure)
(2) Plinth
(3) Superstructure
(1) Foundation: It is the lowest artificially prepared part, below the surface of the

surrounding ground, which is in direct contact with substrata and transmits all
the loads coming from super structure to the subsoil.
(2) Plinth: It is the middle part of the structure, above the surface of the
surrounding ground up to the surface at the floor (i.e. floor level), immediately
above the ground.
(3) Superstructure: The part of the structure constructed above the plinth level
(or ground floor level) is termed as superstructure.
Buildings are generally classified as residential, educational, institutional,
assembly, business, and mercantile industrial storage and hazardous.

1.7 BUILDING CLASSIFICATION:


According to National Building Code of India 1970, buildings on the basis of
occupancy are classified into following groups:.
1.

Residential Buildings: All those building in which sleeping


accommodation is provided for residing permanently or temporarily
with or without cooking or dining or both facilities are termed as
residential buildings, for e.g. apartments, flats, bungalows, dormitories,
private houses, hostels, hotels etc.

2.

Educational Buildings: These include any building used for school,


college or day- care purposes involving assembly for institution,
education or recreation and which is not covered by assembly buildings.

3.

Institutional Buildings: These buildings are used for different purposes,


such as medical or other treatment or care of persons suffering from
physical or mental illness, disease or infirmity, care of infants,
convalescents or aged persons and for penal or correctional detention in
which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. Institutional buildings
ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the occupants. They

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

include hospitals, sanatoria, custodia institutions or penal institutions like


jails, prisons and mental asylums.
4.

Assembly Buildings: These are the buildings where the groups of people
meet or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, political, civil
halls, marriage halls, town halls, auditoriums, exhibition halls, museums,
skating rinks, gymnasiums, restaurants (also used as assembly halls),
places of working, dance halls, club rooms, passenger stations and
terminals of air, surface and other public transportation services,
recreation places and stadia etc.

5.

Business Buildings: These buildings are used for transaction of business


(other than that covered by mercantile buildings), for keeping of accounts
and records for similar purposes; offices, banks, professional
establishments, court houses and libraries. The principal function of these
buildings is transaction of public business and keeping of books and
records.

6.

Mercantile Buildings: These buildings are used as shops, stores, market,


for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail, office,
shops, storage service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and
located in the same building.

7.

Industrial Buildings: These are buildings where products or materials of


all kinds and properties are fabricated, assembled, manufactured or
processed, as assembly plants, laboratories, dry cleaning plants, and
power plants, pumping stations, smoke houses, laundries, gas plants,
refineries, dairies and saw mills.

8.

Storage Buildings: These buildings are used primarily for the storage or
sheltering (including servicing, processing or repairs incidental to
storage) of goods, wares or merchandise (except those that involve
highly combustible or explosive products or materials) vehicles and
animals, as warehouse, cold storage plants, freight depots, transit sheds,
store houses, truck and marine terminals, garages, hangers (other than
aircraft repair hangars), grain elevators, barns and stables.

9.

Hazardous Buildings: These buildings are used for the storage,


handling, manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive
materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidly
and/or which may produce poisonous elements or explosives; for storage
handling, manufacturing or processing of highly corrosive, toxic or
noxious alkalis, acids or other liquids or chemicals producing flame,
fumes and explosive, poisonous, irritant or corrosive gases; and for the

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storage, handling or processing of any material producing explosive


mixtures of dust which result in the division of matter into fine particles
subjected to spontaneous ignition.
Residential building is one in which people reside permanently or for a
considerable time. It is the venues where all the members of a family live
together and have their various activities as eating, relaxing, sleeping, washing,
cleaning, bathing, easing and share their passions.
These shall include any building in which sleeping accommodation is
provided for normal residential purpose with or without cooking or dining
facility.
It includes one or more multi-family dwellings, apartment houses
(flats), lodging houses, restaurants, hostels, dormitories and residential hostels.
10.

Dwelling: A dwelling is a house or a sub place of residence.

11.

Detached House: A detached is the choice of every individual, pleasing


effect is achieved if the approach from the main road is kept open and
light and fresh air flow of uninterrupted by fences and walls. If proper
coordination with adjoining house were done, each house would present
aesthetic presentation.

12.

Semi-detached House: This type of construction has the advantage of


separate unit as well as reduction in the cost of construction as two
dwelling units have a common entrance and staircase. And additional
advantage is the sense of security that is felt by dwellers.

13.

Terrace Housing Unit: The main advantage of terrace is the in space.


This type of construction is an improvement over the semi-detached unit.
A terrace unit is the row of three or more dwelling units in continuity.

14.

Flats: A dwelling is separated from another by horizontal division. In


case of conventional group vertical divisions or partitions achieve
housing the separation.

15.

Duplex Apartments: These are living spaces at two or more levels.


They can be detached, semi-detached or in multi-storied buildings where
corridors can be provided in alternate floors.

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1.8 MULTI-STORIED COMPLEX HAVE BEEN CLASSIFIED


INTO THREE TYPES:
1.
2.
3.

Load Bearing constructions


Composite constructions
Framed constructions, which can be with either Steel or Concrete.

1.9 ENGINEERING STRUCTURE AND STRUCTUTAL DESIGN:


An engineering structure is on assembly of members or elements transferring
the load or resisting external actions and providing a form to serve the desired
function.
The structural design is a science and art of designing with economy and
elegance. A durable structure, which can safely carry the forces and can serve the
desired function satisfactory during its expected service life span.
Object and basic requirements of structural design:

Serviceability
Safety
Durability
Economy
Aesthetic beauty

1.10 PLANNING:
Once the site is chosen of accepted, the architects or engineers aim to fix the
direction of plan of building and finally to play the building keeping in view the local
bye-laws, principles of planning and requirements of owner.
Orientation is defined as a method of setting or fixing the direction of the plan
of the building in such a way that it devices maximum benefits from the elements of
nature. The knowledge of orientation is the first prerequisite of a good planning. It
should be noted that poor orientation of the buildings results in uncomfortable
conditions inside the building.
Bye-laws are certain rules and regulations laid down the by the municipalities
or town planning authorities in their jurisdiction. These have to be considered while
planning and designing the layout of buildings.
Building line, which is often known as set back refers to the line up to which
the plinth of a building adjoin a street may lawfully extend. Building line facilities
future widening of street and keeps away the noise and dust of the streets.

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Open space requirements should be left inside and around a building to meet
the lightening and ventilation requirements of the rooms. The open space left on front,
rear serve the purpose of future widening of streets.

1.11 DESIGNING:
Designing of structures is an art and science of designing a safe, durable and
elegant structure with economy. This not only requires imaginations but also good
knowledge of science of designing besides practical aspects, like the relevant codes
and local municipal bye-law with experience and judgment.
The architect whereas the requirement of safety, serviceability, durability and
economy are taken care of by the structural engineer looks after the design of structure
of planning of the structure and the aesthetics.
As mentioned earlier stages in structural design

Structural planning
Estimation of loads
Analysis of the structure
Design of the members
Drawings and preparation of schedules

Loading:
This stage involves determination of various types that are acting on the
structures. The values of types of loads are taken from relevant IS-codes.
Types of loads:
Various types of loads on a structure and requiring consideration in design
1.
2.
3.
4.

Dead load
Live load
Wind load
Seismic load
1. Dead loads:

Dead loads on structure comprise the self-weight of the member, weight of


finishes and partition walls. These are usually dependent upon the constructional
features and have to be assumed in order to design various structural concrete
members.
The unit weight of some of the commonly used building materials are
compiled in Table 1.1 based on IS: 875(PART I)-1987.

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2. Live loads or Imposed loads:


The imposed loads of different types of floors and roofs according to IS:
875(PART II) - 1987 in Table 1.2a and Table 1.2b respectively.
3. Wind loads:
The revised code IS: 875 (PART III) -1987 deals with wind loads that have to
be considered while designing while designing structures. The wind load acting on
structural member is expressed as
= ( )
F = wind load acting in a direction normal to the structural element
Cpe = external pressure coefficient
CPI= internal pressure coefficient
A = surface area of structural element or cladding unit
Pd = design wind pressure
The design wind pressure depends upon the design wind velocity which in turn
is insufficient by the type of terrain, height and class of structure.
The external pressure coefficient for different types of buildings and sloping
roofs are presented in IS: 875. The internal pressure coefficient depends upon degree
of permeability of cladding and may be positive or negative depending upon the
direction of air flow in relation to openings in the buildings. In the case of buildings
where claddings permit the flow of air through openings not more than 5% of the wall
area (without large openings) a positive and negative internal pressure coefficient of
0.2 is recommended in design.
4.

Earthquake load or Seismic load:

Earthquake loads are horizontal loads caused by earthquake and shall be


computed in accordance with IS: 1893 for monolithic reinforced concrete structures
located in seismic zone ii, and iii with not more than 5 storey high, and importance
factor less than 1, the seismic forces are not critical ( see IS: 13920 sect. 1.1).
DESIGN:
Construction is an ultimate objective of design. An engineer is a key person of
successful completion of any kind of project undertaken. Hence, he should adopt all
means to reduce cost of project to minimum, without reducing serviceability aspect of
project.
An engineering structure is an assemble of members for elements transferring
the load and providing from a space, of enclosure and/or a cover to serve the desired,
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function. The objective of structural design is to plan a structure that meets the basic
requirements such as serviceability, safety, durability, economy, aesthetic beauty,
feasibility and acceptability.

1.12 STRUCTURAL PLANNING:


Structural planning is first stage in any structural design. It involves the
determination of appropriate form of structure, material to be used, the structural
system, the layout of its components and the method of analysis.
As the success of any engineering project is measured in terms of safety and
economy, the emphasis today being more on economy. Structural planning is the first
step towards successful structural design.
Structural Planning of Reinforced Concrete Framed Building:
Structural planning of R.C framed building involves determination of
1. COLUMN POSITIONS
Positioning of columns
Orientation of columns
2. BEAMS LOCATIONS
3. SPANNING OF SLABS
4. LAYOUT AND PLANNING OF STAIRS
5. TYPE OF FOOTING
1. COLUMN POSITIONING:
Positioning of columns:
Following are some guidelines principles for positioning of columns
a) Columns should be preferably located at or near of the building and at
intersection of the walls, because the function of the columns is to support
beams which are normally placed under walls to support them. The columns,
which are near to property line, can be exception from above consideration as
the difficulties are encountered in providing footing for such columns.
b) When Centre to Centre distance between the intersection of the walls is large
or where there are no cross walls, the spacing between two columns is
governed by limitations on spans of supported beams because spacing of
columns beside the span of the beams. As the span of the beam increases in
total load is negligible in case of column due to increase in length. Therefore,
columns are generally cheaper compared to beams on basis of unit cost.
Therefore, large spans of beams should be avoided for economy reasons.

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Orientation of columns:
Columns normally provided in the building are rectangular, width of columns
not less than the width of support for effective load transfer. As far as possible, the
width of column shall not exceed the thickness of the walls to avoid the offsets.
Restrictions on the width of the column necessitate the other side (the depth) of the
column to be larger to get desired load carrying capacity. This leads to the
problems of orientation of columns.
2. BEAMS LOCATIONS:
Following are some of the guiding principles for the positioning of beams:
a. Beams shall, normally be provided under the walls and below a heavy
concentrated load to avoid these loads directly coming on slabs. Basic
principle in deciding the layout of a component member is that heavy loads
should be transferred to the foundation along the shortest path.
b. Since beams are primarily provided to support slabs, its spacing shall be
decided by the maximum spans of slabs. Slabs require the maximum
volume of concrete to carry a given load (i.e. its volume/load ratio is very
large compared to other components). Therefore the thickness of slab is
required to be kept minimum.
c. Avoid larger spacing of beams from deflection and cracking criteria.
Larger spans of beams shall also be avoided from the considerations of
controlling and cracking. This is because it is well known that the
deflection varies directly with the cube of the span and inversely with the
cube of the depth i.e. L3/D3. Consequently, increase in D is less than
increase in span L which results in greater deflection for large span.
However, for large spans, normally higher L/D ratio is taken to restrict the
depth from considerations of headroom, aesthetics and psychological effect
( a long, heavy, deep beam creates a psychological feeling of crushing load
leading to a fear of collapse). Therefore, spans of beams which require the
depth of beam greater than one meter should as far as possible be avoided.
3. SPANNING OF SLABS:
Span of slabs is decided by the position of supporting beams of walls. The slab
can be made to span in one direction (one-way) or two directional (two-way),
depending on support conditions aspect ratio that is Lx/Ly, ratio of reinforcement
in the two directions. The designer is free to decide as to whether slab should be
designed as one-way or two-way.
The points to be considered in making a decision i.e. whether slab should be
designed as one-way or two-way.

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a. The slab acts as two way slab when (Lx/Ly) < 2, a slab acts as one-way
(Lx/Ly) > 2.
b. A two-way slab is economical compare to one-way slab, because steel
along with directions act as main steel and transfers loads to all the
supports, while in one-way slab, main steel is provided along short
span only and load is transferred to either of two supports.
c. Two-way is advantageous, essentially for large spans (greater than 3m)
and for live loads greater than 3 KN/Sq. m. For short spans and light
loads steel required for two-way slab does not appreciably differ as
compare to steel for one-way slab because of requirement of main
steel.
d. Spanning of slab is also decided by the necessity of continuity to
adjacent slab
e. Canopy or porch: while designing any slab as cantilever slab, it is of
utmost importance to see whether adequate anchorage to the same is
available or not.
f. Decide type of slab
While deciding the type of slab, whether a cantilever or a simply supported or a
continuous slab, loaded by udl it should be borne in mind that the maximum bending
moment in a cantilever (M=wL2/2) is four times that of a simply supported slab
(M=wL2/8), while it is five to six times that of a continuous or fixed slab
(M=wL2/12) for the same span length.
Similarly, deflection of a cantilever loaded by a uniformly distributed load is given
by:
= wL4/ 8EI = (48/5) x( 5wL4/384EI)
Which is 9.6 times that of a simply supported slab ( = 5wL4/384EI) for the
same span and load ( besides, additional reduction in deflection is obtained in simply
supported slab due to partial fixity at supports).
In case of cantilevers, on the contrary, there is a probability of increase in
deflection due to probable rotation of the supporting beam due to lack of adequate end
restraint for the beam.

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4. FOOTING:
The type of footing depends upon the load carried by the column and
the bearing capacity of the supporting soil. Even under one small building the soil
may vary from soft clay to a hard morum. The nature and properties of soil may
change with season and weather, like swelling in wet weather. Increase in moisture
content results in substantial loss of bearing capacity in case of certain soils which
may lead to differential settlements. It is necessary to conduct the survey in the areas
for soil properties. For framed structure, isolated column footings are normally
preferred except in case of exists for great depths, pile foundations can be an
appropriate choice. If columns are very closely spaced and bearing capacity of the soil
is low, raft foundation can be an alternative solution. For a column on the boundary
line, a combined footing or a raft footing may be provided.

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2. INTRODUCTION TO LIMIT STATE DESIGN


2.1 STRUCTURAL DESIGNING:
The object of reinforced concrete design is to achieve a structure that will
result in a safe and economical solution. Structural designing for framed R.C.C
structures can be done by three methods.
1. WORKING STRESS METHOD.
2. ULTIMATE STRENGTH METHOD.
3. LIMIT STATE METHOD.
1.

WORKING STRESS METHOD OF DESIGN:

It is the earliest modified method of R.C.C structures. In this method structural


element is so designed that the stress resulting from the action of service load as
computed in linear elastic theory using modular ratio concept does not exceed a predesigned allowable stress which is kept as some fraction of ultimate stress, to avail a
margin of safety. Since this method does not utilize full strength of the material it
results in heavy section, the economy aspect cannot be fully utilized in the method.
2. ULTIMATE STRENGTH METHOD OF DESIGN:
This method is primarily based on strength concept. In this method the
structural element is proportioned to with stand the ultimate load, which is obtained
by enhancing the service load of some factor referred to as load factor for giving
desired margin of safety. Since this method is based on actual stress, strain behavior
of the material, of the member as well as of the structure that too right up to failure,
the values calculated by this method agree well the experiments results.

3. LIMIT STATE METHOD OF DESIGN:


In the limit state method, the structural elements are designed for ultimate load
and checked for serviceability (deflections, cracking etc.) at working loads so that
structures is fit for use throughout its life period.
Philosophy of limit state design:
A structure may become unfit for use not only when it collapses but when it
violate the serviceability requirements such as deflections, cracking etc. The
philosophy of limit state method design is to see that the structure remains fit for use
throughout its life period by assuring safety against strength and serviceability
requirement before failure occurs is called limit state. All the relevant limit states
have to be considered in the design. The loads of strength of materials are to be
estimated by probabilistic approach (characteristic values). The design loads and
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strengths are derived from the characteristic values through us e of partial safety
factors.

2.2 LIMIT STATES:


The various limit state to be considered in the design are
1. LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE
2. LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILITY
1. Limit State of Collapse:
It is the limit state at which the structure is likely to collapse. The structure
may collapse due to rupture of one or more critical sections or loss of overall stability
due to buckling or overturning. This limit state may correspond to
a. Flexure.
b. Compression.
c. Shear.
d. Torsion.
2. Limit State of Serviceability:
Limit state of serviceability relate to the performance of the structure at
working loads. It is the limit state at which the structure undergone excessive
deflection, which adversely affect the finishes causing discomfort to the users and
excessive cracking which effects the efficiency or appearance of structure. This limit
state may correspond to
a. Deflection
b. Cracking.
c. Other limit states (vibrations, fire resistance, and durability)

2.3 DESIGN PRINCIPLE, ASSUMPTION AND NOTATION


ASSUMED:
The notation adopted throughout the work is same as in IS-456-2000.
Materials: The design strength of materials is obtained by dividing the
characteristic strength by a factor known as partial safety factor. The partial safety
takes in to account variation of material strength, local weakness etc.
The design strength of the materials, d is given by
=
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d= f / f

f- Characteristic strength of the material


f Partial safety factor appropriate to the material and limit state being considered.
Material

Limit state of Collapse

Steel
Concrete

1.15
1.5
TABLE 2.1

Limit state of
Serviceability
1.0
1.0

2.4 ASSUMPTION IN DESIGN:


1. Using partial safety factors for loads in accordance with clause 36.4 of
IS:456-2000 as f=1.5
2. Partial safety factor material in accordance with clause 36.4.2 of IS: 4562000 is taken as 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for steel.
3. Using partial safety factor in accordance with clause 36.4 of IS: 456-2000
combination of load.
Load
combination
D.L+L.L
D.L+W.L
D.L+L.L+W.L

Limit state of collapse


D.L
1.5
1.5 or
0.9
1.2

Limit state of serviceability

L.L
1.5

W.L
---

D.L
1.0

L.L
1.0

W.L
---

---

1.5

1.0

---

1.0

1.2
1.2
TABLE 2.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

* This value is to be used when stability against overturning or stress


reversal is critical
* While considering earthquake effects, substitute E.L for W.L.

2.5 DENSITY OF MATERIALS:


S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

MATERIAL
Plain concrete
Reinforced concrete
Flooring material
Brick masonry
Fly ash

DENSITY
24.0 KN/m3
25.0 KN/m3
20.0 KN/m3
19.0 KN/m3
5.0 KN/m3

TABLE 2.3

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2.6 LIVE LOADS:


In accordance with IS: 875 (PART II)
i.

Live load on slabs

Roof slab

= 1.5 KN/m2

Typical floor slab

= 2.0 KN/m2

ii.
iii.

Live load on passage


Live load on stairs

= 3.0 KN/m2
= 3.0 KN/m2

2.7 DESIGN CONSTANTS:


Using M20 and Fe415 grade of concrete and steel for beams, slabs, footings,
columns.
Therefore:fck = Characteristic strength for M20 Grade concrete 20 N/mm2
fy = Characteristic strength of steel 415 N/mm2

2.8 ASSUMPTION REGARDING DESIGN:


i.
ii.

Slab is assumed to be continuous over interior support and partially fixed on


edges, due to monolithic construction and due to construction of walls over it.
Beams are assumed to be continuous over interior support and they frame into
the column at ends.

2.9 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE:


1.

Grades of concrete:

Concrete is known by its grade which is designated as M15, M20 etc. in which
letter M refers to concrete mix and number 15, 20 denotes the specified compressive
strength (fck) of 150mm cube at 28 days, expressed in N/mm2. Thus, concrete is
known by its compressive strength. M20 and M25 are the most common grades of
concrete, and higher grades of concrete should be used for severe, very severe and
extreme environments.
2. Compressive strength:
Like load, the strength of the concrete is also a quality which varies
considerably for the same concrete mix. Therefore, a single representative value,
known as characteristic strength is used.

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3.

Characteristic strength:

It is defined as the value of the strength below which not more than 5% of the
test results are expected to fall (i.e. there is 95% probability of achieving this value
only 5% of not achieving the same)
4. Characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member:
The characteristic strength of concrete in flexural member is taken as 0.67
times the strength of concrete cube
5. Design strength (fd) and partial safety factor for material strength:
The strength to be taken for the purpose of design is known is known as
design strength and is given by
Design strength (fd) = characteristic strength/ partial safety factor for material strength
The value of partial safety factor depends upon the type of material and upon the type
of limit state. According to IS code,
Partial safety factor ( fs ) is taken as
1.5 for concrete
1.15 for steel
Design strength of concrete in member = 0.45 fck
6. Tensile strength:
The estimate of flexural tensile or the modulus of rupture or the cracking
strength of concrete from cube compressive strength is obtained by the relations.
fcr = 0.7 fck N/mm

The tensile strength of concrete in direct tension is obtained experimental y by split


cylinder. It varies between 1/8 to 1/12 of cube compressive strength..
7. Creep :
Creep is defined as the plastic deformation under sustain load. Creep strain
depends primarily on the duration of sustained loading. According to the code, the
value of the ultimate creep coefficient is taken as 1.6 at 28 days of loading..
8. Shrinkage:
The property of diminishing in volume during the process of drying
and hardening is termed Shrinkage. It depends mainly on the duration of
exposure. If this strain is prevented, it produces tensile stress in the concrete
and hence concrete develops cracks.

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9. Modular ratio:
Short term modular ratio is the modulus of elasticity of steel to the modulus of
elasticity of concrete.
Short term modular ratio = Es / Ec
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel (2x10 5 N/mm )
2

Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete (5000 ck N/mm )


2

As the modulus of elasticity of concrete changes with time, age at loading etc.
the modular ratio also changes accordingly. Taking into account the effects of creep
and shrinkage partially IS code gives the following expression for the long term
modular ratio.
Long term modular ratio (m) = 280/ (3fcbc)
Where, fcbc = permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in N/mn2
10. Poissons ratio:
Poissons ratio varies between 0.1 for high strength concrete and 0.2 for weak
mixes. It is normally taken as 0.15 for strength design and 0.2 for serviceability
criteria.
11. Durability:
Durability of concrete is its ability to resist its disintegration and decay. One of
the chief characteristics influencing durability of concrete is its permeability to
increase of water and other potential y deleterious materials. The desired low
permeability in concrete is achieved by having adequate cement, sufficient low
water/cement ratio, by ensuring full compaction of concrete and by adequate curing.
12. Unit weight of concrete:
The unit weight of concrete depends on percentage of reinforcement, type of
aggregate, amount of voids and varies from 23 to 26KN/m . The unit weight of plain
and reinforced concrete as specified by IS: 456 are 24 and 25KN/m respectively.
2

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3 ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE


STRUCTURE
The intermediate structure can be analyzed by the following methods.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Moment Distribution Method.


Slope Deflection Method.
Kanis Method or Rotation Contribution Method.
Column Analogy Method.
Strain Energy Method.
Matrix Method.
Finite Element Method (STAAD PRO)

Out of the above mentioned methods here Finite Element Method is adopted.

3.1 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD:


The finite element method analysis is a numerical technique. In this method all
the complexities of problem like varying shape, boundary conditions and loads are
maintained as they are but the solutions obtained approximately. Some of the popular
packages are STAAD-PRO, GT-SRTUDEL, NASTRAN, NISA, ETABS etc.
The finite element analysis originated as a method of stress analysis in the
design of air craft. Today this method is used not only for the analysis in solid
mechanics, but even in analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer, electric and magnetic field
and many others. Civil engineers use this method extensively for the analysis of
beams, space frames, plates, shells, floated plates, foundation, rock mechanic
problems and seepage analysis of fluid through porous media.
This is a time saving method of analysis, with consideration of shape,
boundary condition and loading.
FEM possess some definite advantages over other methods as follows:
a) In classical method exact equations are formed and exact solutions are
obtained where in FEM exact equations are formed but approximate
solutions are obtained.
b) Solutions have been obtained for few standard cases by classical
method whereas solution can be obtained for all problems by FEM.
c) Whenever the following complexities are faced, classical method
makes the drastic assumptions and looks for the solutions:
Shape
Boundary conditions
Loading
d) when material property is not isotropic the solution for the problem
become very difficult in classical method
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e) If structure consists more than one material it is difficult to use


classical method but Fem can be used without difficulty.
f) Problems with materials and non-linearity cannot be handled by
classical method this is no difficulty in FEM.

3.2

ANALYSIS SOFTWARE - STAAD.PROV8i OVERVIEW


INTEGRATED SOFTWARE FOR STRUCTURAL
ANALYSIS & DESIGN:

STAAD.PROV8i is a stand-alone finite-element based structural


program for the analysis and design of civil structures. It offers an intuitive, yet
powerful user interface with many tools to aid in the quick and accurate construction
of models, along with the sophisticated analytical techniques needed to do the most
complex projects.
STAAD.PROV8i is controlled based, meaning that the models are
created with members that represent the physical reality. A beam with multiple
members framing into it is created as a single object; just as it exist in the real world,
and the sub-dividing needed to ensure that connectivity exists with the other members
is handled internally by the program. Results for analysis and design are reported for
the overall object, and not for each sub-element that makes up the object, providing
information that is both easier to interpret and more consistent with the physical
structure.
STAAD.PROV8i follows in the same tradition featuring a very
sophisticated, intuitive and versatile user interface powered by an unmatched analysis
engine and design tools for engineers working on transportation, industrial, public
works, sports, and other facilities.
From its 3D object based graphical modeling environment, to the wide
variety of analysis and design options completely integrated across one powerful user
interface, STAADPROV8i has proven to be the most integrated, productive and
practical general purpose structural program on market today.
The intuitive interface allows to create structural models rapidly and
intuitively without long learning curve delays. Complex models can be generated and
meshed with powerful templates built into the interface.
The advanced analytical techniques allow for step-by-step large
Deformation Analysis, Multiple P-Delta, Eigen and Ritz Analysis, Cable Analysis,
Tension or Compression only Analysis, Buckling Analysis, Blast Analysis, Fast
Nonlinear Analysis for Dampers, base Isolators and support Plasticity, Energy
Methods for Drift Control and Segmental Construction Analysis.
Bridge Designers can use STAADPROV8i bridge templates for
generating bridge models, Automated Bridge Live Load Analysis and Design, Bridge
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Base Isolated, Bridge Construction Sequence Analysis, Large Deformation Cable


Supported Bridge Analysis and Pushover Analysis
STAADPROV8i enables users to easily apply loads or assign
restraints/supports in skewed directions from the global axis. Even if you dont have
skewed restraints/supports, but have sloped beams or bracing, STAADPROV8i
analysis results are reported in local directions, making it easy to interpret the
direction of deflections or forces without having to do time consuming, error prone
transformations.
STAADPROV8i constraint options provide unique capabilities to
rigidly link joints which are offset from one another. In addition to rigid
diaphragms, STAADPROV8i also provides additional constraint types which rigidly
transfer forces and moments from one joint to another in all degree of freedom, or in
selected degrees of freedom, while accounting for secondary moments that occur due
to the distance between the joint locations (lever arm effect). This ability to transfer
secondary moments differentiates these constraints from traditional master-slave/rigid
diaphragm type of constraints.
This is particularly important when connecting beams with plate
elements, modeling composite behavior, or joint connections offset from an element
centerline which can cause secondary moments. STAADPROV8i constraint options
become especially critical for accurate reactions in a dynamic analysis.
STAADPROV8i enables users to review analysis results graphically
by clicking on individually members or joints, or generate output reports. Output
reports can be limited by graphically selected areas, or by pre-defined groups, by load
case/combination. Results can be printed, exported to Excel or Access database, as
well as generation of DXF drawings.

3.3 GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF STAADPROV8i:


Fully integrated program that allows model creation, modification,
execution
of analysis, design optimization, and results review
from within a single interface.
Powerful graphical 3D model generation using plan, elevation and
developed
views.
A wide variety of automated templates allow a quick start for almost
any mode.
Object-based physical member modeling allows working with large
members that do not need to be broken up at each joint.
Powerful CAD-type editing features.
Compressive interactive spreadsheet editor.
Fully customized units that can be changed at any time.

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Fully integrated section Designer allows definition of complex


sections.
State-of-the-art static, dynamic, linear and nonlinear analysis.
Fully interactive steel, concrete and aluminum frame member deign
for many American, Indian, Canadian and European design codes.
Onscreen results display.
Animated display of deformed shapes, mode shapes, stress contours
and time history results.
User customizable tables that can be displayed on screen or output in
multiple formats.
Context sensitive online help, documentation, tutorials and AVI
movie demonstrations.

3.4 ANALYTICAL OPTIONS:

Static linear analysis


Static Non-linear analysis
Model analysis
Dynamic response spectrum analysis
Dynamic linear and Non-linear time history analysis
Bridge analysis (Moving load analysis)
Buckling analysis

3.5 DESIGN OPTIONS:


Fully interactive and graphical steel, concrete and aluminum frame
member design.
Design for static and dynamic load.
Ductile and non-ductile design.
Member grouping for design envelopes.
Automatic drift optimization for steel and aluminum members.
Compressive, color coded, graphical display of design results on the
model.
Detailed onscreen design information with aright button click.
Concrete column axial load biaxial load moment interaction diagram.

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3.6 STEEL FRAME DESIGN THAT SUPPORTS THE


FOLLOWING:
DESIGN CODES:

3.7

AISC ASD 89
AISC LRFD 93
API RP2A WSD 2000
API RP2A LRFD 97
ASCE 10-97
BS59950-90
BSS5950-2000
CISC 95
Euro code 3-1993
Indian IS 800-1987
UBC 97 ASD
UBC 97 LRFD Etc.,

CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN THAT SUPPORTS THE


FOLLOWING:
DESIGN CODES:

ACI 318-99
BS 8110-89
BS 8110 97
CSA-A23 3-94
Euro code 2-1992
Indian IS 456-2000
Italian DM 14-2-92
Mexican RCDF 2001
NZS 3101-95
UBC 97 Etc.,

3.8 A MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL CUM COMMERCIAL


BUILDING:
This thesis portrays the design of an earthquake and wind resistant
structure. The structure taken for this thesis is a multistoried residential cum
commercial building located in the Hyderabad which comes under Zone II.
This building is taken as the reference for the design of against earthquake.
The building which has taken for the resident is prone to be most crowded area
in which Publics are likely to be gathered daily. Hence it is very important to
design building to resist against earthquake.
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Type of building
Number of storey's
Area of the Building
Total Height of the building
Height of each storey
Number of flats in each floor
Number of commercial stores
Area of each flat
Wall thickness

Commercial cum residential


G+4 (+STAIR CAP)
354.783 m2
19.2 m
3.2 m
2
2
107.038 m2
External-0.300 m,
Internal- 0.150 m
0.400m x 0.300m
0.3m x0.5m & 0.3m x 0.4m
0.120 & 0.14m
32

Beam size
Column sizes
Thickness of slab
No. of Restraints/supports

TABLE 3.1

3.9

MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF MULTISTORIED


RESIDENTIAL CUM COMMERCIAL BUILDING:
STAADPROV8i is an effective software tool for the analysis and
design of structural members. Hence this software could be used to design a
structure against earthquake. The software follows the matrix stiffness
principle in analyzing the structure. The steps for analyzing a structure using
STAADPROV8i are given below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

GENERATION OF NODES.
MODELING OF THE STRUCTURE.
ASSIGNING OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS.
RESTRAINTS.
APPLICATION OF LOADS.
RUN ANALYSIS.

1. Generation of nodes:
The nodes are generated based on the dimensions of the building. The
building is divided in to equal number of known grids. Then the grid spacing
is given on the STAADPROV8i window. The STAADPROV8i automatically
generates grids with specified spacing.
2. Modeling of the structure:
After the nodes are created they are joined with line elements. Based
on the dimension of the building the nodes are joined. Unwanted nodes could
be deleted.
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3. Assigning of the structural elements:


The STAADPROV8i has the facility to assign the structural elements.
The line elements have to be assigned as beams and columns and appropriate
dimensions are given.
4. Application of loads:
There are various loads acting on a structure. Current case study
constitute of the following loads:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Self-weight
Gravity Load
Wind Load
Seismic Load

The loads are applied on the structure as gravity loads (Dead & Live
Loads), Joint Loads (Seismic Load), Nodal Loads (Wind Load). After the
application of different load cases, combination of loads has to be specified as
mentioned in IS: 456 2000.
5. RUN ANALYSIS:
This is the last step in the analyzing of a structure using
STAADPROV8i software. When the run analysis is executed it shows
ANALYSIS COMPLETE, which indicated the termination of analysis
process.

3.10 INPUT COMMANDS IN STAAD PRO EDITER:


STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER Students of Nizam Institute of Engineering and Technology
DATE 29-Feb-12
JOB NAME comparative study on multi-storey RCC & STEEL Building
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 3 0 0; 3 6.7 0 0; 4 10.25 0 0; 5 11.9 0 0; 6 13.8 0 0; 7 17.5 0 0; 8 20.5 0 0; 9
6.7 0 2; 10 11.9 0 2; 11 13.8 0 2; 12 0 0 3.65; 13 3 0 3.65; 14 6.7 0 3.65; 15 10.25 0
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3.65; 16 13.8 0 3.65; 17 17.5 0 3.65; 18 20.5 0 3.65; 19 0 0 7.15; 20 3 0 7.15; 21 6.7 0
7.15; 22 10.25 0 7.15; 23 13.8 0 7.15; 24 17.5 0 7.15; 25 20.5 0 7.15; 26 0 0 11.3; 27
3 0 11.3; 28 6.7 0 11.3; 29 10.25 0 11.3; 30 13.8 0 11.3; 31 17.5 0 11.3; 32 20.5 0
11.3; 33 0 1.5 0; 34 3 1.5 0; 35 6.7 1.5 0; 36 10.25 1.5 0; 37 11.9 1.5 0; 38 13.8 1.5
0;39 17.5 1.5 0; 40 20.5 1.5 0; 41 6.7 1.5 2; 42 11.9 1.5 2; 43 13.8 1.5 2;44 0 1.5 3.65;
45 3 1.5 3.65; 46 6.7 1.5 3.65; 47 10.25 1.5 3.65; 48 13.8 1.5 3.65; 49 17.5 1.5 3.65;
50 20.5 1.5 3.65; 51 0 1.5 7.15; 52 3 1.5 7.15; 53 6.7 1.5 7.15; 54 10.25 1.5 7.15; 55
13.8 1.5 7.15; 56 17.5 1.5 7.15; 57 20.5 1.5 7.15; 58 0 1.5 11.3; 59 3 1.5 11.3; 60 6.7
1.5 11.3; 61 10.25 1.5 11.3; 62 13.8 1.5 11.3; 63 17.5 1.5 11.3; 64 20.5 1.5 11.3; 65
6.7 3.1 0; 66 6.7 3.1 2; 67 0 4.7 0; 68 3 4.7 0; 69 6.7 4.7 0; 70 10.25 4.7 0; 71 11.9 4.7
0; 72 13.8 4.7 0; 73 17.5 4.7 0; 74 20.5 4.7 0; 75 6.7 4.7 2; 76 11.9 4.7 2; 77 13.8 4.7
2; 78 0 4.7 3.65; 79 3 4.7 3.65; 80 6.7 4.7 3.65; 81 10.25 4.7 3.65; 82 13.8 4.7 3.65;
83 17.5 4.7 3.65; 84 20.5 4.7 3.65; 85 0 4.7 7.15; 86 3 4.7 7.15; 87 3.85 4.7 7.15; 88
6.7 4.7 7.15; 89 10.25 4.7 7.15; 90 13.8 4.7 7.15; 91 16.65 4.7 7.15; 92 17.5 4.7 7.15;
93 20.5 4.7 7.15; 94 0 4.7 11.3; 95 3 4.7 11.3; 96 3.85 4.7 11.3; 97 6.7 4.7 11.3; 98
10.25 4.7 11.3; 99 13.8 4.7 11.3; 100 16.65 4.7 11.3; 101 17.5 4.7 11.3; 102 20.5 4.7
11.3; 103 6.7 6.3 0; 104 6.7 6.3 2; 105 0 7.9 0; 106 3 7.9 0; 107 6.7 7.9 0; 108 10.25
7.9 0; 109 11.9 7.9 0; 110 13.8 7.9 0; 111 17.5 7.9 0; 112 20.5 7.9 0; 113 6.7 7.9 2;
114 11.9 7.9 2; 115 13.8 7.9 2; 116 0 7.9 3.65; 117 3 7.9 3.65; 118 6.7 7.9 3.65; 119
10.25 7.9 3.65; 120 13.8 7.9 3.65; 121 17.5 7.9 3.65; 122 20.5 7.9 3.65; 123 0 7.9
7.15; 124 3 7.9 7.15; 125 3.85 7.9 7.15; 126 6.7 7.9 7.15; 127 10.25 7.9 7.15; 128
13.8 7.9 7.15; 129 16.65 7.9 7.15; 130 17.5 7.9 7.15; 131 20.5 7.9 7.15; 132 0 7.9
11.3; 133 3 7.9 11.3; 134 3.85 7.9 11.3; 135 6.7 7.9 11.3; 136 10.25 7.9 11.3; 137
13.8 7.9 11.3; 138 16.65 7.9 11.3; 139 17.5 7.9 11.3; 140 20.5 7.9 11.3; 141 6.7 9.5 0;
142 6.7 9.5 2; 143 0 11.1 0; 144 3 11.1 0; 145 6.7 11.1 0; 146 10.25 11.1 0; 147 11.9
11.1 0; 148 13.8 11.1 0; 149 17.5 11.1 0; 150 20.5 11.1 0; 151 6.7 11.1 2; 152 11.9
11.1 2; 153 13.8 11.1 2; 154 0 11.1 3.65; 155 3 11.1 3.65; 156 6.7 11.1 3.65; 157
10.25 11.1 3.65; 158 13.8 11.1 3.65; 159 17.5 11.1 3.65; 160 20.5 11.1 3.65; 161 0
11.1 7.15; 162 3 11.1 7.15; 163 3.85 11.1 7.15; 164 6.7 11.1 7.15; 165 10.25 11.1
7.15; 166 13.8 11.1 7.15; 167 16.65 11.1 7.15; 168 17.5 11.1 7.15; 169 20.5 11.1
7.15; 170 0 11.1 11.3; 171 3 11.1 11.3; 172 3.85 11.1 11.3; 173 6.7 11.1 11.3; 174
10.25 11.1 11.3; 175 13.8 11.1 11.3; 176 16.65 11.1 11.3; 177 17.5 11.1 11.3; 178
20.5 11.1 11.3; 179 6.7 12.7 0; 180 6.7 12.7 2; 181 0 14.3 0; 182 3 14.3 0; 183 6.7
14.3 0; 184 10.25 14.3 0; 185 11.9 14.3 0; 186 13.8 14.3 0; 187 17.5 14.3 0; 188 20.5
14.3 0; 189 6.7 14.3 2; 190 11.9 14.3 2; 191 13.8 14.3 2; 192 0 14.3 3.65; 193 3 14.3
3.65; 194 6.7 14.3 3.65; 195 10.25 14.3 3.65; 196 13.8 14.3 3.65; 197 17.5 14.3 3.65;
198 20.5 14.3 3.65; 199 0 14.3 7.15; 200 3 14.3 7.15; 201 3.85 14.3 7.15; 202 6.7 14.3
7.15; 203 10.25 14.3 7.15; 204 13.8 14.3 7.15; 205 16.65 14.3 7.15; 206 17.5 14.3
7.15; 207 20.5 14.3 7.15; 208 0 14.3 11.3; 209 3 14.3 11.3; 210 3.85 14.3 11.3; 211
6.7 14.3 11.3; 212 10.25 14.3 11.3; 213 13.8 14.3 11.3; 214 16.65 14.3 11.3; 215 17.5
14.3 11.3; 216 20.5 14.3 11.3; 217 6.7 15.9 0; 218 6.7 15.9 2; 219 0 17.5 0; 220 3
17.5 0; 221 6.7 17.5 0; 222 10.25 17.5 0; 223 11.9 17.5 0; 224 13.8 17.5 0; 225 17.5
17.5 0; 226 20.5 17.5 0; 227 6.7 17.5 2; 228 11.9 17.5 2; 229 13.8 17.5 2; 230 0 17.5
3.65; 231 3 17.5 3.65; 232 6.7 17.5 3.65; 233 10.25 17.5 3.65; 234 13.8 17.5 3.65;
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235 17.5 17.5 3.65; 236 20.5 17.5 3.65; 237 0 17.5 7.15; 238 3 17.5 7.15; 239 3.85
17.5 7.15; 240 6.7 17.5 7.15; 241 10.25 17.5 7.15; 242 13.8 17.5 7.15; 243 16.65 17.5
7.15; 244 17.5 17.5 7.15; 245 20.5 17.5 7.15; 246 0 17.5 11.3; 247 3 17.5 11.3; 248
3.85 17.5 11.3; 249 6.7 17.5 11.3; 250 10.25 17.5 11.3; 251 13.8 17.5 11.3; 252 16.65
17.5 11.3; 253 17.5 17.5 11.3; 254 20.5 17.5 11.3; 255 6.7 20.7 0; 256 10.25 20.7 0;
257 11.9 20.7 0; 258 13.8 20.7 0; 259 11.9 20.7 2; 260 13.8 20.7 2; 261 6.7 20.7 3.65;
262 10.25 20.7 3.65; 263 13.8 20.7 3.65;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 33 1; 2 34 2; 3 35 3; 4 36 4; 5 37 5; 6 38 6; 7 39 7; 8 40 8; 9 41 9; 10 42 10; 11 43
11; 12 44 12; 13 45 13; 14 46 14; 15 47 15; 16 48 16; 17 49 17; 18 50 18; 19 51 19;
20 52 20; 21 53 21; 22 54 22; 23 55 23; 24 56 24; 25 57 25; 26 58 26; 27 59 27; 28 60
28; 29 61 29; 30 62 30; 31 63 31; 32 64 32; 101 33 67; 102 34 68; 103 65 69; 104 35
65; 105 36 70; 106 37 71; 107 38 72; 108 39 73; 109 40 74; 110 66 75; 111 41 66;
112 42 76; 113 43 77; 114 44 78; 115 45 79; 116 46 80; 117 47 81; 118 48 82; 119 49
83; 120 50 84; 121 51 85; 122 52 86; 123 53 88; 124 54 89; 125 55 90; 126 56 92;
127 57 93; 128 58 94; 129 59 95; 130 60 97; 131 61 98; 132 62 99; 133 63 101; 134
64 102; 201 67 105; 202 68 106; 203 103 107; 204 69 103; 205 70 108; 206 71 109;
207 72 110; 208 73 111; 209 74 112; 210 104 113; 211 75 104; 212 76 114; 213 77
115; 214 78 116; 215 79 117; 216 80 118; 217 81 119; 218 82 120; 219 83 121; 220
84 122; 221 85 123; 222 86 124; 223 88 126; 224 89 127; 225 90 128; 226 92 130;
227 93 131; 228 94 132; 229 95 133; 230 97 135; 231 98 136; 232 99 137; 233 101
139; 234 102 140; 301 105 143; 302 106 144; 303 141 145; 304 107 141; 305 108
146; 306 109 147; 307 110 148; 308 111 149; 309 112 150; 310 142 151; 311 113
142; 312 114 152; 313 115 153; 314 116 154; 315 117 155; 316 118 156; 317 119
157; 318 120 158; 319 121 159; 320 122 160; 321 123 161; 322 124 162; 323 126
164; 324 127 165; 325 128 166; 326 130 168; 327 131 169; 328 132 170; 329 133
171; 330 135 173; 331 136 174; 332 137 175; 333 139 177; 334 140 178; 401 143
181; 402 144 182; 403 179 183; 404 145 179; 405 146 184; 406 147 185; 407 148
186; 408 149 187; 409 150 188; 410 180 189; 411 151 180; 412 152 190; 413 153
191; 414 154 192; 415 155 193; 416 156 194; 417 157 195; 418 158 196; 419 159
197; 420 160 198; 421 161 199; 422 162 200; 423 164 202; 424 165 203; 425 166
204; 426 168 206; 427 169 207; 428 170 208; 429 171 209; 430 173 211; 431 174
212; 432 175 213; 433 177 215; 434 178 216; 501 181 219;502 182 220; 503 217
221; 504 183 217; 505 184 222; 506 185 223; 507 186 224; 508 187 225; 509 188
226; 510 218 227; 511 189 218; 512 190 228; 513 191 229; 514 192 230; 515 193
231; 516 194 232; 517 195 233; 518 196 234; 519 197 235; 520 198 236; 521 199
237; 522 200 238; 523 202 240; 524 203 241; 525 204 242; 526 206 244; 527 207
245; 528 208 246; 529 209 247; 530 211 249; 531 212 250; 532 213 251; 533 215
253; 534 216 254; 601 255 221; 602 256 222; 603 257 223; 604 258 224; 605 259
228; 606 260 229; 607 261 232; 608 262 233; 609 263 234; 1001 33 34; 1002 34 35;
1003 35 36; 1004 36 37; 1005 37 38; 1006 38 39; 1007 39 40; 1008 42 43; 1009 44
45; 1010 45 46; 1011 46 47; 1012 47 48; 1013 48 49; 1014 49 50; 1015 51 52; 1016
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52 53; 1017 53 54; 1018 54 55; 1019 55 56; 1020 56 57; 1021 58 59; 1022 59 60;
1023 60 61; 1024 61 62; 1025 62 63; 1026 63 64; 1027 35 41; 1028 37 42; 1029 38
43; 1030 33 44; 1031 34 45; 1032 36 47; 1033 39 49; 1034 40 50; 1035 41 46; 1036
43 48;1037 44 51; 1038 45 52; 1039 46 53; 1040 47 54; 1041 48 55; 1042 49 56;1043
50 57; 1044 51 58; 1045 52 59; 1046 53 60; 1047 54 61; 1048 55 62; 1049 56 63;
1050 57 64; 1051 65 66; 2001 67 68; 2002 68 69; 2003 69 70; 2004 70 71; 2005 71
72; 2006 72 73; 2007 73 74; 2008 76 77; 2009 78 79; 2010 79 80; 2011 80 81; 2012
81 82; 2013 82 83; 2014 83 84; 2015 85 86; 2016 86 87; 2017 87 88; 2018 88 89;
2019 89 90; 2020 90 91; 2021 91 92; 2022 92 93; 2023 94 95; 2024 95 96; 2025 96
97; 2026 97 98; 2027 98 99; 2028 99 100; 2029 100 101; 2030 101 102; 2031 67 78;
2032 68 79; 2033 69 75; 2034 75 80; 2035 70 81; 2036 71 76; 2037 72 77; 2038 77
82; 2039 73 83; 2040 74 84; 2041 78 85; 2042 81 89; 2043 84 93; 2044 85 94; 2045
87 96; 2046 88 97; 2047 89 98; 2048 90 99; 2049 91 100; 2050 93 102; 2051 103
104; 3001 105 106; 3002 106 107; 3003 107 108; 3004 108 109; 3005 109 110; 3006
110 111; 3007 111 112; 3008 114 115; 3009 116 117; 3010 117 118; 3011 118 119;
3012 119 120; 3013 120 121; 3014 121 122; 3015 123 124; 3016 124 125; 3017 125
126; 3018 126 127; 3019 127 128; 3020 128 129; 3021 129 130; 3022 130 131; 3023
132 133; 3024 133 134; 3025 134 135; 3026 135 136; 3027 136 137; 3028 137 138;
3029 138 139; 3030 139 140; 3031 105 116; 3032 106 117; 3033 107 113; 3034 113
118; 3035 108 119; 3036 109 114; 3037 110 115; 3038 115 120; 3039 111 121; 3040
112 122; 3041 116 123; 3042 119 127; 3043 122 131; 3044 123 132; 3045 125
134;3046 126 135; 3047 127 136; 3048 128 137; 3049 129 138; 3050 131 140; 3051
141 142; 4001 143 144; 4002 144 145; 4003 145 146; 4004 146 147; 4005 147 148;
4006 148 149; 4007 149 150; 4008 152 153; 4009 154 155; 4010 155 156; 4011 156
157; 4012 157 158; 4013 158 159; 4014 159 160; 4015 161 162; 4016 162 163; 4017
163 164; 4018 164 165; 4019 165 166; 4020 166 167; 4021 167 168; 4022 168 169;
4023 170 171; 4024 171 172; 4025 172 173; 4026 173 174; 4027 174 175; 4028 175
176; 4029 176 177; 4030 177 178; 4031 143 154; 4032 144 155; 4033 145 151; 4034
151 156; 4035 146 157; 4036 147 152; 4037 148 153; 4038 153 158; 4039 149
159;4040 150 160; 4041 154 161; 4042 157 165; 4043 160 169; 4044 161 170; 4045
163 172; 4046 164 173; 4047 165 174; 4048 166 175; 4049 167 176; 4050 169 178;
4051 179 180; 5001 181 182; 5002 182 183; 5003 183 184; 5004 184 185; 5005 185
186; 5006 186 187; 5007 187 188; 5008 190 191; 5009 192 193; 5010 193 194; 5011
194 195; 5012 195 196; 5013 196 197; 5014 197 198; 5015 199 200; 5016 200 201;
5017 201 202; 5018 202 203; 5019 203 204; 5020 204 205; 5021 205 206; 5022 206
207; 5023 208 209; 5024 209 210; 5025 210 211; 5026 211 212; 5027 212 213; 5028
213 214; 5029 214 215; 5030 215 216; 5031 181 192; 5032 182 193; 5033 183 189;
5034 189 194; 5035 184 195; 5036 185 190; 5037 186 191; 5038 191 196; 5039 187
197; 5040 188 198; 5041 192 199; 5042 195 203; 5043 198 207; 5044 199 208; 5045
201 210; 5046 202 211; 5047 203 212; 5048 204 213; 5049 205 214; 5050 207 216;
5051 217 218; 6001 219 220; 6002 220 221; 6003 221 222; 6004 222 223; 6005 223
224; 6006 224 225; 6007 225 226; 6008 228 229; 6009 230 231; 6010 231 232; 6011
232 233; 6012 233 234; 6013 234 235; 6014 235 236; 6015 237 238; 6016 238 239;
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6017 239 240; 6018 240 241; 6019 241 242; 6020 242 243; 6021 243 244; 6022 244
245; 6023 246 247; 6024 247 248; 6025 248 249; 6026 249 250; 6027 250 251;6028
251 252; 6029 252 253; 6030 253 254; 6031 219 230; 6032 220 231; 6033 221 227;
6034 227 232; 6035 222 233; 6036 223 228; 6037 224 229; 6038 229 234; 6039 225
235; 6040 226 236; 6041 230 237; 6042 233 241; 6043 236 245; 6044 237 246; 6045
239 248; 6046 240 249; 6047 241 250; 6048 242 251; 6049 243 252; 6050 245 254;
7001 255 256; 7002 256 257; 7003 257 258; 7004 259 260; 7005 261 262; 7006 262
263; 7007 255 261; 7008 256 262; 7009 257 259; 7010 260 258; 7011 260 263;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
3 4 6 14 16 20 21 23 24 27 28 30 31 103 TO 105 107 116 118 122 123 125 126 129
130 132 133 203 TO 205 207 216 218 222 223 225 226 229 230 232 233 303 304 TO
305 307 316 318 322 323 325 326 329 330 332 333 403 TO 405 407 416 418 422 423
425 426 429 430 432 433 503 TO 505 507 516 518 522 523 525 526 529 530 532
533 601 602 604 607 609 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.3
1 2 7 8 12 13 15 17 TO 19 22 25 26 29 32 101 102 108 109 114 115 117 119 TO 121
124 127 128 131 134 201 202 208 209 214 215 217 219 TO 221 224 227 228 231
234 301 302 308 309 314 315 317 319 TO 321 324 327 328 331 334 401 402 408
409 414 415 417 419 TO 421 424 427 428 431 434 501 502 508 509 514 515 517
519 TO 521 524 527 528 531 534 608 PRIS YD 0.3 ZD 0.5
5 9 TO 11 106 110 TO 113 206 210 TO 213 306 310 TO 313 406 410 TO 413 506
510 TO 513 603 605 606 1001 TO 1051 2001 TO 2051 3001 TO 3051 4001 TO 4051
5001 TO 5051 6001 TO 6050 7001 TO 7011 PRIS YD 0.4 ZD 0.3
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 TO 32 FIXED
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DEFINE 1893 LOAD


ZONE 0.1 RF 3 I 1 SS 2 ST 1 DM 5 DT 1.5
SELFWEIGHT 1
MEMBER WEIGHT
1001 TO 1050 2001 2002 2005 TO 2008 2011 2012 2023 2024 2026 TO 2028 2030
2031 2036 TO 2038 2040 2042 2044 2047 2050 3001 3002 3005 TO 3008 3011 3012
3023 3024 3026 TO 3028 3030 3031 3036 TO 3038 3040 3042 3044 3047 3050 4001
4002 4005 TO 4008 4011 4012 4023 4024 4026 TO 4028 4030 4031 4036 TO 4038
4040 4042 4044 4047 4050 5001 5002 5005 TO 5008 5011 5012 5023 5024 5026
5027 TO 5028 5030 5031 5036 TO 5038 5040 5042 5044 5047 5050 6003 TO 6005 6008 6011 6012 6033 6034 6036 TO 6038 UNI 16
2009 2010 2013 TO 2022 2032 TO 2035 2039 2045 2046 2048 2049 3009 3010 3013
3014 TO 3022 3032 TO 3035 3039 3045 3046 3048 3049 4009 4010 4013 TO 4022
4032 TO 4035 4039 4045 4046 4048 4049 5009 5010 5013 TO 5022 5032 TO 5035
5039 5045 5046 5048 5049 UNI 8
6001 6002 6006 6007 6023 TO 6031 6040 6041 6043 6044 6050 7001 TO 7003 7005
7006 TO 7007 7010 7011 UNI 2
1051 2051 3051 4051 5051 UNI 20
FLOOR WEIGHT
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15
CHECK SOFT STOREY
DEFINE WIND LOAD
TYPE 1
INT 0.67 HEIG 19.2
EXP 1 JOINT 33 TO 263
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ XP
1893 LOAD X 1

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LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ XN


1893 LOAD X -1
LOAD 3 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ ZP
1893 LOAD Z 1
LOAD 4 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ ZN
1893 LOAD Z -1
LOAD 5 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL XP
WIND LOAD X 1 TYPE 1
LOAD 6 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL XN
WIND LOAD X -1 TYPE 1
LOAD 7 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL ZP
WIND LOAD Z 1 TYPE 1
LOAD 8 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL ZN
WIND LOAD Z -1 TYPE 1
LOAD 9 LOADTYPE None TITLE DEAD LOAD
SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 32 101 TO 134 201 TO 234 301 TO 334 401 TO
434 501 502 TO 534 601 TO 609 1001 TO 1037 1040 1043 TO 1051 2001 TO 2051
3001 TO 3051 4001 TO 4051 5001 TO 5051 6001 TO 6050 7001 TO 7011
FLOOR LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 GY
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3 GY
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -4.125 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15 GY
MEMBER LOAD
1001 TO 1026 1028 TO 1034 1036 TO 1050 2001 2002 2005 TO 2008 2011 2012
2023 2024 2026 TO 2028 2030 2031 2036 TO 2038 2040 2042 2044 2047 2050 3001
3002 3005 TO 3008 3011 3012 3023 3024 3026 TO 3028 3030 3031 3036 TO 3038
3040 3042 3044 3047 3050 4001 4002 4005 TO 4008 4011 4012 4023 4024 4026 TO
4028 4030 4031 4036 TO 4038 4040 4042 4044 4047 4050 5001 5002 5005 TO 5008

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5011 5012 5023 5024 5026 TO 5028 5030 5031 5036 TO 5038 5040 5042 5044 5047
5050 6003 TO 6005 6008 6011 6012 6036 TO 6038 UNI GY -16
1027 1035 2009 2010 2013 TO 2022 2032 TO 2035 2039 2045 2046 2048 2049 3009
3010 3013 TO 3022 3032 TO 3035 3039 3045 3046 3048 3049 4009 4010 4013 TO
4022 4032 TO 4035 4039 4045 4046 4048 4049 5009 5010 5013 TO 5022 5032 TO
5035 5039 5045 5046 5048 5049 6033 6034 UNI GY -8
6001 6002 6006 6007 6023 TO 6031 6040 6041 6043 6044 6050 7001 TO 7003 7005
7006 TO 7007 7010 7011 UNI GY -2
1051 2051 3051 4051 5051 UNI GY -20
LOAD 10 LOADTYPE None TITLE LIVE LOAD
FLOOR LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 GY
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 FLOAD -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3 GY
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15 GY
LOAD COMB 11 SERVICE (DL+LL)
9 1.0 10 1.0
LOAD COMB 12 ULTIMATE 1.5 (DL+LL)
9 1.5 10 1.5
LOAD COMB 13 1.2 (DL+LL+WL XP)
9 1.2 10 1.2 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 14 1.2 (DL+LL+WL XN)
6 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2
LOAD COMB 15 1.2 (DL+LL+WL ZP)
9 1.2 10 1.2 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 16 1.2 (DL+LL+WL ZN)
9 1.2 10 1.2 8 1.2
LOAD COMB 17 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ XP)
1 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2
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LOAD COMB 18 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ XN)


9 1.2 10 1.2 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 19 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ ZP)
3 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2
LOAD COMB 20 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ ZN)
4 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2
LOAD COMB 21 1.5(DL+EQ XP)
9 1.5 1 1.5
LOAD COMB 22 1.5(DL+EQ XN)
2 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 23 1.5(DL+EQ ZP)
3 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 24 1.5(DL+EQ ZN)
4 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 25 1.5(DL+WL XP)
5 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 26 1.5(DL+WL XN)
6 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 27 1.5(DL+WL ZP)
7 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 28 1.5(DL+WL ZN)
9 1.5 8 1.5
LOAD COMB 29 0.9DL+1.5 EQ XP
9 0.9 1 1.5
LOAD COMB 30 0.9DL+1.5 EQ XN
9 0.9 2 1.5
LOAD COMB 31 0.9DL+1.5 EQ ZP
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3 1.5 9 0.9
LOAD COMB 32 0.9DL+1.5 EQ ZN
4 1.5 9 0.9
LOAD COMB 33 0.9DL+1.5 WL XP
9 0.9 5 1.5
LOAD COMB 34 0.9DL+1.5 WL XN
9 0.9 6 1.5
LOAD COMB 35 0.9DL+1.5 WL ZP
9 0.9 7 1.5
LOAD COMB 36 0.9DL+1.5 WL ZN
8 1.5 9 0.9
PERFORM ANALYSIS
LOAD LIST 11 TO 36
PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT ALL
PRINT SUPPORT REACTION
FINISH

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3.11 ANALYSIS OF THE MULTISTORIED RESIDENTIAL CUM


COMMERCIAL BUILDING FOR GRAVITY LOADS:
The structure is a residential building which comes under the category of
residential cum commercial building. Hence it has taken care of different types of
dead loads. The dead loads could be of its own self weight, furniture's, some
equipments, machineries, computers, store keeps, etc. Hence the building has to be
designed in such a way that it has to take care of all the loads imposed on it. The
easiest way to withstand these loads is by providing proper beams and columns. The
live load of the building could be taken from the standards.
FLOOR LOAD:
Floor load slab is distributed on the adjoining members as trapezoidal &
triangular loads depending on the length of the sides, as shown in figure. Internally
these loads are converted to multiple point loads. The loads are applied as area loads
over the building. These loads would be transferred to beams and columns.
FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING GRAVITY LOAD:
Area of triangle =

1
( )
2

Area of trapezoidal =

A+B

Weight of ceiling plastering = area X 0.012 X 20


Weight of flooring = area X 0.02 X 20 + (area X 0.02 X 26.7)
Total dead load = weigth of ceiling plastering + weight of flooring
Live Load = 2.000 KN (As per IS code book)
Total load = Total Dead Load + Live Load
Factored load = 1.5 X Total load

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FIG3.1. DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD FROM FLOOR/SLAB TO BEAMS


TABLE 3.2 FOR FINDING AREA OF SLAB
SLAB
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

0.65
0.05
0.1
6.75
0.3
0.45
0.6

3.65
3.70
3.65
10.25
4.15
4.15
4.15

1.5
1.825
1.775
1.75
1.925
1.85
1.775

3.0
3.65
3.55
3.50
3.85
3.70
3.55

slab.No

Wt. c.p
(tri)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

0.54
0.799
0.756
0.735
0.890
0.821
0.756

Wt.
floor
(tri)
2.10
3.11
2.94
2.86
3.465
3.196
2.943

Area of
triangle
2.25
3.331
3.151
3.0625
3.71
3.422
3.151

Area of
trapezoidal
3.225
3.421
3.328
14.875
4.283
4.578
4.215

T.D.L
(tri)

L.L
(tri)

T.L (tri)

F.L (tri)

2.64
3.90
3.696
3.595
4.355
4.017
3.699

2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

4.64
5.90
5.696
5.595
6.355
6.017
5.699

6.96
8.85
8.544
8.393
9.533
9.026
8.548

TABLE 3.3 FINDING FACTORED LOAD FOR TRIANGULAR


AREA

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TABLE 3.4 FOR FINDING FACTORED LOAD FOR


TRAPEZOIDAL AREA
Slab.
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Wt. c.p

Wt. floor

T.D.L

L.L

T.L

F.L

0.774
0.821
0.798
3.57
1.027
1.098
1.012

3.012
3.195
3.108
13.893
4.00
4.275
3.936

3.786
4.016
3.906
17.463
5.027
5.373
4.948

2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

5.786
6.016
5.906
19.463
7.027
7.373
6.948

8.679
9.024
8.859
29.194
10.541
11.061
10.423

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FIG3.2 DEFORMED SHAPE OF THE BUILDING UNDER


GRAVITY LOADS

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FIG3.3 BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR GRAVITY LOADS

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FIG3.4 MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR BEAM


NO 5021 UNDER GRAVITY LOAD

FIG3.5 MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT VALUES FOR


GRAVITY LOAD

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3.12

ANALYSIS OF THE MULTISTORIED RESIDENTIAL


CUM COMMERCIAL BUILDING FOR WIND LOADS:

WIND LOADS:
Buildings and their components are to be designed to withstand the
code-specified wind loads. Calculating wind loads is important in design of the wind
force-resisting system, including structural members, components, and cladding,
against shear, sliding, overturning, and uplift actions.
DESIGN WIND LOADS:
The wind pressure on a structure depends on the location of the
structure, height of structure above the ground level and also on the shape of the
structure.
The code gives the basic wind pressure for the structures in various
parts of the country. Both the wind pressure viz. including wind of short duration and
excluding wind of short duration have been given. All structures should be designed
for the short duration wind. For buildings up to 10 m in height, the intensity of wind
pressure, as specified in the code, may be reduced by 25% for stability calculations
and for the design of framework as well as cladding. For buildings over 10 m and up
to 30m height, this reduction can be made for stability calculations and for design of
columns only.
The total pressure on the walls or roof of an industrial building will
depend on the external wind pressure and also on internal wind pressure. The
internal wind pressure depends on the permeability; the internal air pressure may be
neglected. In the case of buildings with normal permeability the internal pressure
can be 0.2p. Here + indicates pressure and _ suction, p is the basic wind
pressure. If a building has openings larger than 20% of the wind pressure. If a
building has openings larger than 20% of the wall area, the internal air pressure will
be 0.5 p.
WIND PRESSURE ON WALLS:
The wind pressure per unit area p on the wall is taken as 0.5p
pressure on the windward surface and 0.5p suction on leeward surface. When the
walls form an enclosure, the windward wall will be subjected to a pressure of 0.5p
and leeward wall to a suction of 0.5p. The total pressure on the walls will depend on
the internal air pressure also.
For buildings with small permeability, design pressure on wall = 0.5p
For buildings with normal permeability, design pressure on wall = 0.7p
For buildings with large openings, design pressure on wall = p
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If the wind blows parallel to the ridge of the roof, the average external wind
pressure of the roof may be taken as -0.6p on both slopes of the roof over a length
from the gable end equal to the mean height of the roof above the surrounding ground
level and as-0.4p over the remaining length of the roof on both slopes.
When the wind blows parallel to a surface, a wind force acts on the
surface in the direction of the wind. This force is called the Wind Drag. In the case
of industrial buildings, when wind blows normal to the ridges, the wind drag is equal
to 0.5p measured on plan area of roof and when the direction of wind parallel to the
ridge, wind drag is equal to 0.025p measured on plan area of roof.

Fig3.6 wind drag


In the multi-span roofs with spans, heights and slopes nearly equal, the
windward truss gives shelter to the other trusses. For general stability calculations and
for the design columns, the windward slope of wind-ward span and leeward slope of
leeward span are subjected to the full normal pressure of suction as given in table and
on all other roof slopes, only wind drag is considered (see fig. ). For the design of
roof trusses however, full normal pressure or suction is considered on both faces,
presuming that there was only one span.
The wind pressures given above are the average pressures on a roof slope. For
designing the roof sheeting or the fastenings of roof sheeting, we may take a larger
wind pressure because these pressures may considerably exceed the average value on
small areas. For designing roof sheeting and its fastenings, the values given in Table.
May be increased numerically by 0.3p. In a distance equal to 15% of the length of the
roof from the gable ends, fastenings should be capable of resisting a section of 2.0p
on the area of the roof sheeting them support.
THE WIND LOAD GENERATOR:
The STAAD Wind Load generator is capable of calculating wind loads on the
structure from user specified wind intensities and exposures factors. Different wind
intensities may be specified for different height zones of the structure. Openings in the
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structure may be modeled using exposure factors. An exposure factor is associated


with each joint of the structure and is defined as the fraction of the influence area on
which the wind load acts. Built-in algorithms automatically calculate the wind load on
a SPACE structure and distribute the loads as lateral joint loads.
GENERATION OF WIND LOADS:
The built in wind load generation facility can be used to calculate the wind
loads based on the parameters defined. The following general format should be used
to perform the wind load generation. Note that areas bounded by beam members only
(and ground), and exposed to the wind, are used to define loaded areas(plates and
solids are ignored). The loads generated are applied only at the joints at vertices of the
bounded areas.
BASIC WIND PRESSURES FOR A CITY
S.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

HEIGHT IN METRES
UPTO 30
40
45
50
57

PRESSURE IN Kg/m2
200
209
217
222
228

TABLE 3.5: BASIC WIND PRESSURES FOR A CITY


For intermediate heights, interpolated values may be adopted.
Calculation of wind loads:
The wind speed in atmospheric boundary layer increases with height
from zero at ground level and to a maximum at a height called gradient height.
Design wind speed:
From IS 875-(PART -III) the Design wind pressure at any height
above mean ground level shall be obtained from the following relationship between
wind pressure and wind velocity.
Pz = 0.6Vz2
Where,
Pz = Design wind pressure in N/m2 at a height of z, and
Vz = Design wind velocity in m/s at a height of z.

Design wind speed:


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The Basic wind speed (Vb) for any site is obtained from Fig no 1 of IS 875(PART-III) and shall be modified to include the following effects to get a design
wind velocity at height.
Height of the building above ground level h= 19.2 m
Lateral dimensions of Building = 20.8m x 11.6 m
Design wind speed

Vz

Vb.K1.K2.K3

Vb = Basic wind speed


For Hyderabad as per IS 875-(PART-III) is 44 m/sec
K1= Probability factor (Risk coefficient)

(5.3.1 of IS 875-III)

=1
K2= Terrain, Height and Structure size factor

(5.3.2 of IS 875-III)

Category-4
Class -B
From Table no 2 of IS-875(PART-III) K2= 0.76
K3= Topographic factor

(5.3.3 of IS 875-III)

=1
Design wind speed Vz = 44x1x0.76x1
= 33.44 m/s
Design wind pressure (Pz) = 0.6Vz2
= 0.6 x 33.442
= 670 N/m2
= 0.670 KN/m2

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FIG3.7 WIND LOAD ACTING ON THE BUILDING FROM XPOSITIVE DIRECTION

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FIG3.8 WIND LOAD ACTING ON THE BUILDING FROM ZPOSITIVE DIRECTION

FIG3.9 MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR COLUMN NO 117


WIND LOAD ACTING FROM Z +VE DIRECTION
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TABLE 3.6
A TABLE FROM STAAD OUTPUT SUMMARY OF MAXIMUM BENDING
MOMENT FOR WIND LOAD

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3.13 ANALYSIS OF MULITSTORIED RESIDENTIAL CUM


COMMERCIAL BUILDING FOR SEISMIC LOADS:
Reinforced concrete buildings have become more common in India. These
structures mainly consist of beam-column frames with slabs and walls and are
supported by foundation that rest on the ground. The RC frame participates in resting
the earthquake forces and the earthquake shaking generates inertia forces in the
building, which are proportional to the building mass. Since most of the building mass
is concentrated at floor levels. These forces travel downwards to reach the foundation
from where they are dispersed in to the ground. The structural elements, beams,
columns, slabs, and walls at lower storeys experience higher earthquake forces and
hence are designed to be stronger than those at higher levels.
Buildings are mostly provided with Shear walls in lower storey levels to resist
the earthquake loads.
Earthquake Design Consideration:
The building will be designed for horizontal seismic force only.
The structure in analyzed as an earthquake static approach employing the
use of a seismic coefficient Method.
EARTHQUAKE: An earthquake is vibration of earth surface by waves emerging
from the source of disturbance in the earth by virtue of release of energy in the earths
crust. It is essentially a sudden and transient motion or series of motions of the earth
surface originating in a limited under ground motion due to disturbance of the elastic

equilibrium of the earth mass and spreading from there in all directions.
REASONS FOR HIGH CASUALITY:
1) Urbanization is rapidly increasing and due to increase in land cost,
many multi storied buildings are being constructed.
2) Code is not mandatory.
3) Construction as such is governed by municipal bye-laws.
4) Seismic provisions are not incorporated.
5) Non enforceation of elaborated checks proper ways.
6) No checks even for simple ordinary design.
GENERAL GUIDE LINES:
DRIFT: It is the maximum lateral displacement of the structure with respect to
total height or relative inter-storey displacement. The overall drifts index is the ratio
of maximum roof displacement to the height of the structure and inter-storey drift is
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the ratio of maximum difference of lateral displacement at top and bottom of the
storey divided by the storey height.
Nonstructural elements and structural non seismic members
primarily get damaged due to drift. Higher the lateral stiffness lesser is the likely damage.
The storey drift in any storey due to minimum specified design lateral force with partial
safety factor of unity shall not exceed 0.004 times the storey height.
Separation between adjacent units or buildings:
Two adjacent buildings or two adjacent units of the same
building with separation joint in between shall be separated by distance equal to the
amount R times the sum of the calculated storey displacements as specified above of
each of them to avoid damaging contact when the two units deflect towards each

other.
Soft storey:
Soft storey or flexible storey is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than
70% of that in the storey above or less than 80% of the average lateral stiffness of the
three storey's above. In case of buildings with a flexible storey such as ground storey
consisting of open spaces for parking i.e. stilt buildings, special arrangements are
need to be made to increase the lateral strength and stiffness of the soft storey.
For such buildings, dynamic analysis is carried out including the
strength and stiffness effects of infill s and inelastic deformations in the members
particularly those in the soft storey and members designed accordingly. Alternatively,
the following design criteria are to be adopted after carrying the
earthquake analysis neglecting the effect of infill walls in other storey's. When the
floor levels of two similar adjacent buildings are at the same elevation levels, factor R
can be taken as R/2.
a) The columns and beams of the soft storey are to be designed for 2.5 times the
storey shear and moments calculated under seismic loads specified.
b) Besides the columns designed and detailed for calculated storey shears and
moments, shear walls placed symmetrically in both feasible to be designed
exclusively for 1.35 times the lateral storey shear calculated.
Foundation:
The use of foundations vulnerable to significant differential settlement due to
ground shaping shall be avoided for structures in seismic zones-III, IV & V.
individual spread footings or pile caps shall be interconnected with ties except when
individual spread footings are directly supported on rock. All ties shall be capable of
carrying in tension and in compression an axial force equal to Ah/A times the larger
of the column or pile cap load in addition to the otherwise computed forces where Ah
is the design horizontal spectrum value.

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Projections:
a) Vertical projections: Tanks, towers parapets, chimneys and other vertical
cantilever projections attached to buildings and projecting the
above roof shall be designed and checked for stability for 5 times the
design horizontal seismic co-efficient Ah. In the analysis of the building,
the weight of these projecting elements will be lumped with the roof
weight.
b) Horizontal projections: All horizontal projections like cornices and
balconies shall be designed and checked for stability for 5 times the
design vertical co-efficient equal to 10/3 Ah. These increased design
forces either for vertical projection or horizontal projection are only
for designing the projecting parts and their connection with the
main structures. This means that for the design of main structure such
increase need not to be considered.
Shape of the building:
Very slender buildings should be avoided. Large overhangs and projections
attract large earthquake forces. Heavy masses like water tanks, etc., at the top shall be
avoided. Small water tanks, if provided, should be properly connected with the
framing system. Building should be sufficiently be away from steep slopes. It should
be built on filled up soil.
Symmetry should be avoided as they undergo torsion and extreme corners are
subjected to very large earthquake forces.
Damping:
Damping is the removal of kinetic energy and potential energy from a
vibrating structure and by virtue of which the amplitude of vibration diminishes
steadily. Some vibrations are due to initial displacement or initial velocity. Due to
damping, these vibrations decay in amplitude.

1. When there are harmonic applied forces and its period is nearly equal to
the natural period of the structure. The vibration will grow from zero
displacement and velocity. Damping limits the vibration maximum
amplitude.
2. More damping less is the amplitude.
3. Negative damping arise while the vibration is small, followed by positive
damping at large amplitude vibrations. The code adopted for design of
multistoried buildings considering a seismic force is IS: 1893 (part I)
2002. More than 60% area of India is earthquake prone. According to IS:
1893(part I) -2002, India is divided into several zones to their magnitude
of intensities.
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NEED FOR SEISMIC ZONATION:


a) There cannot be entirely scientific basis for zonation in view of the
scanty data available.
b) Though the magnitudes are known there is little instrumental evidence
for comparing damage.
c) Hence, magnitudes and epicenters are used.
REVISION OF PAST CODES:
It is very difficult to predict the occurrence time an exact location of
next earthquake. More than 60% area is earthquake prone. Various problems are
generated after an earthquake. The magnitudes of these problems are very severe.
In order to reduce this effective counter measures are to be taken. Enough steps
should be taken by the concerned authorities for code compliance so that the
structures being constructed are earthquake resistant. Especially during the past 15
years there were severe earthquake with a less time gap and high intensity. Based
on the technology advancement and knowledge gained after earthquake
occurrences, the seismic code is usually revised. The fifth revision of IS: 1893
with severe zone was done in 2002 after along gap of 18 years. According to the
present revision, the latest map has only 4 zones.
Fifth Revision in 2002:
Code has been split into 5 parts :Part 1: General provisions and buildings.
Part 2: Liquid retaining tanks-elevated and ground supported.
Part 3: Bridges and retaining walls.
Part 4: Industrial structures including stack like structures.
Part 5: Dams and embankment.

Part 1: General provisions and buildings:

Zone map is revised and zone factors changed


Response spectra for three types of founding strata
Empirical expression for fundamental natural period
Concept of response reduction factor
Lower bound for design base shear
Model combination rule is revised
Other clauses revised and redrafted

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Design philosophy:
The design approach is IS: 1893 is

To ensure that the structure at least a minimum strength to with hand a


minor earthquake (<DBE) without damage.
To resist moderate earthquake (DBE) without significant structural
damage through some nonstructural damage may occur, and
To withstand a major earthquake (MCE) without Lapse.

3.14 CALCULATION OF SIESMIC BASE SHEAR:


Horizontal seismic co-efficient, Ah = z

is a
2Rg

Where,
z- Zone factor
i- Importance factor
sa/ g Spectral acceleration coefficient
R Response reduction factor
From clause 6.4 of IS: 1893 2002
T = 0.075 h0.75

Time period,

= 0.075 x 20.70.75 = 0.72785 sec


The soil is medium soil, hence 5% damping.
From staad pro analysis we have the base shear
TIME PERIOD FOR X 1893 LOADING =
SA/G PER 1893 =

0.934, LOAD FACTOR= 1.000

FACTOR V PER 1893=

0.0152 X 19586.58 = 297.707 KN

TIME PERIOD FOR X 1893 LOADING =


SA/G PER 1893=

0.72785 SEC

0.72785 SEC

0.934, LOAD FACTOR= -1.000

FACTOR V PER 1893=

0.0152 X 19586.58 = 297.707 KN

TIME PERIOD FOR Z 1893 LOADING =

0.72785 SEC

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SA/G PER 1893=

0.934, LOAD FACTOR= 1.000

FACTOR V PER 1893=

0.0152 X 19586.58 = 297.707 KN

TIME PERIOD FOR Z 1893 LOADING =


SA/G PER 1893=

0.72785 SEC

0.934, LOAD FACTOR= -1.000

FACTOR V PER 1893=

0.0152 X 19586.58 = 297.707 KN

NOTE : NO SOFT STOREY IS DETECTED.

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FIG3.10 DISPLACEMENT OF BUILDING UNDER SEISMIC LOAD FROM


X+VE DIRECTION

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FIG3.11 MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR SEISMIC LOAD

FIG3.12 MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT VALUES FOR SEISMIC LOAD.

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3.15 MAX BENDING MOMENTS FOR BEAMS:

BEAM
NO.

BEAM
CROSSSECTION(M)

BEAM
LENGTH

MAX MOMENT OF RESISTENCE (KN-m)

(M)

@ star support
(-ve)

@mid-span
(+ve)

@end support
(-ve)

1001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

32.633

12.755

38.451

1002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

42.931

18.381

49.323

1003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

47.176

17.581

46.029

1004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

35.415

18.726

26.626

1005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

27.417

14.725

34.632

1006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

46.584

19.181

43.995

1007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

38.217

15.495

33.055

1008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

32.145

15.876

28.055

1009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

32.499

15.690

38.837

1010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

43.873

18.733

43.340

1011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

48.911

16.683

40.533

1012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

40.323

16.603

48.598

1013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

47.889

18.800

44.362

1014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

38.558

15.561

32.823

1015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

34.200

15.375

41.380

1016

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

48.839

17.834

48.759

1017

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

46.786

16.887

41.569

1018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

41.262

16.823

47.103

1019

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

48.336

17.897

49.281

1020

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

40.932

15.246

34.624

1021

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

33.292

15.252

41.749

1022

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

48.087

17.954

48.228

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1023
1024

0.300 x 0.400
0.300 x 0.400

3.55

46.685

15.548

41.293

3.55

42.012

16.975

45.438

1025

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

47.744

17.867

48.969

1026

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

41.037

15.181

33.763

1027

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

47.496

19.257

51.048

1028

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

49.395

19.338

49.154

1029

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

26.778

12.837

24.410

1030

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

24.985

15.658

26.386

1031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

47.104

19.794

49.502

1032

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

27.293

16.304

27.534

1033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

29.104

17.433

25.351

1034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

24.795

12.282

25.963

1035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

46.528

19.588

50.348

1036

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

48.458

19.562

52.575

1037

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

47.051

16.230

47.764

1038

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

38.479

14.152

40.940

1039

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

33.676

14.710

43.132

1040

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

49.624

16.748

51.377

1041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

33.749

14.566

42.512

1042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

39.300

14.441

41.661

1043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

47.974

16.487

49.310

1044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

58.106

23.535

54.393

1045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

52.402

25.886

44.739

1046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

56.028

25.938

48.960

1047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

59.694

23.878

58.167

1048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

55.994

25.911

47.463

1049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

52.929

26.020

45.073

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1050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

58.937

23.701

55.853

1051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

44.458

30.724

45.315

2001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

44.777

21.253

48.630

2002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

57.491

27.412

63.879

2003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

42.468

22.840

41.874

2004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

39.687

25.887

35.022

2005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

37.754

22.386

48.304

2006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

64.115

27.015

57.696

2007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

47.533

21.009

45.748

2008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

46.531

22.873

32.731

2009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

43.859

21.023

47.790

2010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

55.686

26.349

67.464

2011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

80.267

30.346

61.970

2012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

60.548

28.923

78.189

2013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

65.963

26.551

57.008

2014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

47.208

20.694

44.612

2015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

45.403

19.854

60.963

2016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

88.301

18.140

9.784

2017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

9.783

32.812

72.969

2018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

65.875

23.159

50.008

2019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

49.543

23.055

68.584

2020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

72.414

33.136

9.775

2021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

9.774

18.160

89.713

2022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

60.260

19.559

46.144

2023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

44.992

20.696

58.999

2024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

69.573

18.609

9.438

2025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

9.440

31.847

51.178

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2026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

62.004

23.731

53.353

2027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

53.822

22.783

63.285

2028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

70.429

31.324

9.447

2029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

9.448

29.151

86.157

2030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

60.467

19.998

45.328

2031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

70.180

27.990

66.314

2032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

65.620

26.092

64.743

2033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

35.945

29.585

36.845

2034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

46.035

22.382

33.786

2035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

63.504

27.080

55.150

2036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

36.505

27.069

37.662

2037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

42.999

28.258

37.525

2038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

42.703

38.899

35.313

2039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

68.375

27.096

68.005

2040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

71.746

28.999

68.925

2041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

38.700

27.031

40.014

2042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

60.319

23.991

72.120

2043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

40.166

29.430

42.655

2044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

76.690

34.407

80.259

2045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

36.152

52.264

39.547

2046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

61.352

40.680

66.587

2047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

91.337

44.480

94.345

2048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

63.880

40.679

66.183

2049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

37.463

55.264

39.314

2050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

78.020

34.553

82.853

2051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

44.511

32.654

45.356

3001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

46.268

20.177

45.654

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3002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

56.798

27.003

64.658

3003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

39.836

24.131

43.900

3004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

37.935

33.052

34.612

3005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

38.098

27.134

43.990

3006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

65.218

27.143

57.669

3007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

43.975

19.762

47.717

3008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

46.461

31.613

27.074

3009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

45.119

20.023

45.586

3010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

55.998

26.507

67.003

3011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

83.471

30.452

58.268

3012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

56.403

29.011

81.434

3013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

65.076

26.762

58.063

3014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

44.606

19.522

46.279

3015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

46.416

18.980

56.710

3016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

88.620

31.885

9.558

3017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

9.558

31.973

71.594

3018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

67.217

23.368

47.818

3019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

47.172

23.289

67.958

3020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

70.907

32.289

9.550

3021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

9.548

30.745

90.227

3022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

55.896

18.928

47.268

3023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

45.032

19.877

55.933

3024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

69.076

30.018

9.139

3025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

9.140

31.291

49.686

3026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

63.359

22.977

51.358

3027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

52.675

22.686

62.902

3028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

68.126

30.532

9.148

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3029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

9.150

27.788

86.956

3030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

56.452

19.114

45.950

3031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

70.383

27.566

67.030

3032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

65.577

25.428

64.582

3033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

32.698

27.174

35.342

3034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

48.503

40.553

32.134

3035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

68.220

28.692

50.237

3036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

34.009

25.656

36.889

3037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

43.586

26.820

36.930

3038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

43.444

37.758

33.029

3039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

68.309

26.399

67.938

3040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

71.730

28.594

69.708

3041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

39.278

28.086

39.610

3042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

59.195

25.121

74.234

3043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

40.585

30.414

42.382

3044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

77.232

33.865

80.927

3045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

36.012

55.884

40.115

3046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

61.819

39.257

69.348

3047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

89.968

43.670

97.419

3048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

64.652

39.257

68.250

3049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

37.334

54.882

39.933

3050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

78.414

34.048

83.601

3051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

39.013

27.093

41.106

4001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

44.051

18.662

41.045

4002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

54.284

26.384

61.740

4003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

35.363

21.481

41.824

4004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

31.181

27.346

30.938

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4005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

33.781

21.212

37.280

4006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

62.992

26.759

55.403

4007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

38.913

18.846

45.931

4008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

42.206

27.381

18.962

4009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

42.772

18.238

41.122

4010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

53.929

26.579

63.660

4011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

82.479

30.595

53.088

4012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

50.951

29.350

80.428

4013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

61.506

26.875

56.463

4014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

39.944

17.867

44.185

4015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

42.970

18.677

49.971

4016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

84.948

29.420

8.073

4017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

8.073

31.538

66.797

4018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

64.888

23.417

43.116

4019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

42.484

23.350

65.579

4020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

66.101

31.891

8.067

4021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

8.064

28.238

86.600

4022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

49.202

18.666

43.793

4023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

40.963

18.251

49.509

4024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

64.897

27.590

7.585

4025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

7.585

28.895

45.008

4026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

60.549

21.820

46.958

4027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

48.865

21.764

59.236

4028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

62.778

29.148

7.593

4029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

7.596

25.081

83.356

4030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

49.885

17.608

42.058

4031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

64.988

26.256

61.232

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74

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING


4032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

59.346

25.553

58.989

4033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

25.547

21.860

32.463

4034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

46.892

37.667

26.458

4035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

67.440

28.555

42.537

4036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

27.892

20.797

32.450

4037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

39.300

21.659

33.220

4038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

40.712

33.635

27.283

4039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

61.348

25.583

61.747

4040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

65.816

26.749

63.550

4041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

34.604

23.221

34.237

4042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

53.594

24.493

72.348

4043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

35.453

24.879

36.684

4044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

72.047

33.940

76.186

4045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

33.986

54.961

38.069

4046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

57.503

39.556

65.534

4047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

84.811

33.780

94.726

4048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

60.353

39.556

63.857

4049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

35.170

54.958

37.752

4050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

72.815

33.914

78.527

4051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

30.265

19.115

33.648

5001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

38.112

17.132

36.016

5002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

50.657

26.463

54.747

5003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

29.423

14.537

35.869

5004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

19.307

19.073

24.840

5005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

25.689

11.592

28.653

5006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

57.571

26.471

51.657

5007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

33.188

16.956

40.486

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING


5008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

34.587

19.403

9.000

5009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

37.235

17.655

35.622

5010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

50.109

26.755

57.027

5011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

77.849

30.701

46.623

5012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

44.271

29.721

75.860

5013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

54.889

27.016

53.010

5014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

34.108

17.476

38.941

5015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

35.652

18.684

40.636

5016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

77.703

25.403

5.403

5017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

5.403

31.555

58.809

5018

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

59.030

23.461

36.886

5019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

36.432

23.387

59.558

5020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

58.252

31.967

5.399

5021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

5.396

24.286

79.206

5022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

40.106

18.647

36.286

5023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

32.975

17.986

39.907

5024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

57.765

23.178

4.906

5025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

4.906

24.546

37.582

5026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

53.739

21.945

41.115

5027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

43.592

21.357

52.385

5028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

54.710

28.915

4.904

5029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

4.908

20.903

76.100

5030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

40.958

17.047

33.817

5031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

55.184

25.360

51.351

5032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

49.757

25.364

49.748

5033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

15.534

14.669

28.846

5034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

42.350

31.563

17.089

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76

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING


5035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

61.350

27.431

32.453

5036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

18.787

14.796

25.745

5037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

31.786

13.822

27.277

5038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

34.862

25.084

18.961

5039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

50.777

25.369

51.608

5040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

55.462

25.383

53.005

5041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

26.622

14.426

25.750

5042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

44.420

21.296

66.045

5043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

26.968

15.345

27.578

5044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

63.158

34.172

67.198

5045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

30.355

54.860

34.149

5046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

49.977

39.168

57.224

5047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

76.977

43.601

86.958

5048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

52.281

39.168

55.153

5049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

31.285

54.855

33.619

5050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

63.475

3.150

68.891

5051

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

18.228

12.216

25.151

6001

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

16.864

8.389

9.912

6002

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

18.660

12.199

30.269

6003

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

40.641

23.416

54.548

6004

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

19.806

6.237

21.137

6005

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

18.701

6.304

14.139

6006

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

29.414

13.671

20.523

6007

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

7.964

8.484

18.330

6008

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

26.206

13.521

3.436

6009

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

19.038

13.946

20.892

6010

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

29.858

19.652

39.189

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77

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING


6011

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

70.503

31.136

42.801

6012

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

39.441

30.108

71.122

6013

0.300 x 0.400

3.70

37.182

20.325

32.218

6014

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

20.250

13.656

19.975

6015

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

18.221

14.848

25.236

6016

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

49.153

114.921

2.598

6017

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

2.597

22.457

38.337

6018

0.300 x 0.400

3. 55

40.408

17.448

22.966

6019

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

22.633

17.531

40.576

6020

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

37.860

22.483

2.595

6021

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

2.593

14.535

49.828

6022

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

24.976

14.841

18.452

6023

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

12.185

8.056

17.665

6024

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

34.914

13.850

2.264

6025

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

2.285

16.439

25.753

6026

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

27.475

9.754

12.706

6027

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

14.746

10.961

22.266

6028

0.300 x 0.400

2.85

22.254

15.709

2.277

6029

0.300 x 0.400

0.85

2.279

12.294

38.417

6030

0.300 x 0.400

3.00

16.619

8.114

13.044

6031

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

22.963

12.394

21.781

6032

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

27.416

19.730

27.079

6033

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

6.758

9.806

26.053

6034

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

34.073

20.634

11.753

6035

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

44.125

20.295

12.262

6036

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

7.557

11.811

19.413

6037

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

21.499

10.437

21.095

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING


6038

0.300 x 0.400

1,65

26.767

14.239

10.396

6039

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

27.520

19.875

27.827

6040

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

22.940

12.431

22.585

6041

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

17.6693

5.954

16.418

6042

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

11.360

25.230

32.006

6043

0.300 x 0.400

3.50

17.783

6.295

17.358

6044

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

27.160

18.164

28.724

6045

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

17.313

41.062

20.635

6046

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

24.514

32.698

29.9411

6047

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

32.224

27.250

42.507

6048

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

25.930

32.697

28.414

6049

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

17.336

41.056

20.624

6050

0.300 x 0.400

4.15

27.223

18.137

29.659

7001

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

14.656

12.971

27.847

7002

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

4.571

1.847

12.022

7003

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

9.068

4.339

3.742

7004

0.300 x 0.400

1.90

13.668

11.256

2.290

7005

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

29.325

14.452

6.797

7006

0.300 x 0.400

3.55

4.983

12.407

31.235

7007

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

12.701

19.062

16.717

7008

0.300 x 0.400

3.65

28.585

20.730

17.301

7009

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

1.942

9.086

9.953

7010

0.300 x 0.400

2.00

6.852

3.226

7.671

7011

0.300 x 0.400

1.65

10.162

3.788

3.788

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4. DESIGN OF SLABS
4.1 GENERAL:
Slabs are usually supported on two parallel sides or an all the four sides.
Beams or walls are the common supports for slabs. If a slab is supported on two
opposite edges, it bends in only one direction. Hence it needs reinforcements in only
one direction. However distribution steel is to be provided at right angles to main
reinforcement so that load is distributed properly. Apart from this distribution steel
helps in distributing secondary stresses like temperature stresses. Hence slab
reinforcement is provided in both directions. Thus, Slabs supports mainly transverse
loads and transfer them to the supports by bending action in one or more directions.
Beams or walls are the common supports for the slab.
If the slab is supported on all the four sides, it bends in both directions and
needs reinforcement in both directions. In such case the reinforcements are to be
designed in for both directions. However, from the analysis of slabs by plate theory it
is found that if the ratio of larger span to smaller span (ly/lx) is more than 2, the
bending moment in the direction of larger span is very small. The main reinforcement
required works out to be less than that required as distribution steel for one-way slab.
The bending moment in shorter span is almost equal to bending moment in one way
slab and hence the slab may be designed as one-way slab if the ratio of larger span(ly)
to shorter span (lx) is more than 2.
The slabs in which main reinforcement is to be designed in only one direction
is called one-way slab. If main reinforcement is to be designed in both directions, the
slab is called two-way slab. Slabs may be a roof or a floor depending on its location in
the building, the design value of live load on slab panels as per IS: 875 part-II is as
follows:
1) Design L.L for roof slab
2) Design L.L for typical floor slab

: 1.5 KN/m
: 2.0 KN/m

A slab may be simply supported or continuous or may be cantilever. The


bending moments at critical sections are to be found and reinforcements designed.
Slab is usually designed as a beam of one meter width to carry moment over a strip of
1 meter. Instead of number of bars, spacing of bars is to be found. 8 mm or 10 mm are
commonly used.
A slab may be classified according to the method of support:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

One-way slabs spanning in one direction.


Two-way slabs spanning in both directions.
Circular slabs.
Flat slabs resting directly on columns with no beams.
Grid floor & Ribbed slabs.

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Slabs are designed by using the same theories of bending and shear as they are
used for beams. The following methods of analysis are available:
a) Elastic Analysis idealization into strips or beams.
b) Semi Empirical co-efficient as given in code.
c) Yield line Theory.
General Design Requirements for Slabs as per IS 456: 2000
1. Effective span:
The effective span of a simply supported slab shall be taken as clear
span plus effective depth of the slab or center to center distance between the
supports whichever is less.
The effective span of a cantilever slab shall be taken as its length to the face of
the support plus half the effective depth except where it forms the end of a
continuous slab where the length to the Centre of support shall be taken.
2. Limiting stiffness:
The stiffness of slab is governed by the span to depth ratio. As per
Clause 23.2 of IS: 456 for spans not exceeding 10 m, the span to depth ratio
(basic values) should not exceed the limits given below.
Cantilevers
-7
Simply supported
- 20
Continuous
- 26
Depending upon the type of steel and percentage of steel, the above
values have to be modified as per fig.4 of IS: 456 2000.For two-way slabs,
the shorter span should be used for calculating the span to effective depth
ratio.
3. Minimum Reinforcement:
The reinforcement in either direction of span shall not be less than
0.15% of gross cross-sectional area if mild steel is used. However, this value is
reduced to 0.12% where high strength deformed bars (HYSD) are welded by
fabrics are used. (Clause 26.5.2.1 of IS: 456 2000).
4. Maximum Diameter of Bars:
The diameter of bars shall not exceed one eighth of the total thickness
of slab (Clause 26.5.2.2 of IS: 456 2000)
5. Spacing of Main Reinforcement:
The spacing of main reinforcement in slabs shall not be more than
three times the effective depth of solid slab or 300 mm whichever is less.
(Clause 26.3.3 of IS: 456 2000)

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6. Distribution Reinforcement:
The area of distribution reinforcement shall not be less than 0.15% of
gross cross-sectional area if plane bars are used and 0.12% if high yield
strength deformed bars are used. The spacing of distribution reinforcement in
slabs shall not be more than five times of the effective depth of slab or 450
mm whichever is less.
7. Cover to Reinforcement:
Reinforcement shall have concrete cover of thickness as follows:
a) At each end of reinforcement bar not less than 25 mm nor less than
twice the diameter of such bar.
b) The bottom cover for reinforcement shall not be less than 20 mm nor
less than the diameter of such bars.

4.2 DESIGN OF ONE WAY SLABS:


One way slab are those in which the length is more than twice the breadth. A
continuous one-way slab can be analyzed in a similar manner to that used for a
continuous beam. The general recommendation for curtailment of bars is given in
clause 26.2.3 of the code applies for slab also. As stated earlier, if the ratio of longer
span to the shorter span (ly/lx) is greater than 2, is called as one-way slab. One-way
slab bends only in one direction across the span, and acts like a wide beam.
Design Procedure for One-way Slab:
1) Assume the sustainable depth based on the stiffness consideration and
calculate the effective span.
Required effective depth
Factor).

Span (Basic value x Modification

(Span/depth) ratio safely be selected in range of 25 to 30 for simply


supported slabs.
2) Considering one meter width of slab, calculate the loads acting on the slab.
Find the factored Moment and Shear force. For simply supported slabs.
Mu

wul2/8

Bending Moment

Vu

wul/2

Shear Force

Where l = Length of Shorter span


3) Determine the minimum depth required to resist the bending moment by
equating
Mu

Mu, lim

k. fck.b. d2

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1000 mm,

k=0.138 for Fe415 steel & 0.148 for mild steel


Provided depth should be more than this value. Otherwise increase the depth.
4) Calculate the area of steel per meter width of slab by using
Mu

0.87. Fy.Ast. d {1 [(fy.Ast)/ (fck.b. d)]}

5) Find the spacing of bars using


S
=
(ast /Ast) x1000
Where
ast
area of bars used.
Ast
total area of steel required.
Spacing should be not more than 3d or 300 mm whichever is less.
6) Distribution Steel :
Provide distribution reinforcement at 0.12% (for HYSD bars) of gross
cross sectional area and find the spacing of these bars. If mild steel bars are
used, provide 0.15% of gross cross sectional area of distribution steel. Spacing
of distribution steel should not be more than 5d or 450 mm whichever is less.
7) Check for Deflection :
Calculate the Pt % corresponding maximum mid span moment, take
the modification factor (F1) from fig.4 of IS: 456 2000
(l/d) provided < (l/d) max = basic value x F1
8) Check for Shear :
Maximum shear force at the edges of one-way slab given by
Vu

wul/2

Shear Force

Vu/ b. d

Nominal Shear Stress

Calculate the percentage of main steel at supports


Pt

ast/ S. d
-------

Shear Strength of Concrete

Which is calculated by referring table-19 of IS: 456, shear strength of


concrete for beams
c

--------

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

For solid slabs, the shear strength of concrete shall be c.k. Value of k should
be taken from clause 40.2.1.1 depending depth of slab, which is given below.
Overall
depth
K

300 or
more
1.00

275

250

225

200

175

1.05

1.10
1.15
TABLE 4.1

1.20

1.25

150 or
less
1.30

Also note for slabs, nominal shear stress (c) shall not exceed 0.5 c max, where
c max is as given as table-20 IS: 456. Shear reinforcements in slabs should be
avoided, since they work out cumbersome and expensive. Hence, if v > c,
increase the thickness of slab and redesign.
9) Check for Development Length :
Ld (M1 V) + Lo
The check for shear and check for development length are mostly
satisfied in all cases of slabs subjected to uniformly distributed loads and
therefore omitted in design calculations

4.3 DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS SLABS:


Continuous slabs are subjected to negative moments at supports and to
positive moments at mid span. Hence design is required for all critical sections.
However to avoid problems in construction, usually design is made for the maximum
bending moment and shear force and the reinforcement is provided.
IS: 456 (table-12 & 13) gives expressions for finding moments and shear
forces at critical sections. These are presented in table- 6.2 & 6.3 also. However it
may be noted that these coefficients are for beams/slabs of uniform cross sections
which supports substantially uniformly distributed loads over 3 or more spans which
do not differ by more than 15 % of the longest span. For all other cases, rigorous
structural analysis is required.
It may be noted that if all spans are equal maximum is at support next to end
support.
Mmax =

(wdl2/12) + (wLl2/9)

And Vmax is at outer of first interior support


Vmax

0.6wd+0.6wL

Design Procedure:
I.
II.

Assume a depth of L/30th of span.


Effective span shall be found as explained in Art. 6.3 (clause 222
IS:456)

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III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

Find design moment and shear force.


Design for Moment.
Check for shear.
Check for deflection.
Design distribution steel.
Sketch reinforcement details.

4.4 DESIGN OF CANTILEVER SLABS:


Common example of cantilever slabs are chajjas and balcony slabs. These
slabs are free at one end and may be treated as fixed at other ends to lintel beams.
They may be overhanging portions of interior slabs. They need reinforcement to top
since in cantilevers subjected to vertical downward loads, tension in on top. Moment
is maximum at fixed/continuous end. Hence design is for the section at the end. We
know in cantilevers moment reduces to zero at free end. Hence the thickness of
cantilever slab may be reduced gradually towards free end. Hence minimum thickness
of 75 mm is maintained at free end.
In the design the following points are to be noted:
i.

ii.

iii.
iv.

For uniformly distributed loads, the bending moment and shear force is
Mu
=
wul2/8
Bending Moment
Vu
=
wul
Shear Force
Basic value of span to depth ratio for cantilever = 7
To find the trial depth, l/d ratio may be taken as 10 taking the modification
factors in to consideration.
Main bars are to be provided at top and distribution bars are to be provided in
the transverse direction.
There should be check for anchorage length of main bars at the support.

4.5 DESIGN OF TWO WAY SLABS:


When slab is supported on all four sides and the ratio of long span (ly) to short
span (lx) is less than 2, the bending moment developed in both x & y directions is
predominant and hence design should be made for reinforcement in both directions.
For the analysis of such slab various theories have been developed and expressions
for bending moment Mx & My presented. Among all those theories plate theory is
quite precise.
The moment developed depends upon the edge conditions also. In buildings,
we come across the following boundary conditions.
1. All four edge continuous (interior panel)
2. One short edge discontinuous
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

One long edge discontinuous


Two adjacent edges discontinuous
Two short edges discontinuous
Two long edges discontinuous
Three edges discontinuous and one long edge continuous.
Three edges discontinuous and one short edge continuous.
Four edges discontinuous but corners held down by providing torsional
reinforcements.
10. Simply supported slab without torsion reinforcements.
Note: simply supported slabs have tendency to lift at corners due to torsion
moment in the slab. Lifting of corners may be prevented by providing torsion
reinforcement in the form of two mats. If such precaution is taken, the simply
supported slab falls under category 9 otherwise it falls under category 10.
4

5
7

FIG4.1

For uniformly distributed load on entire slab, maximum + ve moment (tension at


bottom) develops and at supports ve moment developed in slabs with various edge
conditions. The maximum bending moment per unit width in slab are given by
Mx=x w lx2
My=y w lx2

(Clause D.2.1 of IS: 456)

Where Mx & My are the design moments along short and long spans
w = uniformly distributed load on slab
lx & ly are the lengths of short and long spans.
x & y are the moment coefficients given in table 26 of IS: 456.

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Bending moment coefficients for rectangular panel supported on four sides with
provision of torsion at corners
(IS 456:2000 Clause D-1.1 and 24.4.1)
Ca
se
No
.

Type of Panel
and Moments
considered

(1)

(2)
Interior Panels:
Negative
moment at
continuous edge.
Positive moment
at mid span

One short Edge


Discontinuous:
Negative
moment at
continuous edge.
Positive moment
at mid span
One Long Edge
Discontinuous:
Negative
moment at
continuous edge.
Positive moment
at mid span
Two Adjacent
Edges
Discontinuous:
Negative
moment at
continuous edge.
Positive moment
at mid span
Two Short
Edges
Discontinuous:
Negative
moment at
continuous edge.

Short Span Coefficients x


(Values of ly/lx)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Long
span
coefficie
nts y
for all
values
of ly/lx
(11)

0.032

0.037

0.043

0.047

0.051

0.053

0.060

0.065

0.032

0.024

0.028

0.032

0.036

0.039

0.041

0.045

0.049

0.024

0.037

0.043

0.048

0.051

0.055

0.057

0.064

0.068

0.037

0.028

0.032

0.036

0.039

0.041

0.044

0.048

0.052

0.028

0.037

0.044

0.052

0.057

0.063

0.067

0.077

0.085

0.037

0.028

0.033

0.039

0.044

0.047

0.051

0.059

0.065

0.028

0.047

0.053

0.060

0.065

0.071

0.075

0.084

0.091

0.047

0.035

0.040

0.045

0.049

0.053

0.056

0.063

0.069

0.035

0.045

0.049

0.052

0.056

0.059

0.060

0.065

0.069

--

0.035

0.037

0.040

0.043

0.044

0.045

0.049

0.052

0.035

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Positive moment
at mid span

Two Long
Edges
Discontinuous:
Negative
moment at
continuous edge.
Positive moment
at mid span
Three Edges
Discontinuous
(One Long
Edge
Continuous):
Negative
moment at
continuous edge.
Positive moment
at mid span.
Three Edges
Discontinuous
(One Short
Edge
Continuous):
Negative
moment at
continuous edge.
Positive moment
at mid span
Four Edges
Discontinuous:
Positive moment
at mid span.

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

0.045

0.035

0.043

0.051

0.057

0.063

0.068

0.080

0.088

0.035

0.057

0.064

0.071

0.076

0.080

0.084

0.091

0.097

--

0.043

0.048

0.053

0.057

0.060

0.064

0.069

0.073

0.043

0.057

0.043

0.051

0.059

0.065

0.071

0.076

0.087

0.096

0.043

0.056

0.64

0.072

0.079

0.085

0.089

0.100

0.107

0.056

TABLE 4.2

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Recommendation of IS: 456 for Design of Restrained Slabs:


1. The maximum bending moments per unit width in a slab are given by the
following equations.
Mx=x w lx2
My=y w lx2
2. Slabs are considered as divided in each direction in to middle strips and edge
strips. The middle strip being of the width and edge strip of the 1/8 width
of the slab.
3. The maximum moment applies to only to middle strip.
4. Tension reinforcements provided at mid strip shall extend in the lower part of
the slab to within 0.25l of a continuous edge or 0.15l of discontinuous edge.
5. Over the continuous edges of a middle strip, the tension reinforcement shall
extend in the upper part of the slab a distance of 0.15l from the support and at
least 50% shall extend a distance of 0.3l.
6. Due to imperfection of boundary conditions, negative moment may occur at
discontinuous edges. To take care of such moments, tension reinforcement
equal to 50% of that provided at mid span extending to 0.1l in to the span will
be sufficient.
7. Reinforcement in edge strip, parallel to that edge, shall comply with the
minimum requirement.
8. Torsion Reinforcement:
Torsion reinforcement is to be provided at corners where two adjacent edges
are discontinuously/simply supported. It consists of two layers of
reinforcement mesh at top and other at bottom of slab with required cover. The
area of reinforcement in each of these four layers shall be th of the area
required for the maximum mid span in the slab and shall be of length 1/5th of
the shorter span.

4.6 Design Procedure for Two way Slab:


1. Assume the depth of the slab based on the stiffness.
(a) For two way slabs with shorter span less than 3.5 m and L.L < 3
KN/m2, the allowable lx/d ratio is
Type
Simply supported slabs
Fixed or Continuous
slabs

Fe 250
35
40

Fe 415
28
32

TABLE 4.3
(b) If lx > 3.5 m and L.L >3 3 KN/m2, the allowable lx/d ratio is same as
that of one-way slabs.
2. Find the effective spans lx and ly
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3. Calculate the ultimate load considering 1 m width of the slab.

4. Obtain the design moment coefficients along short and long spans
depending on the boundary conditions given in table 26 of IS: 456 as
applicable. Calculate the bending moments by multiplying the coefficients
by wlx2.
5. Calculate the minimum depth required to resist the absolute maximum
design moment (Mx and My) which should be less than the depth provided,
otherwise increase the depth.
6. Calculate the area of steel at the mid span (and at support if the slab is
continuous) in both the directions using
Mu = 0.87 FY Ast d {1 [(FY Ast) (fck b d)]}
The short span bars are provided in the bottom layer and long span bars are
provided above the short span bars in the mid span regions.
Thus for
short span d = D clear span /2
Long span d1 = (D clear span /2) = d
The main reinforcement shall be provided in the middle strips of width
equal to of slab width.
7. Torsion steel:
(a) At corners where slab is discontinuous over both the edges At =
Astx
(b) At corners where slab is discontinuous over one edge At = 3/8
Astx
(c) At corners where slab is continuous over both edges, At = 0,
i.e., no torsion steel is required.
Where Astx = Area of steel for maximum mid span moment.
This area of torsion reinforcement will be provide at corners in the
form of mesh, one at top and the other at bottom for a length of lx/5 in each
orthogonal direction, parallel to the sides of the slab.
8. Check for Deflection:
Calculate the Pt % corresponding maximum mid span moment
Take the modification factor (MF) from figure-4 IS: 456
(l/d) provided < (l/d) maximum = basic value x MF
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9.

Check For Shear:


Maximum shear force at the edges of two way slab is given by
Vux = wv [r4 (1 + r4)] (lx/2), where r = (ly/lx)

v < c
10. Check for Development Length:
Ld (M1 V) + Lo
The check for shear and check for development length are mostly
satisfied in all cases slabs subjected to uniformly distributed loads and
therefore omitted in design calculations. The general arrangement of
reinforcement in two-way.

4.7 CALCULATIONS:
SLAB PANEL: S1
Length of longer span ( ly ): 3.65 m
Length of shorter span (lx ): 3.00 m
Now ratio of longer span to shorter span i.e.,

lx

3.65
3.00

= 1.217 < 2

Hence Two way slab should be considered.


Loads acting on the slab:
Live load

2 KN/m2

Floor finish
fck
fy

=
=
=

1.5 KN/m2
20 N/mm2
415 N/mm2

Thickness of slab:
Assume effective depth d =

span
32

3000
32

= 93.75

Adopt d = 100 mm
Effective Cover = 20 mm
Overall depth D = 120 mm
Loads per unit area of slab
Self-weight of the slab = 0.12 x 25
Live load

= 3.0 kN/m2
= 2 N/m2

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Floor finish

= 1.5 KN/m2

Total load

= 6.5 KN/m2

Factor of safety = 1.5


Factored load (wu)= 1.5 x 6.0 = 9.75 KN/m2
Type of panel: Two adjacent edges discontinuous
Moment and Area of Steel calculations:
Mu = .wu .lx
By using SP 16
Span

Spacing

Ast pro

mm

mm

mm

0.56

0.16%

157.04

120

200

251.33

4.20

0.42

0.12%

116.77

120

200

251.33

0.045

3.98

0.40

0.11%

110.54

120

200

251.33

0.034

2.98

0.30

0.08%

82.42

120

200

251.33

Mu

Mu/bd

Pt

Coefficient

kN.m

N/mm2

0.064

5.60

0.048

x
shorter

Min
Ast
mm

Dia

Ast
reqd
mm

Moment

(-ve)

x
(+ve)

y
longer

(-ve)

y
(+ve)

TABLE 4.4
Check for deflection:
Basic value of Lx/d ratio = 26
From figure 3 of I.S 456:1978 modification factor is 1.66
Maximum permitted l/d ratio =

1.66 26 =

43.16

Lx/d provided = 3000/100 = 30


Lx/d provided > Lx/d required
Hence deflection control is safe.

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Design of One way slab


SLAB PANEL: S4
Length of longer span ( l y )

10.25 m

Length of shorter span (l x )

3.50 m

Now ratio of longer span to shorter span i.e.

lx

10.25
3.50

= 2.92 > 2

Hence One way slab should be considered.


Loads acting on the slab:
Live load

= 2 KN/m2

Floor load

= 1 KN/m2

Characteristic strength of concrete ( fck ) = 20 N/mm2


Characteristic strength of steel (fy)

= 415 N/mm2

Thickness of slab:
Assume effective depth d =

span
28

3500
28

= 125

Adopt d = 125 mm
Cover = 20 mm
Overall depth = 145 mm
Loads: per unit area of slab
Self-weight of the slab = 0.145 x 25 = 3.3.625 kN/m2
Live load

2 kN/m2

Floor finish

1 kN/m2

Total load

6.625 kN/m2

Load factor = 1.5


Factored load = 1.5 x 6.625 = 9.9735 kN/m2
Max B.M Mu= wl2/8 = 15.22 kN-m

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By using SP 16
TABLE 4.5

Ast
reqd
mm

Min
Ast
mm

Dia of
bar
mm

0.28%

352.46

150

Mu

Mu/bd

Pt

kN.m

N/mm2

15.22

0.97

Spacing

Ast pro

mm

mm

140

359.04

Distribution reinforcement:
Minimum percentage of steel as per IS 456 Is 0.12% of gross cross sectional area
Ast

0.12 x 1000 x 145/100

174 mm2

Provide 8 mm dia bars @ 280 mm c/c


Check for deflection:
For simply supported slabs basic l/d ratio is 20
From figure 3 of I.S 456:1978 modification factor is 1.43
Maximum permitted l/d ratio

1.43 20 = 28.6

Lx/d provided = 3500/125

28.6

Lx/d provided > Lx/d required


Hence deflection control is safe.

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Schedule of slabs (Typical & Roof):


Reinforcement
slab

Lx
(m)

Ly
(m)

Effecti
ve
depth
d (mm)

Type of
slab

Along X-direction

Along Y-direction

-ve

+ve

-ve

+ve

S1

3.00

3.65

100

Two way
Continues

8 -200 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -200 c/c

S2

3.65

3.70

100

Two way
Continues

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

S3

3.55

3.65

100

Two way
Continues

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

S4

3.50

10.25

125

One way

-----

8 -140 c/c

-----

8 -280 c/c

S5

3.85

4.15

100

Two way
Continues

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -200 c/c

8 -250 c/c

S6

2.85

4.15

100

Two way
Continues

8 -250 c/c

8 -300 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -300 c/c

S7

3.55

4.15

100

Two way
Continues

8 -250 c/c

8 -300 c/c

8 -250 c/c

8 -300 c/c

TABLE 4.6
Note :
Effective cover for all slabs is 20 mm
Total depth for two way slabs is 120 mm
Total depth for one way slabs is 145 mm
Diameter of bar and spacing is in mm

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5. DESIGN OF BEAMS
5.1 INTRODUCTION:
In a building frame at every floor level, there can be large number of
beams with different spans, end conditions, and loadings. It would not be
practicable to design all beams serially from first to last. It is quite likely
that some of the beams may have the same end conditions, spans, and/or
loadings. Under such circumstances, it is always advisable to categorize
them and group them to facilitate design, and reduce the computational
efforts.
Design of reinforced concrete beams involves sizing and finding
required quantity of steel based on the consideration of strength and
serviceability requirements. It also involves detailing. The major
consideration in the design of beams is bending moment. Hence first
beams are designed for bending moment and then the design for shear is
taken up. Checks are applied for deflection and crack width. If the
requirement for any limit state fails redesign is to be made. The detailing
of reinforcement is to be made with neat sketches/drawings taking into
account bond, cracking and durability considerations.
Concrete is fairly strong in compression but very weak in tension.
Hence plain concrete cannot be used in situations where considerable
tensile stresses develop. If flexural members like beams and slabs are
made of plain concrete their load carrying capacity is very low due to its
low tensile strength. Since steel is very strong in tension, steel bars are
provided to resist tensile stresses at a place where the maximum tensile
stresses are developed.
In case of simply supported beam, tensile stresses are induced in
bottom layers because of positive bending moment (sagging bending
moment) and hence steel bars are provided near the bottom of the beam.
In cantilever beams steel bars are placed near the top of the beam to resist
the tensile stresses developed in top layers due to the negative bending
moment (hogging bending moment).
A
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -

- NA -- -- -- FIG 5.1 Reinforcement in simply supported-beam


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Positioning of beams:
Some of the guiding principles for the positioning of beams are as
follows:
(a) Beams are generally provided under walls or below heavy
concentrated loads to avoid these loads directly coming on slabs.
(b) The spacing of the beams is governed by the maximum spans of the
slabs.
(c) For larger spans and heavier loads the two-way action is advantageous,
as the steel required is minimum.
(d) For designing the cantilever slabs, availability adequate anchorage
should be checked.
Categorization of beams:
The categorization of beams may be done on the basis of design which
depends on the following factors:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

End conditions (EC = 1, 2, 3, 4)


Span
Load type (UDL, point load, triangular/trapezoidal load etc.)
Section type (rectangular/flanged)
Load magnitude.

Since categorization of beams would principally depend upon the end


conditions of beam it is necessary, in the beginning, to take certain
decisions or make suitable simplifying assumptions regarding the
following:
(i)

(ii)

Whether the multi-span continuous beams are to be analyzed and


designed as a whole or as made up of independent beams with
appropriate end conditions
What will be the end conditions of the beam?
The decision would depend upon the following:
(1) Whether detailed calculations are required by the client (as in
case of public buildings) for future/office record.
(2) Whether the client requires only result in the form of schedules
of members as in case of residential buildings constructed by
private owners or builders.
(3) What is the accuracy required? It depends upon the importance
of the building and magnitude and repetitious nature of work.

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For example, if it is to be used for a big residential complex with large number
of such units, then small excess of concrete and/or steel that may occur by using
simplifying assumption in design of one unit can lead to appreciable increase in
overall cost of materials in the entire big scheme.
The decisions regarding the assumptions made for the end conditions of the
beam materially affects the design procedure and designs itself.
Bearing the above points in mind, the decision has to be taken very carefully
whether to use the methods of structural analysis or simplifying assumptions and
approximations. A beam may be assumed as simply supported at discontinuous end
for simplicity on safer side, simultaneously taking care to provide steel at top at least
equal to 1/3rd the mid-span steel to account for partial fixity developed.
For approximate method, the beams may be categorized on the basis of end
conditions as follows:

5.2 CATEGORY:
(1) Beam simply supported at both ends and carrying only UDL.
(2) Beam simply supported at one end and continuous at the other end
and carrying UDL.
(3) Beam continuous at both ends and carrying UDL only.
(4) Miscellaneous beams such as overhanging beams, beams with any end
condition but carrying unusual loading like UDL over part of the
length of beam, continuous beams with abnormally unequal spans
etc.
The beams under each category may further be divided into different groups
on the basis of approximate equality of spans and loads. For beams with uniform
cross section and having the same end conditions the equality of spans may be
assumed when they do not differ more than 15% of the longest.
Types of Beams:
Designer has to decide whether the section of the beam is going to act as
rectangular or L or T-beam. A single span beam supported on masonry wall can be
considered as simply supported beam. It has zero moments at ends and sagging (+ve)
moment throughout. If slab is cast over it monolithically, the slab is on compression
side. Hence when beam bends part of slab acts as flange of the beam in resisting
bending moment. If the slab is on both sides, it becomes T-beam and if it is only on
one side it is L-beam.
If the beam is part of a framed structure or is continuous over a number of
supports, it will be having sagging (+ve) moment in mid-span and hogging (-ve)
moment near the supports. If as usual slab is on the top of the beam and is cast
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monolithically with beam, the mid-span section of the beam becomes flanged section.
At interior supports, the flange is on tension side and hence will not assist in resisting
moment. In such cases the beam is to be designed as a rectangular section for negative
moment.
The designer has to decide whether the section is to be designed as Singly
reinforced or Doubly reinforced. For this the depth of balanced section may be
found. If this depth cannot be permitted from the consideration of head room
requirement or from architectural consideration then the section is to be designed as
doubly reinforced. Otherwise it may be designed as singly reinforced.
Beam Section:
The cross-sectional dimensions of the beam consist of fixing breadth and
depth of the beam. The breadth of the beam is generally kept equal to the thickness of
the wall to avoid offset inside the room. It shall not exceed the width of the column
for effective transfer of load from beam to column. The minimum width of beam shall
be 200 mm to meet the requirements of fire resistance of 0.5 hours. (See fig.1 of IS:
456 2000).

FIG5.2
The depth of the beam is taken between L/10 to L/16. The types of beams
having different sections are kept minimum to facilitate reuse work. Even in some
cases, especially in residential buildings, the depth of the beam is provided equal to
the difference between the top of the floor and top of the door/ window. The
advantages are there is no need to provide lintel, the depth of the formwork remains
the same so that they can be reused and the top of the formwork being at the same
level there is considerable saving in labor.

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FIG 5.3 Stress - strain Diagrams

5.3 ASSUMPTIONS:
The analysis and design of a reinforced concrete section for flexure is based
on the following assumptions. (IS: 456 2000, Clause 38.1)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

(v)

(vi)

Plane sections normal to the axis remains plane after bending.


The maximum strain in concrete at outermost compression fiber is taken as
0.0035 in bending regardless of strength of concrete.
The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.
The relationship between stress-strain distributions in concrete is assumed
to be parabolic as shown in fig below. Compressive strength of concrete in
the structure (size effect) is assumed to be 0.67 times the characteristic
strength of concrete. The partial safety factor m equal to 1.5 is applied
to the strength of concrete in addition to it. Therefore, the design
compressive strength of concrete is 0.67 fck/1.5 = 0.446 fck.
The stress in reinforcement is derived from the representative stress-strain
curve for the type of steel used as shown in fig. The partial safety factor m
equal to 1.15 is applied to the strength of reinforcement. Therefore, the
design strength of steel is fy/1.15 = 0.87 FY.
The maximum strain in tension reinforcement in the section at failure
should not be less than the
(FY/ 1.15Es) + 0.002
Where FY = Characteristic strength of steel
Es = Modulus of elasticity of steel

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Analysis of Singly Reinforced sections:


If the reinforcing bars are provided only on tension side in the beam section, it
is called as singly reinforced beams.
Consider a simply supported beam subjected to bending under factored loads.
Since plane sections are assumed to remain plane before and after bending, strain is
proportional to distance from the neutral axis. Above the neutral axis the entire cross
section is in compression and below the neutral axis, the cross section is in tension.
All the tensile stresses are assumed to be resisted by steel bars as the tensile strength
of concrete is ignored. The resultant tensile force, thus acts at the centroid of
reinforcing bars.
Effective Depth:
Effective depth of a beam is the distance between the centroid of tension
reinforcement and the maximum compression fibre, excluding thickness of finishing
material placed monolithically with the member.
Effective depth, d = D clear cover /2
Where
D= Gross depth or overall depth.
= Diameter of the bar.
Effective span:
For calculation of bending moment and shear force, effective span is to be
considered. IS: 456 Clause No.22.2 specifies effective span, various cases as given
below:
(i)

(ii)

(iii)
(iv)

Simply supported beams or slabs:


Effective span = clear span + effective depth
Or
Centre to centre distance between the supports, whichever is less.
Continuous beams or slabs:
(a) If width of support, w < 1/12th of clear span, the effective span
is same as for simply supported case.
(b) For end span with one end simply supported and other end
continuous.
Effective span = clear span + d/2
Or
Clear span + (1/2) x width of simple support.
Whichever is less.
In case of roller supports:
Effective span = distance between the supports.
Cantilevers:
Effective span = clear span + d/2

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(v)
(vi)
(vii)

Overhanging portion of continuous beams:


Effective span = centre of support to free end.
Frames:
Effective span = centre to centre distance.

Depth of Neutral Axis (xu):


The depth of neutral axis can be obtained by considering the equilibrium of
internal forces of compression and tension.
Force of compression C = Average stress x area of beam in compression
= 0.36 fck b xu
Force of tension T = Design yield stress x area of steel
= 0.87 fy Ast
Force of compression should be equal to force of tension
Xu = (0.87 FY Ast) / (0.36 fck b xu)
Lever Arm (z):
The forces of compression and tension form a couple. The distance between
the lines of action of compression and tension forces is called as lever arm.
Lever arm,

z = d 0.42 xu

5.4 MODES FAILURES / TYPES OF SECTIONS:


A reinforced concrete member is considered to have failed when the strain in
concrete in extreme compression fiber reaches its ultimate value equal to 0.0035.
1. Balanced section: when the maximum strains in steel and concrete reach their
maximum values simultaneously, the section is known as a balanced section.
The percentage of steel provided for balanced section is called as limiting
percentage of steel.
xu = xu, max.
2. Under reinforced section (tension failure or ductile failure): when the amount
of steel in a section is less than that required for a balanced section, the section
is called as under reinforced section.
In under reinforced sections, the strain in concrete does not reach its maximum
value while the strain in steel reaches its maximum value. The position of
neutral axis will shift upwards to maintain equilibrium between force of
compression and tension.
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xu < xu, max


So failure of the section is initiated by steel reaching its yield value. Before
failure, beam undergoes substantial deflection excessive cracking of concrete
giving sufficient warning of impending failure. For this reason and from
economy point of view the under reinforced sections are designed. IS code
prefers design of under reinforced sections and at the most it can be a balanced
section (xu xu, max).
3. Over Reinforced section (compression Failure or brittle failure):
When the amount of steel is more than that required for balanced section, the
section is called over reinforced section.
In over reinforced sections, the strain in concrete reaches its ultimate value
before steel reaches its yield value. Neutral axis shift downwards to maintain
equilibrium
xu > xu, max
hence, in over reinforced sections sudden failure occurs by crushing of
concrete out giving any warning. So this type sections should be avoided. IS
code recommends avoid of over reinforced sections.
Maximum Depth of Neutral Axis ( xu, max):
The maximum depth of neutral axis is limited to ensure that tensile steel will
reach its yield stress before concrete fails in compression, thus brittle failure
(sudden failure with less alarming deflection) is avoided.
From strain diagram of IS: 456
,
,
=
0.0035 (087 /E ) + 0.02

,
=

It may be noted that ,

0.0035

087
+ 0.0055
E
is dependent on grade of steel only.

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fy (N/mm2)

250

0.53

415

0.48

500

0.46

Table 5.1 Values of


Grade of
concrete

for different grades of steel

Fe 250 steel

Fe 415 steel

Fe 500 steel

0.148fckbd2

0.138 fckbd2

0.133 fckbd2

2.96 bd2

3.45 bd2

3.33 bd2

3.7 bd2

3.45 bd2

3.33 bd2

General
M20
M25
Table 5.2 Limiting Moment of Resistance for Singly Reinforced
Rectangular Sections
Limiting Percentage of Steel:
The percentage of tensile reinforcement corresponding to the limiting
moment resistance is known as limiting percentage of steel. It can be
obtained by equating force of tension and compression.
0.87 , = 0.36 ,
, = 0.36 , /0.87
Limiting percentage of steel , =
=

100

0.36 ,

100
0.87

The limiting values of tensile reinforcement percentage corresponding


to different grades of concrete and steel in a singly reinforced rectangular
beam are given below.

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Grade of
concrete

Percentage of tensile steel


Fe 250

Fe 415

Fe 500

M15

1.32

0.72

0.57

M20

1.76

0.96

0.76

M25

2.20

1.19

0.94

Table 5.3 Limiting Percentage of steel for Singly Reinforced sections.


5.5 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BEAMS:
1. Effective span:
The effective span of a simply supported beam shall be taken as clear
span plus effective depth of the beam or center to center distance between
the supports whichever is less.
The effective span of a cantilever shall be taken as its length to the face
of the support plus half the effective depth except where it forms the end
of a continuous beam where the length to the centre of support shall be
taken.
2. Limiting stiffness:
The stiffness of beams is governed by the span to depth ratio. As per
Clause 23.2 of IS: 456 for spans not exceeding 10 m, the span to effective
depth ratio should not exceed the limits (basic values) given below:
Cantilever
7
Simply supported 20
Continuous
26
For spans above 10 m, the above values may be multiplied by 10/span
in m.
Depending on the amount and type of steel, the above values shall be
modified by multiplying with the modification factors obtained from fig.4
& 5 of IS: 456.
3. Minimum Reinforcement:
The minimum area of tension reinforcement should not be less than the
following (Clause 26.51 of IS: 456)
0.85
=

This works out only 0.2% for Fe 415 steel and 0.34% for Fe 250 steel.

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4. Maximum Reinforcement:
The maximum area of tension reinforcement should not exceed 4% of
the gross cross sectional area (Clause 26.51 of IS: 456)
Ptmax < 0.04 bD
Where D = gross depth of the beam
5. Spacing of Bars:
The horizontal distance between two parallel main reinforcing bars
shall usually be not less than the greatest of the following:
(a) Diameter of the bar if the diameters are equal.
(b) Diameter of the largest bar if the bars are unequal
(c) 5 mm more than the nominal maximum size of the aggregate
When there are two or more rows of bars, the bars shall be vertically in
line and the minimum vertical distance between the bars shall be 15 mm,
two-thirds of nominal maximum size of aggregate or the maximum size of
the bars whichever is greater.
The maximum spacing of bars in tension for beams is taken from
Table-15 of IS: 456 depending on the amount of redistribution carried
out in analysis and fy.
6. Cover to Reinforcement:
Reinforcement shall have concrete cover of thickness as follows:
(a) At each end of reinforcement bar not less than 25 mm nor less
than twice the diameter of such bar.
(b) For longitudinal reinforcing bar in beam, not less than 25 mm
nor less than the diameter of such bar.
7. Side Face Reinforcement:
Where the depth of the beam exceeds 750 mm, side face reinforcement
shall be provided along the two faces. The total area of such reinforcement
shall not be less than 0.1% of the beam area and shall be distributed
equally on two faces at a spacing not exceeding 300 mm or width of the
beam whichever is less.
Use of SP16 for Design and Analysis of Singly Reinforced Beams:
The Indian standards Institutions special publication SP16, Design aids for
Reinforced concrete of IS: 456, contains a number of charts and tables for design of
reinforced concrete members.
The following are the data presented in SP16 for design and analysis singly
reinforced beams.

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(i)

Tables 1 to 4 gives the percentage steel required for various values


of (

(ii)

) and fy for concrete grades fck = 15, 20, 25 and 30

Charts 1 to 18 gives the moment of resistance per meter width for


varying depths (5 to 80 cm) and varying percentage of steel, for
various values of
fck= 15 & 20 using steel grades of fy= 250,415 & 500.

Doubly Reinforced Beams:


Beams which are reinforced in both compression and tension asides are called
as doubly reinforced beam. These beams are generally provided when the dimensions
of the beam are restricted and it is required to resist moment higher than the limiting
moment of resistance of a singly reinforced section. The additional moment of
resistance required can be obtained by providing compression reinforcement and
additional tension reinforcement.
Situations under which doubly reinforced beams are used:
1. When the depth of the beam is restricted due to architectural or any
construction problems.
2. At the supports of a continuous beam where bending moment changes its
sign.
3. In precast members (during handling bending moment changes its sign).
4. In bracing members of a frame due to changes in the direction of wind
loads.
5. To improve the ductility of the beams in earth quake regions.
6. To reduce long term deflections or to increase stiffness of the beam.
Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Beams
Doubly Reinforced section can be considered to be composed of two sections
given below.
(a) A singly reinforced section with Mu,lim
(b) A section with compression steel and additional tension steel to resist
additional moment 2 = , , i.e., a steel beam without
concrete.
Hence, moment of resistance of doubly reinforced beam.
= , + 2
Where, , = Limiting moment of resistance of singly reinforced section.
2 = Additional moment of resistance to be resisted by compression steel and
additional tension steel.

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The lever arm for the additional moment of resistance 2 is equal to the
distance between the centroid of the tension and compression reinforcements,
i.e., d-d,. Hence the additional moment of resistance is given by
2 = = 0.87 2
Where,
fsc = stress in compression steel
d = Distance of centroid of compression reinforcement from the maximum
compression fiber (effective cover to compression reinforcement)
Asc= Area of compression reinforcement required to resist Mu2
Ast2 = Area of additional tensile reinforcement to balance compression steel
Ast1= Area of tensile reinforcement for a balanced singly reinforced section
1. Neutral Axis:
The depth of neutral axis can be calculated by equating total force of
compression to total force of tension.
Compression force of concrete = 0.36
Compressive forces in compression steel =
Tensile force = 0.87
Equate force of Compression with Tension
+ =
Therefore, =

0.87
0.36

2. Ultimate Moment of Resistance:


The ultimate Moment of resistance of doubly reinforced section is
given by:
= 1 + 2
= 0.36 0.42 +
When xu > xu,max is limited to xu,max
= 0.36 , 0.42, +
3. Area of Compression steel:
Additional moment of resistance 2 =
2
=

The maximum area of compression reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04 bD
i.e., 4% of gross cross sectional area.

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4. Area of Tension steel:


The limiting moment of resistance of singly reinforced section is given
by:
M, = 0.87 A1 (d 0.42, )
M,
A1 =
0.87 (d 0.42, )
Additional area of tensile steel (Ast1) can be calculated by equating the
compressive force in compression steel and tensile force in additional tension
steel.
0.87 A2 = A
A
A2 =
0.87
Ast2 can also be calculated by using
M2 = 0.87 A2 (d d)
M2
A2 =
0.87 (d d)
Total area of tension steel A = A1 + A2
Stress in Compression Steel:
If sc is the strain at the level of compression steel, from the strain diagram at
failure

0.0035
=
x
x
Knowing the strain, the stress in compression steel can be obtained from
stress-strain curve of corresponding steel or from Table-A of SP-16 which is given
below
Stress level

Fe415

Fe500

Strain

Stress N/mm2

Strain

Stress N/mm2

0.80fyd

0.00144

288.7

0.00174

347.8

0.85fyd

0.00163

306.7

0.00195

369.6

0.90fyd

0.00192

324.8

0.00226

391.3

0.95fyd

0.00241

342.8

0.00277

413.0

0.975fyd

0.00276

351.8

0.00312

423.9

1.0fyd

0.00380

360.9

0.00417

434.8

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Table 5.4 Salient points on the design stress strain curve for cold worked bars
(Table-A SP-16)
Note: Linear interpolation may be done for intermediate values
fyd = Design yield strength = 0.87fy
So fsc and xu are interrelated and cannot be found directly. Trial and error
procedure should be adopted.
For mild steel direct relation can be established between stress and strain since
the idealized stress strain curve is linear up to fy and then it is constant equal to fy
= starin x E
Substituting the value of strain and E for steel = 2x105 N/mm2
= 0.0035 (1-d/xu) 2x105
= 700(1-d/xu), subjected to a maximum of 0.87fy
Stress in Compression Steel (fsc) based on d/d :
As per SP-16, in designing doubly reinforced beam (by assuming xu= xu,max)
the following table gives the values of fsc for different values of d/d.
Grade of Steel

d'/d
0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Fe415

355

353

342

329

Fe500

424

412

395

370

Table 5.5 Stress in Compression Steel (fsc) N/mm2 in Doubly Reinforced beams
with cold worked bars (Table-F in SP-16) when d/d < 0.2
For d/d < 0.2, fsc for mild steel is 0.87fy
Use of Design Aids SP-16:
SP-16 design tables 45 to 56 gives the percentage of tension and compression
reinforcement (Pt and Pc) for different ratios of (d/d) varying from 0.05 to 0.20 and
for various grades of concrete (fck= 15 to 30 N/mm2) and different grades of steel (fy=
250, 415 and 500 N/mm2) covering the moment of resistance factor (Mu/bd2) varying
from 2.24 to 8.30

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5.6 DESIGN OF BEAMS USING SP 16


Design of plinth beams:
Beam no's 1001, 1007, 1009,1014, 1015, 1020, 1021, and 1026
Length

3000 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

Effective depth (d)

375 mm

Max B.M @ Start support

41.037 KN-m

Max B.M @ Mid span

15.561 KN-m

Max B.M @End support

41.749 KN-m

% of Ast @ Start support(-ve)


Mu
bd 2

41.037 x 10 6
300x375 2

= 0.97 KN/m2
Limiting moment of resistance
Mu,lim

0.138x fckxbxd2

0.138 x20x300x3752

117 KN-m

Xu,max = 0.48 x d = 0.48 x 375 = 180 mm


Actual moment is less than the limiting moment.
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
From linear interpolation we get the actual %pt

%pt

0.95

0.280

1.00

0.295

0.7822

0.287

Area of steel =

pt xbxd
100

0.287 x 300x 375


100

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322 mm2

=
Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

322

2
4x12

2.84 ~ 3 nos

% of Ast @ mid span

15.561 x 10 6
300x375 2
= 0.37 KN/m2

Limiting moment of resistance


Mu,lim

0.138x fckxbxd2

0.138 x20x300x3752

117 KN-m

Xu, max = 0.48 x d = 0.48 x 375 = 180 mm


Actual moment is less than the limiting moment.
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
%pt = 0.085
Area of steel =
=


100

0.085 x 300x 375


100

95.625 mm2

Check for Area of steel


As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85
=

Ast = 230 mm2


Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

230

2
4x12

2.03 ~ 3 nos

% of Ast @End support


41.749 x 10 6
=
2
300x375 2

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= 0.99 KN/m2
Limiting moment of resistance
Mu,lim

0.138x fckxbxd2

0.138 x20x300x3752

117 KN-m

Xu,max = 0.48 x d = 0.48 x 375 = 180 mm


Actual moment is less than the limiting moment.
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
From linear interpolation we get the actual %pt

%pt

0.95

0.280

1.00

0.295

0.92

0.292

Area of steel =
=


100

0.292 300 375


100

328 mm2

Using 12 mm dia bars


No of bars

328

2
4x12

2.90 ~ 3 nos

Beam no's 1002,1006, 1010, 1013, 1016, 1017, 1022, and 1025
Length

3700 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

Effective depth (d)

375 mm

Max B.M @ Start support

48.839 KN-m

Max B.M @ Mid span

19.181 KN-m

Max B.M @End support

49.323 KN-m

% of Ast @ Start support(-ve)


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48.839 x 10 6
=
bd 2
300x375 2
Mu

= 1.16 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
Percentage of steel = 0.384 %
pt xbxd

Area of steel =

100

0.384 x 300x 375


100

389 mm2

=
Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

389

2
4x12

3.44 ~ 4 no's

% of Ast @ mid span

19.181 x 10 6
300x375 2
= 0.45 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415


%pt = 0.128
Area of steel =
=


100

0.128 x 300x 375


100

144 mm2

Check for Area of steel


As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85
=

Ast = 230 mm2


Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

230

2
4x12

= 2.03 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @End support

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49.323x 10 6
=
2
300x375 2

= 1.17 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.349 %

Area of steel =

100

0.349 300 375


100

393 mm2

=
Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

393

2
4x12

3.47 ~ 4 nos

Beam no's 1003, 1011, 1012, 1017, 1018, 1023, 1024


Length

3550 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

Effective depth (d)

375 mm

Max B.M @ Start support

48.911 KN-m

Max B.M @ Mid span

17.581 KN-m

Max B.M @End support

48.598 KN-m

% of Ast @ Start support(-ve)


48.911 x 10 6
=
bd 2
300x375 2
Mu

= 1.16 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
Percentage of steel = 0.346 %
Area of steel =
=

pt xbxd
100

0.346 x 300x 375


100

389 mm2

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Using 12 mm dia bars


No of bars

389

2
4x12

3.44 ~ 4 no's

% of Ast @ mid span


17.581 x 10 6
=
2
300x375 2

= 0.42 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
%pt = 0.118

Area of steel =

100

0.118 x 300x 375


100

133 mm2

=
Check for Area of steel

As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85
=

Ast = 230 mm2


Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

230

2
4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @End support

48.598 x 10 6
300x375 2
= 1.15 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415


percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.344 %
Area of steel =
=


100

0.344 300 375


100

387 mm2

Using 12 mm dia bars


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No of bars

387

2
4x12

3.42 ~ 4 nos

Beam no's 1004, 1030, 1034


Length

1650 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

Effective depth (d)

375 mm

Max B.M @ Start support

35.415 KN-m

Max B.M @ Mid span

18.726 KN-m

Max B.M @End support

26.626 KN-m

% of Ast @ Start support(-ve)


35.415 x 10 6
=
bd 2
300x375 2
Mu

= 0.84 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
Percentage of steel = 0.254 %
pt xbxd

Area of steel =

100

0.254 x 300x 375


100

276 mm2

=
Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

276

2
4x12

2.44 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @ mid span

18.726 x 10 6
300x375 2
= 0.45 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415


%pt = 0.128

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Area of steel =

100

0.128 x 300x 375


100

142 mm2

=
Check for Area of steel

As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85
=

Ast = 230 mm2


Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

230

2
4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @End support

26.626 x 10 6
300x375 2
= 0.63 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415


percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.182%
Area of steel =
=


100

0.182 300 375


100

204 mm2

As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85
=

Ast = 230 mm2


Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

230

2
4x12

2.03 ~ 3 nos

Beam no's 1005,1008


Length

Cross section =

1900 mm
300x400 mm

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Clear cover

25 mm

Effective depth (d)

375 mm

Max B.M @ Start support

32.145 KN-m

Max B.M @ Mid span

15.876 KN-m

Max B.M @End support

34.632 KN-m

% of Ast @ Start support(-ve)


Mu
bd 2

32.145 x 10 6
300x375 2

= 0.76 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
Percentage of steel = 0.221 %
Area of steel =
=

pt xbxd
100

0.221 x 300x 375


100

249 mm2

Using 12 mm dia bars


No of bars

249

2
4x12

2.20 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @ mid span


15.876 x 10 6
=
2
300x375 2

= 0.38 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
%pt = 0.107
Area of steel =
=


100

0.107 x 300x 375


100

120 mm2

Check for Area of steel

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As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85
=

Ast = 230 mm2


Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

230

2
4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @End support

34.632 x 10 6
300x375 2
= 0.82 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415


percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.239 %
Area of steel =
=


100

0.239 300 375


100

269 mm2

Using 12 mm dia bars


No of bars

269

2
4x12

2.37 ~ 3 nos

Beam no's 1027, 1028, 1031, 105, 1036


Length

3650 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

Effective depth (d)

375 mm

Max B.M @ Start support

49.395 KN-m

Max B.M @ Mid span

19.794 KN-m

Max B.M @End support

52.575 KN-m

% of Ast @ Start support(-ve)


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49.395 x 10 6
=
bd 2
300x375 2
Mu

= 1.17 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
Percentage of steel = 0.350 %
pt xbxd

Area of steel =

100

0.350 x 300x 375


100

394 mm2

=
Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

394

2
4x12

3.38 ~ 4 no's

% of Ast @ mid span

19.794 x 10 6
300x375 2
= 0.47 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415


%pt = 0.134
Area of steel =
=


100

0.134 x 300x 375


100

150 mm2

Check for Area of steel


As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85
=

Ast = 230 mm2


Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

230

2
4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @End support

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52.575 x 10 6
=
2
300x375 2

= 1.25 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.374 %

Area of steel =

100

0.374 300 375


100

421 mm2

=
Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

421

x12 2
4

.3.72 ~ 4 nos

Beam no's 1044, 1045, 1046, 1047, 1048, 1049, 1050


Length

4150 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

Effective depth (d)

375 mm

Max B.M @ Start support

59.694 KN-m

Max B.M @ Mid span

19.794 KN-m

Max B.M @End support

52.575 KN-m

% of Ast @ Start support(-ve)


Mu
bd 2

59.694 x 10 6
300x375 2

= 1.41 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
Percentage of steel = 0.431 %
Area of steel =
=

pt xbxd
100

0.431 x 300x 375


100

484 mm2

Using 12 mm dia bars


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No of bars

484

2
4x12

4.28 ~ 5 no's

% of Ast @ mid span

19.794 x 10 6
300x375 2
= 0.47 KN/m2

Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415


%pt = 0.134
Area of steel =
=


100

0.134 x 300x 375


100

150 mm2

Check for Area of steel


As per clause no 26.5.1.1 of IS 456-2000, min reinforcement is given by

0.85
=

Ast = 230 mm2


Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

230

2
4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @End support


52.575 x 10 6
=
2
300x375 2

= 1.25 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.374 %
Area of steel =
=


100

0.431 300 375


100

421 mm2

Using 12 mm dia bars

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No of bars

421

2
4x12

3.72~ 4 nos

Beam no's 1029, 1032, 1051


Length

2000 mm

Cross section =

300x400 mm

Clear cover

25 mm

Effective depth (d)

375 mm

Max B.M @ Start support

44.458 KN-m

Max B.M @ Mid span

30.724 KN-m

Max B.M @End support

45.315 KN-m

% of Ast @ Start support(-ve)


44.458 x 10 6
=
bd 2
300x375 2
Mu

= 1.05 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
Percentage of steel = 0.312 %
Area of steel =
=

pt xbxd
100

0.312 x 300x 375


100

351 mm2

Using 12 mm dia bars


No of bars

351

2
4x12

3.10 ~ 4 no's

% of Ast @ mid span


30.724 x 10 6
=
2
300x375 2

= 0.73 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
%pt = 0.211

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Area of steel =

100

0.211 x 300x 375


100

237 mm2

=
Using 12 mm dia bars
No of bars

237

2
4x12

2.03 ~ 3 no's

% of Ast @End support45.315


45.315 x 10 6
=
2
300x375 2

= 1.07 KN/m2
Referring to Table no 2 of SP 16 for M20 and Fe415
percentage of reinforcement (%pt) = 0.319 %
Area of steel =
=


100

0.319 300 375


100

359 mm2

Using 12 mm dia bars


No of bars

359

2
4x12

= 3.17~ 4 nos

Design of Beams (1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th floors)

Beam no
2001, 2007, 2009, 2014,
2015, 2022, 2023, 2030,
3001, 3007, 3009, 3014,
3015, 3022, 3023,3030,
4001, 4007, 4009, 4014,
4015, 4022, 4023, 4030,
50001, 5007, 5009, 5014,
5015, 5022, 5023, 5030
2002, 2006, 2010, 2013,
3002, 3006, 3010, 3013,
4002, 4006, 4010, 4012,
5002, 5006, 5010, 5013

Length
(m)

3.00

3.70

Position of
Max B.M

Max B.M
(KN-m)

Reinforcement

@ Start
support(-ve)

60.47

#3-16

@ Mid span
(+ve)

21.253

#3 -12

@ End
support(-ve)

60.963

#3-16

65.963

#3-16

27.412

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)
@ Mid span
(+ve)

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2003, 2011, 2012, 2018,


2019, 2026, 2027, 3003,
3011, 3012, 3018, 3019,
3026, 3027, 4003, 4011,
4012, 4018, 4019, 4026,
4027, 5003, 5011, 5012,
5018, 5019, 5026, 5027

2004, 2034, 2038,3004,


3034, 3038,4004, 4034,
4038, 5004, 5034, 5038

2005, 2008, 3005, 3008,


4005, 4008, 5005, 5008

2016, 2021, 2024, 2029,


3016, 3021, 3024, 3029,
4016, 4021, 4024, 4029,
5016, 5021, 5024, 5029

2017, 2020, 2025, 2028,


3017, 3020, 3025, 3028,
4017, 4020, 4025, 4028,
5017, 5020, 5025, 5028

2031, 2032, 2035, 2039,


2040, 3031, 3032, 3035,
3039, 3040, 4031, 4032,
4035, 4039, 4040, 5031,
5032, 5035, 5039, 5040
2033, 2036, 2037, 2051,
3033, 3036, 3037, 3051,

3.55

1.65

1.90

0.85

2.85

3.65

2.00

@ End
support(-ve)

67.464

#3-16

@ Start
support(-ve)

83.471

#4-16

@ Mid span
(+ve)

30.701

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

81.434

#4-16

@ Start
support(-ve)

48.503

@ Mid span
(+ve)

40.553

#4-12

35.313

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)
@ Start
support(-ve)
@ Mid span
(+ve)
@ End
support(-ve)
@ Start
support(-ve)

46.531

#3-16

#4-12

31.613

#3-12

48.304

#4-12

88.620

#4-16

@ Mid span
(+ve)

31.885

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

90.227

#4-16

@ Start
support(-ve)

72.414

@ Mid span
(+ve)

33.136

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

72.969

#3-16

@ Start
support(-ve)

71.746

#4-16

@ Mid span
(+ve)

28.99

#3-12

67.938

#3-16

@ End
support(-ve)
@ Start
support(-ve)

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44.511

#3-16

#4-12
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4033, 4036, 4037, 4051,


5033, 5036, 5037, 5051

2041, 2042, 2043, 3041,


3042, 3043, 4041. 4042,
4043, 5041, 5042, 5043
2044,2045, 2046, 2047,
2048, 2049, 20503044,
3045, 3046, 3047, 3048,
3049, 3050, 4044, 4045,
4046, 4046, 4047, 4048,
4049, 4050, 5044, 5045,
5046, 5047, 5048, 5049,
5050

@ Mid span
(+ve)
@ End
support(-ve)
@ Start
support(-ve)
@ Mid span
(+ve)
@ End
support(-ve)

3.50

4.15

32.654

#3-12

45.356

#4-12

60.319

#3-16

30.414

#3-12

74.234

#4-16

@ Start
support(-ve)

91.337

#4-16

@ Mid span
(+ve)

55.884

#3-16

@ End
support(-ve)

97.419

#3-16

Position of
Max B.M

Max B.M
(KN-m)

Reinforcement

@ Start
support(-ve)

24.96

#3-12

14.848

#3-12

25.236

#3-12

37.182

#3-12

Design of Roof Beams


Beam no

6001, 6007, 6009, 6014,


6015, 6023, 6030

6002, 6006, 6010, 6013

Length
(m)

3.00

3.70

@ Mid span
(+ve)
@ End
support(-ve)
@ Start
support(-ve)

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6003, 6011, 6012, 6018,


6019, 6026, 6027, 7001,
7005, 7006

6004, 6034, 6038, 7002,


7011

6005, 6008, 7003, 7004

6016, 6021, 6024, 6029

6017, 6020, 6025, 6028

6031, 6032, 6035, 6039,


6040

3.55

1.65

1.90

0.85

2.85

3.65

@ Mid span
(+ve)

20.325

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

39.189

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)

70.503

#3-16

@ Mid span
(+ve)

31.136

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

71.122

#3-16

@ Start
support(-ve)

34.073

#3-12

@ Mid span
(+ve)

20.634

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

21.137

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)

26.206

#3-12

@ Mid span
(+ve)

13.521

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

14.139

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)

49.153

#3-12

@ Mid span
(+ve)

14.921

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

49.828

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)

37.860

#3-12

@ Mid span
(+ve)

22.483

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

38.337

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)

44.125

#3-12

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6033, 6036, 6037, 7009,


7010

6041, 6042, 6043

6044, 6045, 6046, 6047,


6048, 6049, 6050

2.00

3.50

4.15

@ Mid span
(+ve)

20.730

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

27.827

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)

21.499

#3-12

@ Mid span
(+ve)

11.811

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

26.053

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)

17.783

#3-12

@ Mid span
(+ve)

25.230

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

32.006

#3-12

@ Start
support(-ve)

32.224

#3-12

@ Mid span
(+ve)

41.062

#3-12

@ End
support(-ve)

42.507

#3-12

Design of shear reinforcement:


The Following table shows the summary of all loads under gravity, seismic
and wind forces. Shear force acting on the member along the direction of Global Y.
The maximum shear force is acting on member no 5016 is 130.305 KN under
Ultimate load combination(12) and minimum shear force is acting on beam no 5021 is
-130.764 KN under Ultimate load combination (12).

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Table 5.6 Summary of Beam End Forces from staad

Max Shear force (Vu)

130.305 KN
1.58 N/mm2

Nominal shear stress v= ( Vu)/bd =


From table no 61 of SP 16
Design shear strength of concrete

c = 0.438

From table no J of SP 16
Max shear stress

c,max = 2.8 N/mm2

Min percentage of tension reinforcement is 0.402%


As v > c shear reinforcement has to be designed
Shear resistance of concrete Vuc= c.bd = 49 KN

Shear to be resisted by shear reinforcement


Vus

Vu- Vuc

81 KN

Using 6 mm, 2 legged steel stirrups

Asv = 2 x x62 = 56.54 mm2


4

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Sv =

0.87fy .Asv .d
Vus

= 151.1 mm
Max allowed spacing = 0.75d = 281.25 mm
= 300 mm whichever is less
Hence provide 2 legged 6 mm stirrups @ 150 mm c/c at ends and 2 legged 6 mm
stirrups @ 200 mm c/c

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6. DESIGN OF COLUMN
6.1 INTRODUCTION:
Concrete is strong in compression and steel is strong in tension. Longitudinal steel
rods are always provided to assist the direct loads. A minimum area of longitudinal
steel is provided in the column, to resist tensile stresses caused by some eccentricity
of the vertical loads. There is also an upper limit of amount of reinforcement in R.C.
columns, because higher percentage of steel may cause difficulties in placing and
compacting of concrete. Longitudinal reinforcing bars are tied laterally by ties or
stirrups at suitable interval, so that the bars do not buckle.
The design of column necessitates determination of loads transferred from
beam at different floors levels. Loads are transferred from slabs to beams and then to
columns. Hence, slabs and beams are normally designed prior to the design of
columns. This method is called as Exact method which enables one to assess the loads
on columns more accurately and thereby the design of columns becomes realistic and
economical.
However, in practice, many times situations arise which require the design of
columns and footings are required to be assessed using judgment based on past
experience and using approximate methods. The loads on the columns can be
determined approximately on the basis of floor area shared by each column. These
loads are normally calculated on higher side so that they are not less than the actual
loads transferred from slabs/beams. In such cases, the design of column is likely to be
uneconomical
The design procedure using both these approaches of column load calculation
has been explained.

6.2 DESIGN PROCEDURE:


Design of columns involves following steps:
(1) Categorization of columns:
(a) Category I: Internal columns or Axially Loaded Columns.
(b) Category II: Side columns or Columns subjected to Axial Load
and Uniaxial Bending.
(c) Category - III: Corner Column or Columns subjected to Axial Load
and Biaxial Bending.
(2) Computation of Loads on Columns
(3) Calculation of Moments in Columns
(4) Determination of Effective Length and Type of Column Short or Long
(5) Grouping of Columns
(6) Design of Column Section

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(1) Categorization of Columns:


Categorization of columns is extremely helpful because the procedure for
design of column in each of the three categories is different.
The columns shall be first divided into the following three categories:
(I)

Category I: Internal columns or Axially Loaded Columns.


Internal columns carrying beams either in all four directions or only in opposite
directions are predominantly subjected to axial compression because moments
due to loads on beams on opposite sides balance each other. Judgment should be
used to place a column under this category because if span and/ or loads on
beams on opposite sides vary appreciably the beam moments on opposite sides
may not balance each other and the column will be subjected to bending
moment, and it will be required to be placed under the second category.
Structurally, these columns can be termed as Axially Loaded Columns.
Therefore, they require practically very little or no allowance in axial load.

(II)

Category II: Side Columns or Columns subjected to Axial Compression and


uniaxial bending. Columns along the sides of a building, which carry beams
either in three orthogonal directions or a single beam in one direction, are
subjected predominantly to axial load and uniaxial bending due to unbalanced
opposite directions balance each other provided their spans and loads on them
are approximately equal. If such columns are to be designed as axially loaded
columns using approximate method, the axial load is required to be increased to
account for the effect of uniaxial bending in column. The load thus arrived is
called Equivalent axial load for the purpose of design of column section.

(III)

Category III: Corner Columns or Columns subjected to Axial Compression


and Biaxial Bending. Corner Columns or the columns which carry beams in two
perpendicular directions are subjected to biaxial bending due to beams in
orthogonal directions. They require large increase in axial load to account for
the effect of biaxial bending for obtaining an Equivalent axial load.

A column is an important component of R.C. structures. Columns are


compression member, the effective length of which exceeds three times the least
lateral dimension. A compression member with effective length less than three times
the least lateral dimension is called pedestal.
A column is generally defined as a member carrying direct axial load which
causes compressive stresses of such magnitude that these stresses largely control its
design. A column or strut is a compression member. Difference between columns and
strut is that column transfers the load to footing and strut transfers the load to some
other member as in case of compression members of trusses. A column is considered
as short, if its effective length to least lateral dimension is less than 12. If the ratio
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exceeds 12, the column is considered is treated as long or slender. A member


carrying mainly axial load is vertical is termed as column. If the axial load is inclined
or horizontal, it is termed as strut.
Depending upon the structural or architectural requirements columns are
designed of various shapes. Columns positioning completely depends on the
architectural plan. In some cases floating columns are assigned for the architectural
requirements of the plan and to provide the necessary open space depending upon the
requirements of the architectural plan.
Types of columns shapes considered:

Circular
Rectangular
Square
Hexagonal

6.3 LENGTH OF COLUMNS:


The unsupported length of column is taken as clear distance between ends restrains.
1. Flat slab construction:
It is clear distance between the floor and the lower extremity of the capital,
the drop panel or slab whichever is less.
FLAT SLAB
FLAT SLAB

Column
capital

C
O
L
U
M
N

C
O
L
U
M
N

FLAT SLAB

Drop
panel

C
O
L
U
M
N

Fig6.1 Length in flat slab construction


2. Beam and slab construction:
In this case l is the clear distance between the floor and underside of the
shallow beam framing into the column in each direction at next higher level.
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BEAM

BEAM

lx

ly

FIG6.2 Length in beam and slab construction


3. Columns restrained laterally by struts:
In these cases unsupported length (l) is clear distance between
consecutive struts in each vertical plane, provided that two struts meet column
approximately at the same level and the angle between the vertical planes shall
not vary more than 300 from a right angle.

Strut

STRUT

Column

L
Strut

COLUMN

FIG 6.3 Elevation

Plan

4. Columns restrained laterally by struts using brackets at junctions:


In this case unsupported length l shall be the clear distance between the
floor and lower edge of the bracket, provided that the bracket width equals that
of the beam or strut and at least half of the column.

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BEAM

BEAM

BRACKET
COLUMN

FIG 6.4 Length of columns restrained laterally using brackets


Functions of longitudinal and transverse reinforcements in a column:
a.

Longitudinal reinforcement:

b.

To share the vertical load, thereby reducing the overall size of the
column
To resist tensile stresses caused in the column due to
1. Eccentric load
2. Moment
3. Transverse load
To prevent sudden brittle failure of the column
To reduce the effects of creep and shrinkage due to sustained loading.
Transverse reinforcement:

To prevent longitudinal buckling of longitudinal reinforcement


To resist diagonal tension caused due to transverse, moment.
To hold the longitudinal reinforcement in position at the time of
concreting.
To impart ductility to the column.

6.4 TYPES OF COLUMNS:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Column with Longitudinal steel and lateral ties.


Column with Longitudinal steel and spirals.
Composite columns.
Based on type of loading.
Based on slenderness ratio

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a. Columns without ties


lateral ties

b. square columns with


FIG6.6

FIG6.5

c. Circular column with lateral ties


FIG6.7
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d. Composite column
FIG6.8
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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

4. Based on type of loading


a. Axially loaded columns: when the line of action of the resultant compressive force
coincides with center of gravity of the cross section of the column, it is called axially
loaded column.
b. Eccentricity loaded columns (uniaxial or Biaxial ) : when the line of action of
the resultant compressive force doesn`t coincide with the center of gravity of the
cross-section of the column. Eccentricity loaded columns have to be designed for
combined axial force and bending moments.

5. Based on slenderness ratio


According to IS 456 clause 25.3 impose the following slenderness limits for columns:
i.
ii.

The unsupported length l shall not exceed 60 times the least lateral
dimension of the column ( l 60b ).
If in any given plane , one end of the column is unrestrained 100 2 /

6.5 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF COLUMN


With the reference from strength of materials Euler`s buckling load for
column with different end conditions works out to be form
=

2
2

Where l is the effective length of column. The buckling load

2
2

can be found for

idealized conditions. But when it comes to practice end conditions are never ideal.,
but in case of frame structures it is difficult to idealize ends as fixed, free or hinged.
IS 456 gives a method of determining the effective length for such cases in terms of
stiffness of members meeting at joint.
In normal usage idealized end conditions may be assumed and effective length
determined as shown from table 28 in IS 456.

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Degree of end
restraint of
compression
members
Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation in both
ends

Effectively held in
position at both
ends, restrained
against rotation at
one end

Effectively held in
position at both
ends, but not
restrained against
rotation

Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation at one end,
and at other
restrained against
rotation but not
held in position

Symbol

Theoretical
Recommended
value of
value of effective
effective length length

0.50 L

0.70 L

1.00 L

1.00 L

Effectively held in
position and
restrained against
rotation at one end,
and at other
partially restrained
against rotation but
not held in position

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0.65 L

0.80 L

1.00 L

1.20 L

1.50 L

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

Effectively held in
position at one end
but not restrained
against rotation,
and at other end
restrained against
rotation but not
held in position

2.00 L

2.00 L

Table 6.1 Effective length of compression member


Braced and unbraced columns

Columns are also subjected to horizontal loads like wind, earthquake


etc.
If the lateral supports are provided at the ends of the columns, the
lateral loads are borne entirely by the lateral supports. Such columns
are known as braced columns.
Where the lateral loads have to be resisted by them, in addition to
axial loads and end moments are considered as unbraced columns.
Bracing can be one direction or in more than one direction, depending
on the direction of the external loads.
A braced column is not subjected to side sway because the column is
braced in both the directions i.e. X and Y directions.
An unbraced column is subjected to side sway or lateral drift, i.e.
there is significant lateral displacement between top and bottom ends
of the column.

6.6 ASSUMPTIONS IN LIMIT STATE OF COLLAPSE IN AXIAL


COMPRESSION:
1.

The plane section normal to the axis of column before deformation


remains plan after deformation. This means strain at any point is
proportional to its distance from the neutral axis.
2. The relationship between compressive stress distribution in concrete
and strain in concrete is represented by stress-strain curve.
3. For design purpose, the compressive strength of concrete is assumed
to be 0.67 times of the characteristic strength. The partial safety factor
is added mc = 1.5 is added.
0.67

1.5

= 0.446 ck

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4. The stress in reinforcement is derived from representative stressstrain curve for the type of steel used. Factor of safety 1.15 is applied
for steel
5. The maximum compressive strain in concrete in axial compression is
taken as 0.002, and is uniform in section. Hence maximum
compressive stress in concrete, assumed to be uniform across the
section is taken equal to 0.446*fck according to assumption.
Short column:
A compression member may be considered as short when both the slenderness
ratio lex/D and ley/D are less than 12, where
lex = effective length in bending with respect to major axis ( i.e. x- axis )
ley = effective length in bending with respect to major axis ( i.e. y- axis )
D = depth of the section in respect of major axis.
d = width of the section in respect of minor axis.

6.7 SHORT AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER IN AXIAL


COMPRESSION:
Experiments on columns show that load carrying capacity ( Pu ) of an
axially loaded R.C. member at collapse is made up of ultimate strength of concrete
member (Puc ) at collapse plus the ultimate strength of steel ( Pus ) in compression.

= + = + s
c fck = fc = stress in concrete at failure, at uniform of 0.002
s fy = fs = stress in steel at failure, at uniform of 0.002
Ac = area of concrete ; As = area of steel reinforcement
When a short column is axially loaded, the strain distribution across
the section will be rectangular. At failure, the strain in concrete will be uniform at a
value of 0.002. When concrete attains a limiting strain of 0.0002, the mild steel
reinforcement may develop full design stress ( fyd = 0.87 fy ) . In general therefore
stress fs in steel reinforcement at strain of 0.002, can be taken equal to s fy, where
the value of s will depend upon the type of reinforcement as given below ;

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Value of (s )
0.87
0.79
0.75
TABLE 6.2

Type of reinforcement
Mild steel
Fe 415
Fe 500

Stress in steel (fy)


0.87 fy
0.79 fy
0.75 fy

Hence the load carrying capacity of a member, subjected to an axial load only, is
given by
= 0.446 + s
From IS CODE ( IS : 456-2000) adopts only the lowest value of s ( = 0.75
), which is for steel Fe 500 grade . Also the code has redesigned Pu as Puz in section
39.6 of the code, and has given the following expression in design aids ( SP : 16
1980 ).
= . + . s = . +

. .

Ag = gross area of concrete


Ac = net area of concrete = Ag As

6.8 SHORT AXIALLY LOADED COLUMN WITH MINIMUM


ECCENTRRICITY:
According to IS: 456-2000, compression members are to be designed
for the minimum eccentricity of the load in two principal directions. From the clause
25.4 of the code specifies the following minimum eccentricity emin for the design of
the columns :
min =

500

30

, subject

to minimum of 20 mm

Where l = unsupported length of the column in direction under consideration


D = lateral dimension of the column in direction under consideration
Here L is in both x and y direction i.e. lx and ly
If the value of minimum eccentricity is less than or equal to 0.05 D ,
from clause 39.3 of the code permits the design of short axially loaded compression
member
by
the
equation
:
= 0.4 + 0.67 s = 0.4 +

0.67 0.4

This equation can be rearranged as


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= .

+ .

Where,
Ag = gross area of cross section = b * D for rectangular section

= 2 for circular section


4

P = percentage of reinforcement = / 100


Compression members with helical reinforcement:
The code permits larger load in short compression members with
helical reinforcement because columns with helical reinforcement have greater
ductility or toughness when they are loaded concentrically or with small eccentricity.
As per code, the strength of the short compression members with helical
reinforcement shall be taken as 1.05 times the strength of similar members with lateral
ties.
Requirement:

The ratio of volume of helical reinforcement ( Vhs ) to the volume of core ( Vk )


shall not be less than

0.36

Where = gross area of the section


= area of core of the helically reinforced column measured to the
outside diameter of the helix =

= diameter of concrete core, measured from outside of helix = D 2 X clear


cover
= characteristic strength of helical reinforcement but not exceeding
415 /2
Load carrying capacity of axially loaded short columns:
1. Short column with lateral ties :
The ultimate load on the short column with lateral ties, when the minimum
eccentricity does not exceed 0.005 times the lateral dimensions,
= . + .
Where,
Pu = factored axial load on column
Ac = area of concrete = gross area area of steel = Ag - Asc
Asc = area of longitudinal reinforcement
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= characteristic compressive strength of concrete


= characteristic strength of steel
2. Short column with helical reinforcement:
The strength of column with helical reinforcement shall be 1.05 times
the strength of similar columns with lateral tie, provided the ratio of volume of
helical reinforcement to the volume of the core shall not be less than

Ag = gross area of section


Ak = area of the core of helically reinforced column measured to the out-side
diameter of the helix.
Long columns or slender columns:
If the ratio of effective length to its least lateral dimension is more than 12 the
columns are called long columns. A column under the action of axial loads deflects
laterally causing maximum lateral deflection at the center ( ). This makes the load
eccentric at the central section of the column by a distance, subjecting a bending
moment P *

Pu

Pu

= DEFLECTION

FIG6.11
= 0 (NO DEFLECTION )

CURVE.

According to IS : 456-2000,the additional moments Max and May due to lateral


deflection shall be calculated by
Max =

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May =

= Axial load on member


= effective length in respect of the major axis

= effective length in respect of the major axis

D = depth of the cross section at right angles to the major axis


b = width of the cross section
The above values may be multiplied by reduction factor
=

Where
Pu = axial load on member
Puz = 0.45 fck Ac + 0.75 fy Asc
Pu = axial load corresponding to the condition of maximum compressive strain
0.0035 in concrete and tensile strain of 0.002 in outer most layer of tension steel.

6.9 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR COLUMNS (CLAUSE 26.5.3


OF IS 456):
1. Longitudinal reinforcement:
a. The cross sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not be
less than 0.8 % and not more than 6 % of gross sectional area of
column.
b. In any column that has large cross sectional area that required to
support the load, the minimum percentage of steel shall be 0.8 % of
required area and not the area actually provided.
c. Minimum number of longitudinal bars to be provided is 4 for
rectangular columns and 6 for circular columns.
d. Minimum diameter of longitudinal bar is 12 mm.
e. Spacing of longitudinal bars measured along the periphery of the
column shall not exceed 300 mm.

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2. Transverse reinforcement :
A reinforced concrete compression member shall have transverse or helical
reinforcement so disposed that every longitudinal bar nearest to the compression face
has effective lateral support against buckling. The effective lateral support is given by
transverse reinforcement either in form of circular rings capable of taking up
circumferential tension or by polygonal links (lateral ties) with internal angles not
exceeding 1350. The ends of the transverse reinforcement shall be properly anchored.
i.

Lateral ties:
a. The diameter of lateral ties shall not less than of the diameter of
largest longitudinal bar and in no case less than 6 mm.
b. The pitch of ties shall not exceed the following

ii.

Least Lateral dimension of the column


Sixteen times the smallest longitudinal bar
300 mm
Helical reinforcement :
a. The diameter is same as that of lateral ties
b. The pitch of the helical reinforcement shall not be more the
following
75 mm
1/6 of core diameter of the column
c. And the pitch of helical reinforcement shall not be less than the
greatest of the following
25 mm
Three times the diameter of helical bar.
Cover:
For longitudinal reinforcing bars in a column nominal cover shall in any case
not be less than 40 mm, or less than the diameter of such bar. In case of columns
of minimum dimension of 200 mm or under, whose reinforcing bars do not exceed
12 mm, a nominal cover of 25 mm may be used. Ref (clause 26.4.2.1 of IS: 456200)

6.10 DESIGN OF COLUMNS USING SP 16:


SP 16 design charts 24 to 26 shall be used for designing of axially loaded short
columns. These charts cover different grades of steel ( fy =250, 415 and 500 ) and
concrete grades
fck = 15,20,25,30,35 and 40.
In lower section of these charts Pu /Ag has been plotted against percentage of steel
( p) for different grades of concrete. If the cross-section of column is known, Pu /Ag can be calculated and reinforcement percentage can be read from the chart.
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6.11 DESIGN OF COLUMNS:


Categorizations of Columns:
Cate
gory

Type

Internal Column or
Axially Loaded

II

III

Side Column or
Axially Loaded
with Uniaxial
Bending

Column Nos

Size of
column

Max Ultimate
load

13,14,15, 16, 17, 20, 21,


22, 23, 24

300 x 500 mm

1637.006 KN

9,10,11

300 x 400 mm

818.406 KN

2, 3, 4, 6, 7,12, 18, 19,


25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31

300 x 500 mm

1249.386 KN

300 x 400 mm

818.406 KN

1, 8, 26, 32

300 x 500 mm

790.593 KN

Corner column or
Axially Loaded
Biaxial

TABLE 6.3
Category I(a): (13,14,15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24)
Axially loaded columns
Factored axial load = 1637 KN
Breadth (B) = 300 mm
Depth (D) = 500 mm
Length (L) = 3200 mm
Gross area (Ag) = 300 x 500 = 150000 mm2
Area of concrete (Ac) = 150000- Asc
For a axially loaded short columns
Pu = 0.4 fck.Ac+0.67.fy.Asc
1637 x 103 = 0.4x20x (150000- Asc) + 0.67x 415x Asc
Asc = 1618.21 mm2
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Min reinforcement = 0.8 % of gross area


= 0.008 x 300 x 500 = 1200 mm2
Max reinforcement = 6% of gross area
= 0.06 x300 x500 = 9000 mm2
Provide 10 bars of 16 mm dia.
Lateral ties
Diameter of lateral ties should not be less than
1. one fourth of longitudinal bar =

1
4

x16 = 4 mm

2. 6 mm
Hence, adopt 6 mm diameter of bars
Pitch of the lateral ties shall be minimum of:
1. Least of the lateral dimension = 300 mm
2. 16 x dia of longitudinal bar 16 x 16 = 256 mm
3. 300 mm
Provide 6 mm lateral ties @ 250 mm c/c
Category I(b): (9,10,11)

Axially loaded columns


Factored axial load = 818.406 KN
Breadth (B) = 300 mm
Depth (D) = 400 mm
Length (L) = 3200 mm
Gross area (Ag) = 300 x 400 = 120000 mm2
Area of concrete (Ac) = 120000- Asc
For a axially loaded short columns
Pu = 0.4 fck.Ac+0.67.fy.Asc
818.406 x 103 = 0.4x20x (120000- Asc) + 0.67x 415x Asc
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Asc = 1172.67 mm2


Min reinforcement = 0.8 % of gross area
= 0.008 x 300 x 400 = 960 mm2
Max reinforcement = 6% of gross area
= 0.06 x300 x400 = 7200 mm2
Provide 10 bars of 12 mm dia.
Lateral ties
Diameter of lateral ties should not be less than
1. one fourth of longitudinal bar =

1
4

x12 = 3 mm

2. 6 mm
Hence, adopt 6 mm diameter of bars
Pitch of the lateral ties shall be minimum of:
1. Least of the lateral dimension = 300 mm
2. 16 x dia of longitudinal bar 16 x 12 = 192 mm
3. 300 mm
Provide 6 mm lateral ties @ 250 mm c/c
Category III:
Axial load (Pu) = 790.593 KN
About X
KN-m

About Y
KN-m

15.79

7.12

Eccentric Moments

15.81

18.24

Total Design Moments

15.81

18.24

Initial Moments

TABLE 6.4
Mx = 15.79 KN-m
My = 7.21 KN-m
Column size = 300 mm X 500 mm
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M20 Fe415
Assume clear cover = 40 mm
Assume dia. Of main steel = 12 mm
Dia. Of link = 8 mm
Therefore effective cover = 40+8+ 12/2 = 54 mm
Assume % steel as p = 1.2 %
Emin.x = L/500 + d/30
= 3200 /500 + 500/30
= 23.066 mm
Emin.y= L/500 + d/30
= 3200/500 + 300/30
= 16.4 mm
P/fck = 1.2/20 = 0.06

= (790.593)/(20 x 300 x 500) = 0.263

From clause 39.6 from pg. 71 IS: 456


Pux

= 0.45fckAc + 0.75 fyAsc


[Ac= Ag - Asc
= [(300 x 500) (0.012 x 300 x 500)]
=148200 mm2]
= [(0.45 x 20 x 148200) + (0.75 x 415 x 1800)]
=1894.04 KN

P
P

=0.417

From pg. 71 clause no 39.6


n= 1.36
For bending about X-axis
d' /d = 54/500 = 0.108
Selecting appropriate chart- 44 for d/d = 0.1 from SP-16
Mu
f ck bd 2

= 0.081

Mux1 = 121.5 KN-m


For bending about y-axis
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d'/b = 54/300 = 0.18


Selecting appropriate chart from SP-16
Mu
f ck db 2

= 0.075

Muy1 = 67.5 KN-m


M ux
M ux 1

M uy

M uy 1

= 0.11 < 1

Hence the assumed column size and % of steel are O.K.


Reinforcement
Asc = 1800 mm2
Assuming 16 mm bars,
Hence provide # 8-16 mm bars
Lateral ties
Provide lateral ties of dia 6 mm
Provide # 6 mm bars @ 250 mm c/c

Schedule of columns:
category

Cross section

Longitudinal
reinforcement

300 x 500 mm

10-16

300 x 400 mm

10-12

300 x 500 mm

8-16

300 x 400 mm

8-12

300 x 500 mm

8-16

II

III

Lateral ties
(2 Legged)
6 250 C/C

6 250 C/C

6 250 C/C

TABLE 6.5

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7. DESIGN OF FOOTINGS
A Building is generally composed of super structure above the
ground and sub-structure, which forms the foundation below ground. The safe bearing
capacity of the soil must not be exceeded; otherwise settlement may occur, resulting
in damage to building and its facility ex. gas mains, water etc
It is important to have an engineer survey made of soil under a
proposed structure so that variation in strata and soil properties can be determined.
The design of foundation ,the areas of bases in contact with ground should be such
that the safe bearing pressure will not be exceeded ,If these loads are to properly
transmitted ,footing must be designed to prevent excessive settlement or rotation, and
provide safety against sliding, overturning.

7.1 INTRODUCTION OF FOOTING:


Foundation or footing is an important part of the structure which transfer the
load of the super- structure to the foundation soil .It may be shallow or deep footing,
depending upon the load and type of foundation soil.
Example: if the soil with adequate bearing capacity at reasonable depth; then shallow
footing is provided.

If,

Shallow foundation

If,

Deep foundation

7.2 TYPES OF FOOTING:


Footings are classified as follows;

Isolated footing
Combined footing
Strap footing
Mat footing

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1) Isolated footing:
Footing which are provided under each column independently is
called isolated footing. It may be square, rectangle, or circular in plan. Its
comprised of thick slab which may be flat or stepped or sloped as shown in
fig..
P
P
P

FLAT

Stepped

Slopped

FIG7.1 Isolated Footing

2) Combined footing:
Footing that supports two or more columns is combined footing. These
may be rectangular or trapezoidal in shape, as shown in fig. This type of footing
is provided when isolated footing of adjacent columns overlap each other and
when exterior column close to boundary line.
P1

P2

P1

P2

FIG7.2 combined footing


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3) Strap footing:
It is also one of the types of combines footing. It consists of an
isolated footing of two columns connected by beam called strap beam.
P1
P2

Connecting beam

Cantilever slab

FIG7.3 Strap footing


4) Mat footing:
It is a solid re-in forced concrete slab covering entire area beneath the
structure and supporting all the columns. When the column loads are heavy or the safe
bearing capacity of soil is very low, the required footing area become very large and
the footing of adjacent column may overlap. In such case, for all the columns a
common footing may be provided.

FIG7.4 Mat Footing

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7.3 DEPTH OF FOUNDATION:


Rankins formula is used to determine the min. depth of foundation which is
given below,

(1 ) 2
(1+ )

Where,
h = Min depth
p = Safe bearing capacity
w = Unit weight of soil
= Angle of friction of soil
Loads for foundation:
For,
a) Dead load + Imposed load case, 1.0 DL + 1.0 IL
b) Dead load + Wind load case, 1.0 DL +1.0 WL
c) Dead + Imposed + Wind load case, 1.0 DL + 0.8 DL + 0.8WL
10% of load from column may take as self-weight of footing for determining
the area of footing required.
In case of multi-storey Building, one should take advantage of allowable
reduction in the live load for residential and office buildings
General design requirements for footing (IS 456-2000):
I.

Minimum thickness at edges:-

In reinforcement and plain concrete footing, the min. thickness at the edges shall be
taken as given below.
For footing on soil 150 mm
For footing on piles 300 mm
II.

Moments and Forces:-

The bending moment at any section shall be determined by passing through


the section a vertical plane which extends completely across the footing, and
computing the moment of forces acting over entire area of footing on one side of said
plane. The critical section for determination of bending moment shall be as follows.

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i.

At the face of the column, pedestal or wall, for footing supporting concrete
column, pedestal or wall
ii. Halfway b/w the center-line and edge of the wall, for footings under masonry
walls
iii. Halfway b/w the face of the column or pedestal and the edge of the gusseted
base, for footing under gusseted bases
III. Shear:
The shear strength of footing is governed by the more serve of the
following 2 conditions.
For one way or beam action, the critical section for shear shall be assumed as a
vertical section located from face of the column. i.e. {pedestal or wall at a
dist. Equal to effective depth for footing on soil and dist. equal to half effective
depth in case of footing on piles}.
For 2 way action of the footing, the critical section for shear shall be at a dist.
Of D/2 from the periphery of the column perpendicular to the plane of the
slab.{where d = effective depth of section}
IV.
Bond:
The critical section for checking the development length in a footing shall
be assumed at the same planes as those prescribed for bending moment and also at
other planes where minimal changes of section occur.
Tensile reinforcement:-

V.

Tension reinforcement should be provided to resist the bending moment


obtained in (II) above. The total tensile reinforcement shall be distributed across
the corresponding resisting section as given below;
a.
b.

In One way reinforced footing, the reinforcement shall be distributed


uniformly across the full width of footing.
In Two ways reinforced rectangular footing, the reinforcement in the long
direction is placed uniformly across the full width of the footing. For
reinforcement in short direction ,a central band equal to the width of footing
shall be marked along the length of the footing and portion of reinforcement
determined in accordance with the equation given below shall be uniformly
distributed across the central band.

= (

2
+1

Where, = ratio of longer side to shorter side of footing.

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The remaining portion of reinforcement is provided uniformly in outer portion of


footing as shown in fig.
L

ee
End Band

Central band

FIG7.5

)
End band

Transfer of Load at the base of column:-

VI.

The compressive stress in concrete at the base of the column is


transferred by bearing to the top of the supporting footing. The bearing pressure
on the loaded area shall not exceed the permissible bearing stress in direct
compression multiplied by value equal to
P

(1)/(2) but not greater than 2.

A1 = supporting area for bearing of footing


Column
A2 = loaded area at the column face.

Footing
A1= Max. Area of supporting surface

2d

2d

A2

FIG7.6 Load distribution in Footing

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Min. reinforcement:-

VII.

The Min reinforcement and spacing shall be as per the requirements of


solid slab. Min. dia of bar to be used is 10 mm.
Nominal cover to reinforcement:-

VIII.

For, footings Min. cover shall be 50 mm.

Column Bar
Development length of column bars

Dowel

Bars

FIG7.7 Reinforcement of column Footing interface

7.4 DESIGN PROCEDURE OF ISOLATED FOOTING:


The Footing for an axially loaded column is designed as an inverted
cantilever slab projecting from column and loaded with uniform upward soil pressure.
These are usually square or rectangular in shape. They may have uniform thickness
throughout or may have sloping surface.
1) Size of the Footing:
Size of the footing is determined based on service loads or working loads and not
the factored loads. Take 10% of the load as self-weight.
Area of the footing required;
=
Where

1.1

P = working load

SBC = safe bearing capacity

2) Determine the upward soil Reaction for the factored load:


=

1.5
=

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3) Determine The Min Depth Required to Resist B.M:


Calculate the depth required for bending moment and check the depth
for single shear and double shear. The depth is kept uniform. If the footing size is
small and is made slopping, if the footing is large.
The maximum bending moment is calculate at the face of the column
by passing a section extends completely across the footing as shown in fig.

)
b

B-b / 2

b
aa

B
Qu
FIG7.8 CRITICAL SECTION OF BENDING MOMENT
Projection of the footing =

()
2

The bending moment about x-x is (as a cantilever slab,

2
2

Mu =

.( 2 )2
2

()2
8

Where, Qu = upward soil pressure; B= width of footing; b = width of column

4) Determine the area of reinforcement required in Width B using:


Mu = 0.87 (1

Using the bars of dia not less than 10 mm, find the spacing of bars.
Spacing =

Where, ast = area of bar used


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Ast = total area of steel required


B = width of the footing
D = effective depth of footing
NOTE: - Provide same reinforcement in both directions.
5) Check for one way shear:
The check for one way shear is carried out similar to that of beams or
slabs. The critical section for one way shear is at a distance d from the column
extending the full width of the footing as shown in fig.
B
Vu = soil pressure from the shaded area
= Qu B
=

Vu
bd

Bb
2

(B-b/2)-d

< c , permissible shear stress in concrete.

B
b

FIG7.9
6) Check for Two way shear:
Two way shears is also known as Punching shear. if the footing
depth is less, the column may punch through the footing because of the shear
stresses in the footing around the perimeter of the column. As per IS 456-2000,the
critical section for two way shear is at a distance d/2 from the periphery of the
column as shown in the fig.
Perimeter of the punching area = 4(b+d)
Area of concrete resisting punching force = perimeter of punching x depth
A=4 b+d d
Force of punching S = Qu shaded area
= [2 - ( + )2 ]
Punching shear stress,

p = < permissible value.


Permissible value of punching shear stress is
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d/2

d/2

d/2

b+d
d/2
b+d

B
FIG7.10 Critical section of two way shear
7) Check for bond length:
Since the footing is designed as a cantilever with reinforcement
subjected to deigned strength at the column face, sufficient bond length should be
available from the face of the column.
Ld =

0.87fy
4 bd

8) Check for bearing stress:


The compressive stress in concrete at the base of the column is
transferred by bearing to the top of the supporting footing; the bearing pressure on
the loaded area shall not exceed the permissible bearing stress.
Actual bearing pressure =

<

As per clause 34.4 of IS: 456-2000, the permissible bearing stress is

=0.45
Where,

1
2

, in which

1
2

should not exceed 2

1 = supporting area for bearing of column

2 = loaded area at the column face

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7.5 DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR FOOTING:


In case of rectangular footing, footing is provided when the
boundary line restricts one side of the footing. In such cases the projections of the
footing will be unequal. The dimensions of the footing are proportional in the same
ration of column dimensions. The depth of footing is to be calculated based on longer
projection. Reinforcement has to be designed for both the directions separately. The
reinforcement in the long direction is placed uniformly across the full width of the
footing. But in short direction, the reinforcement is distributed as explained in above
(5).the critical sections for bending and shear.

Critical section

(a)

For bending

a+d

B-b / 2

B
b

d/2

d
b

L-a/2

d/2

(b)
FIG7.11 critical section for one way shear; FIG7.12critical section for two way shear
Bending moment along longer direction = M1 = Q u

B(La)2

Bending moment along shorter direction = 2 =

()2
8

The maximum B.M shall be taken for calculating the depth of footing. The
depth calculated should be checked for one way shear and two way shear similar to
that of square/isolated footing.

7.6 DESIGN CALCULATION OF FOOTINGS:


The following are the reactions of nodes/columns obtained from
STAAD PRO. Footings of the columns having same sizes and variation of loads of
about 10% are grouped together and designed for the maximum load in that group.

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NODES

Fx (KN)

Fy (KN)

Fz (KN)

Mx (KNm)

My (KNm)

Mz (KN-m)

16.254

739.600

24.614

31.044

0.229

9.252

16.191

1046.546

22.836

22.386

0.255

13.294

16.392

1146.586

13.988

16.481

0.193

27.988

15.314

834.852

23.547

19.712

0.288

33.174

20.698

681.782

13.669

12.918

0.128

18.742

28.706

960.644

13.785

14.3

0.170

25.731

12.083

1039.918

22.933

28.382

0.080

15.051

5.696

749.144

25.288

32.406

0.106

14.775

2.826

770.377

18.641

16.520

0.153

12.038

10

16.323

665.521

8.274

10.354

0.087

14.016

11

10.261

818.406

14.191

12.940

0.067

15.740

12

16.470

838.848

20.098

29.327

0.129

9.106

13

16.524

1178.568

15.828

24.937

0.185

12.937

14

15.173

1212.995

28.885

23.043

0.150

27.362

15

13.614

1637.006

22.396

33.776

0.065

13.704

16

17.264

1239.291

21.983

18.184

0.127

26.632

17

11.970

1180.815

15.879

26.009

0.058

14.999

18

5.750

842.925

21.148

31.041

0.092

14.831

19

17.832

903.807

23.072

31.145

0.085

9.309

20

21.037

1225.531

19.100

15.719

0.116

27.221

21

17.198

1361.846

22.471

19.967

0.162

27.370

22

13.826

1586.945

26.535

35.947

0.068

13.791

23

17.147

1367.383

18.648

16.853

0.103

27.433

24

17.231

1225.577

19.854

16.375

0.398

29.104

25

6.348

906.918

24.121

32.666

0.145

15.649

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26

17.284

788.709

7.832

22.196

0.076

9.110

27

21.470

986.219

4.293

6.199

0.105

26.112

28

16.008

1056.792

6.420

9.360

0.268

26.894

29

14.089

1249.386

10.368

26.330

0.088

13.121

30

17.391

1201.954

5.169

7.041

0.137

26.234

31

16.685

1020.677

4.528

6.523

0.343

27.889

32

6.211

790.593

8.410

23.730

0.395

15.087

7.7 GROUPING OF FOOTINGS:

Group

Column Nos

1, 8, 26, 32

II

2, 3, 4, 6, 7,12, 18, 19, 25,


27, 28, 29, 30, 31

Size of column

Max Ultimate
load

300 x500 mm

790.593 KN
1249.386 KN

300 x500 mm
III

13,14,15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22,


23, 24

300 x500 mm

1637.006 KN

IV

5,9,10,11

300 x 400 mm

818.406 KN

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7.8 Design of footings


Step
1.

2.

3.

Design calculations

Group I

Group II

Group III

Group IV

General Data
Max column load Pu
KN
Design working load (P)=Pu/1.5 KN
Column section (b x D) mm x mm
S.B.C of soil
KN/m2

790.593
527.062
300 x 500
200

1249.386
832.924
300 x 500
200

1637.006
1091.133
300 x 500
200

818.406
545.604
300 x 400
200

2.64
2.88
1.80
1.60
0.650

4.16
4.83
2.30
2.10
0.90

5.46
5.75
2.50
2.30
1.00

2.64
3.06
1.80
1.70
0.70

189

172

190

178

kN-m

17.40

40.16

59.31

19.66

kN-m

15.46

36.67

54.57

18.57

mm

62.77

121

147

84

360

470

470

360

410

520

520

410

135

242

361

155

0.205

0.205

0.205

0.205

431
12

557
12

554
16

425
12

200

180

180

200

Proportioning of Base size


Area of footing required
Af =Pu/SBC
m2
Area of footing provided
m2
Length of footing
Lf
m
Breadth of footing
Bf
m
Projection from column face (Cx) m
Net upward soil pressure
wu=Pu/ Af KN/m2
Depth of footing required from
B.M consideration
w B Cx 2

MuL =

8
w L Cx 2

MuB =

Depth d =

0.138. .

Assuming clear cover 50 mm


Effective depth d
mm
4.

Total depth
mm
Reinforcement along:
(Ast )y=

0.5 f ck
fy

4.6
.. 2

1
xBxd mm2

Min %Pt of Ast as per IS 456-2000


(0.85 x100)/fy
Min Ast
mm2
Diameter of bars
mm
Spacing of bars, S= (astx B)/Ast
mm
c/c
in both directions

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5.

Check for One-way shear: The


critical section for one way shear is
at a distance d from the face of the
column
Factored shear force
Vu = wuBf(Cx-d)
KN
Nominal shear stress
V
v = N/mm2
Bd
Percentage of steel,
Pt =

85

183

235

105

0.148

0.162

0.221

0.174

0.157

0.157

0.237

0.157

0.260

0.260

0.332

0.260

safe

safe

safe

Safe

3040

3480

3480

2840

1094.4x103

1635.6 x
103

1635.6 x
103

1022.4 x
103

423
0.389

706
0.440

952
0.598

458
0.459

1.118

1.118

1.118

1.118

safe

safe

safe

safe

ast x 100
Sxd

Shear strength of concrete c


c >v
Hence it is safe with respect to one
way shear.

6.

Check for Two-way Shear: The


critical section is at a distance of
d/2 from the face of the column.
Perimeter of the critical section
=2{(b+d)+(D+d)}
Area of critical section
(A)=Perimeter x d
Two way shear Vu2= wu x area of
shaded portion= {(LxB(b+d)x(D+d)}
Two way shear stress = Vu2/A
Permissible punching shear stress
p=0.25
Two way shear is less than the
permissible punching shear stress,
hence, it is safe w.r.t two way shear.

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7.9 SCHEDULE OF FOOTINGS:


Astx

Group

Length
Lf m

Breadth
Bf m

D mm

d mm

1.80

1.60

410

II

2.30

2.10

III

2.50

IV

1.80

Asty

Clear
cover
(mm)

Dia

spacing

Dia

spacing

360

12

200

12

200

50

520

470

12

180

12

180

50

2.30

520

470

16

180

16

180

50

1.70

410

360

12

200

12

200

50

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8. DESIGN OF STAIRCASE
8.1 INTRODUCTION:
Stairs are provided in a building to afford a means of communication
between the various floors, they are called staircase. Since they have to
perform the very important function, the slab over which the steps rests should
be designed properly to provide maximum comfort, easy and safety.
Staircase provides access for the various floors of the building. The
stair consists of series of steps with landings at appropriate intervals. The
stretch between the two landings is called flight. The room or space where
stairs are provided is called stair case.
The width of stair depends up on the type of building in which it is
provided. Generally in residential buildings, the width of stair is kept as 1 m
and in case of public buildings it may be up to 2 m. to allow free flow of users,
the width of landings should be at least equal to the width of stairs.
Each step has one tread (going) and one rise. Rise and tread are
proportioned so as to provide convenient and easy access. The rise may vary
from 150 mm to 200 mm. the tread is in between 250 mm to 300 mm. as per
IS: 456, the slope or pitch of the stairs should be in between 250 to 400.
The most important aspect in providing staircase is its location. The
location of stair should be such as to provide as easy access so that in case of
any causality, e.g. fire break, earth, food etc. occupation should be placed in
the center or to the side of a building. The location depends upon the position
of the rooms ant type of approach needed. In residential buildings, it should
be placed centrally so as to:
1. Provide easy access from all rooms,
2. Maintain privacy.
3. In public building, the staircase should be located near the main entrance.

8.2 TYPES OF STAIR CASES:


Depending up on the geometry/shape:
The stair cases are classified into the following categories depending up on the
geometry.

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1. Single Flight Stair Case:
This type of stair is used in cellars or where the height between the
floors is small and the frequency of its use is less.
2. Quarter Turn Stair Case:
In this stair case, flights run adjoining the walls and provide
uninterrupted space at the centre of the room. Generally, quarter turn stair
case is used in domestic houses where floor heights are limited to 3 m.
3. Doglegged Stair Case:
The most common type of stair arranged with two adjacent flights
running parallel with a mid-landing. Where space is less, dog legged stair
case is generally provided resulting in economical utilization of available
space
4. Open Well Stair Case:
In public buildings where large spaces are available, open well stair
case is generally preferred due to its better accessibility, comfort and
ventilation due to its smaller flights with an open well at the center.
5. Geometrical Stair Case:
It is aesthetically superior compared to other types and is generally
used in the entrance of cinema theatres and shopping malls.
6. Spiral Stair Case:
In congested locations, where space available is small, spiral stairs are
ideally suited. It comprises a central post with precast treads anchored to
the central column.
Based on Structural Behavior (support condition):
The stirs are classified into the following categories depending up on
the structural behavior.
1. Stairs Spanning Horizontally (with Side Supports):
When the stair slab (waist slab) is supported on sides by side
walls or by a stringer beam on one side and wall on other side, the stars
are said to be spanning horizontally. Hence, each step behaves as an
independent simply supported beam spanning horizontally
Sometimes cantilever steps are used which projects from inclined
beam (stringer beam). Steps may cantilever on only one side or may
both side of supporting inclined beam. In such stairs, design of steps is
done as a cantilever.
2. Stairs Spanning Longitudinally (with supports along sloping line):
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In this type, the inclined stair slab together with the landings is
supported (on walls or beams along sloping line) at the top and bottom
of the flight without any support on the sides. Dog legged, open well and
quarter turn stair cases comes under this category.

8.3 REQUIREMENT OF A GOOD STAIR CASE:


A well planned and designed stair should provide an easy, quick and
safe mode of communication between the various floors. The general
requirements of a stair are given below:
1. Location:
It should be so located that sufficient light and ventilation is ensured
on the stair case. If possible it should be located centrally so as to be easy
accessible from the different corners of the building.
2. Width of Stair Case:
Width of stair case varies with the situation and the purpose for which
it is provided. Obviously in a building where there is a regular traffic of
people using the stair case its width should be sufficient while in a
residential building it may be the just minimum. The widths of stair case
for public building normally vary between 1.5 to 2.0 m. For residential
building a width of 900 mm to 1000 mm is considered adequate.
3. Length of Flight:
For the comfortable ascend of a stairway to stair the number of steps
in a flight should be restricted to a maximum of 12 and a minimum of 3.
4. Pitch of Stair:
The pitch of long stair should be made flatter by introducing landing to
make ascend less tiresome and less dangerous. In general the slope of stair
should never exceed 40 degrees and should not be flatter than 25 degrees.
5. Head Room:
The head room or clear distance between the tread and the off it of the
flight immediately above it should not be less than 2.13 m.
6. Materials:
The stair should preferably construct of materials, which possess fire
resisting qualities.
7. Balustrade:
The open well stairs should provide with balustrade so as to minimize
the danger of accidents.
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8. Landing: The width of landing should not be less than width of stair.
9. Winders:
The introduction of winders in stairs should be provided as far
as possible. They are liable to be dangerous and involve extra expenses in
construction. They are difficult to carpet and are especially unsuitable for
public buildings. However, where the winders cannot be dispensed with, they
should preferably be provided near the lower end of flight. Thus instead of
quarter space landing three winders may be used and for a half/space landing 5
winders and four radiating risers may be adopted.
10. Step Proportions:
The rise and tread of each step in a stair should be uniform dimension
throughout. The ratio of going and the rise of a step should so proportioned as
to ensure a comfortable access of the stair way.

8.4 DESIGN OF STAIRS SPANNING LONGITUDINALLY:


1. Depth of the Section:
The depth of the section shall be taken as the minimum thickness
perpendicular to the soffit of the stairs.
2. Effective Span:
(a) If supported at top and bottom risers by beams spanning parallel
with risers, the effective span is the distance between the centre to
centre of beams
(b) If landing slab spans in the same directions as the stairs, they shall
be considered as acting together to form a single slab. The effective
span is the distance centre to centre of the supporting beams or
walls, the going being measured horizontally.
(c) When spanning on to the edge of a landing slab, which spans
parallel with the rises, the effective span of the stairs depend upon
the width x and y of landing.

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TABLE 8.1
X

Span

<1m

< 1m

G+X+Y

<1m

> 1m

G+X+1

> 1m

<1m

G+Y+1

>1m

>1m

G+1+1

3. Loads on Stairs:
Live loads:
Stairs are prescribed in IS: 875 which is given per unit horizontal area.
Generally the following values of live loads on stairs may be taken.
(a) 5 KN/m2, if crowded.
(b) 3 KN/m2, if not crowded.
Dead loads:
These are to be calculated per unit horizontal area. If T, R and D are tread, rise
and thickness of waist slab in m, then the dead load can be calculated as given below.
(a) Weight of waist slab per unit horizontal area
2 + 2
x25 = D 1 + [ ]2 x25

(b) weight of steps per unit horizontal area


1 =

w2 =

1
xRxTx
2

25

1
2

xRx25

Where R in meter
Providing load (0.5 to 1 KN/m2) may be added to the above values
4. Distribution of Loading on the Stairs:
In case of stairs with open wells, where spans cross at right angles, the load on
areas common to any two such spans may be taken as one half in each direction.

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8.5 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR STAIRS SPANNING


LONGITUDINALLY:
1. Determine the effective span of the stairs as explained before
2. Assume the thickness of waist slab based on stiffness. Span/thickness ratio can be
selected in the range of 20 to 25.
3. Determine the load wu per meter length on waist slab, which includes the weight of
waist slab, weight of step and live load.
Weight of waist slab per meter length D 1 + (R T)2 x 25
1

Weight of step per meter length = xRx25


2

4. Determine the maximum bending moment Mu =

w u l2
8

5. Determine the minimum depth required to resist the bending moment by equating
Mu = Mu,lim = k fck bd2
b = 1000 mm, k = 0.138 for Fe415 steel & 0.148 for mild steel
Provided depth should be more than this value. Otherwise increase the depth.
6. Calculate the area of steel per meter width of slabs by using
Mu = 0.87 fy Ast d[1

fy Ast
]
fck bd

7. Finding the spacing of bars using


S=

1000xast
Ast

Where ast = area of bars used


Ast = total area of steel required
8. Providing distribution reinforcement perpendicular to the span direction at 0.12%
(for HYSD bars) of gross cross sectional area find the spacing of these bars. If mild
steel bars are used, provide 0.15% of gross cross sectional area as distribution steel.

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8.6 DESIFN OF STAIRS SPANNING HORIZONTALLY:


For stairs spanning horizontally, the waist slab is supported on sides by side
walls or by a stringer beam on one side and wall on other side. Hence, each step
behaves as an independent simply supported beam spanning horizontally. For design
purpose each step is considered as a rectangular beam of width b and effective depth
D/2.
Where, b =

R2 + T 2

D = Thickness of waist slab + R cos = Thickness of waist slab +

R.T

Main reinforcement is provided along the span direction which generally


consists of one rod in each step and distribution reinforcement is provided
perpendicular to the direction of spanning.

8.7 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR STAIRS SPANNING


LONGITUDINALLY:
1. Assume the thickness of waist slab based on stiffness.
Span/thickness ratio can be selected in the range of 20 to 25.
2. Determine the dimensions of equivalent beam as follows.
b=

R2 + T 2 , R being rise T being tread.

D = Thickness of waist slab +

R.T

Effective depth d = D/2


3. Determine the load wu on each step per meter width (span direction), which
includes the weight of waist slab, weight of step and live load.
Weight of waist slab = t.b.25KN/m
1 R. T. 25 KN/m
Weight
of
step
per
meter
width
=
2
4. Determine the maximum bending moment M =

w l2
8

5. Determine the minimum depth required to resist the bending moment by


equating
M = M, = k. 2
Where, k = 0.138 for Fe415 steel & 0.148 for mild steel
Provided depth should be more than this value. Otherwise increase depth.
6. Calculate the area of steel by using
M = 0.87 A [1
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7. Provide distribution reinforcement perpendicular to the span direction at 0.12


%( for HYSD bars) of gross cross sectional area and find the spacing of these
bars. If mild steel bars are used, provide 0.15% of gross area as distribution
steel.

8.8 DESIGN OF STAIR CASE:


Width of staircase

1000 mm

Floor to Floor height (H)

= 3200 mm

Live load

= 3 KN/2

Let,
Riser (R)

= 160 mm

Tread (T)

= 250 mm

sec =

250 2 +160 2

No. of risers required =

250 2

3200
160

= 1.1877
= 20

No. of risers in each Flight = 10


No. of Treads per Flight

= 10 1 = 9

Therefore,
Going = 250 x 9 = 2250 mm
Assuming, width of landing at end = 800 mm
Flight I is supported on beam
a) Mid-landing level
Total span L = 2250 + 800 + 300 = 3350 mm {Horizontally}
Design of Flight I:
Type one way single span simply supported inclined slab.
L = 3350 mm ~ 3.35 m
Trial depth of waist slab
Basic

ratio = 20

{for simply supported}

Assuming = 0.4%
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Modification factor
456:2000}

1 = 1.32, for = 240 N/m2 {fig. No. 4 of IS

Required effective depth = d =

3350
1.32 20

= 130 mm

Assuming, d = 20 mm for 415


D = 130 + 20 = 150 mm
Loads:
= 4.45 KN/2

S/W = 25 x D x sec = 25 x 0.15 x 1.1877


Weight of steps = 25

R
2

= 2 KN/2

= 25 x 0.16 / 2

= 5 KN/2

Live load

= 1 KN/2

Floor finish
Total working load

12.45 KN/2

Total design load, ( ) = 1.5 x 12.45 = 18.68 KN/2

Design Moments: Consider 1m width of slab


Mu =

2
8

18.68 x 3.35 2
8

= 26.20 KN.m

Mu max = 0.138 fck . bd2 For Fe415


= 0.138 x 20 x 1000 x 1302
= 46.64 KN-m
Mu max > Mu Safe
Main Steel:
Required area of steel Ast =

0.5 x 20
4.5

4.6 x 26.20 x 10 6
20 x 1000 x 130 2

x 1000 x 130

= 619.66 m2

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Assuming, 10 mm Bars
ast =

x 102 = 78.57 m2

Spacing:
A st
a st

X 1000 =

78.57
619.66

x 1000 = 126 mm

Therefore,
Provide # 10 mm @ 120 mm c/c
Ast Provided = 654.762 m2
Distribution Steel:
For, Fe415
Ast =

0.12
100

Pt = 0.12%

x 1000 x 150 = 180 m2

Provide # 8 mm @ 275 mm c/c


Ast Provided = 182 m2
Design of Flight II:
Same as flight I

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10. INTRODUCTION TO STEEL STRUCTURES


10.1 Introduction:
Structural steel has been used in the construction of structures for well over a
century. It is perhaps the most versatile of structural materials and has been used
extensively in the construction of multi-storeyed buildings, railways, bridges,
industrial structures, transmission towers, overhead tanks, chimneys, bunkers, silos,
etc.,
In many situations, lighter steel structures are invariably preferred to the
heavier alternatives such as reinforced concrete or pre-stressed concrete. The main
advantages of steel structures are its intrinsic strength, prefabrication and quicker
transportability to the work site and faster erection. Steel structures can be easily
dismantled without loss to the integrity of the original structure. Most structural steel
units are prefabricated in a workshop with superior quality control compared to in situ
construction.
Tolerances specified for steel structural components during fabrication and
erection are small compared to similar reinforced concrete structures. Steel also plays
an important role in composite construction in conjunction with reinforced and prestressed concrete structures.
The advantages of steel members are as follows:
1. The steel members have high strength. Therefore, the steel members can resist
high loads with comparatively light weight and small size of members. The
steel members can be conveniently handled and transported because of their
small size.
2. The steel members are gas and water-tight, because of high density of steel.
3. The steel members have long service life. This is because of high and
homogeneous strength and density properties of steel.
4. The steel members can be used as pre-fabricated members, because of ease of
handling, fabrication and erection.
5. The steel members can be readily disassembled or replaced.
6. The existing steel structures and structural components may be strengthened
by connecting additional sections or planes.
7. The steel structures may be inspected quickly and conveniently.
The disadvantages of steel members are as follows:
1. The steel members are susceptible to corrosion. The corrosion necessitates
their painting or the use of other methods of their protection.
2. The steel members are costly.

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Structural Steel:
The structural steel is the steel used for the manufacture of rolled structural
steel sections, fastenings and other elements for use in structural steel works. This
material steel is an alloy of iron and carbon (small percentage) and other elements in
varying percentages. The strength, hardness and brittleness of steel increase and
ductility of steel decreases with the increase of percentage of carbon. Depending on
the chemical composition, the different type of steels are classified as mild steel,
medium carbon steel, high carbon steel, low alloy steel and high alloy steel. The mild
steel, medium carbon steel and low alloy steel are generally used for steel structures.
The copper bearing quality of steel contains small percentage of copper contents. The
corrosive resistance of such steel is increased.
1. Mild steel: The mild steel is used for the manufacture of rolled structural steel
sections, rivets and bolts. Following operations can be done easily on mild
steel :
1. Cutting
2. Punching
3. Drilling
4. Machining
5. Welding
6. Forging when heated
The mild steel cannot be used for manufacture of cutting tools.
All structural steels used in general construction, coming within the
preview of IS: 800-84 shall, before fabrication, comply with one of the
following Indian Standard Specifications.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

IS: 226- 1975 structural steel (standard quality)


IS: 1977- 1975 structural steel (ordinary quality)
IS: 2062- 1984 weldable structural steel
IS: 961- 1975 structural steel ( high tensile)
IS: 8500- 1977 weldable structural steel (medium and high strength
qualities)

10.2 ROLLED STRUCTURAL STEEL SECTIONS:


The steel sections manufactured in rolling mills and used as structural
members are known as rolled structural steel sections. The steel sections are named
according to their cross- sectional shapes. Many steel structures are readily available
in the market and have frequent demand. Such sections are known as regular steel
sections. Some steel sections are rarely used. The special requisition and are known as
special sections.

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ISI Handbook for Structural Engineers I gives nominal dimensions,


weight and geometrical properties of various rolled structural steel sections. This
handbook also gives other additional data required by the designers and architects.
The various types of rolled structural steel sections manufactured and used as
structural members are given below:
1. Rolled Steel I Sections
2. Rolled Steel Channel Sections
3. Rolled Steel Tee Sections
4. Rolled Steel Angle Sections
5. Rolled Steel Bars
6. Rolled Steel Tubes
7. Rolled Steel Flats
8. Rolled Steel Sheets and Strips
9. Rolled Steel Plates
10.2.1 ROLLED STEEL BEAM (I)SECTIONS
The rolled steel beams are classified into the following four series as per BIS:
(IS: 808- 1989)
a. Indian Standard Junior Beams-------------------------ISJB
b. Indian Standard Light Beams -------------------------ISlB
c. Indian Standard Medium Weight Beams-------------ISMB
d. Indian Standard Wide Flange Beams-----------------ISWB
The rolled steel columns/heavy weight beams are classified into the following
two series as per BIS (IS: 808-1989)
1. Indian Standard Column Sections--------------------ISSC
2. Indian Standard Heavy Weight Beams---------------ISHB
The cross-section of a rolled steel beam has been given below. The
beam section consists of web and two flanges. The junction between the flange and
the web is known as fillet. These hot rolled steel beam sections have sloping flanges.
The outer and inner faces are inclined to each other and they interest at an angle

varying from to 80 depending on the section and rolling mill practice. The angle of

intersection of ISMB section is 80. Abbreviated reference symbols (JB, LB, MB, WB,
SC and HB) have been used in designating the Indian Standard Sections as per BIS
(IS: 808-1989)

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FIG 10.1 INDIAN STANDARD I SECTION


10.2.2 ROLLED STEEL CHANNEL SECTIONS
The rolled steel channel sections are classified in the following four series as per
ISI:
1.
Indian Standard Junior Channels----------------------------ISJC
2.
Indian Standard Light Channels-----------------------------ISLC
3.
Indian Standard Medium Weight Channels----------------ISMC
4.
Indian Standard Medium Weight Parallel -----------------ISMCP
Flange Channels
The cross-section of rolled steel channel section been shown below. The
channel section consists of web and two flanges. The junction between the flange
and the web is known as fillet.

FIG 10.2 INDIAN STANDARD CHANNEL SECTION


Note: As per IS: 808-1989, following channel sections have also been additionally
adopted as Indian Standard Channel Sections
1.

Indian Standard Light Channels with -------------------ISLC(P)


parallel flanges

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2.
3.
4.

Medium Weight Channels------------------------------ --ISMC


Medium weight channels with parallel flanges---------ISMCP
Indian Standard Gate Channels---------------------------ISPG
In MC and MCP channel sections, some heavier sections have been
developed for their intended use in wagon building industry. The method of
designating MC and MCP channels is also same as that for IS-channels described
above.
10.2.3 ROLLED STEEL TEE SECTIONS
The rolled steel tee sections are classified into the following five series as per
ISI:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Indian Standard Normal Tee Bars------------------ISNT


Indian Standard Wide flange Tee Bars-------------ISHT
Indian Standard Long Legged Tee Bars------------ISST
Indian Standard Light Tee Bars---------------------ISLT
Indian Standard Junior Tee Bars--------------------ISJT

FIG 10.3 INDIAN STANDARD TEE SECTION


The cross-section of a rolled steel tee section has been shown above. The tee
section consists of web and flange. The junction between the flange and the web is
known as fillet.
Note: As per IS: 808-1984, following T-sections have also been additionally
adopted as Indian Standard T-sections.
1.
2.
3.

Indian Standard deep legged Tee bars---------------------ISDT


Indian Standard Slit medium weight Tee bars------------ISMT
Indian Standard Slit Tee bars from I-sections-------------ISNT

It is to note that as per IS: 808- 1978 (part II), H beam sections have been deleted.
10.2.4 ROLLED STEEL ANGLE SECTIONS
The rolled steel angle sections are classified into the following three series.
1. Indian Standard Equal Angles---------------ISA
2. Indian Standard Unequal Angles------------ISA
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3. Indian Standard Bulb Angles----------------ISBA

FIG 10.4 INDIAN STANDARD ANGLE SECTION


The cross-section of a rolled equal angle section has been shown
above, unequal angle section and that of bulb angle section. The lengths of the legs
in case of equal sections are equal and in case of unequal section, length of one leg
is longer than the other. The thickness of legs of equal and unequal angle sections
are equal. The bulb angle shown in fig consists of web flange and a bulb projecting
from end of web. The thickness of web of bulb angle may or may not be equal tp
the thickness of flange.
Note: As per IS: 808- 1984, some supplementary angle sections have also
additionally adopted as Indian Standard angle sections. However prefix ISA has
been adopted. These sections are designated by the size of legs followed by
thickness.
10.2.5 ROLLED STEEL BARS
The rolled steel bars are classified into the following two series:
1. Indian Standard Round Bars------------ISRQ
2. Indian Standard Square Bars------------ISSQ

FIG 10.5 INDIAN STANDARD SQUARE AND ROUND BAR

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10.2.6 ROLLED STEEL TUBES


The rolled steel tubes are used as columns and compression members
and tension members in tubular trusses. The rolled steel tubes are efficient
structural sections to be used as compression members. The steel tube sections
have equal radius of gyration in all directions.

FIG 10.6 INDIAN STANDARD TUBE SECTION


10.2.7 ROLLED STEEL FLATS
The rolled steel flats are used for lacing of elements in built-up
members, such as columns and are also used as ties.

FIG 10.7 INDIAN STANDARD STEEL FLAT SECTION


STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN INVOLVES THE FOLLWING STEPS:
1. Choice of materials such as the type and grade of structural steel.
2. Selection of the configuration of the structural system such as trusses, griders,
portal frames, stanchions, grid frames, cable structures, space frames, folded
plates, muti-storey framed structures, mill bents and foundation systems.
3. Computation of various types of loads acting on the structure.
4. Preliminary analysis of forces and moments developed in the structural
elements under the most unfavorable loading conditions using elementary
procedures, followed by rigorous analysis using computer software and other
design procedures.
5. Structural design of elements conforming to the latest national codes.
6. Final evaluation of strength, serviceability and safety of the structure as per the
code requirements.
7. Preparation of detailed structural and architectural drawings using AUTO
CAD programs with suitable specifications.
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11. LIMIT STATE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR


STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBERS
The recently revised Indian Standard code IS: 800-2007 specifies that
in general structures and elements should be designed by the limit state
method. In case where the limit state method cannot be conveniently adopted,
the working stress method may be used.
Limit state design is a method of designing structures based on a
statistical concept of safety and the associated statistical probability of failure.
Structures designed by this method should satisfy the dual criterion of
(a)
Limit state of strength and
(b)
Limit state of serviceability.
The limit states of strength are those associated with failure (or
imminent failure), under the action of probable and most unfavorable
combination of loads on the structure using the appropriate partial safety
factors, which may endanger the safety of life and property. The limit sate of
strength includes:
(a) Loss of equilibrium of the structure as a whole or any of its parts or
components.
(b) Loss of stability of the structures (including the effect of sway
where appropriate and overturning) or any of its parts, including
supports and foundations.
(c) Failure by excessive deformation, rupture of the structure or any of
its parts or components.
(d) Fracture due to fatigue
(e) Brittle fracture
The limit state of serviceability comprises the following criteria:
(a) Any deformation and deflection which adversely affect the
appearance or effective use of the structure or may cause
improper functioning of equipment or services or may cause
damages to finishes and non-structural members.
(b) Vibrations in the structure or any of its components causing
discomfort to people, damage to the structures, its contents or
which may limit its functional effectiveness. Special consideration
shall be given to systems susceptible to vibration, such as large
open floor areas free of use and occupancy (Refer to Annex C of
the Code).
(c) Repairable damage or crack due to fatigue.
(d) Corrosion, durability.
(e) Fire.
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Use of Relevant IS Codes:


1. For steel:
(a) Structural steel as per
IS: 226, IS: 2062, IS: 3502, IS: 1977, IS: 961, IS: 8500
(b) Steel for reinforced concrete
IS: 432, IS: 1139, IS: 1786, IS: 2090.
(c) Steel for bars, rivets etc.
IS: 1148, 1149, 1570, 2073, 7383, 4431, and 5517.
(d) Steel for tubes and pipes.
IS: 1239, 1914 and 1978.
2. For code of practice for design of steel structures:
IS: 800- 1984, IS: 800-2007
3. For size of weld and stresses in weld
IS: 816- 1969
4. For code of practice for design loads:
IS: 875- 1987
Part I:

Dead loads unit weights of building materials and stored


materials

Part II:

imposed loads

Part III:

wind loads

Part IV:

snow loads

Part V:

special loads and load combinations

Permissible Stresses:

Structures shall be designed so that the calculated stresses in the members do


not exceed the corresponding permissible stresses specified by IS: 800-1984
1. Axial Tensile stress (at) (clause 4.1 of IS: 800):
The permissible stress in axial tension, at in MPa on the net effective area of
the sections shall not exceed
= 0.6
Where fy = minimum yield stress of steel, in MPa.
2. Axial Compression Stress (ac) (clause 5.1 of IS: 800):
The direct stresses in compression on the gross cross sectional area of axially
loaded compression members shall not exceed 0.6 fy nor the permissible stress,
ac calculated using the formula

= 0.6
1
[ + ]
Where ac
=
permissible stress in axial compression, in MPa
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fy

yield stress of steel in compression, in MPa.

fcc

elastic critical stress in compression =

modulus of elasticity of steel = 2 x 105 MPa

2E

slenderness ratio of the member.

a factor assumed as 1.4

3. Bending stress (bc or bt) (clause 6.2 of IS: 800):


The permissible compressive or tensile bending stress is given by
= 0.66
If the compression flange is not restrained laterally against buckling, bc or bt
should not exceed the values given by the above equation nor the values given
in table 6.1 A to 6.1 F and 6.2 of IS: 800.
4. Bearing stress (p) (clause 6.3 of IS: 800):
The bearing stress in any part of a beam when calculated on the net area of
contact shall not exceed the values determined by the formula.
= 0.75
Where, p = maximum yield stress of steel, in MPa
5. Maximum Shear Stress (vm) (clause 6.4.1 of IS: 800):
The maximum shear stress in a member shall not exceed the value given by
the formula
= 0.45
Where,
vm
=
maximum permissible shear stress
fy =
minimum yield stress of steel, in MPa
Average Shear Stress (va):
The average shear stress in a member calculated on the cross section of the
web shall not exceed the value given by the formula
= 0.4
Where,
va = average shear stress
fy = minimum yield stress of steel, in MPa
Increase in Permissible Stresses (clause 3.10.2.1 IS: 800):
When the effect of wind or earthquake load is taken into account in the design
1. The permissible stresses in structural steel may be increased by 33% and
2. Permissible stress in rivets, bolts and tension maybe increased by 25%
Load combinations:
The following combinations of loads which ever produces maximum effect
maybe assumed for general design of most of the structures.

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1.
2.
3.

Dead load alone


Dead load + partial or full live load which ever causes the most critical
condition in the structure
Dead load + wind or seismic load and

4.

Dead load + part or full live load + wind or seismic load.

The partial safety factors for loads (f) for the limit states of strength and
serviceability for different load combinations is shown in table below:
Limit state of
serviceability
LL

Limit state of strength

DL+ER

(2)
1.5

(3)
1.5

1.2
1.2
1.5
(0.9)
1.2
(0.9)

AL

DL

Accomp
anying

DL+WL/EL

WL/E
L

Leading

(1)
DL+LL+CL
DL+LL+CL+WL/
EL
DL+LL+CL+WL/
EL

DL

WL/E
L

(4)
1.05

(5)
---

(6)
---

(7)
1.0

(8)
1.0

(9)
1.0

(10)
---

1.2

1.05

0.6

---

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.2

0.53

1.2

---

---

1.5

---

1.0

---

---

1.0

1.2

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

Accomp
anying

Combination

Leading

LL

0.3
0.35
--1.0
--------5
(1) When action of different live loads is simultaneously considered, the leading live
load shall be considered to be the one causing the higher load effects in the
member/section.
(2) This value is to be considered when the dead load contributes to stability against
overturning is critical or the dead load causes reduction in stress due to other
loads.
Abbreviations:
DL= Dead Load, LL=Imposed Load (live load), WL= Wind Load, CL= Crane
Load (vertical/horizontal), AL= Accidental Load, ER= Election Load, EL=
Earthquake Load.
Note: The effects of actions (load) in terms of stresses resultant may be obtained
from an appropriate method of analysis.

DL+LL+AL

1.0

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12. ANALYSIS OF STEEL BUILDING


Analysis of a steel structure is same as analysis of RCC structure by using
STAAD PRO v8i explained in chapter 3 of Module I.
12.1 INPUT COMMANDS IN STAAD PRO EDITOR
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 29-Feb-12
JOB NAME comparative study on multistorey R.C.C and STEEL Building
JOB CLIENT NIET
ENGINEER NAME NIET
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 3 0 0; 3 6.7 0 0; 4 10.25 0 0; 5 11.9 0 0; 6 13.8 0 0; 7 17.5 0 0; 8 20.5 0 0; 9
6.7 0 2; 10 11.9 0 2; 11 13.8 0 2; 12 0 0 3.65; 13 3 0 3.65; 14 6.7 0 3.65; 15 10.25 0
3.65; 16 13.8 0 3.65; 17 17.5 0 3.65; 18 20.5 0 3.65; 19 0 0 7.15; 20 3 0 7.15; 21 6.7 0
7.15; 22 10.25 0 7.15; 23 13.8 0 7.15; 24 17.5 0 7.15; 25 20.5 0 7.15; 26 0 0 11.3; 27
3 0 11.3; 28 6.7 0 11.3; 29 10.25 0 11.3; 30 13.8 0 11.3; 31 17.5 0 11.3; 32 20.5 0
11.3; 33 0 1.5 0; 34 3 1.5 0; 35 6.7 1.5 0; 36 10.25 1.5 0; 37 11.9 1.5 0; 38 13.8 1.5 0;
39 17.5 1.5 0; 40 20.5 1.5 0; 41 6.7 1.5 2; 42 11.9 1.5 2; 43 13.8 1.5 2; 44 0 1.5 3.65;
45 3 1.5 3.65; 46 6.7 1.5 3.65; 47 10.25 1.5 3.65; 48 13.8 1.5 3.65; 49 17.5 1.5 3.65;
50 20.5 1.5 3.65; 51 0 1.5 7.15; 52 3 1.5 7.15; 53 6.7 1.5 7.15; 54 10.25 1.5 7.15; 55
13.8 1.5 7.15; 56 17.5 1.5 7.15; 57 20.5 1.5 7.15; 58 0 1.5 11.3; 59 3 1.5 11.3; 60 6.7
1.5 11.3; 61 10.25 1.5 11.3; 62 13.8 1.5 11.3; 63 17.5 1.5 11.3; 64 20.5 1.5 11.3; 65
6.7 3.1 0; 66 6.7 3.1 2; 67 0 4.7 0; 68 3 4.7 0; 69 6.7 4.7 0; 70 10.25 4.7 0; 71 11.9 4.7
0; 72 13.8 4.7 0; 73 17.5 4.7 0; 74 20.5 4.7 0; 75 6.7 4.7 2; 76 11.9 4.7 2; 77 13.8 4.7
2; 78 0 4.7 3.65; 79 3 4.7 3.65; 80 6.7 4.7 3.65; 81 10.25 4.7 3.65; 82 13.8 4.7 3.65;
83 17.5 4.7 3.65; 84 20.5 4.7 3.65; 85 0 4.7 7.15; 86 3 4.7 7.15; 87 3.85 4.7 7.15; 88
6.7 4.7 7.15; 89 10.25 4.7 7.15; 90 13.8 4.7 7.15; 91 16.65 4.7 7.15; 92 17.5 4.7 7.15;
93 20.5 4.7 7.15; 94 0 4.7 11.3; 95 3 4.7 11.3; 96 3.85 4.7 11.3; 97 6.7 4.7 11.3; 98
10.25 4.7 11.3; 99 13.8 4.7 11.3; 100 16.65 4.7 11.3; 101 17.5 4.7 11.3; 102 20.5 4.7
11.3; 103 6.7 6.3 0; 104 6.7 6.3 2; 105 0 7.9 0; 106 3 7.9 0; 107 6.7 7.9 0; 108 10.25
7.9 0; 109 11.9 7.9 0; 110 13.8 7.9 0; 111 17.5 7.9 0;112 20.5 7.9 0; 113 6.7 7.9 2;
114 11.9 7.9 2; 115 13.8 7.9 2; 116 0 7.9 3.65; 117 3 7.9 3.65; 118 6.7 7.9 3.65; 119
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10.25 7.9 3.65; 120 13.8 7.9 3.65; 121 17.5 7.9 3.65; 122 20.5 7.9 3.65; 123 0 7.9
7.15; 124 3 7.9 7.15; 125 3.85 7.9 7.15; 126 6.7 7.9 7.15; 127 10.25 7.9 7.15; 128
13.8 7.9 7.15; 129 16.65 7.9 7.15; 130 17.5 7.9 7.15; 131 20.5 7.9 7.15; 132 0 7.9
11.3; 133 3 7.9 11.3; 134 3.85 7.9 11.3; 135 6.7 7.9 11.3; 136 10.25 7.9 11.3; 137
13.8 7.9 11.3; 138 16.65 7.9 11.3; 139 17.5 7.9 11.3; 140 20.5 7.9 11.3; 141 6.7 9.5 0;
142 6.7 9.5 2; 143 0 11.1 0; 144 3 11.1 0; 145 6.7 11.1 0; 146 10.25 11.1 0; 147 11.9
11.1 0; 148 13.8 11.1 0; 149 17.5 11.1 0; 150 20.5 11.1 0; 151 6.7 11.1 2; 152 11.9
11.1 2; 153 13.8 11.1 2; 154 0 11.1 3.65; 155 3 11.1 3.65; 156 6.7 11.1 3.65; 157
10.25 11.1 3.65; 158 13.8 11.1 3.65; 159 17.5 11.1 3.65; 160 20.5 11.1 3.65; 161 0
11.1 7.15; 162 3 11.1 7.15; 163 3.85 11.1 7.15; 164 6.7 11.1 7.15; 165 10.25 11.1
7.15; 166 13.8 11.1 7.15; 167 16.65 11.1 7.15; 168 17.5 11.1 7.15; 169 20.5 11.1
7.15; 170 0 11.1 11.3; 171 3 11.1 11.3; 172 3.85 11.1 11.3; 173 6.7 11.1 11.3; 174
10.25 11.1 11.3; 175 13.8 11.1 11.3; 176 16.65 11.1 11.3; 177 17.5 11.1 11.3; 178
20.5 11.1 11.3; 179 6.7 12.7 0; 180 6.7 12.7 2; 181 0 14.3 0; 182 3 14.3 0; 183 6.7
14.3 0; 184 10.25 14.3 0; 185 11.9 14.3 0; 186 13.8 14.3 0; 187 17.5 14.3 0; 188 20.5
14.3 0; 189 6.7 14.3 2; 190 11.9 14.3 2; 191 13.8 14.3 2; 192 0 14.3 3.65; 193 3 14.3
3.65; 194 6.7 14.3 3.65; 195 10.25 14.3 3.65; 196 13.8 14.3 3.65; 197 17.5 14.3 3.65;
198 20.5 14.3 3.65; 199 0 14.3 7.15; 200 3 14.3 7.15; 201 3.85 14.3 7.15; 202 6.7 14.3
7.15; 203 10.25 14.3 7.15; 204 13.8 14.3 7.15; 205 16.65 14.3 7.15; 206 17.5 14.3
7.15; 207 20.5 14.3 7.15; 208 0 14.3 11.3; 209 3 14.3 11.3; 210 3.85 14.3 11.3; 211
6.7 14.3 11.3; 212 10.25 14.3 11.3; 213 13.8 14.3 11.3; 214 16.65 14.3 11.3; 215 17.5
14.3 11.3; 216 20.5 14.3 11.3; 217 6.7 15.9 0; 218 6.7 15.9 2; 219 0 17.5 0; 220 3
17.5 0; 221 6.7 17.5 0; 222 10.25 17.5 0; 223 11.9 17.5 0; 224 13.8 17.5 0; 225 17.5
17.5 0; 226 20.5 17.5 0; 227 6.7 17.5 2; 228 11.9 17.5 2; 229 13.8 17.5 2; 230 0 17.5
3.65; 231 3 17.5 3.65; 232 6.7 17.5 3.65; 233 10.25 17.5 3.65; 234 13.8 17.5 3.65;
235 17.5 17.5 3.65; 236 20.5 17.5 3.65; 237 0 17.5 7.15; 238 3 17.5 7.15; 239 3.85
17.5 7.15;240 6.7 17.5 7.15; 241 10.25 17.5 7.15; 242 13.8 17.5 7.15; 243 16.65 17.5
7.15; 244 17.5 17.5 7.15; 245 20.5 17.5 7.15; 246 0 17.5 11.3; 247 3 17.5 11.3; 248
3.85 17.5 11.3; 249 6.7 17.5 11.3; 250 10.25 17.5 11.3; 251 13.8 17.5 11.3; 252 16.65
17.5 11.3; 253 17.5 17.5 11.3; 254 20.5 17.5 11.3; 255 6.7 20.7 0; 256 10.25 20.7 0;
257 11.9 20.7 0; 258 13.8 20.7 0; 259 11.9 20.7 2; 260 13.8 20.7 2; 261 6.7 20.7
3.65;262 10.25 20.7 3.65; 263 13.8 20.7 3.65;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 33 1; 2 34 2; 3 35 3; 4 36 4; 5 37 5; 6 38 6; 7 39 7; 8 40 8; 9 41 9; 10 42 10; 11 43
11; 12 44 12; 13 45 13; 14 46 14; 15 47 15; 16 48 16; 17 49 17; 18 50 18; 19 51 19;
20 52 20; 21 53 21; 22 54 22; 23 55 23; 24 56 24; 25 57 25; 26 58 26; 27 59 27; 28 60
28; 29 61 29; 30 62 30; 31 63 31; 32 64 32; 101 33 67; 102 34 68; 103 65 69; 104 35
65; 105 36 70; 106 37 71; 107 38 72; 108 39 73; 109 40 74; 110 66 75; 111 41 66;
112 42 76; 113 43 77; 114 44 78; 115 45 79; 116 46 80; 117 47 81; 118 48 82; 119 49
83; 120 50 84; 121 51 85; 122 52 86; 123 53 88; 124 54 89; 125 55 90; 126 56 92;
127 57 93; 128 58 94; 129 59 95; 130 60 97; 131 61 98; 132 62 99; 133 63 101; 134
64 102; 201 67 105; 202 68 106; 203 103 107; 204 69 103; 205 70 108; 206 71 109;
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207 72 110; 208 73 111; 209 74 112; 210 104 113; 211 75 104; 212 76 114; 213 77
115; 214 78 116; 215 79 117; 216 80 118; 217 81 119; 218 82 120; 219 83 121; 220
84 122; 221 85 123; 222 86 124; 223 88 126; 224 89 127; 225 90 128; 226 92 130;
227 93 131; 228 94 132; 229 95 133; 230 97 135; 231 98 136; 232 99 137; 233 101
139; 234 102 140; 301 105 143; 302 106 144; 303 141 145; 304 107 141; 305 108
146; 306 109 147; 307 110 148; 308 111 149; 309 112 150; 310 142 151; 311 113
142; 312 114 152; 313 115 153; 314 116 154; 315 117 155; 316 118 156; 317 119
157; 318 120 158; 319 121 159; 320 122 160; 321 123 161; 322 124 162; 323 126
164; 324 127 165; 325 128 166; 326 130 168; 327 131 169; 328 132 170; 329 133
171; 330 135 173; 331 136 174; 332 137 175; 333 139 177; 334 140 178; 401 143
181; 402 144 182; 403 179 183; 404 145 179; 405 146 184; 406 147 185; 407 148
186; 408 149 187; 409 150 188; 410 180 189; 411 151 180; 412 152 190; 413 153
191; 414 154 192; 415 155 193; 416 156 194; 417 157 195; 418 158 196; 419 159
197; 420 160 198; 421 161 199; 422 162 200; 423 164 202; 424 165 203; 425 166
204; 426 168 206; 427 169 207; 428 170 208; 429 171 209; 430 173 211; 431 174
212; 432 175 213; 433 177 215; 434 178 216; 501 181 219; 502 182 220; 503 217
221; 504 183 217; 505 184 222; 506 185 223; 507 186 224; 508 187 225; 509 188
226; 510 218 227; 511 189 218; 512 190 228; 513 191 229; 514 192 230; 515 193
231; 516 194 232; 517 195 233; 518 196 234; 519 197 235; 520 198 236; 521 199
237; 522 200 238; 523 202 240; 524 203 241; 525 204 242; 526 206 244; 527 207
245; 528 208 246; 529 209 247; 530 211 249; 531 212 250; 532 213 251; 533 215
253; 534 216 254; 601 255 221; 602 256 222; 603 257 223; 604 258 224; 605 259
228; 606 260 229; 607 261 232; 608 262 233; 609 263 234; 1001 33 34; 1002 34 35;
1003 35 36; 1004 36 37; 1005 37 38; 1006 38 39; 1007 39 40; 1008 42 43; 1009 44
45; 1010 45 46; 1011 46 47; 1012 47 48; 1013 48 49; 1014 49 50; 1015 51 52; 1016
52 53; 1017 53 54; 1018 54 55; 1019 55 56; 1020 56 57; 1021 58 59; 1022 59 60;
1023 60 61; 1024 61 62; 1025 62 63; 1026 63 64; 1027 35 41; 1028 37 42; 1029 38
43; 1030 33 44; 1031 34 45; 1032 36 47; 1033 39 49; 1034 40 50; 1035 41 46; 1036
43 48; 1037 44 51; 1038 45 52; 1039 46 53; 1040 47 54; 1041 48 55; 1042 49 56;
1043 50 57; 1044 51 58; 1045 52 59; 1046 53 60; 1047 54 61; 1048 55 62; 1049 56
63; 1050 57 64; 1051 65 66; 2001 67 68; 2002 68 69; 2003 69 70; 2004 70 71; 2005
71 72; 2006 72 73; 2007 73 74; 2008 76 77; 2009 78 79; 2010 79 80; 2011 80 81;
2012 81 82; 2013 82 83; 2014 83 84; 2015 85 86; 2016 86 87; 2017 87 88; 2018 88
89; 2019 89 90; 2020 90 91; 2021 91 92; 2022 92 93; 2023 94 95; 2024 95 96; 2025
96 97; 2026 97 98; 2027 98 99; 2028 99 100; 2029 100 101; 2030 101 102; 2031 67
78; 2032 68 79; 2033 69 75; 2034 75 80; 2035 70 81; 2036 71 76; 2037 72 77; 2038
77 82; 2039 73 83; 2040 74 84; 2041 78 85; 2042 81 89; 2043 84 93; 2044 85 94;
2045 87 96; 2046 88 97; 2047 89 98; 2048 90 99; 2049 91 100; 2050 93 102; 2051
103 104; 3001 105 106; 3002 106 107; 3003 107 108; 3004 108 109; 3005 109
110;3006 110 111; 3007 111 112; 3008 114 115; 3009 116 117; 3010 117 118; 3011
118 119; 3012 119 120; 3013 120 121; 3014 121 122; 3015 123 124; 3016 124 125;
3017 125 126; 3018 126 127; 3019 127 128; 3020 128 129; 3021 129 130; 3022 130
131; 3023 132 133; 3024 133 134; 3025 134 135; 3026 135 136; 3027 136 137; 3028
137 138; 3029 138 139; 3030 139 140; 3031 105 116; 3032 106 117; 3033 107 113;
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3034 113 118; 3035 108 119; 3036 109 114; 3037 110 115; 3038 115 120; 3039 111
121; 3040 112 122; 3041 116 123; 3042 119 127; 3043 122 131; 3044 123 132; 3045
125 134; 3046 126 135; 3047 127 136; 3048 128 137; 3049 129 138; 3050 131 140;
3051 141 142; 4001 143 144; 4002 144 145; 4003 145 146; 4004 146 147; 4005 147
148; 4006 148 149; 4007 149 150; 4008 152 153; 4009 154 155; 4010 155 156; 4011
156 157; 4012 157 158; 4013 158 159; 4014 159 160; 4015 161 162; 4016 162 163;
4017 163 164; 4018 164 165; 4019 165 166; 4020 166 167; 4021 167 168; 4022 168
169; 4023 170 171; 4024 171 172; 4025 172 173; 4026 173 174; 4027 174 175; 4028
175 176; 4029 176 177; 4030 177 178; 4031 143 154; 4032 144 155; 4033 145 151;
4034 151 156; 4035 146 157; 4036 147 152; 4037 148 153; 4038 153 158; 4039 149
159; 4040 150 160; 4041 154 161; 4042 157 165; 4043 160 169; 4044 161 170; 4045
163 172; 4046 164 173; 4047 165 174; 4048 166 175; 4049 167 176; 4050 169 178;
4051 179 180; 5001 181 182; 5002 182 183; 5003 183 184; 5004 184 185; 5005 185
186; 5006 186 187; 5007 187 188; 5008 190 191; 5009 192 193; 5010 193 194; 5011
194 195; 5012 195 196; 5013 196 197; 5014 197 198; 5015 199 200; 5016 200 201;
5017 201 202; 5018 202 203; 5019 203 204; 5020 204 205; 5021 205 206; 5022 206
207; 5023 208 209; 5024 209 210; 5025 210 211; 5026 211 212; 5027 212 213; 5028
213 214; 5029 214 215; 5030 215 216; 5031 181 192; 5032 182 193; 5033 183 189;
5034 189 194; 5035 184 195; 5036 185 190; 5037 186 191; 5038 191 196; 5039 187
197; 5040 188 198; 5041 192 199; 5042 195 203; 5043 198 207; 5044 199 208; 5045
201 210; 5046 202 211; 5047 203 212; 5048 204 213; 5049 205 214; 5050 207 216;
5051 217 218; 6001 219 220; 6002 220 221; 6003 221 222; 6004 222 223; 6005 223
224; 6006 224 225; 6007 225 226; 6008 228 229; 6009 230 231; 6010 231 232; 6011
232 233; 6012 233 234; 6013 234 235; 6014 235 236; 6015 237 238; 6016 238 239;
6017 239 240; 6018 240 241; 6019 241 242; 6020 242 243; 6021 243 244; 6022 244
245; 6023 246 247; 6024 247 248; 6025 248 249; 6026 249 250; 6027 250 251; 6028
251 252; 6029 252 253; 6030 253 254; 6031 219 230; 6032 220 231; 6033 221 227;
6034 227 232; 6035 222 233; 6036 223 228; 6037 224 229; 6038 229 234; 6039 225
235; 6040 226 236; 6041 230 237; 6042 233 241; 6043 236 245; 6044 237 246; 6045
239 248; 6046 240 249; 6047 241 250; 6048 242 251; 6049 243 252; 6050 245 254;
7001 255 256; 7002 256 257; 7003 257 258; 7004 259 260; 7005 261 262; 7006 262
263; 7007 255 261; 7008 256 262; 7009 257 259; 7010 260 258; 7011 260 263;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 2.05e+008
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 76.8195
ALPHA 1.2e-005
DAMP 0.03
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END DEFINE MATERIAL


MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
1044 1045 1047 1049 TO 1051 2009 TO 2022 2024 2029 2031 TO 2035 2037 TO
2040 2044 2050 2051 3009 TO 3022 3024 3031 TO 3035 3037 TO 3040 3051 4009
TO 4022 4024 4031 TO 4035 4037 TO 4040 4046 TO 4048 4051 5009 TO 5022
5024 5031 TO 5035 5037 TO 5040 5044 5046 TO 5048 5050 5051 6045 6049
TABLE ST ISHB250
1001 TO 1030 1032 1034 TO 1043 2001 TO 2008 2023 2025 TO 2028 2030 2036
2041 2042 TO 2043 3001 TO 3008 3023 3025 TO 3028 3030 3036 3041 TO 3043
4001 TO 4008 4023 4025 TO 4028 4030 4036 4041 TO 4043 5001 TO 5008 5023
5025 5026 TO 5028 5030 5036 5041 TO 5043 6001 6002 6004 TO 6010 6012 TO
6044 6046 6047 TO 6048 6050 7001 TO 7011 TABLE ST ISHB200
1 TO 32 101 TO 134 201 TO 234 301 TO 334 401 TO 434 501 TO 534 601 TO 608
609 TABLE ST ISWB600A
2045 2049 3045 3049 4045 4049 5045 5049 TABLE ST ISHB300
1031 1033 1046 1048 2046 TO 2048 3029 3044 3046 TO 3048 3050 4029 4044 4050
5029 6003 6011 TABLE ST ISHB400
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL STEEL ALL
SUPPORTS
1 TO 32 PINNED
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.1 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 1 DM 5 PX 0 DT 1.5
SELFWEIGHT 1
MEMBER WEIGHT
1001 TO 1050 2001 2002 2005 TO 2008 2011 2012 2023 2024 2026 TO 2028 2030
2031 2036 TO 2038 2040 2042 2044 2047 2050 3001 3002 3005 TO 3008 3011 3012
3023 3024 3026 TO 3028 3030 3031 3036 TO 3038 3040 3042 3044 3047 3050 4001
4002 4005 TO 4008 4011 4012 4023 4024 4026 TO 4028 4030 4031 4036 TO 4038
4040 4042 4044 4047 4050 5001 5002 5005 TO 5008 5011 5012 5023 5024 5026
5027 TO 5028 5030 5031 5036 TO 5038 5040 5042 5044 5047 5050 6003 TO 6005
6008 6011 6012 6033 6034 6036 TO 6038 UNI 16
2009 2010 2013 TO 2022 2032 TO 2035 2039 2045 2046 2048 2049 3009 3010 3013
3014 TO 3022 3032 TO 3035 3039 3045 3046 3048 3049 4009 4010 4013 TO 4022
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4032 TO 4035 4039 4045 4046 4048 4049 5009 5010 5013 TO 5022 5032 TO 5035
5039 5045 5046 5048 5049 UNI 8
6001 6002 6006 6007 6023 TO 6031 6040 6041 6043 6044 6050 7001 TO 7003 7005
7006 TO 7007 7010 7011 UNI 2
1051 2051 3051 4051 5051 UNI 20
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 TOWARDS 7007
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15
CHECK SOFT STOREY
DEFINE WIND LOAD
TYPE 1
INT 0.67 HEIG 19.2
EXP 1 JOINT 33 TO 263
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ XP
1893 LOAD X 1
LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ XN
1893 LOAD X -1
LOAD 3 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ ZP
1893 LOAD Z 1
LOAD 4 LOADTYPE None TITLE EQ ZN
1893 LOAD Z -1
LOAD 5 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL XP
WIND LOAD X 1 TYPE 1
LOAD 6 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL XN
WIND LOAD X -1 TYPE 1
LOAD 7 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL ZP
WIND LOAD Z 1 TYPE 1
LOAD 8 LOADTYPE None TITLE WL ZN
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WIND LOAD Z -1 TYPE 1


LOAD 9 LOADTYPE None TITLE DEAD LOAD
SELFWEIGHT Y -1 LIST 1 TO 32 101 TO 134 201 TO 234 301 TO 334 401 TO 434
501 502 TO 534 601 TO 609 1001 TO 1037 1040 1043 TO 1051 2001 TO 2051 3001
TO 3051 4001 TO 4051 5001 TO 5051 6001 TO 6050 7001 TO 7011
MEMBER LOAD
1001 TO 1026 1028 TO 1034 1036 TO 1050 2001 2002 2005 TO 2008 2011 2012
2023 2024 2026 TO 2028 2030 2031 2036 TO 2038 2040 2042 2044 2047 2050 3001
3002 3005 TO 3008 3011 3012 3023 3024 3026 TO 3028 3030 3031 3036 TO 3038
3040 3042 3044 3047 3050 4001 4002 4005 TO 4008 4011 4012 4023 4024 4026 TO
4028 4030 4031 4036 TO 4038 4040 4042 4044 4047 4050 5001 5002 5005 TO 5008
5011 5012 5023 5024 5026 TO 5028 5030 5031 5036 TO 5038 5040 5042 5044 5047
5050 6003 TO 6005 6008 6011 6012 6036 TO 6038 UNI GY -16
1027 1035 2009 2010 2013 TO 2022 2032 TO 2035 2039 2045 2046 2048 2049 3009
3010 3013 TO 3022 3032 TO 3035 3039 3045 3046 3048 3049 4009 4010 4013 TO
4022 4032 TO 4035 4039 4045 4046 4048 4049 5009 5010 5013 TO 5022 5032 TO
5035 5039 5045 5046 5048 5049 6033 6034 UNI GY -8
6001 6002 6006 6007 6023 TO 6031 6040 6041 6043 6044 6050 7001 TO 7003 7005
7006 TO 7007 7010 7011 UNI GY -2
1051 2051 3051 4051 5051 UNI GY -20
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 GY TOWARDS
7007
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3 GY
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -3.6 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15 GY
LOAD 10 LOADTYPE None TITLE LIVE LOAD
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 0 3.65 GY TOWARDS 7007
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 7.15 11.3 GY
ONEWAY LOAD
YRANGE 4.7 20.7 ONE -2 XRANGE 0 20.5 ZRANGE 3.65 7.15 GY
LOAD COMB 11 SERVICE (DL+LL)
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9 1.0 10 1.0
LOAD COMB 12 ULTIMATE 1.5 (DL+LL)
9 1.5 10 1.5
LOAD COMB 13 1.2 (DL+LL+WL XP)
9 1.2 10 1.2 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 14 1.2 (DL+LL+WL XN)
6 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2
LOAD COMB 15 1.2 (DL+LL+WL ZP)
9 1.2 10 1.2 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 16 1.2 (DL+LL+WL ZN)
9 1.2 10 1.2 8 1.2
LOAD COMB 17 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ XP)
1 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2
LOAD COMB 18 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ XN)
9 1.2 10 1.2 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 19 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ ZP)
3 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2
LOAD COMB 20 1.2 (DL+LL+EQ ZN)
4 1.2 9 1.2 10 1.2
LOAD COMB 21 1.5(DL+EQ XP)
9 1.5 1 1.5
LOAD COMB 22 1.5(DL+EQ XN)
2 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 23 1.5(DL+EQ ZP)
3 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 24 1.5(DL+EQ ZN)
4 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 25 1.5(DL+WL XP)
5 1.5 9 1.5
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LOAD COMB 26 1.5(DL+WL XN)


6 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 27 1.5(DL+WL ZP)
7 1.5 9 1.5
LOAD COMB 28 1.5(DL+WL ZN)
9 1.5 8 1.5
LOAD COMB 29 0.9DL+1.5 EQ XP
9 0.9 1 1.5
LOAD COMB 30 0.9DL+1.5 EQ XN
9 0.9 2 1.5
LOAD COMB 31 0.9DL+1.5 EQ ZP
3 1.5 9 0.9
LOAD COMB 32 0.9DL+1.5 EQ ZN
4 1.5 9 0.9
LOAD COMB 33 0.9DL+1.5 WL XP
9 0.9 5 1.5
LOAD COMB 34 0.9DL+1.5 WL XN
9 0.9 6 1.5
LOAD COMB 35 0.9DL+1.5 WL ZP
9 0.9 7 1.5
LOAD COMB 36 0.9DL+1.5 WL ZN
8 1.5 9 0.9
PERFORM ANALYSIS
LOAD LIST 11 TO 36
PARAMETER 1
CODE INDIAN
STEEL TAKE OFF ALL
FINISH

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12.2 ANALYSIS OF STEEL BUILDING FOR GRAVITY LOADS


The structure is a residential building which comes under the category of
residential cum commercial building. Hence it has taken care of different types of
dead loads. The dead loads could be of its own self weight, furnitures, some
equipment, machineries, computers, store keeps, etc. Hence the building has to be
designed in such a way that it has to take care of all the loads imposed on it. The
easiest way to withstand these loads is by providing proper beams and columns. The
live load of the building could be taken from the standards.

FIG.12.1 DEFORMED SHAPE OF THE BUILDING UNDER GRAVITY


LOADS

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FIG 12.2 MAXIMUM BENDIG MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR GRAVITY


LOADS

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12.3 MAX BM ON BEAM NO 3029 DUE GRAVITY LOADS

12.4 SUMMARY OF BEAM END FORCES DUE TO GRAVITY LOADS

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12.3 ANALYSIS OF STEEL BUILDING FOR WIND LOADS.


WIND LOADS:
Building and their components are to be designed to withstand the
code-specified wind loads. Calculating wind loads is important in design of the wind
force-resisting system, including structural members, components, and cladding
against shear, sliding, overturning, and uplift actions.

FIG 12.5 WIND LOAD ACTING FROM X-VE DIRECTION

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FIG 12.6 MAXIMUM BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM FOR COLUMN NO


125 WIND LOAD ACTING FROM Z -VE DIRECTION

FIG 12.7 SUMMARY OF BEAM END FORCES DUE TO WIND LOAD

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12.4 ANALYSIS OF STEEL BUILDING FOR SIESMIC LOADS:

FIG 12.8 DISPLACEMENT OF BUILDING UNDER SIESMIC LOAD FROM


Z+VE DIRECTION

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FIG 12.9 MAX BM ON COLUMN NO 21 DUE TO SEISMIC LOAD


FROM Z -VE DIRECTION

FIG 12.10 SUMMARY OF BEAM END FORCES DUE TO SEISMIC LOADS

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13. DESIGN OF DECK SLAB


13.1 Introduction
The principal merit of steel-concrete composite construction lies in the
utilization of the compressive strength of concrete in conjunction with steel sheets 0r
beams, in order to enhance the strength and stiffness.
Composite floors with profiled decking consist of the following structural
elements in addition to in-situ concrete and steel beams:

Profiled decking
Shear connection
Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses

Composite floors using profiled sheet decking have are particularly


competitive where the concrete floor has to be completed quickly and where medium
level of fire protection to steel work is sufficient. However, composite slabs with
profiled decking are unsuitable when there is heavy concentrated loading or dynamic
loading in structures such as bridges. The alternative composite floor in such cases
consists of reinforced or pre-stressed slab over steel beams connected together using
shear connectors to act monolithically.
There is presently no Indian standard covering the design of composite floor
systems using profiled sheeting. The structural behaviour of Composite floors using
profiled decks is similar to a reinforced concrete slab, with the steel sheeting acting as
the tension reinforcement. The main structural and other benefits of using composite
floors with profiled steel decking are:

Savings in steel weight are typically 30% to 50% over non-composite


Construction

Greater stiffness of composite beams results in shallower depths for the same
span. Hence lower storey heights are adequate resulting in savings in cladding
costs, reduction in wind loading and savings in foundation costs.

Faster rate of construction

The steel deck is normally rolled into the desired profile from 0.9 mm to 1.5
mm galvanised sheets. It is profiled such that the profile heights are usually in the
range of 38-75 mm and the pitch of corrugations is between 150 mm and 350 mm.
Generally, spans of the order of 2.5 m to 3.5 m between the beams are chosen and the
beams are designed to span between 6 m to 12 m. Trapezoidal profile with web
indentations is commonly used.
The steel decking performs a number of roles, such as:

It supports loads during construction and acts as a working platform


It develops adequate composite action with concrete to resist the imposed

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Loading
It transfers in-plane loading by diaphragm action to vertical bracing or shear
walls
It stabilizes the compression flanges of the beams against lateral buckling,
until concrete hardens.
It reduces the volume of concrete in tension zone
It distributes shrinkage strains, thus preventing serious cracking of concrete.

FIG 13.1: Steel beam bounded to concrete slab with shear

FIG 13.2: Composite floor system using profiled sheets


Profiled sheet decking as permanent form work
Construction stage: During construction, the profiled steel deck acts alone to
carry the weight of wet concrete, self weight, workmen and equipments. It must be
strong enough to carry this load and stiff enough to be serviceable under the weight of
wet concrete only. In addition to structural adequacy, the finished slab must be
capable of satisfying the requirements of fire resistance.
Design should make appropriate allowances for construction loads, which
include the weight of operatives, concreting plant and any impact or vibration that
may occur during construction. These loads should be arranged in such a way that
they cause maximum bending moment and shear. In any area of 3 m by 3 m (or the
span length, if less), in addition to weight of wet concrete, construction loads and
weight of surplus concrete should be provided for by assuming a load of 1.5 kN/m2.
Over the remaining area a load of 0.75 kN/m2 should be added to the weight of wet
concrete.
Composite Beam Stage: The composite beam formed by employing the
profiled steel sheeting is different from the one with a normal solid slab, as the
profiling would influence its strength and stiffness. This is termed composite beam
stage. In this case, the profiled deck, which is fixed transverse to the beam, results in
voids within the depth of the associated slab. Thus, the area of concrete used in
calculating the section properties can only be that depth of slab above the top flange
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of the profile. In addition, any stud connector welded through the sheeting must lie
within the area of concrete in the trough of the profiling. Consequently, if the trough
is narrow, a reduction in strength must be made because of the reduction in area of
constraining concrete. In current design methods, the steel sheeting is ignored when
calculating shear resistance; this is probably too conservative.
Composite Slab Stage: The structural behaviour of the composite slab is
similar to that of a reinforced concrete beam with no shear reinforcement. The steel
sheeting provides adequate tensile capacity in order to act with the concrete in
bending. However, the shear between the steel and concrete must be carried by
friction and bond between the two materials. The mechanical keying action of the
indents is important. This is especially so in open trapezoidal profiles, where the
indents must also provide resistance to vertical separation. The predominant failure
mode is one of shear bond rupture that results in slip between the concrete and steel.
13.2 Design method
As there is no Indian standard covering profiled decking, we refer to Euro
code 4 (EC4) for guidance. The design method defined in EC4 requires that the slab
be checked first for bending capacity, assuming full bond between concrete and steel,
then for shear bond capacity and, finally, for vertical shear. The analysis of the
bending capacity of the slab may be carried out as though the slab was of reinforced
concrete with the steel deck acting as reinforcement. However, no satisfactory
analytical method has been developed so far for estimating the value of shear bond
capacity. The loads at the construction stage often govern the allowable span rather
than at the composite slab stage.
The width of the slab b shown in Figure is one typical wavelength of profiled
sheeting. But, for calculation purpose the width considered is 1.0 m. The overall
thickness is ht and the depth of concrete above main flat surface hc. Normally, ht is not
less than 80 mm and hc is not less than 40 mm from sound and fire insulation
considerations.
The neutral axis normally lies in the concrete in case of full shear connection.
For sheeting in tension, the width of indents should be neglected. Therefore, the
effective area 'Ap' per meter and height of centre of area above bottom 'e' are usually
based on tests. The plastic neutral axis ep is generally larger than e.
The simple plastic theory of flexure is used for analysis of these floors for
checking the design at Limit State of collapse load. IS 456:2000 assumes the
equivalent ultimate stress of concrete in compression as 0.36 (fck) where (fck) is
characteristic cube strength of concrete.

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FIG 13.3: Resistance of composite slab to sagging bending moment


Full shear connection is assumed. Hence, compressive force Ncf in concrete is
equal to steel yield force Npa.

= 0.36 . .

= =

Where
Ap
Fy
ap

=
=
=

Effective area per meter length


yield strength of steel
partial safety factor (1.15)

The natural axis depth is given by

(0.36)
This is valid when x hc, i.e natural axis lies above steel decking.
=

Mp.Rd is the design resistance to sagging bending moment and is given by:
. = ( 0.42)
The shear resistance of composite slab largely depends on connection
between profiled deck and concrete. The following three types of mechanisms
are mobilised:
(i) Natural bond between concrete and steel due to adhesion.
(ii) Mechanical interlock provided by dimples on sheet and shear connectors.
(iii) Provision of end anchorage by shot fired pins or by welding studs when
sheeting is made to rest on steel beams.
Natural bond is difficult to quantify and unreliable, unless separation at the
interface between the sheeting and concrete is prevented. Dimples or ribs are
incorporated in the sheets to ensure satisfactory mechanical interlock. These are
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effective only if the embossments are sufficiently deep. Very strict control during
manufacture is needed to ensure that the depths of embossments are consistently
maintained at an acceptable level. End anchorage is provided by means of shot-fired
pins, when the ends of a sheet rest on a steel beam, or by welding studs through the
sheeting to the steel flange.
Quite obviously the longitudinal shear resistance is provided by the combined
effect of frictional interlock, mechanical interlock and end anchorage. No
mathematical model could be employed to evaluate these and the effectiveness of
the shear connection is studied by means of load tests on simply supported composite
slabs as described in the next section.

Serviceability criteria: The composite slab is checked for the following


serviceability criteria:
Cracking, Deflection and Fire endurance. The crack width is calculated
for the top surface in the negative moment region using standard methods prescribed
for reinforced concrete. Normally crack width should not exceed 3 mm. IS 456: 2000
gives a formula to calculate the width of crack. Provision of 0.4 % steel will normally
avoid cracking problems in propped construction and provision 0.2 % of steel is
normally sufficient in unpropped construction. If environment is corrosive it is
advisable to design the slab as continuous and take advantage of steel provided for
negative bending moment for resisting cracking during service loads.
The IS 456: 2000 gives a stringent deflection limitation of l/350 which may
be un- realistic for un-propped construction. The Euro code gives limitations of l/180
or 20 mm whichever is less. It may be worthwhile to limit span to depth ratio in the
range of 25 to 35 for the composite condition, the former being adopted for simply
supported slabs and the later for continuous slabs. The deflection of the composite
slabs is influenced by the slip-taking place between sheeting and concrete. Tests seem
to be the best method to estimate the actual deflection for the conditions adopted.
The fire endurance is assumed based on the following two criteria:

Thermal insulation criterion concerned with limiting the transmission of heat


by conduction

Integrity criterion concerned with preventing the flames and hot gases to
nearby compartments.

It is met by specifying adequate thickness of insulation to protect combustible


materials. R (time in minutes) denotes the fire resistance class of a member or
component. For instance, R60 means that failure time is more than 60 minutes. It is
generally assumed that fire rating is R60 for normal buildings.

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13.3 Metal Decking:


Metal decking are corrugated steel panels used as a working platform during
construction and eventually as formwork for site cast concrete slab. The decking
panels are secured with puddle-welds or shear welded through the decking to the
supporting steel joist or beams. The panels are fastened to each other along their sides
with screws, weld, or button punching standing seams. If the deck is to serve as a
structural diaphragm and transfer lateral loads to shear walls. Its entire perimeter is
welded to steel supports. In addition, more stringent requirements to support and side
lap fastening may apply. There are three major types of metal

FIG 13.4: Metal Decking


1. Form Decking:
Serves as a permanent formwork for a reinforced concrete slab until
the slab can support itself and its live load.

FIG 13.4: Form Decking

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2. Composite Decking:
Serves as a tensile reinforcement for the concrete slab to which it is bonded
with embossed rib pattern. Composite action between the concrete slab and
the floor beams or joists can be achieve by welding shear studs through the
decking to the supporting beam below.

FIG 13.4: Composite Decking

3. Cellular Decking:
Is manufactured by welding a corrugated sheet to a flat steel sheet, forming a
series of spaces or raceways for electrical and communications wring; special
cutouts are available for floor outlets. The decking may serve as an acoustic
ceiling when the perforated cells are filled with glass fiber.

FIG 13.5: Cellular Decking

13.4 Design of deck slab


From KIRBY TECHNICAL HANDBOOK kirby decking (KD) section
properties and load tables page no 5.9
Assuming 0.7 mm thick Kirby Decking sheet
Weight of sheet
=
6.99 kg/m2 =
Dead load on Deck slab
Self weight of deck slab=
0.1x25 =
Self weight of decking sheet =
Floor finish
=
Live load on deck slab
=
Total load on deck slab
Width of deck slab

=
=

0.06857 kN/ m2
2.5 kN/m2
1 kN/m2
2 kN/m2
5.568kN/m2
1.2 m

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Allowable load on kirby decking


=
6.82 kN/m2
Properties of decking sheet
For Panel nominal thickness of 0.7 mm,
Girth
=
11.45 mm

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Weight
Shear and web crippling

6.99 /2

= 26.19 kN
= 17.54 kN
Top flat in compression:
Deflection in 4 =
12.55
3
Sx (top) in
=
10.01
3
Sx (bot) in :
=
4.03
Ma (kN-m)
=
0.83
Bottom flat in compression
Deflection in 4 =
12.58
3
Sx (top) in
=
11.28
3
Sx (bot) in
=
3.95
Ma (kN-m)
=
0.81
Provide 0.7 mm thick Kirby decking sheet and 100 mm thick slab
Reinforcement in slab
Provide nominal reinforcement 8 mm dia @ 250 mm C/C in both directions
GIRTH CONNECTIONS
The decking sheet is connected to beams and columns with suitable nuts and
bolts. The typical drawing of connection of girth to column and beam is shown below.

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14.DESIGN OF BEAMS
14.1 INTRODUCTION:
A member subjected to bending moment and shear force due to transverse
loads is called a Beam (or) the member carrying loads perpendicular to its axis is
called a Beam.

Classification of Beams:
The steel beams are generally classified as follows:
1. Simple Beams
2. Compound beam/ Built-up beam/ Plated beam.
3. Plate girders
1. Simple beam
When a single rolled section is provided to support the lateral load is called a
simple beam.
2. Compound Beam (or) Built up Beam:
When two or more rolled sections (or) rolled sections with plates are used as
flexural member is called a compound beam (or) built up beam. A rolled
section with one (or) more crown plates on its flange, when used as a beam is
called plated beam.
3. Plate griders:
When heavy loads are to be carried on large span, it may not be possible to
provide simple (or) compound beams. In such cases plate griders made up of
plates either riveted (or) welded together are used.

Laterally Restrained Beams:


A beam is said to be laterally restrained, when its compression flange is
supported laterally and it is not allowed to have moments in the lateral direction.
Because, the tendency of the compression flange to buckle under axial compressive
stresses is prevented, the safe allowable bending stress in compression may be taken
the same as that for tension.

Permissible Bending Stress:


If the compression flange of the beam is restrained laterally (or) (flat) for
laterally restrained beam the bending stress in the compression may be taken same as
that of bending stress in tension.
i.e., = 0.66
where fy= minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa.
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if

fy= 250 Mpa,


= 0.66x250 = 165 .

Effective Span:
Effective span of beam shall be taken as the length of the beam between the
centres of the support (or) the length between assumed points of applications of
reactions. It is denoted by l.

14.2 Design Procedure:


A beam section is usually chosen which can resist maximum bending moment
occurring over its span. The shear stress and deflection for the chosen sections are
then checked to be with in the permissible limits. Check for web crippling and web
buckling are the secondary design requirements to be checked in some cases of beams
with heavy concentrated loads (or) reaction of supports.
(i)

Design for Bending:


The bending stress bc (or) bt at any point on a cross-section of a beam due
to bending moment M is given by.
M
xY = (or)
I
Where,
(cal)(or) (cal)= bending stress (compressive or tensile) calculated
at a point at a distance y from the neutral axis.
M
= bending moment
I
= moment of inertia of the cross-section of beam.
The point of maximum bending stress occurs at the extreme fibre and the
I

corresponding ratio is called the sectional modulus designated by Z.


Y
M
= (cal)(or) (cal)
Z
Since the calculated bending stress (cal)(or) (cal) is lesser than the
permissible bending (or) .
M
or
Z
M
Z

M
Z

A suitable beam section is chosen which have the sectional modulus


slightly more than Z calculated from the equations.

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14.3Moment of Resistance:
It is the bending moment which a beam can resist.
Moment of resistance = Z x or
The external loads should not cause a bending moment more than the moment of
resistance of the beam.

Load Carrying Capacity of the Beam:


1. From the strength consideration, the load carrying capacity of the beam
is calculated by the equation.
Moment of resistance = Zxx x or
2. Calculate the max. Bending moment in the beam depending upon the
type of the beam and loading.
i.
ii.

Simply supported carrying u.d.l max. Bending Moment =


Simply supported carrying point load Max. B.M.=

Cantilever carrying u.d.l, Max. B.M. =

iv.

Cantilever carrying point load Max. B.M. = .

iii.

14.4 Shear:
1. Calculate maximum shear force in the beam depending upon the type of
loading .
i.

Simply supported carrying u.d.l max. Shear force () =

ii.

Simply supported carrying point load Max. S.F. =

iii.
Cantilever carrying u.d.l, Max. S.F. =
iv.
Cantilever carrying point load Max. S.F. =
2. Calculate average shear stress ,
V
, =
x
3. , should be less than permissible avg. Shear stress.
= 0.4

14.5 Maximum Deflection:


i.

Simply supported carrying u.d.l over span =

ii.

Simply supported carrying point load =


4

iii.

Cantilever carrying u.d.l, =

iv.

Cantilever carrying point load. =

8EI

384 EI
1 3

48 EI

3
3EI

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Permissible Deflection (Allowable Deflection):


=

span
325

To satisfy the strength and stiffness requirements of the beam should not
be greater than of the beam.

Web Crippling and Web Buckling:


A beam may fail under a concentrated load or at end reaction due to crippling
of web or by buckling of web.
14.6 Web Crippling:
The depression of load is assumed to be at 300
The bearing stress in the web at the root of the fillet will be equal to

(+2 2 3)

(+2 2 3)

for inter mediate loads.


for end supports.

Where, w= concentrated loads on the beam (N)


R= end reaction at supports (N)
tw= thickness of web (mm)
a= bearing length (mm)
h2= depth of the root of the fillet from the top of the flange (mm).
p= maximum permissible bearing stress = 0.75
fy= yield stress of steel.
14.7 Web Buckling:
Load bearing stiffeners at all points of concentrated loads (including points of
support) should be provided where,
W or R > x x B
Where W or R= concentrated load or reaction at support respectively.
ac= maximum permissible axial stress for columns in Table 5.1 of IS: 800 for
slenderness ratio =

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B= the length of the stiff portion of the bearing + additional length + thickness
of seating angle
h1= clear depth of the web between root fillets normally check for web
crippling and web buckling is not required for rolled steel sections under normal
loading.

14.8 Design of Tension Members:


Tension members subjected to axial forces may fail by rupture at a critical
section or it may become non-functional due to excessive elongation. Plates and other
rolled sections in tension may also fail by block shear of end bolted regions.
The factored design tension T in the member should comply with the
following criteria:

<
Where = lowest design strength of the member due to yielding of gross section
under axial tension.

Design strength due to yielding of gross section: As per is 800-2007 the


design strength of the member under axial tension Tdg, as governed by yielding of
gross section, is expressed as

Where = yield stress of material


= gross area of cross-section
= partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding as compiled in the
following table.
Table 14.1: Partial safety factor for materials (m)
Sl
No.
1
2
3
4

Definitions

Partial factor of safety

Resistance, governed by yielding


Resistance of member to buckling,
Resistance, governed by ultimate stress,
ml
Resistance of connection

1.10
1.10

a. Bolts: friction type, mf


b. Bolts: bearing type, mb
c. Rivets, mr

1.25
Type of fabrications
Shop
Field
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25

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d. Welds, mw

1.25

1.50

Design strength due to rupture of critical section:


a. Plates: the design strength of a plate Tdn, as governed by rupture of the net
cross- sectional area. An at the hole is given by

0.9
1

Where m1= partial safety factor for failure at ultimate stress as compile in the table
above
Fu= ultimate stress of the material

An= +

2
1
4

Where b, t = width and thickness of the plate, respectively


dh = diameter of the bolt hole (2mm in addition to the diameter of the hole in
case of directly punched hole).
g = gauge length between the bolt holes as shown in the figure below
ps = staggered pitch length between line of the bolt holes as shown in the
figure below
n = number of bolt holes as shown in the figure below
I = subscript for summation of all the inclined legs.

b. Threaded rods : the design strength of threaded rods in tension, Tdn, as


governed by rupture is expressed as

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0.9
1

Where An= net root area at the threaded section


c. Single Angles: the rupture strength of an angle connected through one leg is
affected by shear lag. The design strength Tdn as governed by the rupture at
net section is given by the relation

0.9
+
1
0

Where

= 1.4-0.076

0.7

Where w= outstand leg width


bs = shear lag width, as shown in figure below
Lc = length of end connection, that is, the distance between the outermost bolts
in the end joint measured along with the load direction or length of the weld along the
load direction.

For preliminary sizing, the rupture strength of net section may be approximately taken
as :

Where = 0.6 for one or two bolts, 0.7 for three bolts and 0.8for four or more bolts
along the length in the end connection or equivalent weld length
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An= net area of the total cross-section


Anc= net area of the connected leg
Ago= gross area of the outstanding leg
t= thickness of the leg
in the case of double angles, channels, I-sections and other rolled steel sections,
connected by one or more elements to an end gusset, the rupture strength is also
governed by tearing of net section may also be calculated using the above- mentioned
equation. However the value of is calculated based on the shear leg distance bs taken
from the farthest edge of the outstanding leg to the nearest bolt/weld line in the
connected leg of the cross- section.
Design strength due to block shear: The design strength controlled by block shear
end connection of plates and angles is computed using the following equations:

a)

Bolted connections : the block shear strength, Tdb of connection is taken as


the smaller value of


30

0.9
0

Where, Avg= minimum gross and net area in shear along bolt line parallel to
external force respectively (1-2 and 3-4 as shown in the figure a. and 1-2 as
shown in the fig b)
Atn= minimum gross and net area in tension from the bolt hole to the
toe of the angle, end bolt line, perpendicular to the line of force, respectively
(2-3 as shown in the figure b.)
fu= ultimate and yield stress of the material, respectively

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b) Welded connections: the block shear strength, Tdb shall be checked for
welded end connections by taking an approximate section in the member
around the end weld which can shear off as a block.
Design of flexural members:
1. General aspects
Flexural members such as beams should have adequate design strength to
resist the bending moments and shear forces resulting from imposed loads. In
addition, they should satisfy the serviceability criteria comprising the
deflection limits specified in table. given below for different types of
structural members. The maximum deflection under service loads should not
exceed the limits expressed as a function of the span given in the code. The
effective span of a beam is generally taken as the distance between the centre
of the supports.
Maximu
Type of
Deflecti Design
Member
Supporting
m
building
on
load
(4)
(5)
deflection
(1)
(2)
(3)
(6)
Elastic
Live
Span/150
cladding
load/
Purlins and
wind
Brittle
girts
Span/180
load
cladding
Elastic
Span/240
cladding
Live
Simple span
load
Brittle
Span/300
cladding
Elastic
Span/120
cladding
Live
Cantilever
load
span
Brittle
Span/150
cladding
Profiled metal
Span/180
sheeting
Live
Rafter
Industrial
Vertical
load
supporting
Plastered
building
Span/240
sheeting
Crane
load
(manual
Gantry
Crane
Span/500
operatio
n up to
50 t)
Crane
load
(electric
Gantry
Crane
Span/750
operatio
n up to
50 t)
Crane
Gantry
Crane
Span/100
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load
(electric
operatio
n over
50 t)
No
crane

Crane +
wind
Lateral

Crane +
wind

Live
load
Vertical
Live
load

Other
building

Wind
Lateral
Wind

Elastic
Height/15
cladding
0
Column
Masonry/brittl Height/24
e cladding
0
Relative
displacement
between rails
10 mm
Gantry
supporting
(lateral)
crane
Crane
Span/400
(absolute)
Gantry (elastic
cladding;
Height/20
pendent
0
Column/fram
operated)
e
Gantry (brittle
Height/40
cladding; cab
0
operated)
Elements not
susceptible to Span/300
cracking
Floor and
roof
Elements
susceptible to Span/360
cracking
Elements not
susceptible to Span/150
cracking
Cantilever
Elements
susceptible to Span/180
cracking
Elastic
Height/30
cladding
0
Building
Brittle
Height/50
cladding
0
Inter storey
Storey
---drift
height/300

2. Design strength in flexure


The following specifications govern the design of flexural members. Flexural
members adequately supported against lateral torsional buckling(laterally
supported beams) is governed by the yield stress. The factored design
moment, M at any section, in a beam due to external loads should satisfy the
relation
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M Md
Where Md = design bending strength of the section
a) The design bending strength of a section which is not susceptible to web
buckling under shear before yielding and factored design shear force does
not exceed 0.6 Vd, where Vd is the design shear strength of the crosssection, the bending strength Md is calculated by the relation

M =
0
Where = 1.0 for plastic and compact sections
=

for semi- compact sections

zp, ze = plastic and elastic section moduli of the cross-section,


respectively

= yield stress of the material


0 = partial safety factor
To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads, Md
1.2
should be less than [
0 ]in case of simply supported and
[

1.5

0 ] in cantilever beams.

b) In the case of laterally unsupported beams, the resistance to lateral


torsional buckling need not be checked separately in the following cases:
1) Bending is about the minor axis of the section,
2) Section is hollow (rectangular/tubular) or solid bars,
3) In case of bending about the major axis, the non-dimensional
slenderness ratio (LT) is less than 0.4
The design bending strength of laterally unsupported beams as
governed by lateral torsional buckling is calculated by the relation
M =
Where

= design bending compressive stress, computed as


=

= bending stress reduction factor to account for lateral


torsional buckling, given by the relation:

1
+[2 + 2 ]0.5

1.0

= 0.5[1 + 0.2 + 2 ]
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The imperfection parameter is given by

= 0.21 for rolled steel section


= 0.49 for welded steel section
The non-dimensional slenderness ratio, is given by the relation

1.2

Where fcr,b = extreme fibre bending compressive stress


Mcr = elastic critical moment calculated by the expression,
=

2
2

2
} = ,
2

The extreme fibre bending compressive stress fcr,b of non-slender rolled steel
sections in the above equation may be approximately calculated from the values
compiled in table in IS: 800 which has been prepared using the following equation:

, =

1.1 2
1
[1 +

20
( )2

]0.5

A simplified equation has been suggested by the Indian standard code IS: 8002007 for computing the elastic lateral buckling moment of prismatic members made
of standard rolled I-sections and welded doubly symmetric I-sections given as
2

[1 +

1
20

]0.5

Where Iy = moment of inertia about the weaker axis


ry = radius of gyration about the weaker axis
It = torsional constant =

3 /3 for open section

Iw = warping constant
LLT = effective length for lateral torsional buckling
hf = centre to centre distance between flange
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tf = thickness of the flange


The Indian Standard Code IS: 800-2007 also recommends the use of a more
accurate method given in Annexure E of the code for computing the elastic critical
moment considering loading, support conditions and non-symmetric sections of the
member.
3. Effective length for lateral torsional buckling
In the case of simply supported beams and griders of span length, L,
where no lateral restraint to the compression flanges is provided, but where
each end of the beam is restrained against torsion, the effective length LLT to
be used for different types of restraint at supports and loading conditions are
compiled in table given below.
In the case of cantilever beams of projecting length L, the effective
length LLT to be used in tablefor different support conditions.
4. Shear
The factored shear force V, in a beam due to external actions should
satisfy the relation,
V Vd

Where Vd = design strength =


0
The nominal shear strength of a cross-section, Vn may be governed by
plastic shear resistance or strength of the web influenced by shear buckling
outlined below;
Table on effective length for simply supported beams, LLT
SI
Conditions of restraint at
Loading condition
NO.
support
Torsional
Warping
Normal
Destabilizing
restraint
restraint
(1)
(4)
(5)
(2)
(3)
Both flanges
Fully
(i)
fully
0.70L
0.85L
restrained
restrained
Compression
Fully
(ii)
flange fully
0.75L
0.90L
restrained
restrained
Both flanges
Fully
(iii)
fully
0.80L
0.95L
restrained
restrained
Compression
Fully
flange
(iv)
0.85L
1.00L
restrained
partially
restrained
Warping not
Fully
(v)
restrained in
0.00L
1.20L
restrained
both flanges
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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

(vi)

(vii)

Partially
restrained by
bottom flange
support
connection
Partially
restrained by
bottom flange
bearing
support

Warping not
restrained in
both flanges

1.0L+2D

1.2L+2D

Warping not
restrained in
both flanges

1.2L+2D

1.4L+2D

Notes:
1. Torsional restraint prevents rotation about the longitudinal axis
2. Warping restraint prevents rotation of the flange in its plane.
3. D is overall depth of the beam

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1) Plastic shear resistance


The nominal plastic shear resistance under pure shear is expressed by the
relation,
Vn = Vp
Where =

Av = shear area
fyw = yield strength of the web
the shear area for various sections
is computed using the following relations:
a) I and channel sections
Major axis bending. Minor axis bending
Hot-rolled: h.tw
Hot-rolled or welded: 2b tf
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b) Rectangular hollow sections of uniform thickness


Loaded parallel to depth (h): [Ah/(b+h)]
Loaded parallel to width (b): [Ab/(b+h)]
c) Circular hollow tubes of uniform thickness: [ 2 A/]
d) Plates and solid bars: A
Where
A = cross-section of area
b= overall depth of tubular section, breadth of I-section flanges
d= clear depth of web between flanges
h= overall depth of the section
tf= thickness of the flange
tw= thickness of the web
2) Resistance to shear buckling
The resistance to shear buckling should be verified when

> 67 for a web without stiffeners

> 67

5.35

for a web with stiffeners

Where Kv = shear buckling coefficient defined in the following paragraphs


=

250

The computations for shear buckling design are detailed as below:


The nominal shear strength, Vn of webs with or without intermediate
stiffeners as governed by buckling may be evaluated using one of the
following methods:
(a) Simple post-critical method
The simple post-critical method, based on shear buckling strength can
be used for webs of I-sections griders, with or without intermediate
transverse stiffeners, provided that the web has transverse stiffeners at
the supports.
The nominal shear strength is given by:
Vn = Vcr
Where
Vcr = shear force corresponding to web buckling
= (AvTb)
Tb = shear stress corresponding to web buckling determined as follows:
1) When w 0.8
=

2) When 0.8 < w < 1.2


= [1 0.8 0.8 ]

3) When w 1.2
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32
Where w = non-dimensional web slenderness ratio for shear
buckling stress, given by
=

3 ,

Tcr,e= the elastic shear stress of the web


=

12(1 2 )

Where
= Poissons ratio
Kw= 5.35 when transverse stiffeners are provided only at supports
= 4+ 5.35/ (c/d)2 for (c/d) < 1.0
= 5.35 +4.0 / (c/d)2 for (c/d) 1.0
Where c, d are the spacing of transverse stiffeners and depth of
web, respectively.
(b) Tension field method
This method is based on the post-shear buckling strength. It is
normally used for webs with intermediate transverse stiffeners. In the
tension field method, the nominal shear resistance, Vn, is given by
Vn= Vtf
Where
= + 0.9 sin
Where Tb = buckling strength as computed from the simple postcritical method.
fv = yield strength of the tension field computed as
0.5

2
=
32 + 2

= 1.5 sin 2
= inclination of the tension field

= tan1

wtf = width of the tension field given as


= cos + sin
fyw = yield stress of the web
c = spacing of stiffeners in the web
Tb= shear stress corresponding
sc, st = anchorage lengths of the tension flange respectively, obtained
from the relation:

2
=
sin

0.5

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Where Mfr = reduced plastic moment capacity of the respective flange


plate ( disregarding any edge stiffener) after accounting for the axial
force in the cross-section, and is calculated as:
=

0.25 2

1
/0

Where bf, tf = width and thickness of the relevant flange respectively


fyf = yield stress of the flange

CALCULATIONS:
Design:
The unit weight of reinforced concrete deck slab

= 25 kN/m3

Live load on the floor

= 2 kN/m2

3.00m
1.2 m

1.2 m

1.2 m

3.60m
(1) DESIGN OF SECONDARY BEAMS:
Each secondary beams supports load from strip 1.2 m wide. Uniformly
distributed load per meter length of the beam:
(a) Load Support:

Weight of reinforced concrete slab

Live load on the floor

= 1.2 x 1x

100
1000

x25 = 3 kN

= 1.2x1x2 = 2.4 kN

Assume self-weight of the beam

= 0.50 kN

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= 3 + 2.4 + 0.50 = 5.9 kN 6 kN

Total uniformly distributed load

(b) Bending Moment and Shear Force:


The effective span of the beam is 3m the maximum bending moment, M
occurs at the centre.
2
=
8

M=

6x32
= 6.75 kN m
8

The maximum shear force, F occurs at the support,

6x3
=
= 9 kN
2
2

F=

(c) Permissible Bending Stress:


It is assumed that the value of yield stress fy for the structural steel is 250
N/mm2 (Mpa). The ratioss

&

are less than 2.0 and 85

respectively. The maximum permissible stress in compression (or) tension


may be assumed below.
= = 0.66x250 = 165 kN/mm2
(d) Section Modulus Required:
z=

M
6.75x1000x1000
=
= 40909.09 mm3

165

The steel beam section shall have

D
T

&

ratios should be not more

than 8 and 40, respectively. The trial section of beam selected may have
more of section, Z x 1.5 times more than that needed.
The trial section modulus
= 1.5 x 40909.09 = 61363.635 mm3
(e) Check for Section Modulus:
D
200
=
= 40
T
5.0
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T
5.0
=
= 1.47 < 2.00
3.4
Also
1 179.5
=
= 52.79 < 85

3.4
The effective length of compression flange of beam may be assumed equal
to effective span,

0.7x3x1000
=
= 179.4

11.7
From Table 6.1(b), IS: 800-1984 maximum permissible bending stress.

= 170, = 75

= 180, = 71

= 179.4, =?

= 75

75 71
179.4 170 = 71.24 N/2
180 170

Section Modulus required


z=

6.75x1000x1000
= 94.75 cm3
71.24

Provide sectional area 36.71 cm3 due to economical and architectural


purposes.
(f) Properties of Trial Sections:
From steel sections tables, ISJB 200 @ 0.99 kN/m
Section Modulus provided Zxx = 78.1 x 10 3 mm3
Moment of Inertia, Ixx = 780.7 x 104 mm4
Thickness of web tw = 3.4 mm
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Depth of Section h= 300 mm


Mean Thickness of Flange, tf = 9.4 mm
(g) Check for Shear Force:
F

Average shear stress =

9
200x3.4

= 13.23 N/2

Allowable shear stress


= 0.4x = 0.4 x 250 = 100 > . 13.23
(h) Check for Deflection:

5 4
=
342 EI

5x6x34 x(1000)4
= 3.959 mm
342x2.047x105 x780.7x104

Allowable deflection
=

3000
=
= 9.23 mm
325
325

The maximum deflection is less than allowable deflection.


Hence, design is satisfactory.
(2) DESIGN OF MAIN BEAM:
(a) Load Supported:
The effective span is taken as distance c/c of bearings
Effective span = 3.60 m
Load transferred from each secondary beam = 6 x 1.2 = 7.2 kN
Assume self-weight of beam = 2 kN/m
(b) Bending moment:
The maximum bending moment occurs at centre due to UDL
1 = 16 + 2 = 18

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M1 =

1 2
18x3.62
=
= 29.16 kN m
8
8

End reaction due to concentrated load =

7.2 x 1.2
2

= 4.32 kN

Total load w2 = 2x4.32 = 8.64 kN


M2 = moment due to secondary beam
No. of secondary beams = 2
2 2
= 13.99 kN m
8

M2 =

M = M1 + M2 = 29.16 + 13.99 = 43.15 kN m


The secondary beams are connected to the web at 1.2 m c/c. The
compression flange is assumed to the fully supported against lateral
deflection.
(c) Permissible Bending Stress:
It is assumed that the value of yield stress, fy for the structural steel is 250
N/mm2(Mpa). The ratioss

&

are less than 2.0 and 85

respectively. The maximum permissible stress in compression or tension


may be assumed as under (for laterally supported beam)
= = 0.66x250 = 165 kN/mm2
(d) Section Modulus Required:
z=

M
43.15x1000x1000
=
= 261515.1515 mm3

165

From steel section tables try ISHB 250 @ 51.0 kN/m


Section modulus provided
= 618.9 x 103 mm3
Moment of Inertia I = 7736.5 x 104 mm4
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Thickness of web, = 6.9


Depth of section, h = 250 mm
Total load on griders inclusive of its own weight
= 6.75x1.2x1.2 + 0.51x3.60 = 11.556 kN
Maximum Shear Force
=

11.556
= 5.778 kN
2

(e) Check for Average Shear Stress:


Avg. shear stress
, =

5.778x1000
= 3.349 N/mm2
250x6.9

Allowable shear stress


= 0.4x = 0.4 x 250 = 100 > . 3.349

Hence, safe.
(f) Check for Moment:
z=
M = . =

165x618.9x1000
1000x1000

= 102.1185 > 43.15 kN m Hence, safe.

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15. DESIGN OF COLUMN


15.1 INTRODUCTION:
An element or a member subjected to primary compression is called a
compression member.
There are two main types of such members
1. Column and
2. Struts
1. Column: The vertical compression member in a building is called column
or stanchion.
2. Strut: The structural member carrying compressive load in a truss is
called strut.

15.2STEEL COLUMNS:
Steel columns are of the following types:
a. Struts of one or two angles:
These are used for compression members in roof trusses, light towers, and
lattice griders. The two angles of double struts are riveted together by
rivets driven through washers placed between the two angles at intervals of
4 to 6ft.
b. Starred angles:
Starred angles of two or four connected by batten plate spaced at intervals
of 3 to 4ft. these are used to support the light loads.
c. Latticed columns:
These are made up of channels or angles connected by lattice bars are
often used where light loads are to be supported on long columns.
d. Rolled H-columns:
These are obtainable with depths ranging from 6 to 16 and are now
commonly used instead of built-up columns in steel skeleton construction.
e. Built-up columns:
These are usually H-shaped section formed by a combination of plates and
angles although box-columns with two or more webs are not uncommonly
used in heavy building frames.
f. Top chord sections:
These are made up of heavy trusses are usually unsymmetrical and are
made of two rolled or built-up channel sections and cover plate. The
open(bottom) side of the section is latticed.
g. Columns for bents:
These are sometimes made up of a pair of channels and a I-beam with
batten plates at intervals of 3 to 4ft. connecting the flanges of the channels.
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Columns made of four angles and a web-plate are commonly used in mill
buildings bents.
h. Battened columns:
Battened columns are those in which two component parts of the column
are connected only by battened plates. They are decidedly inferior to
latticed columns and should be avoided if a continuous plate or latticing
can be used instead.

15.3 Effective Length:


Effective length is defined as that length of column for which it acts as if both
the ends are hinged. At these points, the flexure changes its sign or in other words it is
the distance between two points of zero moments.
Effective length for different end conditions are enlisted in Table-5.2 of IS: 8001984

Radius of Gyration:
Radius of gyration of a section is given by
=

Where I= moment of inertia


A= area of cross-section

Slenderness Ratio:
Slenderness ratio is the ratio of effective length to the least radius of gyration.
It is denoted by
=

The maximum slenderness ratio of a strut should not exceed the values given in table3.1 of IS: 800-1984.
Table 15.1: Maximum slenderness ratio
S.No.
1.

Member
A member carrying
compressive loads
resulting from dead and
imposed loads

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Maximum slenderness
180

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2.

3.

A member subjected to
compressive forces
resulting from wind/
earthquake forces provided
the deformation of such
member does not
adversely affect the stress
in any part of the structure
A member normally
carrying tension but
subjected to reversal of
stresses due to wind or
earthquake forces

250

350

15.4 Permissible Stress in axial Compression (ac):


The direct stress in compression on the cross-sectional area of axially loaded
compression members shall not exceed 0.6fy nor calculated using the formula.

Where ac= permissible stress in axial compression


fy= yield stress of steel, in Mpa.
fcc= elastic critical stress in compression =

2E
2

n = a factor assumed as 1.4 the values of ac for steel with various yield stress
are given in Table-4.3 of IS: 800-1984

15.5 Strength of Axially Loaded Compression Member (column &


strut):
The maximum axial compressive load P which can be permitted on a
compression member is given by
P = x A
Where P= axial compressive load (N)
ac= permissible stress in axial compression (Mpa)
A= effective cross-sectional area of the member (mm2)
Note: The axial compressive load (or) load carrying capacity of a column (or)
compression member depends on the following parameters
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(i)

Slenderness rtatio, =

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Yield stress of steel (fy)


Permissible stress in axial compression (ac)
Effective cross-sectional area of the member (A)

15.6 Design of Compression Members


In design of steel columns the following should be taken into consideration:
No part of steel column should be less than thick
No material whether in a body of the column or used as a lattice bar or
stay plate, shall be of less thickness than 1/32 of its unsupported width,
measured between centers of rivets transversely, or 1/6 of the distance
between center of rivets in the direction of stress.
Tie-plates are to have not less than 4 rivets and are to be spaced so that
the ratio of length to the least radius of gyration of the parts connected
does not exceed 40, the distance between nearest rivets of two stay
plates in this case being considered as length
In built-up columns the thickness of any outstanding member (for
example, the outstanding legs of angles) shall not be less than 1/12 of
the width of the outstanding portion.
Base plates for steel column are usually made of steel plates and
shapes.
Cast-iron bases are sometimes used for very heavy columns. Ribbed
cases may also be used instead of plates and when bolted to the
columns, add greatly to the stability of the supporting members
because of their greater width.
Lally columns:
These are columns made up of a cylindrical steel pipe shell filled with
1

1: 1 : 3 portland cement concrete. The standard type of lally column is


2

reinforced with only the steel pipe shell. Special types of columns are
obtainable with additional reinforcement consisting of steel pipe,
reinforcing bars or structural steel shapes. The light weight column of
1

0.134, while the heavy- weight columns are from 3 to 12

inches in

outside diameter with shell thickness of 0.216 to 0.375 inches.


Composite columns:
These are columns in which a concrete core is further reinforced with a
steel or cast-iron core designed to support a part of the load. Steel cores
may be structural H-sections or four angles, latticed or battened; cast-iron
cores are usually either solid shafts or hollow pipe sections. The column
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may be further reinforced by vertical rods or bars placed at the


circumference and enclosed by spirals.
1. Design strength: steel structural members carrying usually fail by flexural
buckling. The buckling strength is affected by the residual stresses, initial
curvature and accidental eccentricities if the load. These factors are considered
while computing the strength of structural steel members subjected to axial
compression by introducing an imperfection factor and categorizing the
columns under buckling class a, b, c or d as shown in the table no.1
Table 1:
Buckling class

0.21

0.34

0.49

0.76

The design compressive strength Pd of a compression member is given by the relation:

<
Where

=
Where = effective cross-sectional area of the member
=design compressive stress computed by using the following equation:

Where =

0
=
2 2

0.5

0 0

0.5 1 + 0 + 2

= non- dimensional effective slenderness ratio

= Euler buckling stress =

Where

2
2

= effective slenderness ratio or ratio of effective length, KL to

approximate radius of gyration, r


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Table 15.2
= imperfection factor compiled in table
= stress reduction factor as shown in the table for different buckling classes,
slenderness ratios and yield stresses.

1
+ 2 2
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0 = partial factor of safety for material strength.


The calculated values of the design compressive stress, fcd for different
buckling classes a, b, c or d are compiled in table no.2 for different types rolled steel
cross-section such as I, channel, angle, tee, solid and built up sections. The stress
reduction factor and design compressive stress fcd for different buckling classes,
yield stresses and effective slenderness ratios is compiled in the code book and these
are useful in design computations. In addition, the curves corresponding to different
buckling classes are shown in non- dimensional form in the figure below.

2. Effective length of compression members: the effective length of


compression members depends upon the end support conditions influencing
the rotation and translation of the member. The end conditions are either
restrained or free depending upon the type construction at supports. The actual
length is generally taken from centre to centre of its intersections with a free
end, the free end standing length from the centre of the intersecting member at
the supported end is considered as the actual length.
If L is the actual length of the compression member, the effective length varies
from 0.65L to 2L depending upon the type of support and boundary conditions.
The effective length KL can be calculated using table no.3 for different types of
boundary conditions encountered in practice.
In case of bolted, riveted or welded trusses and braces frames, the effective
length, KL of the compression members should be taken as 0.7 to 1.0 times the
distance between centre's of connections, depending on the degree of end restraint
provided by the connection. In the case of members of trusses, effective length,
KL is taken as the distance between the centre's of intersection.
3. Column bases:column bases should be designed to have sufficient strength
and stiffness to transmit the axial force, bending moments and shear forces
developed at the base of the columns without exceeding the load carrying
capacity of the supports. Suitable anchor bolts and shear keys are designed
whenever necessary.
The nominal bearing pressure between the base plate and the support may be
determined on the basis of linearly varying distribution of pressure. The maximum
bearing pressure should not exceed the bearing strength should exceed the bearing
strength which is limited to 0.6fck, where
fck = smaller of the characteristic cube strength of concrete or bedding material
In case where the base plate is larger than the required to limit the bearing
pressure, an equal projection c of the base plate beyond the face of the column and
gusset may be taken as effective in transferring the column load as shown in the
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table no.2, such that the bearing pressure on the effective area does not exceed the
bearing capacity of the concrete base.
When a column is provided with a slab base, the minimum thickness, ts of the
rectangular slab base supporting the column under axial compression is calculated
by the relation

(2.5(^2 0.3^2 ) 0 )
>

Table 15.3
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FIG : Effective area of base plate


Where w = uniform pressure from below, on th slab base under the factored load axial
compression.
, = larger and smaller projection, respectively of the slab base beyond the
rectangle circumscribing the column
= flange thickness of compression member.
When only the effective area of the base plate is used, 2 may be used in the above
equation instead of 2 0.3 2 .
4. Design of lacings: columns comprising two main components are generally
Tied together by lacings and battens for composite action. Typical examples of
different types of lacings used in columns are shown in the figure given below
The following specifications are applicable for design of laced columns:
a) The lacing is proportioned to resist a total transverse shear Vt at at any
point in the member equal to at least 2.5 percent of the axial force in the
member and shall be divided equality among all transverse lacing systems
in parallel planes.
b) The slenderness ratio (KL/r) of the lacing bars should not exceed 145. The
effective length of the lacing bars should be taken as he length between the
inner end fasteners of the bars for single lacing and 0.7 times the distance
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between the inner ends of welds connecting the lacing bars to the member.
The effective slenderness ratio (KL/r)e, of laced columns should be taken
as 1.05 times the (KL/r)0 , the actual maximum slenderness ratio, in order
to account for shear deformation effects.
c) The minimum width of lacing bars in bolted/riveted connections should be
three times the nominal diameter of the end bolt or rivet.
d) The thickness of the lacing bars should be less not than one-fortieth of its
effective length for double lacings. The inclination of the lacings and onesixtieth of the effective length for double lacings. The inclination of the
lacing bars should lie in the range of 40 to 70 degrees to the axis of the
member.
The maximum spacing of lacing bars should be such that maximum
slenderness ratio of the components of the main member between consecutive
lacing connections is not greater than 50 to 0.7 times the most unfavorable
slenderness ratio of the member as a whole, whichever is less.
5. Design of battens: compression members built up of two components
connected by battens should preferably have the same cross-section
symmetrically arranged about their major axis.
The code also recommends that the compression member should have
a radius of gyration about the axis perpendicular to the plane of the batten not
less than the radius of gyration about the axis parallel to the plane of the batten
as shown in the figure
The following specifications are applicable for the design of battens:
(a.) Battens are designed to resist the bending moment and transverse shear
force Vt equal to 2.5 per cent of the total axial force on the whole
compression member. They are also designed to resist simultaneously a
shear force and a moment computed by the equations

And =

Where Vt = transverse shear force as defined above


C = distance between centre- to-centre of battens in the longitudinal
direction
N = number of parallel planes of battens
S = minimum transverse distance between the centroid of the rivet/bolt
group/ welding connecting the batten to the main member.

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(b.) The thickness of the plates used as battens should be not less than onefortieth of the distance between the inner-most connecting line of rivets,
bolts or welds, the end battens should have an effective depth,
longitudinally not less than the perpendicular distance between the
centroids of the main members.
The intermediate battens should have an effective depth of not more
than three quarters of this distance, but in no case should the effective depth of
any batten be less than twice the width of one member, in the plane of the
battens. The effective depth of the batten is taken as the longitudinal distance
between the outer-most bolts, rivets or welds at the ends.
(c.) The spacing of the battens, centre-to-centre of its end fastenings, should be
such that the slenderness ratio (KL/r) of any component over that distance
should not exceed a value of 50, nor be greater than 0.7 times the
slenderness ratio of the member as a whole about its axis parallel to the
battens (z z).
(d.) Tie plates, members provided at the ends of battened or laced members,
should also be designed in the same method as battens.

Design of flexural member:


General aspects: flexural members such as beams should have adequate design
strength to resist the bending moments and shear forces resulting from impose loads.
In addition, they should satisfy the serviceability criteria comprising the deflection
limits specified in the table no.4 for different types of structural members. The
maximum deflection under service loads should not exceed the limits expressed as a
function of the span given in the code. The effective span of the beam is generally
taken as the distance the centre of the supports.
Design strength in flexure: the following specifications govern the design of flexural
members. Flexural members adequately supported against lateral torsion buckling
(laterally supported beams) are governed by the yield stress. The factored design
moment, M at any section, in a beam due to external loads should satisfy the relation

Where = design bending strength of the section
a.) The design bending strength of a section which is not susceptible to web
buckling under shear before yielding and factored design shear force does
not exceed 0.6 Vd, where Vd is the design shear strength of the crosssection, bending strength Md is calculated by the relation

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Where = 1.0 for plastic and compact sections


=

for semi-compact sections

= plastic and elastic section modulii of the cross- section,


respectively
= yield stress of the material
0 = partial safety factor
To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads Md should b less
[1.2_ _ ]
[1.5_ _ ]
than
in case of simply supported and
in cantilever beams.
0
0
b.) In the case of laterally supported beams, the resistance to lateral torsional
buckling need not be checked separately in the following cases:
1) Bending is about the minor axis of the section
2) Section is hollow (rectangular/tubular) or solid bars,
3) In case of bending about the axis, the non-dimensional slenderness
ratio (LT) is less than 0.4.
The design loading strength of laterally unsupported bemas as governed by
lateral torsional buckling is calculated by the relation

=
Where = design bending compressive stress, computed as
=

= bending stress reduction factor to account for lateral torsional


buckling, given by the relation:

1
2

2 0.5

1.0

= 0.5 1 + 0.2 + 2
The imperfection parameter is given by
= 0.21 for rolled steel section
= 0.49 for welded steel section

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The non-dimensional slenderness ratio, is given by the relation

1.2

Where , = extreme fiber bending compressive stress


= elastic critical moment calculated by the expression

= ,

The extreme fiber bending compressive stress , of non-slender rolled steel


sections in the above equation may be approximately calculated from the
values from steel tables which have been prepared using the following
equation:

, =

1.1 2

1
1+
20

2 0.5

CALCULATIONS:
1. Selection of Trial Section:
Length of the column = 3.2 m
Effective length of column
Load = 574.253 kN
= . = . . =
In order to support load, the slenderness ratio of the rolled steel column
and the value of yield stress for the steel may be taken 60 and 250 N/mm2
respectively.
Allowable working stress from IS: 800-1984
= 122 N/mm2
Effective sectional area required =

574.253x100
122

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= 4706.99 mm2
250

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

2. Properties of Trial Section:


From steel table try ISWB600A @ 1.451 kN/m section.
Sectional area A = 18486 mm2
= 250.1
= 53.5

Radius of gyration

3. Slenderness Ratio:
= 53.5
Slenderness ratio

2720
53.5

= 50.84

4. Check for Safe Load:


From IS: 800-1984, allowable axial stress in compression for having yield stress
250 N/mm2
= 250 N/mm2
= 132
= 122
= ?

= 50
= 60
= 50.84
= 122

132 122
60 50.84 = 112.84 N/mm2
60 50

Safe load carrying capacity


p=

112.84x18486
= 2085.96 kN
1000

Hence, safe.

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16. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS


Design of connections and splices is a critical aspect of the design process.
Because each fabricator has unique equipment and methods, the detailed
configuration of connections plays an important part in determining the cost of the
fabricated product. Consequently, the detailed design of these elements is a part of the
work performed by the fabricator. In the industry, this work is known as detailing.
Usually, the structural engineer indicates the type of connections and type and
size of fasteners required; for example, framed connections with 7/8 inches in A325
bolts in bearing-type joints, or the type of connection with reference to IS:800
requirements. For beams, the design drawings should specify the reactions. If, how
ever, the reactions are not noted, the detailer will determine the reactions from the
uniform load capacity (tabulated in IS steel manual), giving due considerations to the
effect of large concentrated loads near the connection. For connections resisting
lateral loads, live, wind, or seismic, the design drawing should stipulate the forces and
moments to be carried. Generally, the design should also include a sketch showing the
type of moment connection desired.
The various types of connections used for connecting the structural members
are given below:
1.
2.
3.

Riveted connections.
Bolted connections.
Welded connections.

These connections are named after the type of fastening (viz., rivets, bolts and
nuts, pins and welds) used for connecting the structural members.

1.

Rivets :

A piece of round steel forged in place to connect two or more than two steel members
together is known as rivet. The rivet for structural purposes are manufactured from
mild steel and high tensile rivet bars. A rivet consists of a head and a body. The body
of rivet is termed as shank. The rivets are manufactured in different lengths to suit
different purposes. The sizes of rivets is expressed by the diameter of the shank.
For driving the rivets, they are heated till they become red hot and are then
placed in the hole. Keeping the rivets pressed from one side, a number of blows are
applied and a head at other end is formed. The hot-driven rivets are divided into
following three types, according to the method of rivet-driving.
1.
2.
3.

Power driven rivets.


Hand driven rivets.
Field rivets.

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i)

Rivet heads:
The proportions of various shapes of rivet heads have been expressed in terms
of diameter D of shank of rivet. The snap head is also termed as round head and
button head. The snap heads are used for rivets connecting structural members. The
countersunk heads are used to provide a flush surface.
ii)
Rivet holes:
The rivet holes are made in the plates or structural members by one of the following
methods:
1.
Punching
2.
Drilling.
When the rivet holes are made by punching , the holes are not perfect, but
taper. A punch damages the material around the hole. The operation known as
reaming is done in the hole made by punching.
When the rivet holes are made by drilling, the holes are perfect and provide
good alignment for driving the rivets.
The diameter of a rivet hole is made larger than the nominal diameter of the
rivet by 1.5 mm of rivets less than or equal to 25 mm diameter and by 2 mm for
diameters exceeding 25 mm.
Riveted joint:
The riveted joints are of two types:
1.
a.
i.
b.
i.
2.
a.
b.

Lap joint
Single riveted lap joint
Chain riveted lap joint
Double riveted lap joint
Zigzag riveted lap joint
Butt joint
Single cover butt joint
Double cover butt joint

16.1 Transmission of load in riveted joint:


There are two modes of transmission of load in riveted joints. When the load is
transmitted by bearing between plates and shanks of rivets, the rivets are subjected to
shear. When the shear of rivets is only across one cross section of the rivet, it is
known as single shear. When the shear of rivet is across two cross-section of the
rivet, it is known as double shear.

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16.2 Failure of Riveted Joint:


The failure of a riveted joint may take place in any of the following ways:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Shear failure of rivets


Shear failure of plates
Tearing failure of plates
Bearing failure of plates
Splitting failure of plates at the edges.
Bearing failure of rivets
16.3 Arrangements of Rivets
The rivets in a riveted joint are arranged into two forms:

1. Chain riveting
2. Diamond riveting
16.4 Specifications for design of riveted joints:
1.

Members meeting at joint.

The centroidal axes of the members meeting at a joint should intersect at one
point, and if there is any eccentricity. Adequate resistance should be provided in the
connection.
2.
The centre of gravity of group of rivets should be on the line of action of load
whenever practicable.
3.

Pitch:

Minimum pitch: The distance between centres of adjacent rivets should not be
less than 2.5 times the gross diameter of the rivet.
Maximum pitch
(i) The maximum pitch should not exceed 12t or 200 mm whichever is less in
compression member, and 16t or 200 mm whichever is less in case of tension
member, when the line of rivets lies in the direction of stress. In the case of
compression members in which the forces are transferred through the butting faces,
this distance shall not exceed 4.5 times the diameter of the rivets for a distance from
the abutting faces equal to 1.5 times the width of the member.
(ii) The distance between centers of any two consecutive rivets in a line adjacent and
parallel to an edge of an outside plate shall not exceed (100mm + 4t) or 200 mm,
whichever is less in compression or tension members.
(iii)When the rivets are staggered at equal intervals and the gauges does not exceed 75
mm, the distances specified in Para i and ii between centres of rivets may be
increased by 50 percent.
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(iv) If the line of rivets (including tacking rivets) does lie in the direction of stress,
the maximum pitch should not exceed 32 t or 300 mm whichever is less where t is the
thickness of the thinner outside plate.
4.
Edge distance:
A minimum edge distance of approximately 1.5 times the gross diameter of
the rivet measured from the centre of the rivet hole is provided in the riveted joint
Table 16.1
Edge distance of holes
Gross diameter of rivet
Edge Distance of Hole
distance to sheared or
Distance to rolled
mm
hand flame cut edge
machine flame cut or
mm
planed edge
Mm
13.5 & below
19
17
15.5
25
22
17.5
29
25
19.5
32
29
21.5
32
29
23.5
38
32
25.5
44
38
29.0
51
44
32.0
57
51
35.0
57
51
5. Rivets through packings:
The rivets carrying calculated shear stress through a packing greater than 6
mm thick shall be increased above number required by normal calculations by 2.5
percent for each 2 mm thickness of packing. For double shear connections packed
on both sides, the number of additional rivets required shall be determined from the
thickness of the thicker packing. The additional rivets should preferably be placed in
an extension of the packing. When the properly fitted packing are subjected to direct
compression, then, the above mentioned specifications shall not apply.
6. Long grip rivets
When the grip of rivets carrying calculated loads exceeds 6 times the diameter
of the holes, then, the rivets are subjected to bending in addition to shear and bearing.
The number of rivets required by normal calculations shall be increased by not less
than one percent for each additional 1.6 mm of grip, but the grip shall not exceed 8
times the diameter of the holes.
7. Rivet line distance

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When two or more parts are connected together, a line of rivet shall be
provided at a distance of not more than 37 mm + 4t from the nearest edge where t is
the thickness in mm of thinner outside plate. In case steel work is not exposed to
weather, this may be increased to 12t
8. Tacking rivets:
When the maximum distance between centres of two adjacent rivets
connecting the members subjected to either compression or tension exceeds the
maximum pitch, then, the tacking rivets not subjected to calculated stresses shall be
used
The tacking rivets shall have a pitch in line not exceeding 32 times the
thickness of the outside plate or 300 mm whichever is less. Wherever the plates are
exposed to the weather, the pitch in line not exceed 16 times the thickness of the
outside plate or 200 mm , whichever is less. In both cases, the lines of rivets shall not
be apart at a distance greater than these pitches.
For the design and construction composed of two flats, angles, channels or tees in
contact back or separated back to back by a distance not exceeding the aggregate
thickness of the connected parts, tacking rivets with solid distance pieces where the
parts are separated, shall be provided at a pitch in line not exceeding 1000 mm.
16.5 Design procedure for riveted joint:
For the design of a lap joint or butt joint the thickness of plates to be joined are
known and the joint is designed for the full strength of the plate. For the design of a
structural steel work, force (pull or push) to be transmitted by the joint is known and
riveted joint can be designed. Following are the usual steps for the design of a riveted
joint:
Step1: The size of the rivet is determined for the unwins formula i.e.,
1

= 6.04 ()

Where t = thickness of plate in mm


d = nominal diameter of rivet
The diameter of the rivet computed is rounded off to available size of rivets.
The rivets are manufactured in nominal diameters of 12, 14, 16 .18, 20, 22, 24, 30, 33,
36, 39, 42 and 48mm.
In structural steel work, rivets of nominal diameter of 16, 18, 20 and 22 mm are used.
The nominal diameter of rivets to be used in a joint is assumed.
Step 2: The strength of rivets in shearing and bearing are computed. The working
stress in rivets and plates are adopted as per BIS. The rivet value R is found. For
designing lap joint or butt joint tearing strength of plate is determined as under:
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= . .
Where g = gauge of rivets to be adopted
t = thickness of plate
= working stress in direct tension for plate
The tearing strength of plate should not exceed the rivet value R( Ps or Pb which ever
is less) or
. .
From this relation gauge of the rivets is determined.
In structural steel work, force to be transmitted by the riveted joint and the
rivet value are known. Hence number of rivets requested to be provided in the joint
can be computed, as follows:
No. of rivets required in the joint =

force
rivet value

The number of rivets thus obtained is provided on one side of the joint and an
equal number of rivets is provided on the other side of joint also.
For the design of joint in a tie member consisting of a flat, width/thickness of
the flat is known. The section is assumed to be reduced by rivet holes, depending
upon the arrangement of rivets to be provided. The strength of flat at weakest section
is equated to the pull transmitted at the joint.
. . = P
16.6 Bolted Connections:
Introduction
Structural steel members are usually assembled using different types of
elements such as plates, angles, channels, tee and I-sections. Connections are made
using rivets or bolts to transfer the forces and moments from one member to another.
They are also required to extend the length of the members. The connections should
be designed to avoid the failure of the fasteners before the failure of the principal
member.
Design principals of connections
16.6.1 Design strength
The evaluation of design strength of connection should be evaluated using the
partial safety factors compiled in table of load combinations. In general, connection
failure may be avoided by adopting a higher safety for the joints than the members.
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16.6.2 Spacing of fasteners


The minimum spacing between the centre of a fastener should be not less than
2.5 times the diameter of the fastener. The maximum spacing between the centre of
any two adjacent fasteners should not exceed 32 t or 300 mm, whichever is less,
where f is the thickness of the thinner plate.
Also the distance between the centres of two adjacent fasteners (pitch ) in a
line lying in the direction of stress, should not exceed 16t or 200 mm, whichever less,
in tension members; and 12t or 200mm , whichever is less in compression members,
where f is the thickness of the thinner plate.
16.6.3 Edge and end distance
The minimum and end distances from the centre of any hole to the nearest
edge of a plate should be not less than 1.7 times the hole diameter in case of sheared
or hand-flame cut edge; 1.5 times the hole diameter in case of rolled, machine-flame
cut, sawn and plane edges.
The maximum edge distance to the nearest line of fasteners from an edge of
any un-stiffened part should not exceed 12t, where =(250/fy)0.5 and t is the
thickness of the thinner outer plate. This clause is not applicable to fasteners
interconnecting the components of back-to-back tension members. Where the
members are exposed to corrosive influences, the maximum edge distance should not
exceed 40 mm plus 4t, where t is the thickness of the thinner connected plate.
The bolt diameter, pitch edge distances as per IS: 800-2007 are compiled in
table given below.
Table :16.2 Bolt diameter, pitch and edge distances
Nominal diameter of bolt(mm)
12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 Above
36
Diameter of hole(mm)

13

15 18 20 22 24 26 30 33 Bolt dia.
+ 3 mm

For sheared or rough edge

20

26 30 34 37 40 44 51 56 1.7 x
hole
diameter

For rolled, sawn, or planed edge

19

23 27 30 33 36 39 45 50 1.5 x
hole
diameter

Minimum edge distance(mm)

Maximum edge distance = 12t, where =(250/fy)0.5


Maximum pitch = 2.5 x nominal diameter of bolt

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Maximum pitch = 32 t or 300 mm


(a) Parts in tension = 16 t or 200 mm whichever is less
(b) Parts in compression = 12 t or 200 mm whichever is less

16.6.4 Bearing type bolts in shear


The design strength of the bolt Vdsb based on shear strength is given by the relation:

Where Vnsb = nominal shear capacity of a bolt, computed as


=

Where fu = ultimate tensile strength of bolt


nn = number of shear planes with threads intercepting the shear plane
ns = number of shear planes without threads intercepting the shear plane
Asb = nominal plain shank area of the bolt
Anb = net shear area of the bolt at threads, may be taken as the area corresponding to
root diameter at the thread
ij = reduction factor for the overloading of end bolts
lg = reduction factor for the effect of large grip length
pk = reduction factor for packing plates in excess of 6mm

The reduction factors are computed using the following relations:


= 1.075

(200)

but 0.75 ij 1.0

= 1.075 0.005

Where d = nominal diameter of the fastener.


When the grip length, lg (equal to the total thickness of the connected plates) exceeds
5 times the diameter, d of the bolts, the design shear capacity should be reduced by a
factor lg, given by
=

8
8
=
3 +
(3 + )

Also should not exceed and the grip length, lg should in no case be greater
than 8d. the design shear capacity of bolts carrying shear through a packing plate in
excess of 6 mm should be decreased by a factor of given by a relation,
= (1 0.0125 )
Where tpk = thickness of the thicker packing expressed in mm.
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16.6.5 Bolts in Tension


The nominal strength capacity of bolt Tnb depends on the ultimate tensile strength of
the bolt and the net tensile stress area. The factored tensile force, Tb should satisfy the
relation:

Where

Tnb = nominal tensile capacity of the bolt, calculated as:


=

(0.90 ) <

Where fub = ultimate tensile stress of the bolt


fyb = yield stress of the bolt
An = net tensile stress area at the bottom of the thread of the bolt
Asb = shank area of the bolt
mb = partial safety factor for ultimate stress = 1.25
m0 = partial safety factor yield stress = 1.10
The design capacity of ordinary bolts (Grade 4.6) based on the net cross-sectional
area in tension and single shear are compiled in Table
Table : 16.3 design capacity of ordinary bolts ( Grade 4.6)
Bolt size
diameter
d(mm)

Tensile
stress area
(Anb)(mm2)

Tension
capacity Tb
(KN) tnb =
272 Mpa

(12)
16
20
(22)
24
(27)
30
36

84.3
157.0
245.0
303.0
353.0
469.0
561.0
817.0

22.9
42.7
66.6
82.4
96.0
124.8
152.5
222.2

Single
shear
capacity,
Vsb(kN)
vnsb = 185
Mpa
15.6
29.0
45.3
56.0
65.3
84.9
103.8
151.1

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Minimum
thickness of
ply for bolt
bearing vnpb
= 800 Mpa
tbb = tc, mm
1.6
2.3
2.8
3.2
3.4
3.9
4.3
5.2
Sizes in
brackets not
preferred

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16.7 Welded Connections:

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

General features
Welded connections result in considerable savings in material. It has the added
advantage of rapidity of construction of complicated steel structures involving the
assembly of several individual steel components into an integrated steel structure.
Welding obviates the formation of holes in the member and permit design based on
continuity at supports resulting in economy of material. Welding offers airtight and
watertight jointing of structural elements and hence is employed in the construction of
water/oil storage tanks, ships etc. Welded connections are usually aesthetic in
appearance and appear less clustered in comparison with bolted connections.
In addition, welded connections improve the rigidity of the complete structure
resulting in superior structural behavior at various limit states. Proper workmanship is
essential to produce structurally sound and effective welds connecting structural, steel
components. In the case of normal steel structures arc welding is adopted and the
design of welds should conform to the Indian Standard Codes IS: 816 and IS: 9595.
16.7.1 Types of welds
The most common types of welds used in steel structures are
Fillet welds
Butt welds
Plug welds
Slot welds
Fillet welds are the most commonly used type to connect structural
components meeting at an angle (generally between 60 and 120 degrees), while butt
or groove welds are used to connect horizontal members.

(a) Fillet weld


The size of fillet weld should be not less than 3 mm. The size of the fillet
weld is generally taken as the minimum leg length and is related to the thickness of
the connected member as detailed in Table given below:
Table :16.4 minimum size of the fillet weld (Table 21 of IS: 800-2007)
SI
No.
Over
(1)
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

(2)
10
20
32

Thickness of
thicker part
(mm)
Up to and
including
(3)
10
20
32
50

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Minimum size
of weld
(mm)

(4)
3
5
6
10
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For purposes of stress calculation in fillet welds joining faces inclined to each other,
the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times the fillet size, where K is a
constant, depending upon the angle between the fusion faces. As compiled in Table
given below.
Table:16.4 values of K for different angles between fusion faces.
Angle
between
Fusion
Faces
Constant
K

600
to
910

910
to
1000

1010
to
1060

1070
to
1130

1140
to
1200

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

The effective length of fillet weld is taken as the length of specified size and
required throat thickness, with minimum length not less than four times the size of the
weld.
Design strength of a fillet weld, fwd is based on the throat area and is compute
as

Where =

fu = smaller of the ultimate stress of the weld or of the parent metal


= partial safety factor
(b) Butt welds
When the joining plates are of equal thickness, the butt weld size is defined by
the throat thickness, taken as the thickness of the plate. If the joining plates are of
unequal thickness, the size of the weld corresponds to the thickness of the thinner
plate. The design strength of butt welds depends upon the throat thickness and the
stresses are limited to those permitted in the parent metal. However for site welds, the
partial safety factor = 1.5.
(c) Plug and Slot welds
Plug and slot weld s are not used exclusively in steel construction. When it is
not possible to use fillet welds or when the length of the fillet weld is limited, plug
and slot welds are used to supplement fillet welds. Plug welds are occasionally used
to fill up holes in construction, such as beam-to-column seat angles where temporary
erection bolts have been placed to align members prior to welding. The penetration of
these welds into base metal is difficult to ascertain. Moreover the inspection of these
welds is difficult. Hence, they are normally not used to connect members subjected to
tensile forces. Slot and plug welds are useful in preventing overlapping parts from
buckling.
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16.8 Design of beam column connection


Beam ISHB 200
D=250 mm;

b=250 mm;

tf =9.7 mm;

tw =6.9 mm;

Column ISWB 600A


D=600 mm;

b=250 mm;

tf =23.6 mm; tw =11.8 mm;


yield stress

245 N/mm2

Moment

52 kN-m

Axial

71.80 kN

Shear

4 kN

Bolt Design
Flange force =
=
=

M
Dtw

52x1000
2506.9

4
2

237.4 kN

Assuming 4 No's 16 mm diameter bolts


Tension on each bolts

237.4/4

59.35 kN

From AISC Manual 89


Allowable tension in SI units
=
=

44 x xd 2
4 x 25.4 2

x 4.448

61 kN

Allowable tension is greater than actual tension


Hence safe
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Flange to end plate weld


force on flange

(1.024 2 )
237.4 x10

(1.024 2 250)

4.64 mm weld

Effective end plate width (pb)

bf+50

250+50

300 mm

40 mm

Centre of bolt to centre of


Flange distance

(pf)

Effective bolt distance

(Pe)

( ) -(

)-0.707x thickness of

weld
=

(40-9.7/2)-16/4-0.707x4.64

27.8719 mm

1.13

Thickness of plate required


Partial safety factor

(Ca)

Ratio of area of flange to area of web


(Af/Aw)

(250x9.7)/(250x6.9)

1.41

1.74

0.83

Ratio of effective bolt distance to diameter of bolt


(Pe)/(d)

27.8719/16

Ratio of width of flange to width of base plate


(Cb)

250/300

= .

1
3

1/4
)

= 1.212
Moment in plate Mp= x flange force x eff bolt distance/4
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= 2002686.87 Nmm
6Mp

Required plate thickness =

o.75fypb
6x2004686 .87
o.75x365x300

=12.45 mm
Beam to end plate weld size
Min weld size

5 mm

Required weld to develop max web tension stress (0.6fy) in web near flanges
=

0.6fy .tw
2x10.24
0.6x245

2x10.24x10

4.952 mm

Provide 5 mm weld
Provide 300 mm wide and 12.45 mm connection plate.
Use 4 No's 16 mm dia bolts each side
Welds
Flange to end plate =

4.64 mm

Web to end plate

5.00 mm

16.9 Design of Main beam-Joist connection


Secondary beam ISJB 200@0.0971 kN/m
Main Beam ISHB 250@0.50 kN/m
Shear force on Main beam from joist =

17 kN

Assuming 8.8 Grade 12 mm diameter bolts and


No of bolts on main beam (Nm)

No of bolts on secondary beam (Ns) =

Yield strength of bolts

345 N/mm2

fy

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Allowable shear

=
=
Allowable shear

>

0.25d 2 Nm x0.4fy
1000
0.25d12 2 3 x0.4x345
1000

46.80 kN

Actual shear, hence safe

Using ISA 90x90x6 as cleat angle


Shear stress in cleat angle

Max shear stress

1.5 x

F
2xdxt
17 10 3

1.5 x

17.7 N/mm2

2908

0.45fy = 0.45x250

112.5 N/mm2 safe

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17. COLUMN BASES


Beams transfer the load to the column and the column transfer their loads to
the soil through column bases resting over concrete or masonry blocks. A column
base distributes the load over a greater area so that the pressure on the concrete block
does not exceed the permissible bearing stress
Column base should be designed to have sufficient strength and stiffness to
transmit the axial force, bending moments and shear forces developed at the base of
the columns without exceeding the load carrying capacity of the supports. Suitable
anchor bolts and shear keys are designed wherever necessary.
The nominal bearing pressure between the base plate and the support may be
determined on the basis of linearly varying distribution of pressure. The maximum
bearing pressure should not exceed the bearing strength which is limited to 0.6fck,
where.
fck= smaller of the characteristic cube strength of concrete
In cases where the base plate is larger than that required to limit the bearing
pressure, an equal projection c of the base plate beyond the face of the column and
gusset may be taken as effective in transferring the column load given in fig. below
such that the bearing pressure on the effective area does not exceed the bearing
capacity of the concrete base.
When a column is provided with a slab base, the minimum thickness, ts of the
rectangular slab base supporting the column under axial compression is calculated by
the relation
=

2.5(2 0.3 2 )0
>

There are three types of column bases which are generally used
1. Slab base
2. Gusseted base
3. Grillage foundation

17.1 Slab Base:


The consists of a base plate underneath a column end which is machined so as
to have a complete bearing on the plate. The column is properly secured to the base
plate by means of fastenings as shown.

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Fastenings are simply used to secure it with the base plate and secondly to
resist all moments and forces due to transit, unloading and erection. Those are not
designed to resist the direct compression in the column.\
Design of a Slab Base and Concrete block:
The following steps are to be followed when axial load to which the column is
subjected is known
1. Calculating the bearing area (A) of the base plate
Bearing Area =

Axial load in the column


permissible compressive stress in concrete

, =

2. Assuming the shape of base plate to be square calculating the size of one side.
If it is rectangular calculate the length and breadth of the base plate. Arrange
the section of the column centrally on the base plate
3. Calculate the thickness of base plate as per
IS: 800-1984 (5.4.3).
=

3 2 2

Where t = slab thickness, (mm)


w= the pressure or loading on the underside of base (Mpa)
a= the greater projection of the plate beyond column
b= the lesser projection of the plate beyond column
bs= the permissible bending stress in slab bases = 185 Mpa for all
steels.
If a square base plate is used for solid round steel column, the
thickness of the plate will be taken as.
= 10

90
B
x
16 B d0

Where, t= thickness of plate (mm)


w= the total axial load, (kN)
B= the length of side of cape or base (mm)
bs = permissible bending stress in slab base = 185 Mpa for all
steels
d0= diameter of the reduced end (if any) of the column (mm)
The cap or base plate should not be less than 1.5 (d0 + 75) mm in
length or diameter.
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17.2cGusseted Base:
A gusseted base consists of base plate connected to the column through gusset
plates. The thickness of base plate in this case will be less than the thickness of the
slab base for the same axial load as the bearing area of the column on the base plate
increases by the gusset plate.
As per IS: 800-1984 for the columns with gusseted base; gusset plates, angle
cleats, stiffeners, fastening, etc. In combination with the bearing area of the shaft
should be sufficient to take the loads, bending moment and reaction to the base plate
without exceeding the specified stresses. All bearing surfaces are machined to ensure
perfect contact. Where the ends of the column shaft and the gusset plate are not faced
for complete bearing, the fastening shall be sufficient to transmit all the forces to
which the base is subjected.
Design of Gusseted Base and Concrete Block:
Following design steps are to be followed:
1. Calculate the area (A) of base plate

=

2. Assume the materials used in gusseted base. Generally the thickness of
gusseted plate is assumed as 12 to 16 mm. The size of angle used generally is
ISA 150x115x12 mm or ISA 150x100x12 mm in rivet design and no gusset
angle is used in welds. The depth of column section, thickness of gusset plate
and length of leg of angle being known the width of gusset plate for these
distances can be calculated. Then calculate the length of gusset plate by
dividing area by width of gusset plate.
3. Provide suitable rounded size of gusset plate and calculate actual upward
concrete pressure.
4. See fig. let w be the upward reaction of concrete and l be the projection of
base plate beyond column face xx. Calculate the hogging bending moment at
column face as per mm width plate.
2
Mxx =
2
Calculate the moment of resistance per mm width of section xx.
Mxx = .
Equating B.M to M.R., find the thickness t.
5. Consider another section yy of base plate at the centre of column as shown in
fig.
Calculate Hogging B.M=

2
2

and sagging B.M=

2
8

Net B.M at the center of base plate

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2 2
Myy =

8
2
Calculate the moment of resistance per mm width at section yy
1
M = . = x 2 x1
6
Equating max. B.M. (Myy), findt. Providing thicknesst whichever is
maximum (considering Mxx and Myy).
6. Calculate the thickness of concrete block and size of block as in case of slab
base.
7. Design the fastners.

17.3 CALCULATION:
Column section IM 350 225 12
Properties of column:
= 124 2 ; = 368 ; = 140
= 14 ; = 8 ; = 29902 104 4
Axial load = 1340
Bearing strength of concrete = 4 2
Bending stress for steel base plate

= 185 2

Safe bearing capacity of the soil = 200 2


Area of the base plate required =

1340 10 3
4

Let 12 thick gusset plate and ISA 90 90 12


Minimum width of the base plate = 368 + 2 12 + 2 90
= 572 575
Length of the base plate =

335 10 3
575

= 585 mm
Provide 575 585 base plate
Actual bearing pressure intensity on the base plate =
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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

= 3.983 2
Cantilever projection = 90 12 = 78
Consider a cantilever strip of the base plate of 1mm wide and 78 mm long
Maximum cantilever moment =

30983 78 2
2

= 12107.16

Equating the moment of resistance to cantilever moment =


1

1
6

185 1 2 = 12107.16

12107.16 6
185

= 19.81 20
Bending moment at critical section XX = 368 + 2 12
= 392
3922
902
= 3.98
3.98
8
2
= 60374.3
Equating the moment of resistance to the bending moment
=

1
6

185 1 2 = 60374.3

60374.3 6
185

= 44.25 45
Hence provide = 575 585 45
Design of concrete block:
Axial load = 1340
Self-weight of the foundation 10 % = 134
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Total load on soil = 1474


Area of concrete block =
=

1474
= 7.37 2
200

Side length of the bed block =

7.37

= 2.71
Adopt 2.75 m X 2.75 m square concrete block
Assuming 450 load dispersion
Depth of concrete block = 0.5 2750 5851
= 1082.5 1090
= 1.09
Provide the size of concrete pedestal as 2.75 X 2.75 X 1.09 m
Connections:
585360

Outstand on each side =

= 108.5
Load on end connection =

108.5 585 3.983


1000

= 252.81
Single shear strength = 2
No. of bolts =

252.81
29

= 8.71 10
Adopt 10 bolts connecting gusset angles with gusset plates and same number of
anchor bolts to connect the gusset plate with column.

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18. DESIGN OF STAIR CASE


Floor to floor height (H)

3.2 m

Width of stair case

1.0 m

No of flights in a stair case

Assuming width of landing

0.80 m

Live load on stairs

3 kN/m2

Assuming

Riser (R)

160 mm

Tread

250 mm

Angle of inclination

=
sec

No of riser

2502 + 1602

1.187

3200/160

20 no's

Risers in each flight =

10

Treads in each flight =

10-1

Going

250x 9=2250 mm

Using Indian standard channel section as a stair(step)


From structural steel tables
Try ISMC 250
D = 250 mm

bf = 80 mm

wt = 0.351 kN/m

Wt of cement concrete in the channel = 24 x 0.25 x 0.16

= 0.96 kN/m

Live load on stairs /meter length

Total load

3.0 kN/m

= 3.96 kN/m

Factored load = 1.5 x 3.96 = 5.96 kN/m


Bending Moment (M) =

2
8

5.96 12
8

= 0.74 kN-m

Permissible bending stress in steel ( )= 0.66 fy


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= 0.66x 250 = 165 N/mm2


Section modulus about y direction Zyy =

Zyy = 4500 mm3


Allowable section modulus is 38.4 x103 mm3
Allowable section modulus is greater than required section modulus
Reaction of loads on stringer beam
Self weight of ISMC 250

0.298 kN/m

Load on stairs

5.96 kN/m

Shear force on stringer beam

( 0.298 + 5.96 x 1 )/2

3.129 kN = 3.2 kN

10 x

No of treads in each flight

Uniformly distributed load on stringer beam

Length of stringer beam

(10 x3.2)/2.76

11.59 = 11.6 kN/m

2 + (/2)2

2.252 + (1.6/2)2

=
Bending Moment of stringer

=
Section modulus about x is

Zxx =

2.76 m
2
8
11.6 x2.76 2
8

= 11.04 kN-m

= 66909.09 mm3

From steel tables try ISLC 300


Allowable section modulus about x is Zxx = 403.2 x 103
Hence safe

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20. ESTIMATING AND COSTING

20.1ESTIMATING:
Before undertaking a construction of a project it is necessary to know its
probable cost which is worked out by estimating, an estimate is computation or
calculation of the quantities required and expenditure likely to be incurred in the
construction of the work. Estimation can be done by various methods but accurate
estimate is prepared by detailed estimate method.
There are two methods of estimation:

Detailed estimate
Actual cost.

DETAILED ESTIMATE AND ACTUAL COST:

Detailed of the measurements form.


Abstract of the estimate cost

20.2 Main items of the work:


1. EARTHWORK
2. CONCRETE IN FOUNDATION
3. SOILING
4. DAMP PROOF COURSE
5. MASONARY
6. ARCH MASONARY WORK
7. LINTELS OVER OPENINGS
8. R.C.C AND R.B WORKS
9. FLOORING AND ROOFING
10. PLASTERING AND POINTING
11. CORNICE
12. PILLARS
13. DOORS AND WINDOWS
14. WOOD WORK
15. IRON WORK

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20.2.1 EARTHWORK

It is usually taken out in earthwork excavation and earth work filling


separately upon different items.
Earthwork in excavation in foundation is calculated by taking the
dimension of each trench( ).
Earthwork in plinth filling is calculated by taking the internal dimensions
in between plinth wall which is usually less than internal dimension of
room.
Its units are cu-m.

20.2.2 CONCRETE IN FOUNDATION

The concrete is take out in cu-m by length*breadth*thickness.


The thickness of the concrete varies from 20 cm to 45 cm. But usually it
taken as 30 cm.
The proportion of the cement concrete in foundation may be 1:4:8 or
1:5:10.

20.2.3 SOILING
When the soil is soft or bad on layer of dry thick or stone soiling is
applied below foundation concrete
The soil layer is computed in sq-mts.
20.2.4 DAMP PROOF COURSE

D.P.C is usually of 2.5 cm thick rich cement concrete .


Plinth levels are computed in sq-mts.

20.2.5 MASONARY

Masonry is measured in ( )
In taking out the quantities the walls are measured solid and deduction are
made for openings as doors and windows etc.
Masonry is computed in cu-m.

20.2.6 ARCH MASONARY WORK

By product of the mean length of the arch by thickness of the arch and
width of the wall

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Quantity of arch masonry = lm * t * thickness of the wall


Masonry work in arches is calculated in cu-m

20.2.7 LINTELS OVER OPENINGS

Lintels are either R.C.C or R.B. work


Length of lintel = clear span + two bearings.
If dimension the bearing is not given the bearing may be taken as
thickness of lintel with the minimum of 12 cm.
L = s + 2t
Quantity of lintel = ( ).
It is measured in cu-m.

20.2.8 R.C.C AND R.B WORKS

R.C.C and R.B work may be in roof or floor slab, in beams, lintels,
columns, foundations, etc.
Bearings are added with clear span to get the dimension.
It is measured in cu-m
R.C.C and R.B work may be estimated exclusively of steel, centering and
and shuttering for complete work.
Centering and shuttering are mainly used in R.B and R.C.C.

20.2.9 FLOORING AND ROOFING


1. Ground floor :
The base line concrete and floor finishing of C.C or stone or marble or
mosaic are usually taken as one item.
It is calculated by multiplication of length and breadth
It is measured in sq-m.
2. FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR:
As R.C.C or R.B. and floor finishing is separately taken in sq-m as
2.5cms Supporting structure is taken separately in cu-m
3. ROOF
Supporting structure is taken in cu-m and line concrete terracing is computed in
sq-m with thickness specified. The compacted thickness of the lime concrete terracing is
7.5 12 cms.

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20.2.10 PLASTERING AND POINTING


Plastering usually 12 mm thick
Its calculated in sq-mts
For walls Measurement are taken for the whole of the wall or both sides as a solid
and deductions for the openings are in following manner
No deduction is made for Beams, rafters and posts
For small openings up to 0.5 sq-mts no deduction is made
For openings more than 0.5 sq-mts deductions are made
For openings more than 3 deductions are made both sides of the faces.
20.2.11 CORNICE
Ornamental or large cornice is measured in running meters for the complete work
which includes masonry, plastering, mouldings, etc. are paid in running meter.
Similarly, string course, drip course, cor-belling, coping, etc. are measured and
paid in running meter for the complete work.

20.2.12 PILLARS
Pillars are taken separately in cu-m for their net volume and quantities are calculated by
correct geometrical measurements.
2

Quantity = ( ) = (

) ,

d is dia.
= ( 2 ),
a is the side.
Plastering in pillars are calculated in sq.m multiplying the circumference of perimeter by
the height.

20.2.13 DOORS AND WINDOWS


a. Chowkhat or frame It is measured in cu-m. Vertical members should be
inserted into the floor about (2.5 to 4 )cm. Length is obtained by adding the length
of all members of the frame, top and two verticals. Also by adding bottom and
this length is multiplied by the two dimensions of the cross-section of the
member.

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b. Door or Window Leaves or shutters It is measured in sq-m. It can be


calculated by multiplying the (breadth * height) of the structures
20.2.14 WOOD WORK
Wooden beams, burgahs, posts, wooden roof trusses come under this item.
It is measured in cu-m.
20.2.15 IRON WORK
This is measured in kilo grams. The quantities are calculated out correctly
by multiplying the weights per running meter by the length. For steel joint the length
is equal to clear span plus two bearings. The bearings may be taken as thickness of
the wall.

20.3 DEGREE OF ACCURACY IN ESTIMATING


Accuracy to be observed in preparing an estimate depends upon the rate of item
and the unit of payment. The rate the greater should be accuracy with which
quantities are calculated.

PRINCIPLE OF UNITS FOR VARIOUS ITEMS OF WORKS:


Units of different works depend upon their nature, size and shape
Mass, voluminous and thick works shall be taken in cubic unit or volume.
The measurements of length, breadth, and height or depth shall be taken to
compute the volume.
Shallow, thin and surface works shall be taken in square unit. This can be
measured by length and breadth or height shall be taken to compute area.
Long and thin work shall be taken in linear
Piece work, job work etc.
Area of 6 mm bar = 2.827 x 10-5 m2 = 28.27 mm2
Area of 8 mm bar = 5.026 x 10-5 m2 = 50.26 mm2
Area of 10 mm bar = 7.853 x 10-5m2 = 78.53 mm2
Area of 12 mm bar = 1.130 x 10-4 m2 = 113.08 mm2
Area of 16 mm bar = 2.010 x 10-4 m2 = 201.0 mm2
Area of 18 mm bar = 2.544 x 10-4 m2 = 254.4 mm2
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Depth
m

Quantity
m3

Remarks

3.15

0.12

14.364

3.65+0.15=3.8
3+3.15=3.15

3.85

0.12

16.863.

3.7+3.15=3.85

3.65

3.7

0.12

19.4472

3.55+0.15=3.7

10

3.65

10.25

0.14

52.3775

3.5+0.15=3.65

S5

10

4.3

3.15

0.12

16.254

4.15+0.15=4.30
3.00+0.15=3.15

S6

10

4.15

3.85

0.12

19.173

3.7 +0.15=3.85

S7

10

4.15

3.7

0.12

18.426

3.55 +0.15=3.7

10

3.8

S2

10

3.65

S3

12

S4

Item no

No

Length
m

Breadth
m

20.4 ESTIMATATION OF QUANTITY OF CONCRETE


Particular and
items of work

SLABS
S1

156.904 M3
II

PLINTH
BEAMS
1001, 1007, 1009,
1014,1015, 1020,
1021, 1026.

3.00

0.3

0.4

2.88

1002,1006, 1010,
1013, 1016, 1017,
1022, 1025

3.70

0.3

0.4

3.552

1003, 1011, 1012,


1017, 1018, 1023,
1024

3.55

0.3

0.4

2.982

1004, 1030, 1034

1.65

0.3

0.4

0.594

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1005,1008

1.9

0.3

0.4

0.456

1027, 1028,
1031, 1035, 1036

3.65

0.3

0.4

2.19

1044, 1045, 1046,


1047, 1048, 1049,
1050

4.15

0.3

0.4

3.486

1029, 1032, 1051

2.00
0.3

0.4

0.72
16.86 m3

III TYPICAL
BEAMS
2001, 2007, 2009,
2014, 2015, 2022,
2023, 2030, 3001,
3007, 3009, 3014,
3015, 3022, 3023,
3030, 4001, 4007,
4009, 4014, 4015,
4022, 4023, 4030,
5001 5007, 5009,
5014, 5015, 5022,
5023, 5030
2002, 2006, 2010,
2013, 3002, 3006,
3010, 3013, 4002,
4006, 4010, 4012,
5002, 5006, 5010,
5013
2003, 2011, 2012,
2018, 2019, 2026,
2027, 3003, 3011,
3012, 3018, 3019,
3026, 3027, 4003,
4011, 4012, 4018,
4019, 4026, 4027,
5003, 5011, 5012,

32

3.00

0.3

0.4

11.52

16

3.70

0.3

0.4

7.104

28

3.55

0.3

0.4

11.92

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5018, 5019, 5026,


5027
2004, 2034,
2038,3004, 3034,
3038,4004, 4034,
4038, 5004, 5034,
5038
2005, 2008, 3005,
3008, 4005, 4008,
5005, 5008
2016, 2021, 2024,
2029, 3016, 3021,
3024, 3029, 4016,
4021, 4024, 4029,
5016, 5021, 5024,
5029
2017, 2020, 2025,
2028, 3017, 3020,
3025, 3028, 4017,
4020, 4025, 4028,
5017, 5020, 5025,
5028
2031, 2032, 2035,
2039, 2040, 3031,
3032, 3035, 3039,
3040, 4031, 4032,
4035, 4039, 4040,
5031, 5032, 5035,
5039, 5040

2033, 2036, 2037,


2051, 3033, 3036,
3037, 3051, 4033,
4036, 4037, 4051,
5033, 5036, 5037,
5051

12

1.65

0.3

0.4

2.376

1.90

0.3

0.4

1.824

16

0.85

0.3

0.4

1.632

16

2.85

0.3

0.4

5.472

20

3.65

0.3

0.4

8.76

16

2.00

0.3

0.4

3.84

2041, 2042, 2043,


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3041, 3042, 3043,


4041. 4042, 4043,
5041, 5042, 5043
2044,2045, 2046,
2047, 2048, 2049,
2050,3044, 3045,
3046, 3047, 3048,
3049, 3050, 4044,
4045, 4046, 4046,
4047, 4048, 4049,
4050, 5044, 5045,
5046, 5047, 5048,
5049, 5050

12

3.50

0.3

0.4

5.04

29

4.15

0.3

0.4

14.442

73.93 m3
IV

ROOF BEAMS
6001, 6007, 6009,
6014, 6015, 6023,
6030

3.00

0.3

0.4

2.52

3.70

0.3

0.4

1.776

10

3.55

0.3

0.4

4.26

6004, 6034, 6038,


7002, 7011

1.65

0.3

0.4

0.99

6005, 6008, 7003,


7004

1.9

0.3

0.4

0.912

6016, 6021, 6024,


6029

0.85

0.3

0.4

0.408

2.85

0.3

0.4

1.368

3.65

0.3

0.4

2.19

6002, 6006, 6010,


6013
6003, 6011, 6012,
6018, 6019, 6026,
6027, 7001, 7005,
7006

6017, 6020, 6025,


6028
6031, 6032, 6035,
6039, 6040

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6033, 6036, 6037,


7009, 7010

2.00

0.3

0.4

1.2

6041, 6042, 6043

3.5

0.3

0.4

1.26

6044, 6045, 6046,


6047, 6048, 6049,
6050

4.15

0.3

0.4

3.486

20.36 m3
V

COLUMNS
GROUP
1A

10

17.5

0.3

0.5

26.25

1B

17.5

0.3

0.4

6.21

2A

14

17.5

0.3

0.5

36.75

2B

17.5

0.3

0.4

2.1

17.5

0.3

0.5

10.5
81.81 m3

VI

STAIR CASE
No of stair
cases= 6

24

3.56

1.0

0.15

12.81 m3
12.81 m3

VII

FOOTING
GROUP
I

1.80

1.60

0.4

4.608

II

14

2.30

2.10

0.52

35.162

III

10

2.50

2.30

0.52

29.90

IV

1.80

1.70

0.41

5.018
74.688 m3

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

20.5 ESTIMATION OF QUANTITY OF STEEL


SLABS
Slab
panel
(1)

S1

No. of
slabs
(2)

Dia
mm
(3)

No. of
bars
(4)

Length of
bar
m
(5)

Total
length of
bars
m
(6)=4 x 5

Quantity
m3
(7) =
Area of (3) x
(6)

Total
quantity
m3
(8) = (2)x(7)

15

3.184

47.76

2.40x10-3

0.024

3.834

72.846

3.67x10-3

0.0367

10
8

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

19

19

3.884

73.796

3.708 x10-3

0.03708

15

3.834

57.51

2.89 x10-3

0.0289

15

3.734

56.01

2.81 x10-3

0.03372

19

3.834

72.846

3.67 x10-3

0.04404

74

10.434

772.116

0.0388

0.388

13

3.604

46.852

2.36 x10-3

0.0236

20

4.034

80.68

4.06 x10-3

0.0406

-3

0.0458

-3

10

12

10

10

10

21

4.334

91.014

4.58 x10

12

3.034

36.408

1.83 x10

0.0183

17

4.334

73.678

3.703 x10-3

0.03703

15

3.734

56.01

2.815 x10-3

0.0281

17

4.334

73.678

3.703 x10-3

0.03703

10

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

BEAMS

(2)

Plinth Beams

(3)

3.00

3.70

3.55

1.65

1.90

3.65

4.15

2.00

(4)

Total length
of bars
m

No of
Beams

(1)

Length
Beam
(m)
Dia
Mm

Beam
Type

Main Reinforcement in Plinth Beams

Quantity
m3

Total quantity
m3

(7)=5x6

(8) =
Area of (4) x (7)

(9) = (2)x(8)

3.56

17.8

2.01 x 10-3

16.08 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.314+0.9=2.214

4.428

5.00 x 10-4

4 x 10-3

3.70

18.5

2.09 x 10-3

16.73 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.075+1.075=2.15

4.3

4.85 x 10-4

3.88 x 10-3

3.55

17.75

2.00 x 10-3

14 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.04+1.04=2.08

4.16

4.70 x 10-4

3.29 x 10-3

1.65

8.25

9.32 x 10-4

2.79 x 10-3

1+1=2

0.42+0.42=0.84

1.68

1.89 x 10-4

5.6 x 10-4

1.95

9.75

1.10 x 10-3

2.2 x 10-3

1+1=2

0.63+0.63=1.26

2.52

2.84 x 10-4

5.68 x 10-4

3.65

18.25

2.06 x 10-3

10.3 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.48+1.063=2.55

5.1

5.76 x 10-4

2.88 x 10-3

4.71

23.55

2.66 x 10-3

18.62 x 10-3

5+4=9

1.60+1.18=2.78

25.02

2.82 x 10-3

19.74 x 10-3

3.56

17.8

2.01 x 10-3

6.03 x 10-3

2+2=4

1.06+0.65=1.71

6.84

7.72 x 10-4

2.31 x 10-3

No. of
bars

Length of bar
m

(5)

(6)

5
12

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

(2)

32

12

Typical Floor Beams

28

12

12

12

12

(3)

3.00

3.70

3.55

1.65

1.90

0.85

2.85

3.65

Total
length
of bars
m

Quantity
m3

Total quantity
m3

No. of
bars

No of
Beams

(1)

Length
Beam
(m)
Dia
Mm

Beam
Type

Main Reinforcement in Typical Floor Beams


Length of bar
m

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7) =
(5) x (6)

(8) =
Area of (4) x (7)

(9) = (2)x(8)

12

3.56

10.68

1.20 x 10-3

38.4 x 10-3

16

1+1=2

1.50+0.9=2.4

4.8

9.64 x 10-4

30.84 x 10-3

16

3.75

7.5

1.50 x 10-3

48 x 10-3

12

3.70

11.1

1.25 x 10-3

15 x 10-3

16

1+1=2

1.075+1.075=2.15

4.3

8.64 x 10-4

10.36 x 10-3

16

3.70

7.4

1.48 x 10-3

17.76 x 10-3

12

3.55

10.65

1.20 x 10-3

33.6 x 10-3

16

2+2=4

1.04+1.04=2.08

8.32

1.67 x 10-3

46.76 x 10-3

16

3.55

7.1

1.42 x 10-3

39.76 x 10-3

12

1.65

6.6

7.45 x 10-4

86.94 x 10-3

16

1+1=2

0.42+0.42=0.84

1.68

3.37 x 10-4

4.04 x 10-3

16

1.65

3.3

6.63 x 10-4

7.95 x 10-3

1.90

5.7

6.44 x 10-4

5.15 x 10-3

2+2=4

0.63+0.63=1.26

5.04

5.69 x 10-4

4.55 x 10-3

1.90

3.8

4.29 x 10-4

3.43 x 10-3

12

0.85

2.55

2.88 x 10-4

3.45 x 10-3

16

2+2=4

0.37+0.37=0.74

2.96

5.94 x 10-4

7.12 x 10-3

16

0.85

1.7

3.41 x 10-4

4.09 x 10-3

12

2.85

8.55

9.66 x 10-4

11.59 x 10-3

16

1+1=2

0.87+0.87=1.74

3.48

6.99 x 10-4

8.38 x 10-3

16

2.85

5.7

1.14 x 10-3

13.68 x 10-3

12

4.40

13.2

1.49 x 10-3

17.88 x 10-3

16

2+1=3

1.7+1.06=2.76

8.28

1.66 x 10-3

19.92 x 10-3

16

4.40

8.8

1.76 x 10-3

21.12 x 10-3

12

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

12

28

16

3.50

4.15

2.00

12

3.50

10.5

11.86 x 10-3

142.32 x 10-3

16

2+1=3

1.03+1.03=2.06

6.18

1.242 x 10-3

14.90 x 10-3

16

3.50

1.40 x 10-3

`16.8 x 10-3

4.90

24.5

4.92 x 10-3

137.76 x 10-3

2+1=3

1.79+1.19=2.98

8.94

1.79 x 10-3

50.12 x 10-3

2.75

13.75

1.55 x 10-3

24.8 x 10-3

2+2=4

1.064+0.65=1.71

6.84

7.72 x 10-4

11.55 x 10-4

16

12

(2)

Length
of Beam
( m)
Dia
mm

No of
Beams

(1)

Roof Beams

Beam
Type

Main Reinforcement in Roof Beams

(3)

(4)

3.00

12

3.70

12

10

3.55

12

1.65

12

1.90

12

0.85

12

2.85

12

3.65

12

3.50

12

4.15

12

2.00

12

No. of
bars

Length of bar
m

Total
length
of bars
m

Quantity
m3

Total quantity
m3

(5)

(6)

(7)=5x6

(8) =
Area of (4) x (7)

(9) = (2)x(8)

5
1+1=2
5

3.56
1.314+0.9=2.21
3.70

17.8
4.42
18.5

2.01 x 10
4.99 x 10-4
2.09 x 10-3

14.07 x 10-3
3.49 x 10-3
8.36 x 10-3

1+1=2

1.075+1.075=2.15

4.3

4.85 x 10-4

1.94 x 10-3

5
1+1=2
5
1+1=2

3.55
1.04+1.04=2.08
1.65
0.42+0.42=0.84

17.75
4.16
8.25
1.68

2.0 x 10-3
4.7 x 10-4
9.32 x 10-4
1.89 x 10-4

20 x 10-3
4.7 x 10-3
4.66 x 10-3
9.45 x 10-4

5
1+1=2
5
1+1=2
5
1+1=2
5
1+1=2
5
1+1=2
5
1+1=2
5
1+1=2

1.95
0.63+0.63=1.26
0.85
0.36+0.36=0.72
2.85
0.86+0.86=1.72
3.65
1.48+1.063=2.55
3.5
1.025+1.025=2.05
4.71
1.60+1.18=2.78
3.56
1.06+0.65=1.71

9.75
2.52
4.25
1.44
14.25
3.44
18.25
5.1
17.5
4.1
23.55
5.56
17.8
3.42

1.10 x 10-3
2.84 x 10-4
4.80 x 10-4
1.62 x 10-4
1.61 x 10-3
3.88 x 10-4
2.06 x 10-3
5.76 x 10-4
1.97 x 10-3
4.63 x 10-4
2.66 x 10-3
6.28 x 10-4
2.01 x 10-4
3.86 x 10-4

4.4 x 10-3
1.13 x 10-3
1.92 x 10-3
6.48 x 10-4
6.44 x 10-3
1.55 x 10-3
10.3 x 10-3
2.88 x 10-3
5.91 x 10-3
1.38 x 10-3
18.62 x 10-3
4.39 x 10-3
1.0 x 10-3
1.9 x 10-3

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289

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Shear Reinforcement in Beams (stirrups)


S.NO
(1)

TYPE (2)

Plinth
Beams
Typical
Floor
Beam
Roof
Beams

1
2
3

Dia
mm
(3)

No. of
stirrups
(4)

Length of
stirrups
m
(5)

Total
length of
stirrups
m
(6)=4 x 5

Quantity
m3
(7) =
Area of (3) x (6)

107

1.328

142.096

4.013x 10-3

127

1.328

168.656

4.767x 10-3

107

1.328

142.096

4.013x 10-3

Length of
bar
m
(5)

Total
length of
bars
m
(6)=4 x 5

Quantity
m3
(7) =
Area of (3) x (6)

Total
quantity
m3
(8) = (2)x(7)

COLUMNS
Longitudinal Reinforcement of column

Group
(1)

No of
columns
(2)

Dia
mm
(3)

No. of
bars
(4)

10

16

19.00

190.00

0.038

0.38

12

10
10

19.00

190.00

0.021

0.063

14

16

19.00

152.00

0.030

0.42

12

19.00

152.00

0.017

0.017

16

19.00

152.00

0.030

0.122

1.
2.
3

Transverse Reinforcement (Lateral Ties)

Group
(1)

1.

No of
columns
(2)

Dia
mm
(3)

No. of
stirrups
(4)

Length of
stirrups
m
(5)

Total
length of
stirrups
m
(6)=4 x 5

Quantity
m3
(7) =
Area of (3) x (6)

Total quantity
m3
(8) = (2)x(7)

10

70

1.338

93.66

2.648 x 10-3

0.0264

70

1.188

83.16

2.35 x 10

7.05 x 10-3

14

70

1.338

93.66

2.648 x 10-3

0.0370

70

1.188

83.16

2.35 x 10-3

2.35 x 10-3

70

1.338

93.66

2.648 x 10-3

0.0105

2.
3

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FOOTINGS
Group
(1)

1.

No of
footings
(2)

Dia
mm
(3)

No. of
bars
(4)

Length of
bar
m
(5)

Total
length of
bars
m
(6)=4 x 5

Quantity
m3
(7) =
Area of (3) x (6)

Total quantity
m3
(8) = (2)x(7)

12

1.892

17.028

1.925 x 10-3

7.7 x 10-3

1.692

16.92

1.913 x 10-3

7.65 x 10-3

4
12

2.

10

12

12

2.392

28.704

3.246 x 10-3

0.0454

12

13

2.192

28.496

3.222 x10-3

0.0451

16

13

2.592

33.696

6.774 x 10-3

0.0677

-3

14

10

16

14

2.392

33.488

6.733 x10

0.0673

12

1.892

17.028

1.925 x 10-3

7.7 x 10-3

12

10

1.792

17.92

2.026 x 10-3

8.107 x 10-3

STAIR CASE

Type
(1)

No of
flights
(2)

Main
Rein

12

Dist
Rein

12

Dia
mm
(3)

No. of
bars
(4)

Length
of bar
m
(5)

Total
length of
bars
m
(6)=4 x 5

Quantity
m3
(7) =
Area of (3) x
(6)

Total
quantity
m3
(8) = (2)x(7)

10

3.75

22.5

1.76 x 10-3

0.0212

1.74

10.44

8.198 x 10-4

9.838 x 10-3

0.95

12.35

6.207 x 10-4

7.449 x 10-3

10
8

6
13

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SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT

S.no

Dia of bar

Slab

Beam

Column

Footing

Stair
case

Quantity
Total
quantity
(cu-m)

--------

12.8x
10-3

0.084

-------

------

0.0968

7850

759.88

0.8229
5

-------

-------

------

7.449 x 10-3

0.8304

7850

6518.64

10

--------

-------

-------

------

0.031038

0.031038

7850

243.65

12

-------

0.622

0.08

0.130
3

------

0.8323

7850

6533.55

16

-------

0.500

0.922

0.135

-----

1.557

7850

12222.45

Density
(kg/m3)

Weight
kgs

Schedule of Rate (As per APSSR 2011-2012)


s.no
Description of item
1
R.C.C M20 design mix using 20 mm graded HBG metal
from approved quarry including cost of conveyance of all
materials to the site(including labour charges, batching
machinery, vibrators, centering and water )
Foundations
Plinth beams
Beams
Columns
Slabs
2

TMT Bars (HYSD Fe 415)


Supplying, fitting and placing TMT bars reinforcement as
per drawings and technical specifications for Bars below
36 mm dia including binding wire, over laps and wastage,
where they are not welded.
Mild steel bars
Supplying, fitting and placing mild steel
bars
reinforcement
as per drawings and technical
specifications including binding wire, over laps and
wastage, where they are not welded.
6 mm diameter

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

unit

Rate

1 cu.m
1 cu.m
1 cu.m
1 cu.m
1 cu.m

6086.74
7550.84
8103.56
6601.02
8236.21

1 kg

65.042

1 kg

52.080

292

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

Abstract of Estimate
Item
no
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Particulars
slabs
Roof beams
Typical floor beams
Plinth beams
Columns
Footings
Stair case
TMT 8mm dia
TMT 10 mm dia
TMT 12 mm dia
TMT 16 mm dia
Mild steel 6mm dia

Quantit
y
156.904
20.36
73.93
16.86
81.81
74.688
12.81
6518.64
243.65
6533.55
12222.45
759.88

Unit

Rate

Per

Cost

Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Kg
Kg
Kg
Kg
Kg

8236.21
8103.56
8103.56
7550.84
6601.02
6086.74
8103.56
65.042
65.042
65.042
65.042
52.080

Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Cu.m
Kg
Kg
Kg
Kg
Kg

1292294.29
164988.48
599096.19
127307.16
540029.44
454606.43
103806.60
423985.38
15847.48
424955.15
794972.59
39574.55

Lump sum cost =

Rs 49,81,463.74

Add 5% extra =

Rs 2,49,073.18

Total cost

Rs 52,30,537.00

Approximately Rs 52,30,537.00 is required to construct the G+4 residential and


commercial RCC building.

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293

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

21. ESTIMATION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBERS


Structural steel members may be of single I section or double I sections,
channel sections, angles, tee sections, flat plates and other fastening accessories. The
cost estimates for steel structures are significantly different from calculation of the
estimated cost of RCC structures, as they need special designs. The most important
part of the design and construction of steel structure are the connections. It is well
known that connections costs are about 12% of major structural elements such as
stanchions (columns), beams in a building.
The connections , either through the use of welds or high-stress bolts, have the
largest share in the process of preparing detailed drawings, where the most important
and most critical phase is the accuracy of the details of the connection.

21.1 STEEL TAKE-OFF FROM STAAD PRO OUT PUT

PROFILE

LENGTH(M)

WEIGHT( kN)

ST ISWB600A

588.80

836.327

ST ISHB200

508.10

185.402

ST ISHB400

66.75

50.610

ST ISHB250

351.00

175.264

ST ISHB300

33.20

19.077

TOTAL

1266.680 kN

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

21.2 Estimation of Quantity of structural steel members


S.
no
I

II

III

IV

Particulars

No

Length
m

Breadth
m

Qty

Wt.
per
unit

Total
weight
(kN)

836.33

Rolled steel
I sections
ISWB600A

588.80

-----

------

1.42
kN/m

ISHB200

508.10

----

----

0.364

185.41

ISHB400

66.75

-----

-----

0.758

50.61

ISHB250

351.00

-----

-----

0.499

175.30

ISHB300

33.20

-----

-----

0.574

19.1

32

0.575

0.585

10.76 m2

3.46kn/
m2

37.23

Mild steel plates


@ column bases
575 x 585 x 45 mm
thick base plate
Wt of 45 mm thick
plate =
0.045x7850=3.46
kN/m2
Connections (cleat
angles, stiffeners,
gusset plates anchor
bolts, welds)
Beam to columns,
Beam to Beam and
column to columns are
approximately 12 %
of the total weight of
beams and columns
Kirby Deck slab
Thickness of sheet 0.7
mm
Wt = 0.069 kN/m2
Total area = 5xarea of
each slab-5xarea of
staircase- 5 x area of
lift + cap slab
Steel Stair case
Stairs
ISMC250@
0.298kN/m
12 flights & 10 treads

12 x (836.33 +185.41+ 50.61+


175.30+ 19.1)/100
= 152. 01 kN

152. 01

5 x 231-5 x 7.1-5 x 3.8 + 25.914 = 0.069


1126.414 m2
kN/m2

77.73

120

1.0

-----

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

-----

0.298

35.76

295

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

in each flight
Stringer beams
ISLC 300 @
0.324 kN/m
2 stringer beams per
flight
Length of stringer
beam + width of
landing (2.76+0.8)
Connections
12% of total steel
quantity of stair case.
(12 x
(35.76+27.68))/100

24

3.56

------

-----

0.324

27.68

-----

-----

------

-----

-----

7.612

Total weight 1604.77


19.3 ABSTRACT OF ESTIMATE
From Standard schedule of rates 2011-2012 the cost of M.S
I section, Angles, channels etc.,

Rs 48.00 per kg.

Fabrication charges

Rs 14.00 per kg

Erection charges

Rs 12.00 per kg

Total =

Rs 74.00 per kg

Total weight of steel members

Cost of the steel structural members =

1604.77 kN = 163585.11 kgs


163585.11 x48

Rs 78,52,085.28

Work charged establishment

Rs 3,92,604.264

Total cost of steel structure

Rs 82,44,689.54

Rs 82,44,690.00

Add 5% for contingencies and

Approximately Rs 82,44,690.00 is required to construct the G+4 residential and


commercial STEEL Building

NIZAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

296

COMPARITIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

22. CONCLUSION
S.
NO
1
2

PARTICULARS
Grade/ Materials

STEEL BUILDING

M20
Fe250 & Fe415

Mild steel

300 x 400 mm
300 x 500 mm

ISHB 300
ISWB600A

300 x 400 mm
300 x 500 mm
------------

ISHB 200
ISWB 600 A

Max sizes of
sections
Beams
Columns

R.C.C BUILDING

Min sizes of
sections
Beams
Columns
Secondary beams
Reactions

ISJB 200

Maximum
Gravity

1637.006 kN (Node 15)

776.237 kN (Node 15)

Wind

92.625 kN (Node 3)

104.611 kN (Node 3)

Seismic

152.811 kN (Node 3)

72.905 kN (Node 3)

Max Bending
moments
Gravity loads

42.816 kN-m (Beam 5021) 56.277 kN-m (Beam 3029)

Wind loads

19.87 kN-m (Beam 1051)

37.618 kN-m (Beam 2048)

Seismic loads

26.559 kN-m (Beam 105)

14.951 kN-m (Beam 1046)

Max shear force

130.305 kN (Beam 5021)

124.553 kN (Beam 4016)

Max deflection

About X

0.416 mm (Node 259)

0.678 mm (Node 258)

About Y

2.866 mm (Node 262)

2.006 mm (Node 243)

About Z

0.757 mm (Node 263)

0.395 mm (Node 95)

Gravity loads

297

COMPARITIVE STUDY ON MULTI-STOREY R.C.C AND STEEL BUILDING

Wind loads
About X

2.134 mm (Node 261)

5.065 mm (Node265)

About Y

0.179 mm (Node 217)

0.246 mm (Node255)

About Z

5.195 mm (Node 258)

16.478 mm (Node 258)

About X

7.342 mm (Node 263)

5.651mm (Node 259)

About Y

0.360 mm (Node 255)

0.198mm (Node 138)

About Z

9.552 mm (Node 258)

9.967mm(Node 243)

Seismic loads

Envelope load
case
Max BM

97.419 kN-m(Beam 3047 ) 99.318 kN-m (Beam 3029)


1.5(DL+EQ ZP)
1.5(DL+LL)

Max shear force

130.305 kN (Beam 5021)


1.5(DL+LL)

124.553 kN (Beam 4016)


1.5(DL+LL)

Max Reactions

1637.006 kN (Node3)
1.5(DL+EQ XN)

1361.171 kN (Node 22)


1.5(DL+LL)

Quantity of
material

Concrete = 437.362 cu.m


Steel = 26,178.17 kgs

Structural Steel = 1604.77kN

Approximate cost
( only structure )

Rs 52,30,537.00

Rs 82,44,690.00

298

BIBLOGRAPHY
Reinforced concrete design by S.Unnikrishna pillai and Devdas menon.
Limit state design by B.C.Punmia, Ashok.K.Jain and Arun.K.Jain.
Illustrated design of reinforced concrete buildings by Dr. V.L.Shah and
Dr.S.R.Karve
Standard method of detailing structural concrete by B.H.G.Cresswell
Riol.
Limit state design of R.C.C structures by Ramachandra.
Design for RCC slabs by K.C Jain.
Building Design and Construction by Fredrick S.Merritt and Jonathan
T.Ricketts
Design of R.C.C Structural Elements by S.S.Bhavikatti
Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures by M.R.Dheerendra Babu
Structural Design and Drawing Reinforced Concrete and Steel by
N.Krishna Raju.
Steel Structures by K.Naga Sreenivasa Rao.
Design of Steel Structures by S.Ramamrutham and R.Narayanan.
Design of Steel Structures by Ram Chandra