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CHAPTER 9 :

NAME: Arivaran a/l Ravichantar

CLASS: 4 Amanah

SCHOOL: SMK Puchong

SUBJECT : Chemistry
BIODATA

Name : Arivaran a/l Ravichantar

Class : 4 Amanah

I.C. Number : 930228-14-5101

Address : No. 9, Jalan Indah 2/8, Taman Puchong Indah, 47100 Puchong,

Selangor Darul Ehsan.

Phone No. : 017-6817601

E-mail : r.arivaran@yahoo.com

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CONTENT

Content Page
Biodata 2
9.1 Sulphuric acid
9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid 4
9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid 5
9.1.3 The industrial process in manufacture of sulphuric acid 9
9.1.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid 13
9.2 Ammonia and its salt
9.2.1 Properties of ammonia 14
9.2.2 The uses of ammonia 16
9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia 17
9.3 Alloys
9.3.1 Arrangement of Atoms in Metals 19
9.3.2 What are Alloys 20
9.3.3 Composition, Properties, Uses of Alloys 21
9.4 Synthetic polymers
9.4.1 What are Polymer, Properties of Polymers 23
9.4.2 Monomers in synthetic Polymers 24
9.4.3 Examples of Synthetic Polymers & Their Uses 25
9.5 Glass and ceramics 26
9.5.1 Glass 27
9.5.2 Ceramics 29
9.6 Composite material 31
Conclusion of Topic 33
Acknowledgment 34
References 35

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9.1 SULPHURIC ACID

9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid

1. Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid.


2. Its molecular formula is H2SO4. Figure 9.1 A molecule of
sulphuric acid.
3. It is soluble in water.
4. Sulphuric acid is a non-volatile diprotic acid.
5. It is a highly corrosive, dense and oily liquid.
6. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid.

Soluble in
water

Non-volatile Diprotic
acid acid

Properties of
Highly sulphuric acid Dense
corrosive

Oily Viscous
liquid colourless
liquid

Figure 9.2 Properties of sulphuric acid

4
9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid

1) To manufacture fertilizers

There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid. Some of them are:

a) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (superphosphate)

2 H2SO4 + Ca3(PO4) 2 → Ca(H2 PO4) 2 + 2CaSO4

sulphuric acid + tricalcium phosphate → calcium dihydrogen phosphate

b) Ammonium sulphate

H2SO4 +2NH3 → (NH4) 2SO4

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate

c) Potassium sulphate

H2SO4 +2NH3 → (NH4) 2SO4

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate

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2) To manufacture detergents
Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid is then
neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. Examples of hydrocarbon

3) To manufacture synthetic fibres

Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a synthetic
fibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose.

4) To manufacture paint pigments

The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate, BaSO4. The neutralization of
sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate.

5) As an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators

6) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating

7) To manufacture pesticides

8) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are:

a. As a strong acid
b. As a drying or dehydrating agent
c. As an oxidizing agent
d. As a sulphonating agent
e. As a catalyst

6
Remove metal Manufacture
oxides from pesticides
As an
metal surfaces electrolyte in
before lead-acid
electroplating accumulators

Uses of sulphuric acid


Manufacture Manufacture
fertilizers paint
pigments

Manufacture
detergents Manufacture
synthetic
fibres

Figure 9.3 Uses of sulphuric acid

7
making fertiliser
18%

1%
38% paints

12%
chemicals

18% detergents
13%

removing dust from steel

Figure 9.4 Uses of sulphuric acid in industry other uses

8
9.1.2 The industrial process in manufacture sulphuric acid

1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact process.


2. Sulphuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water via the contact
process.
3. The Contact process involves three stages.

Sulphur → Sulphur dioxide → Sulphur trioxide → Sulphuric acid


I II III

4. Stage I: Production of sulphur dioxide gas, SO2.

This can be done by two methods,

a) Burning of sulphur in dry air.

S + O2 → SO2

b) Burning of metal sulphide such as zinc sulphide in dry air.

2ZnS + 3O2 → 2SO2 + 2ZnO

5. Stage II: Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide SO3.

This is then oxidised to sulfur trioxide under the following conditions:

a) The presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst.


b) A temperature of between 450°C to 550°C.
c) A pressure of one atmosphere

2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3

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6. Stage III: Production of sulphuric acid

a) Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to produce oleum,


H2S2O7

H2SO4+ SO3 → H2S2O7

b) Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4.

H2S2O7+ H2O → 2 H2SO4

7. In stage II, sulphur dioxide is dried first before being added to dry air to
produce sulphur trioxide. This is:
a) To remove water vapour
b) To remove contaminants

8. In stage III, sulphur trioxide is not dissolved directly in water to produce sulphuric
acid. This is because:
a) sulphur trioxide has low solubility in water
b) sulphur trioxide reacts violently and mists are formed instead of
a liquid

10
\

The Contact Process

Sulphur Oxygen

In the converter
S(s) + O2(g)SO2(g) 2SO(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
Temperature: 450-500°C
Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres Unreacted
Oxygen Catalyst: Vanadium (V) oxide 2%so2 is
flowed back
to converter
together with
SO2 (g) + H2SO4 (aq)H2S2O7(l) oxygen
H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l)2H2SO4(aq)

Outline Of Contact process

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Sulphur or metal sulphide

burned in air

Sulphur dioxide, SO2

a) the presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst.

b) a temperature of between 450°C to 550°C.

c) a pressure of one atmosphere

Sulphur trioxide, SO3

dissolved in sulphuric acid, H2SO4

Oleum, H2S2O7

diluted with equal volume of water H2O

Concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4

Figure 9.5 Flowchart of Contact process

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9.1.3 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid

1. Sulphur dioxide is the main byproduct produced when sulfur-containing fuels


such as coal or oil are burned.
2. Sulphuric acid is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the
presence of water. It also produces sulphurous acid.
3. Sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid are constituents of acid rain.
4. Acid rain can cause many effects such as:
i. Corrodes concrete buildings and metal structure
ii. Destroys trees and plants
iii. Decrease the pH of th soil and make it become acidic
iv. Acid rain flows into the rivers and increases the acidity of water and kill
aquatic living things.
5. Hence, we must reduce the sulphur dioxide from the atmosphere by:

i. Use low sulphur fuels to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide in exhaust
gases
ii. Remove sulphur dioxide from waste air by treating it with calcium
carbonated before it is released

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9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT

9.2.1 Properties of ammonia

1. A colorless, pungent gas.


2. Its molecular formula is NH3
3. It is extremely soluble in water.
4. It is a weak alkali.
Figure 9.6 A molecule of
5. It is about one half as dense as air ammonia.
6. It reacts with hydrogen chloride gas to produce
white fumes of ammonium chloride.

NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

7. Ammonia is alkaline in property and reacts with dilute acids in neutralization


to produce salts. For examples:

NH3 + HNO 3 → NH4NO 3

2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4) 2SO4

8. Aqueous solutions of ammonia produces OH − ions (except Na+ ion, K+ ion,


and Ca 2+ ion) forming metal hydroxides precipitate.

Fe3+ + 3OH− → Fe(OH) 3


Brown precipitate

Mg2+ + 2OH− → Mg(OH) 2


White precipitate

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9. Some metal hydroxides such as zinc hydroxide and copper (II) hydroxide
dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form complexes.

Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3→ [Zn(NH3)4] 2++ 2OH−

Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3→ [Cu(NH3)4] 2+ + 2OH−

Extremely
Weak soluble in
alkali water

Properties of ammonia

Colorless Pungent
smell

Figure 9.7 Properties of ammonia

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USES OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY:
Examples are ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate and
urea. The first two are prepare through neuralisation but urea is
produced by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide. The
To reaction involved are as the following:
manufacture a) 2NH3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (s) ammonium
nitrogenous sulphate b) NH3 (g) + HNO3 (aq)
fertilisers
NH4NO3 (aq) ammonium nitrate c)
2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) (NH2)2CO (s) + H2O (l) urea

Having a low melting point,


liquefied ammonia makes a
As a cooling good cooling agent in
agent refrigerators and air
conditioners.

It neutralizes the organic acids


formed by microorganisms in latex,
To prevent the
coagulation of thereby preventing coagulation and
latex in the preserving the latex in liquid form.
rubber industry

Ammonia is converted to nitric acid in the Ostwald


process:
1) ammonia is first oxidised to nitrogen monoxide, NO, by
oxygen in the presence of platinum as catalyst at 900˚C.
To manufacture 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) Pt/900˚C 4NO (aq) + 6H2O (l)
nitric acid in 2) nitrogen monoxide is further oxidised to nitrogen
industry
dioxide.
2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g)
3) Nitrogen dioxide and oxygen are dissolved in water to
produced nitric acid.
4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + H2O (l) 4HNO3 (aq)

a) Nitric acid is manufactured from ammonia before


To manufacture being used to make explosive like trinitrotoluene
explosive (TNT).
b) Nitric acid, in this case, is reacted with organic
substances like toluene.

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9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia

1. Haber process is the industrial method of producing ammonia.


2. It needs direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure in the
presence of a catalyst, often iron.
3. Nitrogen gas used in Haber process is obtained from the frictional distillation of
liquid air.
4. Hydrogen gas used in Haber process can be obtained by two methods:
a) The reaction between steam and heated coke (carbon)

C + H2O → CO + H2

b) The reaction between steam and natural gas ( consisting mainly of


methane)

CH4 + 2H2O → CO2 +


4H2
5. In the Haber process:
a) A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and three volume of
hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure between 200 – 500 atmospheres.
b) The gas mixture is passed through a catalyst of powdered iron at a
temperature of 450 - 550°C.
c) At this optimum temperature and pressure, ammonia gas is produced.

N2+ 3H2 → 2NH3

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The Haber process

Nitrogen Hydrogen

N2 and H2 are mixed in the proportion of 1:3

In the reactor chamber Unreacted N2


and H2 gases
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
Temperature: 450-500°C
Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres
Catalyst used: Iron fillings

In cooling chamber
Liquid ammonia

Outline of Haber process

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9.3 ALLOYS
9.3.1 ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN METALS

1. The atom of pure metals are packed together closely. This causes the metal to have a
hight density
2. The forces of attraction between atoms (metallic bonds) are strong. More heat
energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond so that the atoms are further apart
during the melting. This is why metals usually have hight melting point.
3. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by vibration. This
make metal good conduct of heat.
4. The freely moving outermost electrons within the metal’s structure are able to
conduct electricity. Metal are, therefore, good electrical conductors.
5. Since atoms of pure metal are of the same size, they are arranged orderly in a regular
layered pattern. When a force is applied to metal, layer of atom slide easily over one
another. This make pure metals soft, malleable and ductile.

Layer of atom slide

Force

Metals are ductile

The shape of the


Force metal change

Matel are malleable

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9.3.2 WHAT ARE ALLOYS

1. Pure metal are usually too soft for most uses. They also have a low resistance to
corrosion. They rush and tarnish easily.
2. To improve the physical properties of metal, a small amount of another element
(usually metal) is added to form another an alloy.
3. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals (something non-metal) in a specific
proportion. For example:
a. Bronze (90% of copper and 10% of tin)
b. Steel (99% of iron and 1% of carbon)
4. The purposes of making alloys include the following:
a) Increase the strength
i. Pure iron is soft and vary malleable. When a small amount of carbon is added
to iron, an alloy, steal is formed. The more carbon is added, the stronger the
steel becomes.
ii. Pure aluminium is light but not strong. With a small amount of copper and
magnesium are added to aluminium, a strong, light and durable alloy call
duralumin is produced.
b) Improving the resistance to corrosion
i. Iron rust easily but stainless steel which contains 80.6% of iron, 0.4% of
carbon, 18% of chromium and 1% of nickel does not rush. These properties
make stainless steel suitable for making surgical instrument and cutlery.
ii. Pure copper tarnish easily. When zinc (30%) is added, the yellow alloy which
is known as brass develops a high resistance to corrosion.
c) Enhancing the appearance
i. Pewter, an alloy of tin (97%), antimony and copper is not only hard but also
has a more beautiful white silvery appearance.
ii. When copper is mixed with nickel to form cupronickel, an alloy that has an
attractive silvery, bright appearance is formed which is suitable for making
coins.

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9.3.3 Composition, Properties, Uses of Alloy

Alloy Composition Properties Uses


Cu 75% Hard, strong,
Cupronickel Coins
Ni 25% resist corrosion
Al 95%
Aeroplane part, electric cables
Duralumin Cu 4% Light, strong
racing bicycles
Mg 1%
Fe 99% Hard, strong,
Steel Vehicles, bridges, buildings
C 1% cheap
Fe 73%
Kitchen appliance, watches,
Stainless Cr 18% Hard, rust
knifes, fork, spoons, machine
steel Ni 8% resistant
parts
C 1%
Cu 90% Hard, strong, Decorative items, medals,
bronze
Sn 10% shining artwork, pots & pans
Cu 70% Harder and Musical instrument, bell, nails,
Brass
Zn 30% cheaper than Cu screw, and pots
Pb 50% Low melting
Solder Welding, soldering work
Sn 50% point, strong
Sn 91% Malleable,
Pewter Sb 7% ductile, rust Decorative items,souvenirs
Cu 2% resistant
Al 70% Tyre rim of racing car, skeletal
Magnalium Light, strong
Mg 30% body of aeroplane

The formation of alloy

21
Examples Of Alloys

Brass

Stainless
Bronze
Steel

Bronze EXAMPLE Steel


OF ALLOY

Manganese
Steel

Pewter
Manganese Stainless steel
steel

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9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
9.4.1 WHAT ARE POLYMER

1. Molecule that consist of a large number of small identical or similar units joined
together repeatedly are called polymer.
2. The smaller molecules that make up the repeating unit in polymer are caller
monomer.
3. The process of joining together a large number of monomers to form a long chain
polymer is called polymerisation.
4. Polymer can be naturally occurring or man-made (synthetic). Natural polymer are
found in plant and in animals for example of natural polymers are starch cellulose,
protein and rubber.
5. Two type of polymerisation in producing synthetic polymer are additional
polymerisation.
6. Double bonds between two carbon atoms usually undergo addition polymerisation.

large molicule
that is in the
form of long
chain with high
RMM

Properties
of
Polymers
made up of many
two types:- monomers which
- natural polymer join together
- syntetic through process
polymer called
polymerisation

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9.4.2 Monomers and repeat units
 The identity of the monomer residues (repeat units) comprising a polymer is its
first and most important attribute.
 Polymer nomenclature is generally based upon the type of monomer residues
comprising the polymer.
 Polymers that contain only a single type of repeat unit are known as
homopolymers, while polymers containing a mixture of repeat units are known as
copolymers.
 Poly(styrene), for example, is composed only of styrene monomer residues, and is
therefore classified as a homopolymer.
 Ethylene-vinyl acetate, on the other hand, contains more than one variety of
repeat unit and is thus a copolymer.
 Some biological polymers are composed of a variety of different but structurally
related monomer residues;
 for example, polynucleotides such as DNA are composed of a variety of
nucleotide subunits.
 A polymer molecule containing ionizable subunits is known as a polyelectrolyte
or ionomer

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Some Common Addition Polymers
Name(s) Formula Monomer Properties Uses
Polyethylene
–(CH2- ethylene film wrap,
low density soft, waxy solid
CH2)n– CH2=CH2 plastic bags
(LDPE)
Polyethylene electrical
–(CH2- ethylene rigid, translucent
high density insulation
CH2)n– CH2=CH2 solid
(HDPE) bottles, toys
atactic: soft, similar to
Polypropylene
–[CH2- propylene elastic solid LDPE
(PP) different
CH(CH3)]n– CH2=CHCH3 isotactic: hard, carpet,
grades
strong solid upholstery
Poly(vinyl
–(CH2- vinyl chloride pipes, siding,
chloride) strong rigid solid
CHCl)n– CH2=CHCl flooring
(PVC)
Poly(vinylidene vinylidene
–(CH2- dense, high- seat covers,
chloride) chloride
CCl2)n– melting solid films
(Saran A) CH2=CCl2
hard, rigid, clear
toys, cabinets
Polystyrene –[CH2- styrene solid
packaging
(PS) CH(C6H5)]n– CH2=CHC6H5 soluble in organic
(foamed)
solvents
Polyacrylonitrile high-melting solid
–(CH2- acrylonitrile rugs, blankets
(PAN, Orlon, soluble in organic
CHCN)n– CH2=CHCN clothing
Acrilan) solvents
non-stick
Polytetrafluoroet tetrafluoroethy
–(CF2- resistant, smooth surfaces
hylene lene
CF2)n– solid electrical
(PTFE, Teflon) CF2=CF2
insulation
Poly(methyl methyl
–[CH2- lighting covers,
methacrylate) methacrylate hard, transparent
C(CH3)CO2 signs
(PMMA, Lucite, CH2=C(CH3)C solid
CH3]n– skylights
Plexiglas) O2CH3
Poly(vinyl –(CH2- vinyl acetate
latex paints,
acetate) CHOCOCH3 CH2=CHOCO soft, sticky solid
adhesives
(PVAc) )n– CH3
Uses of synthetic polymer

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9.5 GLASS AND CERAMICS
1. The main component of both glass and ceramic is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2.
2. Both glass and ceramic have the same properties as follow
a) Hard and brittle
b) Inert to chemical reactions
c) Insulators or poor conductors of heat and electricity
d) Withstand compression but not stretching
e) Can be easily cleaned
f) Low cost of production
3. Differences between glass and cerement are, glass is transparent, while ceramic is
opaque. Ceramic can withstand a higher temperature than normal glass.
4. Types of glass are
a) Fused glass
 It is consist mainly of silica or silicon dioxide
 It has high heat resistance
b) Soda lime glass
 It cannot withstand high temperatures
c) Borosilicate glass
 It can withstand high temperature
d) Lead glass
 High refractive index
5. Uses of improved glass for specific purpose
a) Photochromic glass
 It is sensitive to light intensity
b) Conducting glass
 It conducts electricity
6. Ceramic is a manufactured substances made from clay, with the main constituent of
aluminosilicate with small quantity of sand and feldspar.
7. Superconductor is one improved ceramics for specific purposes.

26
GLASS
Glass:-
 The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2 which found in
sand.

Impermeable
to liquid

Electrical
Transparent
insulator

Properties
of glass

hard but Heat


brittle insulator

Chemically
inert

27
TYPES, COMPOSITION,
PROPERTIES, AND USES OF
GLASS
GLASS COMPOSITION PROPERTIES USES
 Low melting point  Glass container
SiO2 – 70%  Mouldable into shapes  Glass panes
Na2O – 15%  Cheap  Mirror
Soda lime glass
CaO – 10%  Breakable  Lamps and bulbs
Others – 4%  Can withstand high  Plates and bowls
heat  Bottles
 High density and  Containers for drinks
refractive index and food
SiO2 – 70%
 Glittering surface  Decorative glass
Lead glass (crystal) Na2O – 20%
 Soft  Crystal glassware
PbO – 10%
 Low melting point  Lens for spectacles
(600˚C)
 Resistant to high heat  Glass apparatus in lab
SiO2 – 80%
&chemical reaction  Cooking utensils
Borosilicate glass B2O3 – 13%
 Does not break easily
(Pyrex) Na2O – 4%
Al2O3 – 2%  Allow infra-red rays
but no ultra-violet rays
 High melting point  Scientific apparatus
(1700˚C) like lens on
 Expensive spectrometer
SiO2 – 99%
Fused silicate glass  Allow ultraviolet to  Optical lens
B2O3 – 1%
pass through  Lab apparatus
 Difficult to melt or
mould into shape

28
CERAMICS
Ceramics:-
 Ceramic is manufactured substances made from clay that is dried, and heated in a
kiln at a very high temperature
 The main component of clay is aluminosilicate (aluminum oxide and silicon
dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar. Unlike glass, ceramic cannot
be recycled.
 Kaolinite is a high quality white clay that contains hydrated aluminosilicate,
Al2O3•2SiO2•2H2O.

extremely
hard &
strong but
brittle

able to has a very


withstand high
and resist melting
corrosion Properties point
of
ceramics

good
insulator of inert to
electricity chemicals
and heat

29
THE DIFFERENT CLASES OF
CERAMIC
GROUP COMPOSITION
Mineral Quartz – SiO2
Calcite – CaCO3
Cement material Mixture of CaSiO3 and ammonium silicate
Oxide of ceramic Aluminium oxide – Al2O3
Silicon dioxide – SiO2
Magnesium oxide – MgO
Non-oxides of ceramic Silicon nitride – Si3N4
Silicon carbide – SiC
Boron nitride – BN
Boron carbide – B4C3

THE USES OF IMPROVED GLASS AND CERAMICS FOR


SPECIFIC PURPOSES

GLASS OPTICAL CONDUCTING GLASS-CERAMIC CERAMIC PHOTOCHROMIC


FIBRE GLASS •Rearrange its atoms SUPERCONUCTOR GLASS
•A pure silica glass •a type of glass that into regular patterns •superconductor can •sensitive to light
thread that conducts can conduct by heating glass to conduct electricity at intensity
light. electricity. form strong material low temoerature •the glass darken
•this fibres can •produce by •it can withstand high without resistance, when exposed to
transmit messages embedding a thin temperature, loss of electrical sunlight but became
modulated onto light layer of conducting chemical attacks energy as heat clear when light
waves. material in glass. •used in tile, •used to make light intensity decresase.
•used inmedical •adding a layer of cookware, rockets, magnet, electric •used in windows,
instrument, LAN indium tin(iv) oxide engine blocks motors, electrical sunglasses ad
(ITO) acts as an generators instrument control
electrical conductor.
•used in the making
of LCD

30
9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIAL
9.6.1 WHAT ARE COMPOSITE MATERIALS

1. A composite materials (or composite) is a structure of materials that is formed by two


or more different substances such as metal, glass, ceramic and polymer.
2. Some common composite materials are:
a. Reinforces concrete
b. Superconductor
c. Fibre optic
d. Fibre glass
e. Photochromic glass

in the medical field:


to replace organs in
the form of plastic
composite organ

Uses of
composite
material
car part now use
composite material
sronger buildings
instead iron and
are built by using
steel. this increase
reinforce concrete
the speed of the car
and fuel saver

31
COMPOSITE PROPERTIES OF PROPERTIES OF
COMPONENT USES
MATERIAL COMPONENT COMPOSITE
 concrete  hard but brittle  stronger  construction of road
 low tensile strengh  higher tensile strength  rocket launching pads
 does not corrode  high-rise buildings
easily
 cheaper
Reinforced concrete  can be moulded into
shape
 steel  strong in tensile  can withstand very
strength high applied force
 expensive  can support very
 can corrode heavy load

 Cooper(ll) oxide  Insulator of  Conducts electricity  Magnetically levitated


 Yttrium oxide electricity without resistance train
Superconductor  Barium oxide when cooled by liquid  Transformer
nitrogen  Electric cable
 Computer parts
 Glass  Transparent  Reduce refraction of  Information display
 Not sensitive to light panels
light  Control the amount of  Light detector device
light passed through it  Car windshields
auto.  Optical lens
Photochromic glass
 Silver chloride  Sensitive to light  Has the ability to
or silver change colour and
bromide become darker when
exposed to ultraviolet
light
 Glass with low  Transparent  Low material cost  Transmit data using
refraction index  Does not reflect  Reflect light rays and light waves in
light rays allow to travel along telecommunications
the fibre
Fibre optics  Can transmit
electronic data or
 Glass with
signal, voice and
higher
image
refractive index

 glass  high density  high tensile strength  car bodies


 strong but brittle  moulded and shaped  helmets
 non-flexible  inert to chemicals  skies
 light, strong, tough  rackets
Fibre glass  polyester  light
 non-flammable  furniture
plastic  flexible
 impermeable to water
 inflammable
 resilient
 elastic but weak
 flexible

32
CONCLUSION OF TOPIC

We must appreciate these various synthetic industrial materials. One of the way is by
doing continuous research and development ( R & D ) to produce better materials used to
improve our standard of living. As we live in a changing world, our society is getting
more complex. New materials are required to overcome new challenges and problems we
face in our daily lives. Synthetic material are developed constantly due to the limitation
and shortage of natural materials. New technological developments are used by scientists
to make new discoveries.

New materials for clothing, shelter, tools and communication to improve our daily
life are developed continuously for the well-being of mankind. New needs and new
problem will stimulate the development of new synthetic materials. For example, the new
use of plastic composite material will replace metal in the making of a stronger and
lighter car body. This will save fuel and improve speed. Plastic composite materials may
one day used to make organs for organ transplant in human bodies. This will become
necessity with the shortage of human organ donors.

The understanding of the interaction between different chemicals is important for


both the development of new synthetic materials and the disposal of such synthetic
materials as waste. A responsible and systemic method of handling the waste of synthetic
materials and their by-product is important to prevent environmental pollution. The
recycling and development of environmental friendly synthetic material should be
enforced.

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Acknowledgment
First of all, I wish to express my sincere thanks to GOD for his
care and generosity throughout of my life.

I would like to express my sincere appreciation and my deep


gratitude to Puan Ng Pek Lan, Form 4 Amanah Chemistry Teacher,
SMK Puchong Batu 14 who assigned the work, and kindly supplied me
with all necessary facilities for its success and helped me to complete
this work.

First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere thanks to


all my family members especially my parents who gave me not only
financial support but also moral support and motivation to fine the
solutions to all the questions given.

I am also deeply indebted to my school mates Mathiarasi a/p


Bernabas, Sivaselvan a/l Subramaniam, Uberesh a/l Machap,
Kavitha a/p Kasturi, Logeswary a/p Painaidu of SMK Puchong Batu
14 for their great support throughout the whole work.

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REFERENCES

1. Tan Yin Toon, Loh Wai Leng, Tan On Tin, 2008, SUCCESS Chemistry SPM,
Oxford Fajar Sdn.Bhd.
2. Website http://www.answers.com
3. Website http://www.wikipedia.com
4. Eng Nguan Hong, Lim Eng Wah, Lim Yean Ching, 2009, FOCUS ACE SPM,
Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn.Bhd.

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