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POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS

FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA (fernando@isec.pt)


MARINA S. D. PERDIGO (perdigao@isec.pt)

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

Course Contents:
1. Overview on Power Electronics Devices (Prof. Fernando Ferreira)
2. Rectifiers (Prof. Marina Perdigo)
3. DC-DC Converters (Prof. Marina Perdigo)
4. Inverters (Prof. Fernando Ferreira)
5. Back-to-back and Matrix Converters (Prof. Fernando Ferreira)
6. Resonant Converters (Prof. Marina Perdigo)
7. Auxiliary Circuits: Drive and Snubber Circuits (Prof. Fernando Ferreira)
9. Power Converter Modelling, Simulation and Control Basics
Course Organization:
- Theoretical Lectures;
- Laboratorial Classes (Exercises, Simulations, Experiments);
- Personal Support at the Professor office/chamber.

Course Evaluation:
- 60% for the written exam
- 40% for the laboratory work

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

DC-DC POWER CONVERTERS


Buck, Boost and Buck-boost

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

DC-DC conversion?

Single-phase or
three-phase
rectifier

Buck
Boost
Buck-boost

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

DC-DC conversion?

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

DC-DC conversion?

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

DC-DC conversion?

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

DC-DC conversion
Purpose: regulated output voltage
The average output voltage must be
controlled to be equal to a desired level,
though the input voltage and the output
load may fluctuate;
In a switch-mode dc-dc converter with a
given input voltage the average output
voltage is controlled by controlling the
switch on and off durations therefore,
the average output voltage depends on
and
= ; = 1

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

DC-DC conversion
Purpose: regulated output voltage
The average output voltage must be
controlled to be equal to a desired level,
though the input voltage and the output
load may fluctuate;
In a switch-mode dc-dc converter with a
given input voltage the average output
voltage is controlled by controlling the
switch on and off durations therefore,
the average output voltage depends on
and
Switching a constant frequency and simply
adjusting the on duration of the switch is
called pulse-width-modulation

= ; = 1

The switch duty ratio is defined as the


ratio of the on duration to the switching
time period
EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

PWM switching scheme

Note: The frequency of the sawtooth dictates the value


of the switching frequency of the converter (typically
few kHz to a few hundred kHz)

= ; = 1

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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DC-DC conversion
average value of the output voltage

1
=
()
0

1
=
+
0 =
0

= ; = 1

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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DC-DC converters:

Buck

1. Step-down converter: buck converter;


2. Step-up converter: boost converter;

3. Step-up, step down converter: buck-boost;


4. Isolated dc-dc converters;

Boost

Flyback converter;

Forward converter.
Buck-boost

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

General remarks:
The circuit operates in steady-state:
all voltages and current are periodic
and ending at the same points over
one switching period;
C is very large resulting in constant
output voltage = ;
At first current in is assumed to be
continuous;
The circuit is assumed to be lossless
( = )

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch ON

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch ON

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

The output voltage fluctuations are


diminished by using a low-pass filter,
consisiting of an inductor and a
capacitor:
corresponds to the input of the low-pass
filter, which consists of a dc component and the
harmonics at the switching frequency and its
multiples
If the corner frequency of the filter is selected to
be much lower than the switching-frequency, the
ripple will be essentially eliminated

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch ON

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

SWITCH CLOSED:
The relationship between the input and output
voltages can be determined by examining the
current in

+ = 0 =

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch ON

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

SWITCH OPEN:
The relationship between the input and output
voltages can be determined by examining the
current in

+ = 0 =

(1 )

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch ON

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

=0

(1 )

= 0

=
voltage conversion ratio

=
=

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch ON

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

average value of the inductance voltage

() =
0

+
0

=0
1 = 0

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

maximum and minimum values of the inductor current

= +

1 1
=
+
2

= =

= = =

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

Output voltage ripple

=
=

2
2

2
=
=

=
(1 )
8 2

(1 )
=

8 2
EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction


(By definition, the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period)

=0
2

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction


(By definition, the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period)

=0
2

Example of
discontinuous
conduction

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction


(By definition, the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period)

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction


(By definition, the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period)

when = 0.5
1
= =
2
=


=
=
1
2
2
2

During an operation
condition (with a given
values of , , , and
, if the average output
current (and hence the
average inductor
current) becomes less
than , then
becomes discontinuous

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

For given constant values of , , and , if the output


load power is decreased (i.e., the load resistance goes up),
then the average inductor current will decrease.
Example of
discontinuous
conduction

This dictates a higher value of than before and results in


a discontinuous current

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

For given constant values of , , and , if the output


load power is decreased (i.e., the load resistance goes up),
then the average inductor current will decrease.
This dictates a higher value of than before and results in
a discontinuous current

Example of
discontinuous
conduction

1 = 0

1
= = =
2
=

voltage conversion ratio

=
=
+ 1
If is constant


=
=
1
2
2
2

Or

( + 1 <1)

The maximum value of occurs at = 0.5

If is constant
=



=
=
1
2
2
2

The maximum value of occurs at = 0

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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1. Buck converter

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch
ON
EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

SWITCH CLOSED:
The relationship between the input and output
voltages can be determined by examining the
current in

= 0 =


Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

SWITCH OPEN:
The relationship between the input and output
voltages can be determined by examining the
current in

+ = 0 =

(1 )

Equivalent
=
circuit

with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

=0

(1 )
+
= 0

1
Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

The ideal boost converter is capable of


producing any output voltage greater
than the input voltage

=0

(1 )
+
= 0

In the real converter the inductor current


( = ) flows through the semiconductor
forward voltage drops, the inductor winding
resistance and other sources of power
losses. As approaches 1, becomes very
large and these components non-idealities
lead to large power losses. As consequence
the efficiency of the converter decreases
rapidly at high duty ratio

voltage conversion ratio

1
=
1

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

maximum and minimum values of the inductor current

= +


=
+
2
(1 )2
2

2
Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

average value of the inductor current

2
= = = =

=
1 2
Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

Output voltage ripple


=
=

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction

=0
2

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction


=
=
1
2
2
2
= (1 )

when = 0.5
when =


1
2

1
3

During an operation
condition (with a given
values of , for a
constant ,and for a
given , if the average
output current drops
below and hence the
average inductor current
becomes less than ,
then becomes
discontinuous

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

Example of
discontinuous
conduction

The discontinuous current conduction occurs due to the


decrease of the output load power, hence the average
inductor current will decrease - = and =
(considering , = ).

Since the peak inductor current remains the same in both


modes, but is lower, (this current is now discontinuous )
this implies that a higher value of is required

1 ( ) = 0
voltage conversion ratio
=

( + 1 <1)

1 +
=

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

Example of
discontinuous
conduction

The average input current which is also equal to the


average inductor current:


(1 + )
2

2 1

1 ( ) = 0
voltage conversion ratio
=

( + 1 <1)

1 +
=

1
=
1 +

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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2. Boost converter

If is held constant and must vary in response to the


variation in it is more useful to obtain the required
duty ratio as a function of the load current for various
values of /

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

The buck-boost converter is used when


a negative polarity may be desired with
respect to the common terminal of the
input voltage
This converter can be obtained by the
cascade connection of a buck and a
boost converter and the voltage
conversion ratio can be obtained by
multiplying the two voltage ratios
(assuming that the switches in both
converters have the same duty ratio)

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

Buck

Boost

1
=
1

The buck-boost converter is used when


a negative polarity may be desired with
respect to the common terminal of the
input voltage
This converter can be obtained by the
cascade connection of a buck and a
boost converter and the voltage
conversion ratio can be obtained by
multiplying the two voltage ratios
(assuming that the switches in both
converters have the same duty ratio)
Buck-boost

1
=

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch
ON
EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

SWITCH CLOSED:
The relationship between the input and output
voltages can be determined by examining the
current in

= 0 =


Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

SWITCH OPEN:
The relationship between the input and output
voltages can be determined by examining the
current in

= 0 =

(1 )
=

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

The ideal buck-boost converter is


capable of producing any output
voltage greater or smaller than the
input voltage, depending on the duty
ratio of the switch

=0

(1 )

= 0

If > 0.5, the output is larger than the


input, and if < 0.5, the output is smaller
than the input (the circuit combines the
capabilities of the buck and of the boost
converter)
Polarity reversal of the output may be a
disadvantage in some applications
The source is never directly connected to
the load

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

=0

(1 )

= 0

1
Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

=0

(1 )

= 0

average value of the inductance voltage

() =
0

+
0

=0
1 = 0
EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

= = =
=

1
=

2
= = = =

=
=


1 2

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

maximum and minimum values of the inductor current

= +



=
+
2
(1 )2
2

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

Equivalent
circuit
with
switch

ON

OFF

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

57

3. Buck-boost converter

Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction


(By definition, the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period)

=0
2

1 2
=
2

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

Boundary between continuous and discontinuous conduction


(By definition, the inductor current goes to zero at the end of the off period)


=
=
1
2
2
2


=
1
2

when = 0
when = 0

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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3. Buck-boost converter

Output voltage ripple


=
=

EMMC-STEPS * POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS * FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA & MARINA S. D. PERDIGO

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