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Elena Cohen

New Solar Cells Use Perovskite to Turn Water into
Topic selected: New Solar Cells Use Perovskite to Turn Water into Energy
Why did you select this topic? I select this topic because it seem interesting to me and it
probably something that most people dont know about it.
Why is this topic currently a news headline?

Source 1:
MLA Citation: New Solar Cells Use Perovskite to Turn Water into Energy. Scientific
American: Worgan, Tim and Chemistry World.Web. 2014. 29, September

1. A new, highly efficient process for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen has
been demonstrated by researchers in Switzerland.
a. So this quote from the article is explaining how the learn that they can
split the water into two different things to be used in Switzerland.

2. The perovskite solar cells do have a major drawback in that they breakdown
after a few hours, but the researchers believe further advances in solar cell
technology should take care of this problem.
a. Another thing that helps us understand why it could be difficult if we do
this and try to use it but they think that more research about this new
topic, we could fix and actually use it.

3. The energy captured has to be stored until it is needed and, as the most
abundant solar resources are often where few people live, a way needs to be
found to transport it to peoples homes and businesses. One option is to use solar
power to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.
a. This part of the article is explaining how it works and some things that
they discovered.

4. Conventional solar cells use silicon as the photovoltaic material. As silicon is
relatively cheap, the raw materials for such devices are inexpensive.
a. They explaining how one thing that use during this process is pretty cheap
so they could research it more while thinking how it would be cheap as

5. Perovskite solar cells were first unveiled in 2009 and have been the subject of
intensive research ever since.
a. So in 2009, it was the first time they told people about the intensive
research and continued on.

6. As the perovskite material has a direct band gap and therefore absorbs light
much more efficiently, only a thin layer is required and the solar cells can be
solution processed, reducing production costs
a. Then, with this part of the article they explain how it how the perovskite
material works with a gap and takes light to use it more than letting it go

7. The cell has an efficiency of 17.3% and an open-circuit voltage of over 1V,
meaning that just two cells connected in series can provide sufficient voltage to
split water.
a. They are talking about how it has an open-circuit voltage over 1V that has
two special two cells connected which it split the water.

8. John Turner of the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado says
that several groups, his own included, have used photovoltaic technology to split
a. This guy, John Turner has many groups that using the technology to see if
they could split water and understand more.
Source 2:

MLA Citation: Efficiently Harvesting Hydrogen Fuel From Sun using Earth-abundant
materials. ScienceDaily: Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausann. Web. 25,
September 2014
1. More efficient silicon photovoltaic panels, dye-sensitized solar cells,
concentrated cells and thermodynamic solar plants all pursue the same goal: to
produce a maximum amount of electrons from sunlight.
a. So this part of the 2nd source, it actually explains why scientists are trying
to use the sunlight and water splitting up.

2. ...where scientists invented dye solar cells that mimic photosynthesis in plants,
they have also developed methods for generating fuels such as hydrogen through
solar water splitting.
a. They are saying that they are using different methods or just creating
them to help them learn more about the topic they are researching.

3. By using the latter technique, Grtzel's post-doctoral student Jingshan Luo and
his colleagues were able to obtain a performance so spectacular that their
achievement is being published today in the journal Science.
a. They are basically using other peoples research about to help them
understand why they started and help them find interesting and helpful to
us in the run-on.

4. Their device converts into hydrogen 12.3 percent of the energy diffused by the
sun on perovskite absorbers -- a compound that can be obtained in the laboratory
from common materials, such as those used in conventional car batteries,
eliminating the need for rare-earth metals in the production of usable hydrogen
a. So basically they are saying that they are using new technology that they
could fully understand what they are researching and seeing how it would
work in our society.

5. This high efficiency provides stiff competition for other techniques used to
convert solar energy.
a. So it saying that the scientists are using their technology to convert it to
solar energy.

6. On the other hand, the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen makes its
storage possible, which addresses one of the biggest disadvantages faced by
renewable electricity
a. They are saying that it will be horrible if we do this because we will
forgetting about the recyclable electricity or maybe using it a bit less.

7. The profusion of tiny bubbles escaping from the electrodes as soon as the solar
cells are exposed to light say it better than words ever could: the combination of
sun and water paves a promising and effervescent way for developing the energy
of the future.
a. They are explaining how it escapes and exposed itself to the light to be use.