Sei sulla pagina 1di 26

The Egyptians were interested in practical

applications of mathematics, not theories. They

were very good at manipulating numbers, and
used their skill to solve real world problems
faced on the job by engineers, tax collectors,
construction supervisors, and military officers.
The major surviving Egyptian mathematical
document, the Rhind Papyrus, is a collection of
mathematical problems with solutions.


Accounting, bookkeeping, land measurement, and setting the
boundaries of land (called surveying) were very advanced.
Accountant-scribes knew how to determine accurate property
boundaries and calculate crop yields based on land area. They
could estimate labor and materials needed for construction
projects. They could also figure out how much food and other
goods a particular district would use, based on its population.

They were skilled at drawing plans. For designing complexes of
buildings, they used a primitive theodolite, a surveying
instrument that measures angles. They used practical
mathematics to figure out the best ways to transport and put up
huge blocks of stone, massive obelisks, and giant statues

Part of the actual Rhind
Mathematical Papyrus

The Egyptians were practical astronomers. They used the stars
mainly to position buildings and for timekeeping. An Egyptian
catalog of the universe lists five constellations, including crocodile,
ox leg (the modern Great Bear), and Osiris holding a staff (the
modern Orion).
Egyptian astronomers divided what they saw in the night sky into
unwearied stars (planets), imperishable stars (stars that were
always visible above the horizon), and indestructible stars (stars
that did not move). They knew about the planets Jupiter, Saturn,
Mars, Venus, and possibly Mercury.

They divided each day into 24 hours. The length of each hour
varied with the season. They used sundials, shadow clocks, and
water clocks. These marked time by measuring shadows or
dripping water.


The Egyptians invented the 365-day calendar. They
actually used three calendars: a lunar (based on the
cycles of the moon) agricultural calendar tied to the
seasons, a civil calendar based on the 365-day year,
and a lunar religious calendar based on the moon
but tied to the civil calendar. The agricultural year
had three seasons of four months each. The seasons
were akhet (inundation, flood), peret (sprouting,
growth), and shemu (warm season, harvest, and
possibly the source of the word summer).

New year s day, the first day of akhet , occurred each
summer when the star Sopdet (Sirius) rose precisely at
sunrise. The civil year had 360 days, divided into 12
months of 30 days each. Each month had three 10-day
weeks called decades . To make 365, five days were added,
celebrated as the birthdays of five gods.

Misalignments between the calendars made keeping track
of religious festivals (often tied to phases of the moon)
difficult, so the Egyptians also invented a lunar religious
calendar. Multiple calendars worked fine for them for
3,000 years. The calendar we use today traces its roots to
the Egyptian civil calendar


Egypt s doctors were famous for their knowledge and skill.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus (from about 1600 BCE), a kind of
casebook for surgeons, divides injuries and disorders of the
head and chest into treatable, non-treatable, and maybe cases.
The Greeks, Romans, Persians, and Arabs admired and
borrowed Egyptian medical practices.

Doctors treated problems that were common at farms and
construction sites. These included stiffness, sprains, crushing
injuries, broken bones, wounds, burns, and skin disorders.
They used splints (a stick that help a broken bone in place),
bandages, and compresses (bandages that pressed a wound to
stop the bleeding). They also cut off arms and legs, and
performed simple surgeries with saws, knives, drills, hooks,
and grasping tools called forceps.


Although medicine and embalming (preparing the dead for
burial) were closely related, Egyptians had little understanding
of the internal workings of the human body. Corpses were
sacred, so they were not to be studied or dissected.
Except for uncomplicated treatments such as setting broken
bones and stitching wounds, magic spells and amulets were the
best remedies Egyptian doctors had for most health problems.
Diseases were blamed on demons or ghosts. Prescriptions
called for applying potions while reciting magical spells.
Potions included mixtures of leaves, herbs, fruit juices, dates
and figs, honey, tannic acid, resins, castor oil, human milk,
animal fat and blood, animal fur, snake grease, and goose


Parts of the Ebers Papyrus
which is an Egyptian medical
papyrus dating to circa 1550
The Ebers Papyrus is a 110-
page scroll, which is about 20
meters long.

Hieroglyphs, Egyptian picture-writing, were used
for almost 35 centuries for religious texts and
inscriptions on monuments. The earliest hieroglyphs,
which are ownership and business records, appear
on stone vases and official stamps.
But hieroglyphs quickly became too difficult for
everyday use. A flowing, script-like writing called
hieratic (from the Greek word hieratikos , which
means priestly), developed from hieroglyphs. This
was used for almost all writing.


Egypts best-known literary works are collections of
magical spells to aid the dead in their journey through the
dangerous underworld on their way to eternal life. In the
Old Kingdom, spells called the Pyramid Texts were
carved on the walls of royal tombs. In the Middle
Kingdom, similar spells, the Coffin Texts, were painted or
carved on coffins.
Collections of papyrus scrolls (stored in boxes and pottery
jars) in private homes and temple schools were called
Houses of Life. These libraries served religious and
practical purposes. They contained works of religious,
scientific, and popular literature.


Rosetta Stone: The Key to Hieroglyphs
Stone tablet discovered in 1799 in Rosetta, in the Nile Delta.
Same message appears on the stone in three languages:
hieroglyphs, demotic, and Greek.
1822, French scholar Jean-Francois Champollion figured out
hieroglyphic writing is both ideographic (each sign means an
idea) and phonetic (each sign represents a sound)
No vowels written in hieroglyphs. So the word deshret (desert),
for example, was written with the pictograms (picture letters)
for d-sh-r-t .
Hieroglyphs are beautifully designed drawings of birds,
animals, people, buildings, and everyday objects.
Throughout most of Egyptian history, 600 to 700 individual
hieroglyphic symbols were in use.



Art was created for religious, symbolic, or magical
purposes, not artistic expression. Each part of a scene had
to deliver a very specific message. Though most scenes
were familiar pictures based on very typical themes, the
best Egyptian art works are still graceful and lively.
Egyptian artists were careful observers of nature and
could realistically draw what they saw. But in depicting
people, they followed long-established traditions. Heads
appear in profile (from the side), although the eyes are
face-on. The body is turned toward the viewer, but the
legs are twisted into profile. All five fingers are extended
and visible.


The king is always much bigger than anyone else. Nobles are
larger than commoners. Men are larger than women. Children
are tiny, but with adult features. Everything is drawn with bold
outlines and no shading or shadows. There is no doubt about
the scenes subject and purpose.
Each scene was carefully planned and designed. Artists and
craftsmen used standardized proportion grids for showing
objects and people. Before beginning to paint or carve, the artist
drew a grid of horizontal and vertical lines of predetermined
size and spacing on his work surface (a tomb wall, for
example). Depending upon the rank and social position of the
person being shown, he or she was made a specific size in
relation to the other figures in the composition.


Also, each figure had to be structured in a specific waya person was a
certain number of heads tall, the legs were a certain length in relation to
the torso, and so on. These very specific relationships were established
early on and artisans almost always followed them. These conventions
(rules) and proportions had deep religious, magical, cultural, and social
significance. As long as the artist followed the conventions, he was free to
arrange people and objects as he liked.

The Egyptians loved vibrant color. Paints were manufactured from
minerals and plants. Colors included black (from lead ore and lampblack),
blue and green (from malachite and copper), white (from limestone), and
brown, red, and yellow (from colored earth and plants). Colors had
religious and symbolic meanings. People were painted either red-brown
(men) or yellow (women) to indicate they were alive, or green or black if
they were dead. Osiris was green, Amun-Re blue. Other gods had yellow
skin because their flesh was made of gold. White symbolized hope or
pleasure. Red meant evil.


Papyrus paper was made in single sheets and in long scrolls. Our word
paper comes from the Egyptian word pa-pe-yo, that [plant] of the Nile.
The papyrus plant ( Cyperous papyrus ) grew in great quantities in the
shallow waters of the Nile and in the swamps and wetlands surrounding
the river, especially in the delta. Papyrus was invented before true paper
(which is made from wood and was invented by the Chinese).

Trusting to their amulets and magical spells, papyrus harvesters waded
into crocodile-infested wetlands to gather it. When demand increased, they
grew papyrus as a crop. Egyptian papyrus makers cut the triangular
papyrus stalks into thin strips. They softened these by soaking them in
muddy water. They then layered the flattened strips horizontally and
vertically into a kind of mat, and pounded them together. Finally, they
smoothed and polished the papyrus with a stone or bone. The result was a
smooth, portable, light-weight, inexpensive, and reasonably long-lasting
writing surface that took ink rapidly and well.


Egyptians were already making papyrus by 4000 BCE, and the oldest
written papyrus scrolls are 5,000 years old. Because the papyrus plant was
common in Egypt and rare elsewhere, papyrus paper was, for a long time,
found only in Egypt. It was prized all over the known world. Throughout
the dynastic era and after, papyrus was one of Egypt s chief exports. The
availability of Egyptian papyrus helped encourage the development and
advance of writing in many cultures around the Mediterranean.

Papyrus fell out of use by the ninth century CE. It was replaced by more
elegant (and much more expensive) parchment, made from animal skins.
The cost of parchment, and the fact that it was hard to get, made the
written word too expensive for most people even educated people. Just
as papyrus was readily available to every Egyptian who could read and
write, today inexpensive paper is easily available to all. The average
American uses about 700 pounds of paper products each year. Today,
papyrus is no longer grown in Egypt.

The papyrus plant
grows in the Nile's
fresh water. It has
long roots and stems.
The outer bark of stem
is removed and the
inner pith sliced into
thin strips,
which are subsequently
hammered to break the
fibers and drain the

The strips are placed in
two layers, horizontal and
vertical .
The papyrus sheets are
pressed together for 3
days until they become

Go to
Read the introduction, then click on Story.
Be sure to read through both the Embalming and
Wrapping processes of mummification.
If you finish early, go to
mummification.html to watch a short video showing
the mummification process in more detail.


Go to
Read the introduction, then click on Story.
After reading the Story section, click on Explore to
take a closer look at the different features of the
Great Pyramid complex.


Go to
Read the introduction, then click on Story.
After reading the Story section, click on Explore to
explore the different features of ancient temples built
during the New Kingdom period.