Sei sulla pagina 1di 84
GSM BSS Description UR11.2 Basic Feature

GSM

BSS

Description

UR11.2

Basic

GSM BSS Description UR11.2 Basic Feature

Feature

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Version

Date

Author

Reviewer

Notes

V1.0

2011/11/20

ZTE

 

Not open to the third party

V1.10

2012/6/11

ZTE

 

Modify some features

© 2012 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. ZTE CONFIDENTIAL: This document contains proprietary information of ZTE and is not to be disclosed or used without the prior written permission of ZTE. Due to update and improvement of ZTE products and technologies, information in this document is subjected to change without notice.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1

Instruction

6

2

Service

7

2.1

Voice Service

7

2.1.1

ZGB-01-01-001 Full Rate (FR) Speech Codec

7

2.2

Data Service

8

2.2.1

ZGB-01-02-001 Quality of Service (QoS)

8

2.3

Supplementary Service

9

2.3.1

ZGB-01-03-001 Emergency Call Handling

9

2.3.2

ZGB-01-03-002 Data Traffic Channels

10

2.3.3

ZGB-01-03-003 Short Message Service (SMS)

10

3

Mobility Management

12

3.1

Paging

12

3.1.1

ZGB-02-01-001 Paging

12

3.2

Handover and Reselection

13

3.2.1

ZGB-02-02-001 Basic Handover

13

3.2.2

ZGB-02-02-004 Support 64 Neighboring Cells

16

3.2.3

ZGB-02-02-005 Double BCCH Allocation List

17

3.2.4

NoneZGB-02-02-006 Cell Reselection

17

3.2.5

ZGB-02-02-007 Cell Selection

19

4

Resource Management

20

4.1

Congestion Control

20

4.1.1

ZGB-03-01-001

MS Access Control

20

4.1.2

ZGB-03-01-002 Directed Retry

22

4.1.3

ZGB-03-01-003 Queuing

23

4.1.4

ZGB-03-01-004 Immediate TCH Assignment

24

4.2

Channel Allocation

25

4.2.1

ZGB-03-02-001 Support of SDCCH/4 and SDCCH/8

25

4.2.2

ZGB-03-02-002 Flexible SDCCH Configuration

26

4.2.3

ZGB-03-02-003

Dynamic Configuration of SDCCH

26

4.2.4

ZGB-03-02-004 MAC Dynamic Allocation Mode

27

4.2.5

ZGB-03-02-005 Static Channel Management

28

4.2.6

ZGB-03-02-006 Dynamic Channel Management

28

4.2.7

ZGO-03-02-001 Idle Channel Measurement

29

4.2.8

ZGO-03-02-002 Enhancement on CS Channel Allocation

30

4.2.9

ZGO-03-02-003 Enhancement on PS Channel Allocation

32

4.3

Circuit Management

34

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

4.3.1

ZGB-03-03-001 2M High Speed Signaling Link

34

4.3.2

ZGB-03-03-002 Enhanced E1 Link between BSC and BTS

35

4.3.3

ZGB-03-03-003 LAPD Cluster

36

4.3.4

ZGB-03-03-004 TC Resource Dynamic Sharing

37

4.3.5

ZGB-03-03-005 PCU Resource Dynamic Allocation

37

4.4

Reliability

38

4.4.1

ZGB-03-04-001 BSC Load Control

38

4.4.2

ZGB-03-04-003 BTS Recovery

40

4.4.3

ZGB-03-04-004 Dry Contact Alarm

40

4.4.4

ZGB-03-04-006 Backward Compatibility for BTS

41

4.5

GPRS/EDGE

41

4.5.1

ZGB-03-05-001 Coding Scheme CS1~CS4

41

4.5.2

ZGB-03-05-002 Initial Coding Scheme Per Cell Settable

43

4.5.3

ZGB-03-05-005 8/11 bit Access Burst

43

4.5.4

ZGB-03-05-006 Class A, B, C MS

44

4.5.5

ZGB-03-05-007 One Phase Access

45

4.5.6

ZGB-03-05-008 Two Phase Access

46

4.5.7

ZGB-03-05-009 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) 1~3

47

4.5.8

ZGB-03-05-011 Timeslot Multiplexing

49

4.5.9

ZGB-03-05-012 GPRS Link Adaptation

50

4.5.10

ZGB-03-05-013 Delayed TBF Release in DL

51

4.5.11

ZGB-03-05-014 Delayed TBF Release in UL

51

4.5.12

ZGB-03-05-015 RLC Acknowledged/ Unacknowledged Mode

52

4.5.13

ZGB-03-05-016 Downlink BVC Flow Control

53

4.5.14

ZGB-03-05-017 Downlink MS Flow Control

54

4.5.15

ZGO-03-05-003 EGPRS Packet Channel Request on CCCH

55

4.5.16

ZGO-03-05-007 EGPRS Activation per Cell

56

5

Network Performance

56

5.1

Coverage Enhancement

56

5.1.1

ZGB-04-01-001 Receiving Diversity

56

5.1.2

ZGB-04-01-002 Support Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)

57

5.2

Network Quality Improvement

58

5.2.1

ZGB-04-02-001 Traffic Hold at Channel Blocking

58

5.2.2

ZGB-04-02-002 Static BTS Power Control

59

5.2.3

ZG0-04-02-019 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)

60

6

Transmission

60

6.1

Flexible Networking

60

6.1.1

ZGB-05-02-001 Automatic Bridge in BTS Chain Networking

60

6.1.2

ZGB-05-02-002 Star, Tree, and Chain Networking

61

6.1.3

ZGO-05-02-031 Distributed Architecture of BTS

62

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

6.2

Synchronization

63

6.2.1

ZGB-05-03-001 Clock Synchronization

63

7

Others

65

7.1

O&M

65

7.1.1

ZGB-06-01-001 Monitoring Um Interface

65

7.1.2

ZGB-06-01-002 Abis Interface Monitoring

66

7.1.3

ZGB-06-01-003 Performance Data Measurement

67

7.1.4

ZGB-06-01-005 BSC Monitor Functions

68

7.1.5

ZGB-06-01-006 BTS Software Loading

69

7.1.6

ZGB-06-01-007 Cell Traffic Statistics

71

7.1.7

ZGB-06-01-008 BSC Diagnostic Tests

72

7.1.8

ZGO-06-01-003 BSC LMT

74

7.1.9

ZGO-06-01-010 VSWR Detection

75

7.2

Security

76

7.2.1

ZGB-06-02-001 A5/1 Ciphering Algorithm

76

8

Acronyms and Abbreviations

77

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

FIGURES

Figure 4-1

Immediate Assignment of TCH

24

Figure 6-1

Star, tree and Chain Networking

62

TABLES

 

Table 2-1

RLC transmission modes corresponding to reliability class

8

Table

4-1

Bandwidth Requirement of LADP Cluster

36

Table 4-2

Coding Scheme CS1-CS4

42

Table 4-3

Three Network Operation Modes

48

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

1

Instruction

The complete set of feature description for radio access part of ZTE GSM consists of three documents:

ZTE GSM BSS Basic Feature Description,

ZTE GSM BSS Optional Feature Description,

ZTE NetNumen-M31 Feature Description.

This document contains the basic features of ZTE GSM BSS.

ZTE GSM BSS Feature ID number is in the format of ZGx-xx-xx-xxx. The header “ZG” stands for ZTE GSM.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

2

Service

2.1 Voice Service

2.1.1 ZGB-01-01-001 Full Rate (FR) Speech Codec

Benefits

This feature is a speech codec that gives good speech quality used for Full Rate traffic channels and makes the user have better experience.

Description

Full rate speech coder is the basic coding scheme of GSM system. It uses Linear Predictive Coding with Regular Pulse Excitation (LPC-RPE codec). It is a full rate speech codec and operates at 13 kbps. Full Rate Speech Codec is based on RPE-LTP. 160 speech samples in 13-bit PCM are mapped to 260bit (interval is 20ms and sampling rate is 8KHz), which is called coding. Decoding refers to the mapping relation between the 160 reconstructed speech samples from 260bit coding packet to export packet. The coding stream is 13kbit/s.

The traffic channel using FR speech codec is usually expressed by TCH/F. One TRX supports maximum 8 TCH/F time slots. It can give good speech quality with Mean Opinion Score (MOS) 3.8.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

2.2 Data Service

2.2.1 ZGB-01-02-001 Quality of Service (QoS)

Benefits

This feature enhances high-end subscribers’ service experience in the case of restricted radio resource for packet service.

Description

GPRS/EDGE QoS includes the parameters as follows:

Delay class: 1 (short delay) ~ 4 (background)

R

 Delay class: 1 (short delay) ~ 4 (background)  R -5) ~ 5 (>5*10-4) 

-5) ~ 5 (>5*10-4)

Peak throughput class: 1 (<16Kb/s) ~ 9 (≥2Mb/s)

Precedence class: 1 ~ 3

Mean throughput class: 1 (lowest, 0.22kbps) ~ 18 (highest, 111kbps), 31 (best effort).

These QoS parameters are negotiated by MS and SGSN in the process of PDP activation. BSC obtains QoS parameters from SGSN downlink data.

On the Best Effort principle, BSC processes reliability class and precedence class as follows:

Table 2-1

RLC transmission modes corresponding to reliability class

Reliability class

LLC Mode

RLC Mode

1

Acknowledged

Acknowledged

2

Acknowledged

Acknowledged

3

Unacknowledged

Acknowledged

4

Unacknowledged

Unacknowledged

5

Unacknowledged

Unacknowledged

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

The RLC mode of uplink TBF is determined by mobile phones, while the RLC mode of downlink TBF is determined by BSC. According to the wireless transmission features, BSC sets the RLC mode to acknowledged mode for all reliability classes in the downlink.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

2.3 Supplementary Service

2.3.1 ZGB-01-03-001 Emergency Call Handling

Benefits

Emergency calls have the highest priority, even if the system congests or overloads, emergency calls will be handled rapidly and guaranteed good service quality. This enhances emergency call handling efficiency and user satisfaction.

Description

Emergency call is a basic voice service of the GSM system. When the MS accesses the network using an emergency call, the BSS treats and provides higher priority and faster service to it. So TCH channel will be allocated with higher priority. Allocation of SDCCH channel will be considered if the TCH channel is busy.

Emergency calls have highest priority, even if the MS does not have any SIM card or the SIM card is locked, he/she still can dial emergency calls successfully, even if the system congests or overloads, emergency calls will be handled rapidly and guaranteed good service quality.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Enhancement

None

2.3.2 ZGB-01-03-002 Data Traffic Channels

Benefits

Circuit Switched Data services (CSD) shows more ways to support dada services for 2G operators. Operators can provide diversified services on the data platform of CSD to attract more subscribers and achieve more profits.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS adopts TCH/F9.6 (transparent and non-transparent) data channels to deliver circuit switched data services at a rate of 9.6 Kbits/s. The BSS provides the lower-layer bearer service but does not process the upper-layer services. In non-transparent data services, a set of radio link protocol is used for data correction and retransmission between Mobile Station (MS) and Core Network (CN).

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

2.3.3 ZGB-01-03-003 Short Message Service (SMS)

Benefits

This feature has great potential in attracting target subscribers and increasing revenue.

Many services can be deployed with short messages, such as stock information, current exchange rate and weather forecast.

In addition, operator can send advertisement, bill and charge information to specific subscribers by SMS, which makes them charge on not only subscribers, but also the

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

enterprise that needs the service.

Description

Support bi-directional (MT/MO) message transmission between MS and SMC.

One MS sends text to another MS (point to point, PTP) through network and SMC. The text should not exceed 160 (English) letters.

SMC is in charge of short message storing and forwarding. This service is not only for GSM users, but also for fixed network users that are able to receive short messages as well.

BSS establishes links (SAPI =3) to transmit SMS. This transmission procedure is transparent to BSS. MS sends and receives SMS in either busy or idle state.

In idle state, MS sets up a link (SAPI = 3) at Abis interface before sending or receiving short messages. Then it will set up SAPI connection at Abis interface to send or receive short messages.

Even if a call is coming, MS still can receive short message. After BSC receives the short message from SMC, it will send ‘Establish Request’ message to set up a link at Abis interface first. BSC then transmits the short message to MS after a successful setup.

When MS is going through a call, short messages are carried on SACCH channel. When MS is in idle state; short messages can be carried on SDCCH channel or FACCH channel according to the network state.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

3 Mobility Management

3.1

Paging

3.1.1 ZGB-02-01-001 Paging

Benefits

This feature is a basic step to setup a call and send a SMS. Large paging capacity and flexible process avoids congestion caused by paging overload and improves the call setup success rate.

Description

Paging procedure is initialized by MSC or SGSN to locate the MS. After receiving the paging message from CN, BSC sends the paging request to all cells in specified LA. There are two kinds of paging: IMSI paging and TMSI paging. When IMSI is used for paging, one paging message can contain two IMSI numbers, while four TMSI can be packed in one paging message.

Paging is sent via CCCH. Downlink CCCH is shared by PCH and AGCH. Among them, PCH sends paging message, and AGCH sends immediate assignment and immediate assignment rejection message. According to GSM specification, there are 3 paging groups in one multi-frame when the CCCH and SDCCH share one control channel, and there are 9 paging groups when CCCH and SDCCH are configured individually. The paging group in one multi-frame is shared by PCH and AGCH. Thus, the paging capacity depends on the configuration method of CCCH, PCH, AGCH, and the ratio of IMSI paging to TMSI paging. ZTE BSC supports a flexible channel configuration to provide different paging capacity. The maximal paging capacity for one LAC is 400,000 times per hour. ZTE BSS also supports paging retransmission. When the paging message is not replied within certain duration, it will be retransmitted.

There are three paging types: CS call paging, PS paging, and SMS paging. Usually all these paging messages are sent via CCCH. In order to avoid paging congestion, all these traffics should be considered so that the LAC can be defined properly.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

3.2 Handover and Reselection

3.2.1 ZGB-02-02-001 Basic Handover

Benefits

This feature enables the basic handover, allowing the terminals to keep talking while moving in the cell or to the other cells, so as to guarantee the users’ voice quality during handover as well.

Description

This feature enables the basic function related to the mobility management, which is handover. BSC decides whether the terminals need to handover according to the measurement reports. BSC updates the BCCH Allocation (BA) list first, and then selects the suitable cell to handover after the handover decision is made. In order to avoid the frequent handover failure, relevant failure penalty is adopted, which decreases the signaling load and increases the handover successful ratio.

ZTE GSM supports BSC in dealing with the measurement reports with the sliding window mechanism and the weighted average algorithm, and then selects the higher priority handover algorithm according to the different handover reasons. For the intra-cell handover, the suitable carrier and the timeslot of the minimum interference band is selected; for the inter-cell handover, the target cell based on the layer strategy and the handover decision criterion is selected.

The determinant factor of the target cells’ sequencing is load, priority and power margin. First, sequence and filter the target cells’ list according to the traffic: the cell with full traffic or exceeding the traffic threshold should be deleted from the list. Then sequence

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

all the target cells based on the priority. At last, sequence all target cells with the same priority based on the power margin. Select the first cell in the list as the target cell to handover.

If handover fails, the handover failure penalty should be adopted, which avoids the repeated handover failure, and increases the successful handover ratio. For the intra-cell handover, BSC restrains the user not to attempt handover during the penalty time of handover failure. For the inter-cell handover, BSC deducts the offset value based on the signal level of the cell, which reduces the possibility of the user handover to the last failed target cell during the penalty time of handover failure.

In order to prevent the repeated handover, BSC compares the current time point with the time point of last successful handover. If the difference between the two time point exceeds the penalty time of repeated handover, the handover procedure is going on; if not, the source cell of last handover should be deleted from the target cells’ list of this handover first, and then select the suitable target cell for this handover.

The handover mode is divided into the synchronous handover and the asynchronous handover, the synchronous handover is used for the inter-cell handover in the same site, and the asynchronous handover is used for the handover between the different sites.

ZTE GSM supports basic and optional handover algorithms. Basic handover algorithm includes: signal quality (uplink/downlink) handover, signal level (uplink/downlink) handover, signal interference (uplink/downlink) handover, ultra-distance and Power Budget (PBGT) handover. The details are shown as follows:

Signal Quality (Uplink/Downlink) Handover

Signal quality handover is a basic criterion for inter-cell handover, which is composed of uplink and downlink, and the handover decision is the same. When the channel quality is getting worse, the radio link maybe abnormal to release the occupied channel, leading to the user’s call drop. In order to avoid this situation, when the mean error rate is greater than the quality threshold for P times in N times, BSC triggers the signal quality handover to save this call.

Signal Level (Uplink/Downlink) Handover

Signal level handover is a basic criterion for inter-cell handover, which is composed of

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

uplink and downlink, and the handover decision is the same. When the interference is too low to trigger the interference or quality handover even the level fading is serious, leading to the users’ call drop. In order to avoid this situation, when the signal lever is lower than the level threshold for P times in N times, BSC triggers the signal level handover to save this call.

Signal Interference (Uplink/Downlink) Handover

Signal Interference handover is the basic criterion for intra-cell handover, which is composed of uplink and downlink, and the handover decision is the same. When the interference occurs, the interference degree of every channel in the cell is different. So the handover in the different channel of the same cell solves the interference problem. When the signal quality is getting worse but the signal level is higher, the terminal enters the pre-defined interference area for P times in N times, BSC triggers the signal interference handover to save this call.

If there is not idle channel in the serving cell, the handover should be converted to the signal quality handover to try the inter-cell handover. The difference between the signal interference handover and the signal quality handover is: when the signal interference handover occurs, the signal quality isn’t worse to influence the call and the signal level is high at present.

Ultra-Distance Handover

Ultra-distance handover is a basic criterion for inter-cell handover. If the terminal is far from BTS, the ultra-distance handover is done to the nearest neighboring cell. When the Time Advance (TA) is greater than the distance threshold for P times in N times, BSC triggers the ultra-distance handover to save this call.

PBGT Handover

PBGT handover is a basic criterion for inter-cell handover, so as to keep the call in the suitable cell. PBGT is gained from the signal level of the neighboring cell subtracting that of the serving cell. When the downlink level of the neighboring cell is lower than the initial threshold, if the PBGT of the neighboring cell is greater than the preset PBGT threshold for P times in N times, BSC triggers the PBGT handover. PBGT handover is a non-saving handover.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

In order to make the PBGT occur in the same layer, and the neighboring cell’s level of other layers is strong enough to execute the inter-layer PBGT handover, the inter-layer timer should be set when the terminal accesses the network. If the inter-layer timer isn’t out, the neighboring cell’s level should add the offset value of the upper layer for PBGT handover to the upper layer, and the neighboring cell’s level should add the offset value of the lower layer for PBGT handover to the lower layer. If the timer is out, the normal PBGT handover is executed.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

3.2.2 ZGB-02-02-004 Support 64 Neighboring Cells

Benefits

This feature improves radio network performance and reduces call drop rate by providing enough neighboring cells.

Description

This feature increases GSM neighboring cells from original 32 to 64 ones, meeting the demand from growing network capacity and complexity. BSC supports handover and cell reselection between different frequency bands with maximum 64 GSM handover neighboring cells, 64 GSM cell reselection cells, and maximum 96 GSM/UMTS neighboring cells. BSS sends neighboring cell list to MS by system information.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

3.2.3 ZGB-02-02-005 Double BCCH Allocation List

Benefits

This feature enables terminals to adopt different BCCH Allocation (BA) list in idle mode and connected mode in the high traffic area, realizing the benefits as follows:

Enhance the flexibility of the system, which means different operation methods are used for terminal in idle mode and connected mode.

Increase the reselection successful rate for terminal in idle mode, so as to access the network quickly.

Increase the measurement precision for terminal in connected mode, so as to improve the accuracy for cell reselection.

Description

This feature enables terminals to adopt different BA list in idle mode and connected mode to handover or reselection. The BA list is provided by the network to terminal, and terminal gets the BCCH frequency from it. In case of connected mode, the BA list is sent by SACCH for handover. In case of idle mode, the BA list is broadcasted by BCCH for cell reselection.

ZTE GSM supports the double BA list in idle mode and connected mode for each cell, and the maximum number of BCCH is 96. The length of the BA list in idle mode is long, which includes more frequencies, to increase the reselection successful rate and to access the network quickly. The length of the BA list in connected mode is short, which only includes the real neighboring cells, to avoid wasting time to encode the Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) of the uncorrelated cells, so as to improve the accuracy for cell reselection.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

3.2.4 NoneZGB-02-02-006 Cell Reselection

Benefits

This feature enables the reselection to the suitable neighboring cell in the idle mode and

the connected mode for the terminal, ensuring the terminal to offer the best radio

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

connection.

Description

This feature enables the cell reselection algorithm, which is defined in 3GPP protocol. The terminal implements the cell reselection through the measurement of the radio signal in BCCH carriers for the serving cell and the neighboring cells. The signal quality criterion parameter C2 is used for cell reselection.

If one of the following conditions is satisfied, the cell reselection is triggered:

If C1<0 lasts for 5s;conditions is satisfied, the cell reselection is triggered: During 5s, if the serving cell and the

During 5s, if the serving cell and the neighboring cell are in the same Location Area Code (LAC), when C2 (n) > C2 (s) the cell reselection occurs; if not, and C2 (n) > C2 (s) + CRH the cell reselection occurs;the cell reselection is triggered: If C1<0 lasts for 5s; Where C2 (n) is the C2

Where

C2 (n) is the C2 value of the neighboring cell.

C2 (s) is the C2 value of the serving cell.

CRH applies the hysteresis of cell reselection.

If the cell reselection occurs before the previous 15s, and C2 (n) > C2 (s) + 5dB, the cell reselection occurs.

ZTE GSM supports the terminals controlled cell reselection, BSC sends the cell reselection parameters to the terminal through the system information SI 2quater, and then the terminal selects the cell satisfied with the reselection conditions to reselect in the searching neighboring cells.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

3.2.5 ZGB-02-02-007 Cell Selection

Benefits

This feature is the basic feature of GSM radio network.

Description

When the MS is switched on or following recovery from lack of coverage, it finds available GSM PLMN, and selects an appropriate cell for residence. This process is called "cell selection."

To select one appropriate cell is constrained by many factors, such as whether the cell belongs to selected network, whether the cell is prohibited from accessing or not, the cell priority, whether MS access level is prohibited by the cell and whether RF channel quality is good enough. GSM standard defines C1, the path loss criterion parameter, to demonstrate RF channel quality, which is the important factor for cell selection. The path loss criterion is satisfied if C1 > 0.

If MS does not store BCCH message, it searches all the 124 RF channels (for dual-mode MS, it also needs to search 374 GSM1800 RF channels), reads received signal strength of each channel and calculates average signal level.

After MS tunes to the carrier with highest receiving level, it confirms whether it is BCCH carrier or not. If so, the MS attempts to decode SCH to synchronize with this carrier and reads system broadcast message on BCCH. The MS can only reside in the cell if the MS correctly decodes BCCH data the cell belongs to the selected PLMN, C1 is larger than 0 and the cell access is not barred. Otherwise, MS is tuned to the next maximum carrier until it finds an available cell.

If the MS fails to find an appropriate cell after searching 30 RF channels with best signal strength, it continues monitoring the signal strength of all RF channels and searches BCCHs with access not barred and C1 larger than 0. After finding an appropriate carrier, the MS selects the cell without taking into account PLMN identification. In such a mode, only emergency calls can be made.

If an MS stores BCCH carrier information before last power-off, it first searches the stored BCCH carrier. If the MS can decode BCCH data of the cell but cannot reside in the

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

cell, it checks the BCCH Allocation (BA) list of the cell. If it still fails to find an appropriate cell after searching all BCCH carriers in the BA list, the MS will initiate cell selection procedure in the way described above.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4 Resource Management

4.1 Congestion Control

4.1.1 ZGB-03-01-001 MS Access Control

Benefits

This feature allows the operator to classify the subscribers to provide preferential service.

With Access Class Control (ACC), network operators can define some cells to be only accessed by authorized subscribers.

For example, in traffic hotspot area, operators offer the additional cell to enforce the traffic abilities; but only authorized subscribers can access the cell. So the operators can ensure better service for these subscribers in busy hour, and additional income might be obtained.

This feature can also be used to ensure telecommunication for staffs from special sections in case of emergency.

Description

BTS continually broadcasts system information message to all MSs in the cell; an important function of this message is to indicate the MS how to access this cell.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

ACC information is included in system information. The GSM protocols define 16 classes:

10 classes (0-9) are randomly allocated to normal subscribers.

Class 10 is dedicated to emergency call.

5 classes (11-15) are allocated to specific high priority subscribers.

Every class is indicated by one bit in system information. If the bit is set to 1, the MS with the corresponding ACC will be forbidden. Every MS is assigned an ACC, which is saved in SIM card.

By setting the different ACCs, operator can enable some ACCs to access special cells. These configurations are set in OMCR and included in system information broadcasted by BTS.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

In ZTE BSS version before V09R2, which access classes of users are forbidden to access in case of radio resource congestion are configured statically on OMCR. So it is possible for some users to be always forbidden to access in case of radio resource congestion, while the other users can always access.

In V09R2, MS Access Control function applies sliding window method to decide the forbidden MS classes, which avoids forbidding some fixed classes of MS.

There are 2 sets of access control parameters for resource congestion scenario, 2 sets of access control parameters for normal scenario. Which set of access control parameters to be used can be configured on OMCR. Each set of access control parameters consists of the first barred access class, barred classes window size and window sliding time interval.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

4.1.2 ZGB-03-01-002 Directed Retry

Benefits

Directed retry realizes wireless resources sharing among neighboring cells during assignment, effectively relieving the network congestion and the unbalanced usage of wireless resources and greatly enhancing the assigning success rate.

Description

During TCH assignment, MS turns to serving cell for TCH channel resource; if network doesn’t have available TCH resource, cell will make forced release, forced handover or queuing attempt according to calling priority, preemption vulnerability indicator, queuing permission indicator and preemption capability indicator in assignment request; if the attempt fails, directed retry procedure is initiated.

Then, according to measurement reports sent by MSs, network sorts the adjacent cells which meet the rule 1 for handover to get the directed retry target cell list.

When sorting adjacent cells, the cells overloaded compared to load threshold are filtered out first, and the remaining cells are sorted in accordance with the dynamic priorities and power budget surplus.

Afterwards, BSC turns to the first cell in the target cell list for TCH channel. When TCH channel is allocated from target cell, channel description of target cell are sent to MS through assignment or handover command, MS then accesses to target cell. If network doesn’t support directed retry function, when MS fails to initiate forced release, forced handover and queue, it sends to MSC the failure message and waits for clear command from MSC, then releases wireless resources.

In addition, according to whether the attempted cells in directed retry cells list belong to the BSC, directed retry is divided into internal and external directed retry. If the attempted cells of directed retry belong to the BSC, then MS can directly apply channels to the cell and make internal directed retry. If the attempted cells do not belong to the BSC, MS has to send handover request to MSC through A interface and make external directed retry via inter-BSC external handover flow. External directed retry in BSC part may select whether to send request failure to MSC; if “Yes” is selected, request failure will be delivered to MSC firstly before sending handover request with cause labeled as directed

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

retry.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.1.3 ZGB-03-01-003 Queuing

Benefits

This feature improves the usage of the radio resources, improves the ratio of successful assignment.

Description

In the assignment procedure of call setup or handover, if the serving cell has no idle TCHs, and the queuing is allowed in this cell, and MSC indicates in the assignment message that this MS is allowed to be queued, then the MS is put in a queue.

If some other MS releases a call or hands over to another cell and the serving cell has idle TCHs, BSC will check if there is idle channel that can match some MS’s request in the queue in respect of subcell, channel type and frequency band. If there is such an idle channel that matches, it will be assigned to the MS in the queue, then the call setup or handover procedure continues.

Queuing time can be set individually for call attempts and for handover. When queuing time is set to zero, the queuing function is deactivated.

By putting subscribers in queue instead of rejecting it when the radio resources are busy, this feature increases the success ratio of call setup and handover.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

None

4.1.4 ZGB-03-01-004 Immediate TCH Assignment

Benefits

This feature reduces the call setup time.

Reduce call failures caused by unavailable idle SDCCH in the serving cell.

Description

When this feature is activated, BSS assigns a TCH channel for MS in immediate assignment procedure. This TCH channel is used as SDCCH to carry the dedicated signalings. Then in assignment procedure, this channel is modified to a TCH channel to carry user voice data. This is shown in the following graphic.

Figure 4-1

Immediate Assignment of TCH

MS BTS BSC MSC CHL_REQ CHL_RQD CHL_ACT CHL_ACT_ACK IMM_ASS_CMD IMM_ASS SABM UA EST_IND DTAP ASS_REQ
MS
BTS
BSC
MSC
CHL_REQ
CHL_RQD
CHL_ACT
CHL_ACT_ACK
IMM_ASS_CMD
IMM_ASS
SABM
UA
EST_IND
DTAP
ASS_REQ
MODE MODIFY
DATA REQ(UM_CHL_MODE_MODIFY)
MODE MODIFY ACK
DATA IND(UM_CHL_MODE_MODIFY_ACK)
ASS_COM

On OMCR, the operator can configure which kind of call can initiate immediate

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

assignment. Usually emergent call and call re-establishment are configured to apply this feature.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2 Channel Allocation

4.2.1 ZGB-03-02-001 Support of SDCCH/4 and SDCCH/8

Benefits

This feature improves the channel utilization ratio by configuring different SDCCH type according to cell traffic.

Description

SDCCH is used to transmit system signaling before TCH assignment, such as MS register, Authentication, and Location Update. As one kind of low data rate logical channel, several SDCCH channels can be mapped to one physical channel. There are two different ways to configure SDCCH. One is combination with BCCH. In this configuration, 4 SDCCH can be configured in the TS0 of BCCH TRX. This kind of SDCCH is called SDCCH/, while SDCCH/8 means that a whole physical channel is configured to eight SDCCH channels.

Which kind of configuration should be used depends on the capacity of a cell. Normally SDCCH/4 is only used for a cell with no more than two TRXs. In ZTE BSS system, SDCCH/4 and SDCCH/8 can be configured in a cell at the same time or individually.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Enhancement

None

4.2.2 ZGB-03-02-002 Flexible SDCCH Configuration

Benefits

This feature allows operator to configure any number of SDCCH in one cell to reduce the risk of SDCCH congestion.

Description

ZTE BSS supports flexible configuration of SDCCH.

SDCCH can be allocated to every TRX in a cell.ZTE BSS supports flexible configuration of SDCCH. SDCCH can be configured on every TS of one

SDCCH can be configured on every TS of one TRX.of SDCCH. SDCCH can be allocated to every TRX in a cell. Whether a cell supports

Whether a cell supports frequency hopping or not has no effect on SDCCH.in a cell. SDCCH can be configured on every TS of one TRX. For an extended

For an extended coverage cell, SDCCH can be configured on both extended and ordinary TRXs.supports frequency hopping or not has no effect on SDCCH. With the methods provided above, operator

With the methods provided above, operator is able to configure SDCCH flexibly according to cell traffic. It reduces the risk of SDCCH congestion and improves the network performance.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.3 ZGB-03-02-003 Dynamic Configuration of SDCCH

Benefits

This feature reduces call attempt failure caused by busy SDCCH.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Description

When this feature is activated, BSC adjusts the SDCCH number in a cell automatically according to the load of SDCCH,

When the SDCCH channels in a cell are overloaded referring to the threshold set on OMCR, and TCH channels are idle according to another threshold set on OMCR, BSC changes one TCH into 8 SDCCHs automatically.

When SDCCH channels are idle, BSC combines 8 redundant SDCCH channels into 1 TCH channel to provide more traffic channels. Only those SDCCH channels formerly obtained from TCH can be combined into TCH channels.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.4 ZGB-03-02-004 MAC Dynamic Allocation Mode

Benefits

Dynamic Allocation Mode is defined in 3GPP which is the primary function to introduced PS service.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports two MAC modes: Dynamic Allocation and Extended Dynamic Allocation. This feature supports dynamic allocation. For Extended Dynamic Allocation, please refer to ZGO-03-02-007 MAC Extended Dynamic Allocation.

With Dynamic Allocation, Network allocates one timeslot to more than one MS with specified USF. For downlink data, the USF information is decoded in RLC/MAC headers to determine which MS is assigned to send radio block in the uplink. In this way, the BSS controls the uplink access of multiple MS on a timeslot.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

The number of downlink PDCHs should be more than uplink PDCHs in Dynamic Allocation mode.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.5 ZGB-03-02-005 Static Channel Management

Benefits

This feature provides basic channel management for GSM service.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports static channel and dynamic channel. This feature only describes static channel management. For dynamic channel management, please refer to ZGB-03-02-006 Dynamic Channel Management.

There are two kinds of static channels: static TCH and static PDCH. Static TCH is only used for CS service, not PS service. Likewise, static PDCH is only used for PS service.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.6 ZGB-03-02-006 Dynamic Channel Management

Benefits

This feature provides flexible channel management to improve channel resource utilization.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports static channel and dynamic channel. This feature only describes dynamic channel management. For static channel management, please refer to ZGB-03-02-005 Static Channel Management.

With this feature, BSS allocates channel dynamically to CS service or PS service based on traffic load. Dynamic channels are allocated to CS service while CS traffic load is high or allocated to PS service while PS traffic is high. If CS and PS traffic are both high in the same time, the dynamic channel is assigned to CS service with priority. For dynamic channel allocation priority of PS service, please refer to ZGO-03-02-009 Flexible Priority Handling of Packet Data Channel.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.7 ZGO-03-02-001 Idle Channel Measurement

Benefits

This feature improves network quality and user satisfaction by providing interference measurement result to assign suitable channel to establish new calls.

Description

BTS measures the idle channel’s interference level and classifies the results into 5 levels, then reports it to BSC.

The channel with lowest interference level is considered to be the best. During the channel assignment procedure, BSC assigns the channel with lowest interference level first. For example, channel with degree 1 is assigned first, then degree 2, 3, 4, 5.

Introduced Version

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.8 ZGO-03-02-002 Enhancement on CS Channel Allocation

Benefits

With this feature, levels for different users or applications will be in the initial cut into channel management to ensure maximum utilization of spectrum resources.

Different allocation functions have different emphases in order to improve network stability and system capability.

The operator can optimize the network with customized parameters.

Description

This feature supports following channel allocation methods.

This feature supports following channel allocation methods. Channel allocation on speech channel with different rates

Channel allocation on speech channel with different rates

Several channel allocation manners can be selected in order to control and use the FR and HR channels flexibly. The system supports channel allocation according to the subscriber’s priority.

The optional priority based managements are as following:

FR priorityThe optional priority based managements are as following: HR priority Only FR channel to be allocated

HR prioritypriority based managements are as following: FR priority Only FR channel to be allocated Only HR

Only FR channel to be allocatedbased managements are as following: FR priority HR priority Only HR channel to be allocated Transceivers

Only HR channel to be allocatedFR priority HR priority Only FR channel to be allocated Transceivers selected according to priority Transceivers

Transceivers selected according to priorityFR channel to be allocated Only HR channel to be allocated Transceivers are separated into five

Transceivers are separated into five classes according to the radio parameter and the

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

channels in the transceivers: 1 is the highest priority, 5 is the lowest priority and the default value is 3. The priority is configured in OMCR, and the BCCH transceivers are set as the highest priority 1 and other transceivers are set 2 to 5 according the priority in general condition. The channels of transceivers with high priority are selected by the system first.

with high priority are selected by the system first. Channel Allocation on TRX Priority The TRX

Channel Allocation on TRX Priority

The TRX priority is divided into five levels: level 1 to level 5. Level 1 is the highest priority. BSS always prefers to allocate the high priority TRX when MS requests to access the network. TRX priority is set by operator on OMCR.

Channel allocation on interference bandaccess the network. TRX priority is set by operator on OMCR. The BTS measures the receiving

The BTS measures the receiving level values of idle channels, and calculates the average value in the measurement period (480 ms). It converts the interference averages to the information of corresponding interference bands and sends it to BSC. The BSC classifies the interference bands of the channel into five levels: level 1 to level 5. For details, see “ZGO-03-02-001 Idle Channel Measurement”.

The channel interference affects the key indices of this channel, such as call quality, call completion ratio, call drop rate, and handover completion ratio. Therefore, the interference band information of the channel is a major factor which should be considered preferentially in the enhanced channel allocation. Low-interference channel is preferred in the channel allocation. For example, channels with level 1 interference band will be assigned with priority, followed by level 2, 3, 4, and 5 orderly.

When problems such as radio channel cause the channel exception release, the BSC sets the interference band of the channel to 0, and sets a punishment period in which the interference band will not be updated. It acts as an assignment history record to affect the current channel allocation, that is, the channel with interference band 0 will be assigned at last in the channel allocation.

band 0 will be assigned at last in the channel allocation. Channel allocation on TRX priority

Channel allocation on TRX priority

The enhanced channel allocation algorithm sorts the intra-cell carriers by the background configuration parameter “Same Type Carrier Allocation Priority” (carrier with high priority precedes). The priority is divided into five levels: level 1 to level 5. Level 1 is the highest

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

priority.

Channel allocation on intra-cell handoverGSM BSS Basic Feature Description priority. When handover is caused by the interference in the uplink

When handover is caused by the interference in the uplink or downlink, the channel in the different transceivers is selected in priority. As the origin of the handover decision is interference, in another word, there is interference in the current transceivers, the possibility of interference on the other channels in the transceivers is large. Then the channels on other transceivers are allocated according to priority, which improves the handover success rate.

Channel allocation on reserved channelto priority, which improves the handover success rate. When service with high user priority is used,

When service with high user priority is used, the system is allowed to set several reserved channels.

The difference from eMLPP is that in this feature, channels are reserved only for high priority subscribers, but in the feature of eMLPP, the channel is not reserved, all the subscribers can use the channel, but high priority subscriber will be allocated first when congests.

To control the utilization of the reserved channels flexibly and satisfy the demands of the different subscribers, system provides two ways: reserved channels are allocated in priority; and other channels are allocated in priority. High priority subscribers can select normal channels allocation in priority or reserved channels allocation in priority. The purpose is to decrease the risk of call failure because of the network congestion.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.2.9 ZGO-03-02-003 Enhancement on PS Channel Allocation

Benefits

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Enhanced PS channel allocation improves PS user’s throughput, increases frequency

efficiency, and enhances system performance and capacity.

The operator can optimize the network with customized parameters.

Description

This feature supports following channel allocation methods.

This feature supports following channel allocation methods. Channel allocation on Guarantee Bit Rate (GBR) PCU allocates

Channel allocation on Guarantee Bit Rate (GBR)

PCU allocates the channel resource to fulfill the GBR of streaming or conversational

service. When current available resource is hard to satisfy the GBR, PCU tries empty

and queue as eMLPP. For empty and queue on GBR service, please refer to

ZGO-01-02-004 Streaming Service Policies.

Channel allocation on user’s throughput maximumplease refer to ZGO-01-02-004 Streaming Service Policies . PCU allocates channel resource as much as possible

PCU allocates channel resource as much as possible according to the MS multi-slot class and system capacity, increasing user throughput.

class and system capacity, increasing user throughput. Channel allcocation on TRX load BSS limits TRX number

Channel allcocation on TRX load

BSS limits TRX number that allocated to MS by TRX load, avoiding PS service occurred

TRX overly. New TRX will be allocated for PS service only when service TRX load

exceeds the load threshold. With this way, BSS balances the CS/PS service and

resource.

With this way, BSS balances the CS/PS service and resource. Channel allocation on EGPRS/GPRS scheduling conflict

Channel allocation on EGPRS/GPRS scheduling conflict

When the GPRS uplink and EDGE downlink multiplex the same radio channel, the EDGE

downlink rate will be limited due to the limitation of coding method (8PSK to GSMK). In

order to avoid this scenario, BSS allocates the channel considering the conflict

preferentially, and assigns the channel to MS without conflict.

and assigns the channel to MS without conflict. Channel allocation on PDCH preference For PS service,

Channel allocation on PDCH preference

For PS service, BSS allocates the channel with following order. Firstly, allocate static

PDCH; secondly, allocate dynamic channel with PS preference; and last, allocate other

dynamic channel. This method improves the utilization on static and PS preference

channel, reduces requirement on the other dynamic channel and avoids the PDCH

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

preemption by CS service when traffic load is high. For PS preference dynamic channel,

please refer to ZGO-03-02-009

Flexible Priority Handling of Packet Data Channel.

Flexible Priority Handling of Packet Data Channe l. Channel allocation on TRX priority The TRX priority

Channel allocation on TRX priority

The TRX priority is divided into five levels: level 1 to level 5. Level 1 is the highest priority. BSS always prefers to allocate the high priority TRX when MS requests to access the network. TRX priority is set by operator on OMCR.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.3 Circuit Management

4.3.1 ZGB-03-03-001 2M High Speed Signaling Link

Benefits

This feature extends the bandwidth of system signaling link on A/Ater interface, and meets the requirement of large capacity networking.

Description

In GSM network, the signaling link between different signaling points is identified by the Signaling Link Selection (SLS) field of signaling routing label. This field has 4 bits, which means there are maximal 16 signaling links between two signaling points. When the narrowband 64Kbps signaling link is used, the total bandwidth between BSC and MSC is only 16*64Kbps. It limits the processing capacity of one BSC.

ZTE BSS system supports 2Mbps high speed signaling link. In one 2M signaling link, TS0 is used for synchronization; TS1-TS31 is combined as one signaling link with 1.984M bandwidth. Maximal 16 high speed links can be configured for one signaling

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

point pair. It extends the bandwidth of signaling link and meets the requirement of large capacity networking.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.3.2 ZGB-03-03-002 Enhanced E1 Link between BSC and BTS

Benefits

This feature enhances E1 transmission function (the number of E1 link, E1 link distance, and E1 link impedance).

With this feature, network planning and implementation becomes easier.

Description

Enhanced E1 link between BSC and BTS supports the 75Ωand 125Ωimpedance input.

This feature enhances E1 transmission, supports 2km-transmission or even longer distance with unbalanced E1.

This feature supports more E1 links, as many as 16 E1 links.

This feature also supports automatic bridge function of E1 interface. For example, in chain network, if BTS interface fails, E1 interface can hop to next BTS interface unit automatically to ensure the normal function of other BTSs.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

4.3.3 ZGB-03-03-003 LAPD Cluster

Benefits

This feature saves the transmission resource of Abis interface, especially for large

capacity sites.

Description

After this feature is deployed, all LAPD signaling of one site is multiplexed on several

64kbps time slots rather than allocating one LAPD time slot for one TRX. According to

the LAPD signaling traffic, 1 to 4 64kbps time slots are allocated to one site. This feature

enhances the LAPD processing capability of BSC and saves the transmission of Abis

interface.

If a site has two racks, the LAPD links of the two racks are multiplexed together. The time

slots used for LAPD cluster work in load-sharing mode. When one of the time slots fail,

the signaling on other time slots are not affected.

The detailed bandwidth requirement of LADP Cluster is shown in following table.

Table 4-1

Bandwidth Requirement of LADP Cluster

TRX

Timeslot

Bandwidth

Peak Rate of Signaling

Number

Number

6

1 64kbps

 

0~30kbps

7~16

2 128kbps

 

30~75kbps

17~26

3 192kbps

 

75kbps~120kbps

27~36

4 256kbps

 

120kbps~180kbps

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

4.3.4 ZGB-03-03-004 TC Resource Dynamic Sharing

Benefits

This feature makes the configuration of TC irrelevant to the codec types and distribution of MSs in the network. As a result, the configuration of TC is simplified and the hardware cost of TC is reduced.

Description

ZTE BSS TC unit supports 5 codec types: FR/EFR/HR/AMR-FR/AMR-HR. And the

processing ability for these codec types is the same.

When a call is initiated, the MS reports its bearer capability and the Class Mark to the network. MSC informs BSS of the voice rate and voice codec type supported by this MS in Assignment Request or Handover Request message. BSC chooses a codec type for this call and allocates TC resource.

ZTE BSS TC resources are not allocated to radio channel resource statically, but are shared by all radio channels. As a result, TC configuration is irrelevant to the distribution of MSs in the network.

If Remote Transcoder feature is deployed, TC resources are dynamically shared not only in one BSS, but also in multiple BSSs.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.3.5 ZGB-03-03-005 PCU Resource Dynamic Allocation

Benefits

PCU resource dynamic sharing saves the PCU resources, reduces the cost of PCU resource, and saves investment. With this feature, cell and PCU resources are not

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

fixedly mapping anymore. When some of the PCU processing resources break down, the PS service of cell attached on the processing resource will be dynamically switched to other processing resources, which increases reliability of PCU.

Description

PCU process resources are dynamically allocated to cell when BSS is initialized. If a PCU process resource fails, the system attaches new PCU process resource to take over the fault process. When fault process is recovered, the system re-assigns the cell with load balance. BSS performs dynamic allocation when the target process fulfills the following conditions:

The process is working normally, no failure.when the target process fulfills the following conditions: The number of cell serving this process does

The number of cell serving this process does not exceed the maximum capacity.conditions: The process is working normally, no failure. The number of PDCH serving this process does

The number of PDCH serving this process does not exceed the maximum capacity.serving this process does not exceed the maximum capacity. BSS selects the lowest load process to

BSS selects the lowest load process to serve the cells one by one till every cell is attached completely.

Introduced Version

4.4

V09R2

Enhancement

None

Reliability

4.4.1 ZGB-03-04-001 BSC Load Control

Benefits

This feature guarantees the BSS system stability during the traffic surge by means of selective rejection of service requests.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Description

This feature deals with these 3 types of overload:

MSC overload: that is, when BSC receives OVERLOAD message via A interface;This feature deals with these 3 types of overload: Signaling overload: that is, when BSC application

Signaling overload: that is, when BSC application layer receives overload message from BSC signaling transportation layer;that is, when BSC receives OVERLOAD message via A interface; CPU overload: that is, when BSC

CPU overload: that is, when BSC detects that the CPU usage is too high.overload message from BSC signaling transportation layer; In overload cases, BSC applies the following 2 methods

In overload cases, BSC applies the following 2 methods to reject some service requests to maintain system stability:

Access class control: that is, stop some MSs from accessing the network by sending (Access Control Class N ACCN) in system informationreject some service requests to maintain system stability: FUC control: that is, the FUC module of

FUC control: that is, the FUC module of BTS stops some MSs from accessing the network according to the RACH random value of MSssending (Access Control Class N ACCN) in system information The BSC load control function adopts ZTE

The BSC load control function adopts ZTE patent algorithm.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

In V10R1 BSC load control is enhanced by paging flow control and BHCA control.

There are two methods used to do paging flow control.

Priority based paging flow control; BSC will discard paging messages of low priority subscribers when CPU load reaches the threshold set via OMC-RThere are two methods used to do paging flow control. Paging message number based flow control;

Paging message number based flow control; BSC sets the threshold that how many paging can be dealt with, if paging messages reach this threshold, new paging messages will be discarded.when CPU load reaches the threshold set via OMC-R BHCA control, channel request threshold can be

BHCA control, channel request threshold can be set via OMC-R, when BSC receives more channel requests from Abis, new request received later will be discarded.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

4.4.2 ZGB-03-04-003 BTS Recovery

Benefits

This feature enables BTS to restore the service immediately after the recovery of broken Abis transmission link. It reduces the service outage time.

Description

BTS detects Abis status automatically and sets the service status as “block” after Abis transmission is broken. When Abis transmission recovers, BTS applies parameter refresh for BSC and checks the parameter with that locally set. After the check, BTS sets the service status as “unblock”. Thus the service recovers.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.4.3 ZGB-03-04-004 Dry Contact Alarm

Benefits

With this feature, system monitors other equipments to ensure the BSS system stability.

Description

With this feature, BTS provides Dry Contact Alarm input and output interfaces. BSC can monitor whether other equipments are functioning well without extra transmission.

Alarm type includes water alarm, fire alarm, smoke alarm and intruder alarm, etc. All these alarm signals are connected with BTS through Dry Contact Alarm connector. BTS collects these alarm messages, and sends to BSC. The OMCR’s Alarm Management terminal shows these alarms.

Operator can define Dry Contact Alarm type in alarm management module.

Introduced Version

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.4.4 ZGB-03-04-006 Backward Compatibility for BTS

Benefits

This feature saves the investment on upgrading and reduces the impact on the existing network.

Description

BTS reports current software version to BSC via Abis interface after reboot. This procedure helps BSS to keep compatible to all previous versions of BTS. BTSs of different versions can co-exist in the same network.

The operator can upgrade BSC and some BTSs to deploy new features in some area without upgrading the BTSs in other parts of the network.

Introduced Version

4.5

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GPRS/EDGE

4.5.1 ZGB-03-05-001 Coding Scheme CS1~CS4

Benefit

This feature provides basic Packet Service for GPRS network.

Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GPRS offers a number of coding schemes with different levels of error detection and

correction. Network can choose the Coding Scheme depend on data rate requirement

and radio channel quality. There are CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4 four types of coding

scheme, CS-1 has the strongest error correction capability and has lowest requirement

for radio environment, but it offers the minimum d ata throughput. To the opposite, CS - 4

offer highest data throughput and have the weakest error correction capability, so it

needs highest C/I.

The following data rates are calculated theoretically based on the selected coding

scheme depending on C/I:

Table 4-2

Coding Scheme CS1-CS4

Coding Scheme

CS-1

CS-2

CS-3

CS-4

Modulation

GMSK

GMSK

GMSK

GMSK

Data throughput per timeslot (kbps)

9.05

13.4

15.6

21.4

RLC/MAC data throughput per timeslot (kbps)

8

12

14.4

20

CS-1: This coding scheme applies for the highest level of error detection and correction.

It is used in scenarios when interference levels are high or signal levels are low. When

applying CS-1, data is not necessarily been re-sent too often. CS-1 uses 1/2 encoder,

and results in data throughput of 9.05 kbps.

CS-2: This coding scheme is used for better channel quality. It effectively uses a 2/3

encoder and results in data throughput of 13.4 kbps.

CS-3: This coding scheme uses 3/4 encoder, to result in 15.6kbps data throughput.

CS-4: This coding scheme is used in good channel condition which has very weak

interference, without error correction it can result in 21.4kbps data throughput. So for MS

using maximum 8 timeslots, 171.2kpbs data throughput can be achieved.

Introduced Version

BeforeV09R1

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Enhancement

None

4.5.2 ZGB-03-05-002 Initial Coding Scheme Per Cell Settable

Benefit

This feature offers operator capability to set initial coding scheme of MS based on network condition. The coding scheme settable can provide MS with optimized access data rate and make full use of network resources.

Description

The initial coding scheme of PS user assignment can be set from OMCR based on cell level, by cell level configuration to differentiate GPRS and EGPRS service parameters. When the MS set up the Temporary Block Flow (TBF) connection, the link quality and C/I are reported to BSC after a period of time, during which the MS will use the coding scheme initially settled by the network. And after the period, the coding scheme will be optimized according to the quality information reported by the MS and BTS.

By analyzing the overall channel quality condition, network user can set an initial coding scheme which is very close to optimal coding scheme for the cell. It can reduce the time to adjust to the optimal coding scheme and increase the data rate.

Introduced Version

BeforeV09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.3 ZGB-03-05-005 8/11 bit Access Burst

Benefits

8 bit access is the primary access mode of PS service and 11 bit access shortens t he access delay and increases the throughput of EGPRS MS, thus improving subscriber

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

satisfaction.

Description

Two types of packet random access burst are supported in GERAN network: 8 bits random access burst and 11 bits random access burst called the ext ended packet random access burst. The MS shall support both random access bursts. 8 bit access is the primary access burst; 11 bit access burst includes extend parameters such as MS multi-slot class, thus can use one phase access to reduce the access delay. BSS broadcasts the access type in system message PSI1, PSI13 and SI13 to indicate which access type MS shall adopted.

Please refer to ZGB-03-05-007 phase access.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

One Phase Access for the description on the one

4.5.4 ZGB-03-05-006 Class A, B, C MS

Benefit

This feature provides support for PS basic service.

Description

Not all GPRS/EDGE mobiles are designed to offer the same levels of service. In fact they are split into three basic categories according to their capabilities to connect to GSM and GPRS/EDGE network. GPRS/EDGE network can support the three types of mobiles connection and provides differentiated services to different types of MSs. The three types of mobiles are Class A, B and C, which are described as the following:

Class A: This class describes mobile phones that can be connected to both GPRS/EDGE and GSM services at the same time.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Class B: This class mobile can be attached to both GPRS/EDGE and GSM services but they can be used with only one service at a time. A Class B mobile can make or receive a voice call, or send or receive a SMS message during a GPRS/EDGE connection. During voice call or SMS session, the GPRS/EDGE service will be suspended and will be re-established automatically after the voice call or SMS session is completed.

Class C: This classification covers mobiles that can be attached to either GPRS/EDGE or GSM services but user needs to switch manually between the two different types.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.5 ZGB-03-05-007 One Phase Access

Benefit

This feature provides support for PS basic service, to allow MS with certain capability to quick access to packet network, to reduce latency.

Description

The packet access procedure using CCCH may be used to establish a Temporary Block Flow (TBF) to support the transfer of LLC PDUs in the direction from MS to network or from network to MS. For the uplink direction, there are two types of packet access: one phase access and two phase access.

One phase access reduces initial TBF setup time by reducing signaling procedure and to improved packet access speed. MS initiates one phase access mode and requests one phase access in the “Channel Request” or “Packet Channel Request” message. Network sends MS a packet uplink assignment message carrying information about resources allocated to MS. Resource competition may be happened when different MSs request the channel at same time. To handle the competition, the MS is asked to send the TLLI in the begin RLC block after it receives the uplink assignment message. After receiving the

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

first RLC block, network side will fill the TLLI in PACKET UPLINK ACK and send to MS. MS receives this ACK message and get the TLLI value. If this TLLI value is identical with its own value sent to network side, it means the radio resource is allocated to this MS. Then the one phase access procedure is completed, MS turns to packet transfer mode.

One phase access can be used directly if the requested RLC mode is acknowledged mode and the amount of data need to be transferred is less than 8 RLC/MAC blocks. Normally, MS requests one phase access when transmitting paging response, cell update and MM layer messages through TBF establishment by this feature, MS with one phase access conditions can quick access to GPRS/EDGE network to have improved performance on latency.

Introduced Version

BeforeV09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.6 ZGB-03-05-008 Two Phase Access

Benefit

This feature provides support for PS basic service, to ensure GPRS/EGPRS capable MS access to network.

Description

The packet access procedure using CCCH may be used to establish a Temporary Block Flow (TBF) to support the transfer of LLC PDUs in the direction from MS to network or from network to MS. For the uplink direction, there are two types of packet access: one phase access and two phase access, they are chosen based on MS access reason or network can force MS to use two phase access.

Two phase access has complex signaling procedure than one phase access. If two phase access is initiated by MS, MS send two phase access request in the “Channel Request” or “Packet Channel Request” message. The network sends a “Packet Uplink

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Assignment” message containing single block assignment to MS to instruct second phase access. Then MS sends a “Packet Resource Request” message on the allocated single block. Upon receiving the message, the network returns a “Packet Uplink Assignment” message in response. The competition solution on the network side ends after the network receives TLLI used to identify MS. After MS receives the “Packet Uplink Assignment” message, the competition solution on the MS side also ends if TLLI in this message is identical with that in the “Packet Resource Request” message from MS. After the competition solution succeeds, two phase access procedure ends and MS switches to packet transmission mode. System can also be configured as “Force Two Phase Access”, the network will force MS to adopt two phase access mode after receiving the “Channel Request” or “Packet Channel Request” message from MS and ignore the request reason of MS. Comparing with one phase access, by the second phase access, network can acquire the MS capability such as Extended Uplink TBF Mode etc.; by the information to effectively allocate radio resources.

The two phase access will be used in situations when the requested RLC mode is unacknowledged mode or the RLC mode is acknowledge mode and the data need to be translated is more than 8 RLC/MAC blocks. In addition, for EGPRS TBF mode capable MSs (in an EGPRS capable cell), if the cell does not support EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST, then MS has to use two phase access no matter acknowledge mode or unacknowledged mode.

Introduced Version

BeforeV09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.7 ZGB-03-05-009 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) 1~3

Benefits

Based on the mode of operation provided by the network, the MS can choose, according to its capabilities, to attach to GPRS/EDGE services, to non-GPRS/EDGE services, or to both.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Description

According to 3GPP standards, three network operation modes are defined.

Network operation mode I: the network sends a CS paging message for a

GPRS-attached MS, either on the same channel as the PS paging channel (i.e., the

packet paging channel or the CCCH paging channel), or on a PS traffic channel.

This means that the MS needs only to monitor one paging channel, and that it

receives CS paging messages on the packet data channel when it has been

assigned a packet data channel.

Network operation mode II: the network sends a CS paging message for a

GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel, and this channel is also used for

PS paging. This means that the MS needs only to monitor the CCCH paging

channel, and that CS paging continues on this paging channel even if the MS has

been assigned a packet data channel.

Network operation mode III: the network sends a CS paging message for a

GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel, and sends a PS paging

message on either the packet paging channel (if configured in the cell) or on the

CCCH paging channel. This means that an MS that wants to receive paging for both

circuit-switched and packet-switched services shall monitor both paging channels if

the packet paging channel is configured in the cell. No paging co-ordination is

performed by the network.

Table 4-3

Three Network Operation Modes

     

Paging

Mode

Circuit Paging Channel

PS Paging Channel

Co-ordination

 

Packet Paging Channel

Packet Paging Channel

 

I

CCCH Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

Yes

Packet Data Channel

Not Applicable

II

CCCH Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

No

 

CCCH Paging Channel

Packet Paging Channel

 

III

CCCH Paging Channel

CCCH Paging Channel

No

When the Gs interface is available, all MSC-originated paging of GPRS-attached MSs

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

shall go via the SGSN, thus allowing network co-ordination of paging. Paging co-ordination shall be made by the SGSN based on the IMSI, and is provided independently of whether the MS is in STANDBY or in READY state. The network operates in mode I.

When the Gs interface is not available, all MSC-originated paging of GPRS-attached MSs shall go via the A interface, and co-ordination of paging cannot be performed. The network shall then either:

operate in mode II, meaning that the packet common control channel shall not be configured in the cell; or

operate in mode III, meaning that the packet common control channel shall be used for PS paging when the packet paging channel is configured in the cell.

The network operation mode (mode I, II, or III) is indicated in system information to MSs. For proper operation, the mode of network operation should be the same in all cells of a routing area.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.8 ZGB-03-05-011 Timeslot Multiplexing

Benefits

PS service has different timeslot allocation strategies from voice service, which helps to improve efficiency of timeslot.

Description

PS timeslot allocation is different from voice service. The time slots for uplink and downlink voice are allocated simultaneously and they will be used exclusively by a MS till the call is terminated to release them. While PS time slots are allocated on uplink and

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

downlink respectively according to data transfer requirements. And several MSs are able to use one time slot simultaneously to maximize the timeslot efficiency.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.9 ZGB-03-05-012 GPRS Link Adaptation

Benefits

This feature improves the adaptation of the link and increases the system throughput efficiently.

Description

The link adaptation algorithm compares the estimated channel quality with threshold preset in the OMC-R in order to select appropriate coding scheme. According to different evaluated parameters: C/I, BLER and BER, different link adaptation algorithm models are designed

The threshold consists of the switching points between four coding schemes: CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4. It is set in BSC parameters settings. These switching points between coding schemes are configurable, to make the user choose an optimal link adaptation algorithm model according to the overall conditions of channel quality, hence improving the efficiency of link adaptation.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

4.5.10 ZGB-03-05-013 Delayed TBF Release in DL

Benefits

When the PS channel carries the burst IP traffic, it sets up and releases the radio resource frequently, while TBF’s release and setup takes some time and occupies radio interface resource, which causes high signaling load and decreases the data transfer efficiency. The delayed TBF release in DL avoids the unnecessary procedure of TBF setup and release so as to improve the GPRS data transfer performance.

Description

When BSS sends the last RLC block, FBI is not set to 1, and the idle BIT in the RLC block is filled with filling bit, sending the virtual LLC frame periodically to keep connection. After a period of time, if it doesn’t yet have any new downlink or uplink traffic request, the connection will be released. Otherwise it will transfer the data over the existing RLC link immediately.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.11 ZGB-03-05-014 Delayed TBF Release in UL

Benefits

This feature speeds up the establishment of downlink TBF and improves the user experience.

Description

Usually, BSS starts releasing an uplink TBF when MS sends a RLC block with CV=0 indicating there is no uplink data to be sent.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

With Delayed TBF Release in UL feature, when BSS receives RLC block with CV=0 sent by MS, if MS or BSC do not support Extended Uplink TBF Mode, and there is no downlink TBF exists for this MS, then BSC starts a timer. Before this timer expires, if there is downlink data, a downlink TBF is established via PACCH. Because establishing a TBF via PACCH is more simple and more quickly than establishing a TBF via CCCH, this feature speeds up the establishment of downlink TBF and improves the user experience. When the timer expires, the uplink TBF is released. This feature is implemented by BSC software and does not require MS modification.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.12 ZGB-03-05-015 RLC Acknowledged/ Unacknowledged Mode

Benefits

The feature is the basis for introduction of PS service.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS support two RLC modes defined in 3GPP: RLC acknowledged mode and RLC unacknowledged mode.

RLC acknowledged mode: each data block transmitted on the TBF should be acknowledged by receiver. The sender shall resend the blocks indicated lost by receiver. TBF can’t be released until each data block transmitted on the TBF is complete and acknowledged. This mechanism ensures the transmission reliability of the RLC data blocks.

RLC unacknowledged mode: the receiving party acknowledges the received RLC data blocks as in RLC acknowledged mode. The data block, however, is not required to be resent by sender. The TBF is released after the data transmission is complete although maybe some data are lost during the transmission.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

The RLC mode of the uplink TBF is dependent on the service type requested by the MS and the RLC mode of the downlink TBF is dependent on the RLC mode in the QoS parameters contained in the downlink LLC PDU.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.13 ZGB-03-05-016 Downlink BVC Flow Control

Benefits

This feature is a basic feature of PS services. The BVC flow control mechanism controls the loading of the BSS LLC PDU queues per BVCI between SGSN and BSC in the downlink direction. It prevents link congestion and improves service quality.

Description

Gb interface and Um interface have different data transmission rate. Throughput on the Gb interface is greater than that on the Um interface. Furthermore, the downlink throughput on the Um interface is unstable that is impacted by various factors such as radio quality, the multi-slot capability of the MS and traffic load in the cell. In order to balance the throughput between Gb interface and Um interface, the downlink flow control is introduced.

The principle of the downlink flow control procedure is that PCU sends flow control parameters to SGSN which allow SGSN to locally control its transmission output in the direction from SGSN to PCU.

Downlink flow control includes downlink BVC flow control and downlink MS flow control. This feature only describes the downlink BVC flow control. For downlink MS flow control, please refer to “ZGB-03-05-017 Downlink MS Flow Control”.

There is a downlink buffer for each BVC, identified as BVCI, in a PCU. PCU reports to SGSN the flow control parameters including the size of the maximum bucket of each

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

BVC cell, the cell leak rate, the default MS bucket size, the default MS leak rate and etc. Based on the reported parameters, SGSN adjusts the downlink data rate of the cell to implement the flow control to prevent frequent data loss caused by congestion or transmission interruption due to insufficient flow.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.14 ZGB-03-05-017 Downlink MS Flow Control

Benefits

This feature is a basic feature of PS services. The MS flow control mechanism controls the loading of the BSS LLC PDU queues per MS between SGSN and BSC in the downlink direction. It prevents link congestion and improves service quality.

Description

Gb interface and Um interface have different data transmission rate. The throughput on the Gb interface is greater than that on the Um interface. Furthermore, the downlink throughput on the Um interface is unstable that is impacted by various factors such as radio quality, the multi-slot capability of the MS and traffic load in the cell. In order to balance the throughput between Gb interface and Um interface, the downlink flow control is introduced.

The principle of the downlink flow control procedure is that PCU sends flow control parameters to SGSN which allows SGSN to locally control its transmission output in the direction from SGSN to BSC.

Downlink flow control includes downlink BVC flow control and downlink MS flow control. This feature only describes the downlink MS flow control. For downlink BVC flow control, please refer to ZGB-03-05-016 Downlink BVC Flow Control.

The downlink data from SGSN to MS is buffered by PCU. PCU reports to SGSN the flow

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

control parameters, including the TLLI identifying the MS, the size of the maximum bucket of each MS and MS leak rate. Based on the reported parameters, SGSN adjusts the downlink data rate of the MS to implement the flow control to prevent frequent data loss caused by congestion or transmission interruption due to insufficient flow.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

4.5.15 ZGO-03-05-003 EGPRS Packet Channel Request on CCCH

Benefits

This feature enables MS to access the network with packet channel request on CCCH, so the control channel can be reduced and more timeslots can be used for traffic, providing more timeslots for traffic and increasing system capacity.

Description

There are two ways to access the network for PS service, one is on CCCH, and the other is on PCCCH. Because access on CCCH does not need dedicated PCCCH channel, the number of traffic channel is increased to carry more PS traffic.

An MS initiates PS access by sending a (Packet) channel request on RACH, and the network responds on AGCH to start PS transfer.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

4.5.16 ZGO-03-05-007 EGPRS Activation per Cell

Benefits

This feature enables EGPRS network configured flexibly to make use of radio resource more effectively and efficiently; and cell configuration is optimized.

Description

Each cell managed by BSS can be configured to support EGPRS when EGPRS function is introduced, which means some cells can be enabled for EGPRS service while some cells are disabled for EGPRS service. With the flexible mechanism, the operator can select whether or not to activate the EGPRS function in every cell according to subscribers’ request.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

5 Network Performance

5.1 Coverage Enhancement

5.1.1 ZGB-04-01-001 Receiving Diversity

Benefits

This feature relieves the impact of interference due to fading as well as smoothes the received signal and contributes to a more reliable and cost efficient network.

Description

Receiving Diversity is a coverage enhancement technology. It achieves by having two

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

antennas receive the same signal. Each signal is independently influenced by fading. This improves the signal quality and diminishes the effects of fading.

Each cell has two antennas independently to receive the same signal. According to ZTE’s receiving diversity algorithm, it improves the receiving sensitivity and system voice service quality.

There are two algorithms for the receiving diversity: Max Rate Combining (MRC) and Interference Rejection Combining (IRC). IRC technology is more suitable for environment where uplink interference is very strong. For example: in an urban area where there is frequent frequency multiplexing.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

5.1.2 ZGB-04-01-002 Support Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)

Benefits

This feature enhances uplink receiving sensitivity. Together with downlink coverage enhancement technology, it enlarges the coverage of the site, and quickly optimizes the whole network.

Description

Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) is a low noise amplifier device which is installed close to receiving antenna on the top of the tower. It amplifies the received signals before they go into the cable.

BTS provides external interface to TMA and monitors the TMA working status. BTS provides power supply to TMA and monitors the TMA working voltage. When the voltage is abnormal, BTS reports the alarm to OMCR, and blocks the corresponding carrier when alarms occur.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

TMA will give 2-3 dB uplink gain to enlarge the coverage. This feature can be used with ZGO-04-01-002 Delay Diversity Transmission (DDT) or ZGO-04-01-003 Dual Power Combining Transmission (DPCT) to keep the balance of uplink and downlink.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

5.2 Network Quality Improvement

5.2.1 ZGB-04-02-001 Traffic Hold at Channel Blocking

Benefits

This feature increases the service performance of the network and decreases the call drops caused by system maintenance.

Description

When blocking cells, TRXs or TCH timeslots manually, new calls will not be assigned to these pending cells, TRXs or TCH timeslots and if there are ongoing calls in these pending cells, TRXs or TCH timeslots, forced handover to other TCH timeslots will be executed to hold the ongoing calls and delay the blocking. The length of time delay to block can be set, after the delay the failed handover calls will be forced release. Blocking will not start until there is no service in these pending cells, TRXs or TCH timeslots.

If merely TCH timeslots or some certain TRXs are to be blocked, service will be handed over to other unblocked TRXs in this cell with priority; but if the cell is blocked entirely, service will be handed over to its best neighboring cell only.

When the channel is detected an error, the ongoing call on the channel will be released before channel blocking.

Introduced version

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

5.2.2 ZGB-04-02-002 Static BTS Power Control

Benefits

This feature allows the operator to adjust the cell coverage according to the requirement of network planning and optimization. It reduces the interference between different cells and improves the efficiency of frequency utilization.

Description

The purpose of static power control is to meet the requirement of various coverage scenarios and reduce the interference. Static power control is configured according to the maximum BTS output power and network planning results. Upon completion of network planning and configuration, static power usually remains unchanged, but certainly allows necessary adjustment yet.

ZTE BTS supports downward adjustment of its maximum output power with 6 levels by 2dB/per step within an error of ± 1dB. The actual absolute output power of each level of static RF power (N) must be 2 × NdB lower than the absolute output power of the static RF power level 0, the power level 0 means the maximum output power.

TRX transmits signal with the configured output power. If dynamic power control is enabled, BTS can further adjust the output power according to the radio link quality.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

From V09R2, the static power of ZTE SDR can be adjusted by step of one watt. For example, the static power of one TRX can be configure from 1W to 80W if the maximal allowed power of this TRX is 80W.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

5.2.3 ZG0-04-02-019 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)

Benefits

This feature helps to save the battery power of MS in idle mode.

Description

The BSS divides the MSs within a cell into groups. The group in which an MS resides is known locally at both the MS and the BSS. All paging requests to each group are scheduled and sent at a particular time which is derived from the TDMA frame number in conjunction with the IMSI of the MS and some BCCH transmitted data.

Thus both the BSS and the MS know when relevant page requests will be sent and the MS can power down for the period when it knows that page requests will not occur, thus the battery power of MS is saved.

The page request contains the IMSI or the TMSI in order to identify the MS concerned. The IMSI is always used to identify the paging population.

6

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

Transmission

6.1 Flexible Networking

6.1.1 ZGB-05-02-001 Automatic Bridge in BTS Chain Networking

Benefits

The Chain networking saves transport resources compared to star or tree connection.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

This feature improves the reliability of the transport resources by decreasing impact of faults.

Description

BTS supports Chain networking to BSC. The depth of chain is less than 8. BTS communicates with BSC by E1 interface.

In case one BTS is failing, Automatic Bridge Circuit over E1 link is activated to bypass the failing BTS and ensures that the downstream BTS can run normally.

If an upstream BTS is in severe failure, the Automatic Bridge Circuit is activated. Then the E1 link bypasses the failed BTS and ensures the connection of downstream BTSs to BSC without any impact.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

6.1.2 ZGB-05-02-002 Star, Tree, and Chain Networking

Benefit

This feature provides flexible networking topology for BSC and BTS. A suitable connection type is to be chosen to save the leased line costs according to actual situation, such as transmission path and BTS location and capacity, etc.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports Star, tree and Chain connection on Abis interface between BTS and BSC.

The following figure shows the possible link configurations on Abis interface between BSC and BTS: star, tree and chain networking. Star networking is most commonly seen in the actual network which is also mostly recommended. Star networking has simple

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

topology and most reliable on transmission; whereas tree and chain networking are of higher multiplexing of the transmission resources and cost saving on it. But compared to star networking, tree and chain networking are of less reliability and more complicated which are often used for situations with restricted transmission.

Figure 6-1

Star, tree and Chain Networking

BTS
BTS

Star

BSC

BTSFigure 6-1 Star, tree and Chain Networking BTS Star BSC Chain BTS BTS BTS BTS Crossconnect

Chain

BTS BTS BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS

Crossconnect

BTS
BTS

Tree

BTSStar BSC BTS Chain BTS BTS BTS BTS Crossconnect BTS Tree BTS BTS BTS Introduced Version

BTS
BTS
BTS BTS
BTS
BTS

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

6.1.3 ZGO-05-02-031 Distributed Architecture of BTS

Benefits

This feature saves equipment room and reduces cable loss and increases power output in antenna port.

Description

Distributed BTS consists of baseband processing parts and radio processing parts. Baseband processing parts are set in equipment room to make maintenance easily, and

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

radio parts are set close to antenna to reduce cable loss.

Distributed BTS uses fiber to connect baseband processing parts and radio processing parts. Digital technology is adopted and no signal distortion happened in transmission between two parts.

6.2

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhanced Function

None

Synchronization

6.2.1 ZGB-05-03-001 Clock Synchronization

Benefits

This feature enables BSS to realize clock synchronization, so as to meet such kind of requirement for various transmission modes and ensure system performance.

Description

In order to satisfy different application scenarios’ demands, BSC and BTS support multiple clock synchronization methods. Different clock reference sources are configured as per actual application scenario to synchronize BSC and BTS.

ZTE BSC supports following clock synchronization methods:

Clock Synchronization Extraction from Traffic InterfacesZTE BSC supports following clock synchronization methods: BSC extracts line recovered clock from the message that

BSC extracts line recovered clock from the message that contains synchronization timer information at traffic interface, including E1/T1. It traces and locks the clock.

BITS Clock Synchronizationtimer information at traffic interface, including E1/T1. It traces and locks the clock. ZTE Confidential Proprietary

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Electrical interface of Building Integrated Timing Supply System (BITS) is required being coincided with ITU G.703. BITS clock reference quality should be in accordance with ITU G.812. BSC supports BITS reference input with 2.048MHz/2.048Mbps/1.544Mbps.

BITS reference input with 2.048MHz/2.048Mbps/1.544Mbps. GPS Clock Synchronization BSC supports GPS clock

GPS Clock Synchronization

BSC supports GPS clock synchronization, which owns a special FD. For details, refer to ZGO-05-03-001 GPS Synchronization”.

Whether BSC to use clock references, which clock references to use and the master clock reference can all be set on OMC. When current reference clock is lost, BSC switches to available reference clock with lower priority automatically; if all the reference clocks are lost, BSC can maintain the normal system services.

ZTE BTS supports following clock synchronization methods:

Clock Synchronization Extraction from Abis InterfacesZTE BTS supports following clock synchronization methods: If Abis interface adopts E1/T1 transmission, extract

If Abis interface adopts E1/T1 transmission, extract synchronization from Abis interface. When one of the links fails, it automatically switches to another working link so as to realize redundancy backup. Abis interface of BTS is available to be configured with multiple E1/T1 to connect to BSC. If line recovered clock reference source is configured, BTS automatically selects one E1/T1 in ascending order to extract clock.

BTS is also able to output 2.048 Mbps clock signals via E1 interfaces. The clock complies with ITU-T G.703 and is provided as a clock reference to the other NodeB/BTS or other equipment located in the same site.

other NodeB/BTS or other equipment located in the same site. BITS Clock Synchronization BTS supports BITS-2MHz

BITS Clock Synchronization

BTS supports BITS-2MHz and BITS-2Mbps clock. For BITS-2MHz, the physical layer must comply with the requirement of interface T12 in Chapter 13. As for BITS-2Mbps, the physical layer must be comply with the requirement of interface E12 in Chapter 9.

For SDR BTS, BITS-2MHz clock is accessed from SMA interface in front panel of CC board. The SMA interface and GPS interface are shared, which means BITS-2MHz and GPS is a pair of mutex reference clock; only one of them can be configured the reference clock. BITS-2Mbps clock is accessed from the 8th E1 receiver. Hence BITS-2Mbps and the 8th E1 are also mutex, only one of them can be selected, which should be decided when configuring the site.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

For V3 BTS, BITS-2MHz clock is firstly to access to the top of the cabinet, then connect to rear board to enter CMB. While BITS-2Mbps clock is directly connected to BTS by E1.

GPS Clock SynchronizationWhile BITS-2Mbps clock is directly connected to BTS by E1. BTS supports GPS clock synchronization, which

BTS supports GPS clock synchronization, which owns a special FD. For details, refer to ZGO-05-03-001 GPS Synchronization”.

IEEE1588 IP Clock Synchronizationrefer to “ ZGO-05-03-001 GPS Synchronization ”. Only SDR BTS supports IEEE1588 IP clock synchronization,

Only SDR BTS supports IEEE1588 IP clock synchronization, which owns a special FD. For details, refer to “ZGO-05-03-002 IEEE1588 V2 IP Clock Synchronization”.

BTS reference clock is configured on OMC. Each reference clock is allowed to be specified with certain priority; system then selects one with highest priority as its reference clock. When current reference clock is lost, BSC switches to available reference clock with lower priority automatically; if all the reference clocks are lost, BSC can maintain the normal system services.

Introduced Version

7

7.1

V09R1

Enhancement

None

Others

O&M

7.1.1 ZGB-06-01-001 Monitoring Um Interface

Benefits

This feature detects and releases faulty radio channels in time, thus increasing the efficiency of radio resource utility.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Description

The BTS monitors radio channel in the uplink, while the MS monitors radio channel in the downlink.

The BTS monitors radio channel in the uplink according to two criteria. The first criterion is the ratio of SACCH channel failure. The second criterion is the uplink signal level and quality. Which criterion to apply is configured on OMCR.

If the first criterion is applied, a counter S is in work. Counter S has an initial value above zero. Every time the BTS fails to decode an uplink SACCH frame, counter S decrements; every time the BTS successfully decodes an uplink SACCH frame, counter S is increased by 2. When the counter S is reduced to zero, BTS decides that this radio channel is faulty and initiates a channel release procedure.

If the second criterion is applied, the BTS calculates the average value of uplink signal level and quality. When the average value of uplink signal level or quality is worse than a threshold, BTS decides that this radio channel is faulty and initiates a channel release procedure.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.2 ZGB-06-01-002 Abis Interface Monitoring

Benefits

This feature enables the network operation and maintenance staff to detect the Abis interface failure in time, so that they can take measures quickly.

Description

In ZTE GSM BSS the Abis interface adopts E1, T1 or IP access methods. Abis signaling fault detection and alarming are provided for all these three methods.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

When E1/T1 access is adopted, the Abis signaling is carried on LAPD links. When the LAPD board of BSC detects LAPD links failure or the main processing board of BSC detects communication failure with the LAPD board, LAPD link failure alarms are sent to OMCR.

When IP access is adopted, the Abis signaling is carried on SCTP protocol. The SCTP protocol module of BSC manages the SCTP link state according to RFC 2960 specification. When protocol module of BSC detects SCTP links failure, Abis interface failure alarms are sent to OMCR.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.3 ZGB-06-01-003 Performance Data Measurement

Benefits

This feature is a basic function and helps the operator to supervise the state and performance of the whole BSS network.

Description

ZTE GSM BSS supports the collection, storage, analysis and report of performance data. BSC collects the performance data and sends it to OMCR periodically. O&M staff can set the measurement objects, measurement types and measurement frequency on OMCR.

Measurement objects include cell, TRX, channel, No.7 signaling office, BVC, etc;

Measurement types include TCH/F measurement, TCH/H measurement, TBF procedure measurement, handover measurement, etc. Every type of measurement consists of many counters.

Measurement frequency includes 15min, 30min, 1h, 12h and 24h. OMCR adds up the counter values according to the frequency and stores the results into data base.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.4 ZGB-06-01-005 BSC Monitor Functions

Benefits

This feature enables the operator to continuously monitor the BSC. If a problem occurs, it easily detects and locates. This feature improves the stability of the BSS system and increases the quality of the radio network.

Description

BSC monitors the process sources and wireless resources. If a problem occurs, alarm is sent to the OMCR, and the boards are rebooted. The problem caused by software or data processing can be solved automatically.

OMP continuously monitors the boards, for example:

The OMP continuously monitors the running of TC unit. If a board fails, it is to be blocked and diagnosed immediately, then to be rebooted. And an alarm is sent to the OMCR to remind the network maintenance engineer. The process of new service wouldn’t be assigned to the failure board until the fault is recovered or the board is replaced.

BSC's control plane processing board CMP adopts 1 +1 backup mode. If the system detects failure of the active board, the board is to be automatically rebooted; and the service process goes to the backup board, ensuring service not to be interrupted.

OMP also monitors the overall business process. If it detects a fatal error, the BSC is to be restarted; the system is capable of being resumed within 8 minutes because the parameters access is local style instead of remote access from OMCR.

BSC continuously monitors the states of the cells. If the cell is abnormal, the non-traffic alarm, serious interference alarm and other alarms will be sent to the OMCR to notify

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

maintenance person.

None-traffic Alarm:

System periodically checks the performance counters of cells and analyzes the related counters such as number of SDCCH seizure success counter , number of SDCCH seizure failure counter, number of DL/UL TBF establishment success counter and number of DL/UL TBF establishment failure counter. None-traffic and other abnormal conditions of the cell can be detected. In this case, None-traffic alarm will be send to OMCR and maintenance engineer is able to check the reason.

Serious Interference Alarm:

System periodically checks the wireless interference counters. Once a cell of the interference exceeds the threshold pre-configured, serious interference alarm is to be sent to OMCR to inform maintenance engineer.

Logical Channel Usage Monitoring:

System periodically checks the availability of the logical channels (TCH / SDCCH / PDCH), if the free channel rate of a cell is lower than the threshold pre-configured, low availability channel alarm is to be sent to OMCR to inform maintenance engineer.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.5 ZGB-06-01-006 BTS Software Loading

Benefits

ZTE GSM BTS’s modules are highly integrated, leading to less network congestion and interference when loading the software. So the process is safer and more reliable, and improves loading efficiency.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Description

The SDR BTS software version can be categorized into two types: major version and special version.

The major version is a packet delivered to a binary file when the foreground version is released. For a specific BTS type, a major version packet contains all required board software versions. It complies with standard naming conventions and format definition, and has the capability of describing its own format. OMCB can extract a set of related board software versions correctly by analyzing the packet. Major version is the normal method to update software.

Special version is some board software version independent of the major version. The special version is often used to verify the validity of single software instead of acting as the main method to update the version.

The installation of BTS software contains the following steps:

1 Version warehousing

When new software version is released for the BTS, to ensure that the BTS can use the latest software, this software should be added into the network management server through the network management system, and synchronized to NEs, that is, to be loaded into OMCB.

The OMCB resolves the major version packet into multiple separate version files and stores them into its own hard disk. Meanwhile, the OMCB will record these software versions in the database. This step is called version packet warehousing.

2 Version downloading

When the major version is warehoused, the version object can be opened on the version tree to download the version packet.

Loading the major version, in fact, is loading all the board software in the major version. This operation must be atomic. All the downloading operations either fail or succeed.

The major version packet should be downloaded by using the differentiated method,

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

that is, only download the required board software after comparing the version information. This method speeds the version downloading and relieves the network congestion.

3 Version activation

The major version supports non-compatible activation only. The activation of the major version includes two parts: table data configuration command and BTS activation. The new version file will be loaded in the restart process of BTS. Successful loading means successful activation. If problems occur in the loading process, the process is stopped, and the version file is restored. Thus, the activation fails.

When the major version is activated, the original version packet will act as the spare version file. If required, you can use the original version through the handover of version packet.

This feature also includes other version commands, such as Version deletion, Version query etc.

Version deletion can be used to delete the whole packet of the major version or a single file in the version packet.

Version query can be used to query the currently running version information of BTS through the network management system.

Introduced Version

V09R1

Enhancement

Null

7.1.6 ZGB-06-01-007 Cell Traffic Statistics

Benefits

This feature is very important input for network analyses. Traffic statistical data reflects

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

whether the network resource is optimally configured or not, as well as the load condition of equipment resources. The operator then can determine if it is necessary to expand system capacity or adjust equipment parameters and resources according to the result. According to traffic changes, the operator can also monitor performance of the network to identify potential problems in a timely manner. And the operator can also check the effect of network optimization by this feature.

Description

The traffic load of cell can be reported to operator through the performance statistics

BSC gathers the information of cell traffic and reports them to OMM by hour, OMM will store them in the database and prepare report forms.

There are two kinds of traffic statistics, one is for SDCCH, and the other is for TCH.

System generates traffic reports every hour to compare the traffic difference of different equipments in different time period, so as to analyze network traffic changing trend.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.7 ZGB-06-01-008 BSC Diagnostic Tests

Benefits

This feature enhances the efficiency of system maintenance; it’s specifically used in the following scenarios.

Routine Maintenance: Users can set the routine tasks of equipment physical test and communication links test. If the test results close to the outlier, the maintenance engineer needs to pay attention to it and eliminate hidden dangers to avoid the real fault occurred.

Troubleshooting: Users can set the immediate task, to help maintenance engineer

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

identifies the cause of the failure and locate fault position as soon as possible.

Description

This feature includes immediate test and routine test.

Immediate Test:

Maintenance engineer is able to select the test objects at any time and test items in the network management client and triggers the test. The system runs the task and the test results can be observed immediately.

Routine Test:

Maintenance engineer is able to select test objects and test items, and pre-set the test time. When test time arrives, the diagnostic test will be triggered and the test results are automatically saved in OMCR server. Routine testing is generally used for routine maintenance in order to reduce the workload.

Both immediate test and routine test results are automatically saved. Therefore, the users can check the test results when needed. Users can also inquire, delete, clean up, export, refresh, print the results and customize the results list.

This feature includes the following test categories:

BSC TDM Link Loop Test:

BSC is enabled to set both E1 or 64K time slot loopback and send test packets whether the TDM link works normally.

BSC Version Information:

This function gets the board types, the hardware version, the firmware version information and other information to facilitate the users to determine whether to support the feature which requires special hardware and firmware version.

BSC Media Stream Test:

Media stream test is to test the media flow state between two service boards. The test includes the CS and PS domain media flow diagnostic tests. The system generates test

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

packets in the source boards, and the target boards receive and return the test packets to the source boards. Media stream test checks whether the media stream flows are working properly.

BSC Control Flow Test:

Control flow test contains the control link between OMP and the external boards test, the link between the external boards test, and the main communications link between the main and standby board test. The system generates test packets in the source boards, and the target boards receive and return the test packets to the source boards. Control flow test checks whether the internal control links are working properly.

BSC Board Test:

This test comprehensively diagnoses whether the board to be tested encounters hardware faults. It also checks whether the major functional units, interfaces, etc. are working properly.

Introduction Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.8 ZGO-06-01-003 BSC LMT

Benefits

This feature reduces construction investment because of more convenient construction; even if the OMCR is not reachable, the BSC is commissioned. Operators can view the BSC through the LMT to check the current status and alarms, as well as maintenance of BSC.

Description

BSC LMT is the commission and maintenance tool when the OMCR is not reachable. It provides the following functions:

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Configuration management: Satisfy the commissioning requirements of the BSC.

Alarm management: View the current alarm of the BSC.

Diagnostic test: Provide the test of NE object to get more detailed information for the convenience to locate the fault for users.

Status Management: View the status and statistics of various physical and radio resources and perform the operations such as block/unblock, activate/deactivate.

By installing the LMT client in a PC, users can connect the LMT client to the BSC LMT to commission the BSC. Alternatively, users can directly connect the display and mouse to the LMT server and start the LMT client directly, thus commissioning the BSC.

Introduced version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

7.1.9 ZGO-06-01-010 VSWR Detection

Benefits

This feature indicates whether the antenna construction, antennas, cables and joints comply with the regulatory requirements, and monitors them while running the equipments. VSWR slight alarm or VSWR serious alarm shall be generated and reported while the feeder performance degrades, enhancing network quality and saving OPEX.

Description

In telecommunications, when antenna and feeder do not match the impedances, some of the electrical energy cannot be transferred from the feeder to the antenna. Energy not transferred to the antenna is reflected back towards the transmitter. The voltage ratio of the amplitude of a partial standing wave at an anti-node (maximum) to the amplitude at an adjacent node (minimum) is called Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). Reflected power has three main implications in radio transmitters: Radio Frequency (RF) energy

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

losses increase, distortion on transmitter due to reflected power from load and damage to the transmitter occurs.

For the antenna port, a VSWR slight alarm and serious alarm shall be generated according to the following condition:

VSWR < X1

no alarm

X1≤VSWR < X2

slight alarm

X2≤VSWR

serious alarm

The system automatically shuts down power amplifier, in order to protect the transmitter from damage, when VSWR serious alarm generates.

Introduced Version

7.2

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

Security

7.2.1 ZGB-06-02-001 A5/1 Ciphering Algorithm

Benefits

This feature enables the A5/1 ciphering algorithm to send all information during the air interface encrypted, guaranteeing the private information and signal of the user, so as to provide sufficient security and stability of service.

Description

This feature enables the ciphering algorithms A5/1, which is defined in 3GPP protocol.

ZTE GSM supports A5/1 ciphering algorithm to guarantee the private information and signal of the user, thus providing sufficient security and stability of service.

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Before the ciphering procedure, there is an authentication procedure first. The authentication procedure evaluates a ciphering key (Kc), which is one of the input parameters in A5/1. The other inputs include the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) frame number. Kc changes along with the TDMA frame number.

A5/1 lies at BTS and the terminal, and this function is initiated when MSC/VLR sending the message Cipher Mode Command to BSC. The message “Cipher Mode Command” together with Kc and TDMA frame number is sent to BTS via the BSC, and then is sent to the terminal forward. The terminal encrypts the message “Cipher Mode Complete” by using A5/1, which is sent via the radio path to BTS. BTS decrypts the message “Cipher Mode Complete” with Kc and TDMA frame number by using A5/1, and then sends the message “Cipher Mode Complete” to BSC and MSC. After this procedure, all information over the air interface is ciphered.

This feature requires CN, BTS and the terminal to support it.

Introduced Version

Before V09R1

Enhancement

None

8 Acronyms and Abbreviations

Abbreviations

Full names

ACC

Access Control Classes

ACCN

Access Control Class N

ADPCM

Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation

AGPS

Assisted GPS

AH

Antenna Hopping

AMPS

Advanced Mobile Phone System

AMR

Adaptive Multi-Rate

ARQ

Automatic Repeat request

BA

BCCH Allocation

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Abbreviations

Full names

BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

BER

Bit Error Rate

BSC

Base Station Controller

BSIC

Base Station Identity Code

BSS

Base Station Subsystem

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

C/I

Carrier/Interference

CAPEX

Capital Expenditure

CBCH

Cell Broadcast Channel

CCCH

Common Control Channel

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

CGI

Cell Global Identity

CMB

Controller & Maintenance Board

CMIS

Common Manage Information Service

CMM

Control and Maintenance Module

CN

Core Network

CPICH

CPU

Central Processing Unit

CRO

Cell Reselection Offset

CS

Circuit Service

DD

Delay Diversity

DDT

Delay Diversity Transmission

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line

DSP

Digital Signal Processor

DTM

Dual Transfer Mode

DTX

Discontinuous Transmission

EGPRS

Enhanced Data rate for Global Evolution

EFR

Enhanced Full Rate

EGPRS

Enhanced General Packet Radio Service

FACCH

Fast Associated Control Channels

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

GSM BSS Basic Feature Description

Abbreviations

Full names

FEC

Forward Error Correction

FR

Full Rate

FSMU

Far Sub-multiplexing Unit

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

FUC

Frame Unit Controller

GERAN

GPRS EGPRS Radio Access Network

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

GIPI

GE IP Interface

GPP

General Peripheral Processor

GPS

Global Positioning System

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communication

HLR

Home Location Register

HR

Half Rate

ICE

Integrated Configuration Environment

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity

IP

Internet Protocol

IRC

Interference Rejection Combining

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISP

Internet Service Provider

LAC

Location Area Code

LAN

Local Area Network

LAPD

Link Access Protocol for D-Channel

LFSR

Linear Feedback Shift Register

LTE

Long Term Evolution

MAIO

Mobile Allocation Index Offset

MCPC