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Chapter13-ExperimentsandObservationalStudies

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MULTIPLECHOICE.Choosetheonealternativethatbestcompletesthestatementoranswersthequestion.
Determinewhetherthereportdescribesaprospectiveobservationalstudy,aretrospectiveobservationalstudy,oran
experiment.
1) Aneducationalresearcherusedschoolrecordstodeterminethat,inoneschooldistrict,84%of
childrenlivingintwo-parenthomesgraduatedhighschoolwhile75%ofchildrenlivingin
single-parenthomesgraduatedhighschool.
A) Experiment
B) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
C) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
1)
2) Inagroupof500menandwomen,thosewhosmokeddidworseontestsofreactiontimethan
thosewhodidnotsmoke.
A) Experiment
B) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
C) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
2)
3) 780patientssufferingfromhighbloodpressurewererandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.
Overafour-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedanexperimentaldrug,thesecondgroup
receivedaplacebo,andthethirdgroupreceivednotreatment.Thediastolicbloodpressureofeach
participantwasmeasuredatthebeginningandattheendoftheperiodandthechangeinblood
pressurewasrecorded.Thebiggestdecreaseinbloodpressurewasforthosewhoreceivedthe
drug.
A) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
B) Experiment
C) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
3)
4) Researchersreportedthatunmarriedmenaremorelikelytosufferfromclinicaldepressionthan
marriedmen.Thesefindingswerebasedonthemarriagehistoriesof700mensufferingfrom
depressionand600mennotsufferingfromdepression.
A) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
B) Experiment
C) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
4)
5) 400patientssufferingfromchronicbackpainwererandomlyassignedtooneoftwogroups.Over
afour-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedacupuncturetreatmentsandthesecondgroup
receivedaplacebo.Patientswhoreceivedacupuncturetreatmentsimprovedmorethanthosewho
receivedtheplacebo.
A) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
B) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
C) Experiment
5)
6) Amongagroupofmarriedwomenwhoweretrackedfortenyears,thosewhoworkedfulltime
weremorelikelytodivorcethanthosewhodidnotworkfulltime.
A) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
B) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
C) Experiment
6)
1
7) Aresearcherwishedtoassesstheimportanceofexerciseinweight-lossprograms.412people,all
consideredtobeatleast20poundsoverweight,wererandomlyassignedtooneoftwogroups.
Overatwo-monthperiod,thefirstgroupfollowedaparticulardietbutwereinstructedtoperform
noexerciseotherthanwalking.Thesecondgroupfollowedthesamedietbutalsoperformed
aerobicexerciseforonehoureachday.Attheendofthetwomonths,theweightlossofeach
participantwasrecorded.Theaverageweightlossforthesecondgroupwasgreaterthanthe
averageweightlossforthefirstgroup.
A) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
B) Experiment
C) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
7)
8) Anexaminationofthemedicalrecordsof10,000womenshowedthatthosewhowereshortand
fairskinnedhadahigherriskofosteoperosis.
A) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
B) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
C) Experiment
8)
9) Aneducationresearcherwasinterestedinexaminingtheeffectoftheteachingmethodandthe
effectoftheteacheronstudentsscoresonareadingtest.Supposetherearefourdifferentteachers
(Juliana,Felix,Sonia,andHelen)andthreedifferentteachingmethods(A,B,andC).Students
wererandomlyassignedtoateachingmethodandteacher.ThosewhostudiedwthSoniausing
methodBachievedthehighestscores.
A) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
B) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
C) Experiment
9)
10) Amongagroupofmenwhoweretrackedfortenyears,thosewhohadscoredover130on
intelligencetestsweremorelikelytosufferseveredepressionthanthosewhohadscoredbelow
130onintelligencetests.
A) Experiment
B) Retrospectiveobservationalstudy
C) Prospectiveobservationalstudy
10)
Anobservationalstudyisdescribed.Identifythespecifiedelement.
11) Aneducationalresearcherusedschoolrecordstodeterminethatintheyear2000inoneschool
district,84%ofchildrenlivingintwo-parenthomesgraduatedhighschoolwhile75%ofchildren
livinginsingle-parenthomesgraduatedhighschool.Determinetheparameterofinterest.
A) Schooldistrict
B) Percentageofchildrenlivingintwo-parenthomes
C) Yearofhighschoolgraduation
D) Highschoolgraduationrate
E) Typeofhome(singleortwo-parent)
11)
12) Inagroupof500women,thosewhosmokedmoderatelydidworseontestsofreactiontimethan
thosewhodidnotsmoke.Identifythesubjectsstudied.
A) Women
B) Womenwhosmokemoderately
C) Womenwhosmokemoderatelyandwomenwhodonotsmoke
D) Womenwhodonotsmoke
E) Adultswhosmokemoderatelyandadultswhodonotsmoke
12)
2
13) Inagroupof500women,thosewhosmokedmoderatelydidworseontestsofreactiontimethan
thosewhodidnotsmoke.Determinethenatureandscopeoftheconclusionthestudycanreach.
A) Smokingmoderatelycausespeopletodoworseontestsofreactiontime.
B) Sincethereisnorandomassignment,thereisnowaytoknowthatsmokingcausessubjects
todoworseontestsofreactiontime;theremayhavebeenconfoundingvariables.
C) Sincethereisnorandomassignment,thereisnowaytoknowthatsmokingcausessubjects
todoworseontestsofreactiontime;theremayhavebeenlurkingvariables.
D) Smokingmoderatelycauseswomentodoworseontestsofreactiontime.
E) Sincethestudyinvolvedonlywomen,thereisnowaytoknowthatsmokingcausespeople
todoworseontestsofreactiontime.
13)
14) Researchersreportedthatunmarriedmenaremorelikelytosufferfromclinicaldepressionthan
marriedmen.Thesefindingswerebasedonthemarriagehistoriesof700Amercanmensuffering
fromdepressionand600Americanmennotsufferingfromdepression.Determinethenatureand
scopeoftheconclusionthestudycanreach.
A) ForAmericanmen,gettingmarriedwillresultinadecreasedriskofdepression.
B) Formen,gettingmarriedwillresultinadecreasedriskofdepression.
C) Sincethereisnorandomassignment,thereisnowaytoknowthatbeingunmarriedincreases
theriskofdepression;theremayhavebeenlurkingvariables.
D) Sincethestudyinvolvedonlymen,thereisnowaytoknowthatbeingunmarriedincreases
theriskofdepression.
E) Sincethereisnorandomassignment,thereisnowaytoknowthatbeingunmarriedincreases
theriskofdepression;theremayhavebeenconfoundingvariables.
14)
15) Amongagroupofmarriedwomenwhoweretrackedfortenyears,thosewhoworkedfulltime
weremorelikelytodivorcethanthosewhodidnotworkfulltime.Identifythesubjectsstudied.
A) Divorcedwomenwhoworkfulltime
B) Divorcedwomen
C) Marriedwomenworkingfulltimeornot
D) Marriedwomenwhoworkfulltime
E) Womenwhoworkfulltime
15)
16) Anexaminationofthemedicalrecordsof10,000womenwhodiedbetween1990and2000
showedthatthosewhohadtakensteroidshadahigherriskofosteoperosis.Identifythesubjects
studied.
A) Womenwhodiedbetween1990and2000andwhohadtakensteroids
B) Womenwhosufferedfromosteoperosis
C) Womenwhodiedbetween1990and2000
D) Womenwhohadtakensteroids
E) Womenwhodiedbetween1990and2000andwhohadsufferedfromosteoperosis
16)
17) Anexaminationofthemedicalrecordsof10,000womenwhodiedbetween1990and2000
showedthatthosewhohadtakensteroidshadahigherriskofosteoperosis.Identifytheparameter
ofinterest.
A) Causeofdeath
B) Gender
C) Yearsofsteroidsuse
D) Yearofdeath
E) Riskofosteoperosis
17)
3
18) AmongagroupofCanadianmenwhoweretrackedfortenyears,thosewhohadscoredover130
onintelligencetestsweremorelikelytosufferseveredepressionthanthosewhohadscoredbelow
130onintelligencetests.Identifythesubjectsstudied.
A) Canadianmenwhoscoredover130onintelligencetestsandwhoweresufferingfrom
depression
B) Canadianmensufferingfromdepression
C) Canadianmenwhodidnotscoreover130onintelligencetests
D) Canadianmen
E) Canadianmenwhoscoredover130onintelligencetests
18)
19) AmongagroupofCanadianmenwhoweretrackedfortenyears,thosewhohadscoredover130
onintelligencetestsweremorelikelytosufferseveredepressionthanthosewhohadscoredbelow
130onintelligencetests.Identifytheparameterofinterest.
A) Nationality
B) Scoreonintelligencetest
C) Riskofsufferingfromseveredepression
D) Gender
E) Numberofyearssincelastepisodeofseveredepression
19)
20) AtSt.Lukeshospitalin1998,674womenwerediagnosedwithbreastcancer.Fiveyearslater,88%
oftheCaucasianwomenand83%oftheAfricanAmericanwomenwerestillalive.Determinethe
natureandscopeoftheconclusionthestudycanreach.
A) Forwomenwithbreastcancer,beingCaucasiancausesanincreasedchanceofsurvivingfive
years.
B) ForCaucasianandAfricanAmericanwomenwithbreastcancer,attendingSt.Lukeshospital
causesanincreasedchanceofsurvivingfiveyears.
C) Sincethereisnorandomassignment,thereisnowaytoknowthatbeingCaucasiancauses
womenwithbreastcanceranincreasedchanceofsurvivingfiveyears;theremayhavebeen
lurkingvariables.
D) SincethestudyislimitedtoCaucasianandAfricanAmericanwomen,noconclusioncanbe
reached.
E) Sincethereisnorandomassignment,thereisnowaytoknowthatbeingCaucasiancauses
womenwithbreastcanceranincreasedchanceofsurvivingfiveyears;theremayhavebeen
confoundingvariables.
20)
Adesignedexperimentisdescribed.Identifythespecifiedelement.
21) Inaclinicaltrial,780participantssufferingfromhighbloodpressurewererandomlyassignedto
oneofthreegroups.Overaone-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedalowdosageofan
experimentaldrug,thesecondgroupreceivedahighdosageofthedrug,andthethirdgroup
receivedaplacebo.Thediastolicbloodpressureofeachparticipantwasmeasuredatthebeginning
andattheendoftheperiodandthechangeinbloodpressurewasrecorded.Thebiggestdecrease
inbloodpressurewasforthosewhoreceivedthelowdosageofthedrug.Identifytheresponse
variablemeasured.
A) Thetreatmentreceived(placebo,lowdosage,highdosage)
B) Theone-monthperiod
C) Theparticipantsintheexperiment
D) Changeindiastolicbloodpressure
E) Thedosageofthedrug
21)
4
22) 780mensufferingfromhighbloodpressurewererandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Over
afour-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedalowdosageofanexperimentaldrug,thesecond
groupreceivedahighdosageofthedrug,andthethirdgroupreceivedaplacebo.Thebiggest
decreaseinbloodpressurewasforthosewhoreceivedthelowdosageofthedrug.Identifythe
subjectsstudied.
A) Mensufferingfromhighbloodpressure
B) Adultssufferingfromhighbloodpressure
C) Changeindiastolicbloodpressure
D) Thetreatmentreceived(placebo,lowdosage,highdosage)
E) Thedosageofthedrug
22)
23) Aneducationresearcherwasinterestedinexaminingtheeffectoftheteachingmethodandthe
teacheronthereadinglevelofstudentswithlearningdisabilities.257studentswithlearning
disabilitiesparticipatedinanexperiment.Therearefourdifferentteachers(Juliana,Felix,Sonia,
andHelen)andthreedifferentteachingmethods(A,B,andC).Studentsarerandomlyassignedto
ateachingmethodandateacher.ThosewhostudiedwithSoniausingmethodBachievedthe
highestscoresonareadingtest.Identifythesubjectsstudied.
A) Scoreonreadingtest
B) Studentswithlearningdisabilities
C) StudentswhostudiedwithSoniausingmethodB
D) Teachingmethod
E) Teacher
23)
24) Inaclinicaltrial,780participantssufferingfromhighbloodpressurewererandomlyassignedto
oneofthreegroups.Overaone-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedalowdosageofan
experimentaldrug,thesecondgroupreceivedahighdosageofthedrug,andthethirdgroup
receivedaplacebo.Thediastolicbloodpressureofeachparticipantwasmeasuredatthebeginning
andattheendoftheperiodandthechangeinbloodpressurewasrecorded.Identifythelevelsof
thefactor.
A) Theone-monthperiod
B) Placebo,lowdosage,highdosage
C) Theexperimentaldrug
D) Highbloodpressure,lowbloodpressure
E) Diastolicbloodpressureatthestart,diastolicbloodpressureattheend
24)
25) Aneducationresearcherwasinterestedinexaminingtheeffectoftheteachingmethodandthe
effectoftheparticularteacheronstudentsscoresonareadingtest.Inastudy,therearefour
differentteachers(Juliana,Felix,Sonia,andHelen)andthreedifferentteachingmethods(A,B,and
C).Thenumberofstudentsparticipatinginthestudyis258.Studentsarerandomlyassignedtoa
teachingmethodandteacher.ThosewhostudiedwthSoniausingmethodBachievedthehighest
scores.Identifytheresponsevariablemeasured.
A) Scoreonreadingtest
B) Teachingmethod
C) MethodA,methodB,methodC
D) Teacher
E) Theeducationresearcher
25)
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26) Aneducationresearcherwasinterestedinexaminingtheeffectoftheteachingmethodandthe
effectoftheparticularteacheronstudentsscoresonareadingtest.Inastudy,therearefour
differentteachers(Juliana,Felix,Sonia,andHelen)andthreedifferentteachingmethods(A,B,and
C).Thenumberofstudentsparticipatinginthestudyis258.Studentsarerandomlyassignedtoa
teachingmethodandteacher.Afterafour-monthperiod,studentstakeareadingtestandare
givenascoreoutof10.Identifythelevelsofthefactorteachingmethod.
A) Scoreonreadingtest
B) Juliana,Felix,Sonia,andHelen
C) Teachingmethodandteacher
D) MethodA,methodB,methodC
E) 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
26)
27) 780mensufferingfromhighbloodpressurewererandomlyassignedtooneoftwogroups.Overa
four-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedanexperimentaldrugandthesecondgroupreceived
aplacebo.Alargerdecreaseindiastolicbloodpressurewasobservedforthosewhoreceivedthe
drug.Theexperimentwasdouble-blind.Determinethenatureandscopeoftheconclusionthe
studycanreach.
A) Sincethephysiciansevaluatingtheresultscouldhavebeenbiased,noconclusioncanbe
reached.
B) Sincethereisnorandomassignment,thereisnowaytoknowthatthedrugcausedthe
decreaseindiastolicbloodpressure;therecouldhavebeenconfoundingvariables.
C) Formensufferingfromhighbloodpressure,thedrugappearstolowerdiastolicblood
pressure.
D) Sincethetechniciansadministeringthetreatmentcouldhavebeenbiased,noconclusioncan
bereached.
E) Foradultssufferingfromhighbloodpressure,thedrugappearstolowerdiastolicblood
pressure.
27)
28) Aresearcherwantstoexaminetheeffectoffertilizerandtheeffectofsunlightontheyieldof
tomatoes.Shebought60tomatoplantsatalocalgardenstore.Sherandomlyassigned30tomato
plantstobeplantedonthesunnysideofthehilland30tobeplantedontheshadyside.Within
eachgroupof30plants,sherandomlyassignedplantstooneofthreegroups.Thefirstgroupis
grownwithnofertilizer,thesecondgroupwithasmallamountoffertilizer,andthethirdgroup
withalargeamountoffertilizer.Alltomatoplantsareplantedatthesametimeandarealltreated
alike(intermsofhowmuchtheyarewatered,weededetc).Eachplantisgrowntomaturity.The
totalweightoftomatoesobtainedfromeachplantisrecorded.Thepersonevaluatingtheresults
doesnotknowwhichtomatoesreceivedfertilizerorwhichweregrownonthesunnyside.Within
bothgroups(thosegrownonthesunnysideandthosegrownontheshadyside)tomatoesgrown
withalargeamountoffertilizeryieldedthemosttomatoes.Determinethenatureandscopeofthe
conclusiontheexperimentcanreach.
A) Fortomatoesgrownonthesunnyside,yieldmaybeincreasedfortomatoesgrownwitha
largeamountoffertilizer.
B) Yieldmaybeincreasedfortomatoesgrownonthesunnysidewithalargeamountof
fertilizer.
C) Yieldmaybeincreasedfortomatoesgrownwithalargeamountoffertilizer.
D) Sincethepersonevaluatingtheresultscouldhavebeenbiased,noconclusioncanbereached.
E) Sincethetechniciantendingtotheplantscouldhavebeenbiased,noconclusioncanbe
reached.
28)
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29) Aresearcherwantstoinvestigatetheeffectivenessofacholesterol-loweringmedication.The450
participantsarefirstdividedintotwogroups-thosesufferingfromdiabetesandthosenot
sufferingfromdiabetes.Withineachgrouptheparticipantsarerandomlyassignedtooneofthree
groups.Thefirstgroupwillreceivealowdoseofthemedication,thesecondgroupwllreceivea
highdoseofthemedication,andthethirdgroupwillreceiveaplacebo.Attheendofasix-month
period,eachpersonscholesterolwillbetestedandthechangeintheircholesterollevelwillbe
recorded.Theexperimentisdoubleblind.Withinthegroupsufferingfromdiabetes,thosetakinga
highdoseofthemedicationshowedamarkeddecreaseintheircholesterollevel.Determinethe
natureandscopeoftheconclusiontheexperimentcanreach.
A) Sincethephysiciansevaluatingtheresultscouldhavebeenbiased,noconclusioncanbe
reached.
B) Ahighdoseofthemedicationmaydecreasecholesterollevels.
C) Sincethetechniciansadministeringthetreatmentcouldhavebeenbiased,noconclusioncan
bereached.
D) Forpeoplesufferingfromdiabetes,ahighdoseofthemedicationmaydecreasecholesterol
levels.
E) Peoplesufferingfromdiabetesmayexperienceadecreaseincholesterollevels.
29)
30) 780participantssufferingfromdepressionwererandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Overa
four-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedalowdosageofanexperimentaldrug,thesecond
groupreceivedahighdosageofthedrug,andthethirdgroupreceivedaplacebo.Attheendof
theperiodeachparticipantratedtheirmoodonascaleof1-10.Identifythefactor(s)inthe
experimentandthenumberoflevelsforeach.
A) Theexperimentaldrug(3levels),mood(10levels)
B) Placebo,lowdosage,highdosage(3levels)
C) Thedosageofthedrug(3levels)
D) Theexperimentaldrug(3levels)
E) Mood(10levels)
30)
31) 780participantssufferingfromdepressionwererandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Overa
four-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedalowdosageofanexperimentaldrug,thesecond
groupreceivedahighdosageofthedrug,andthethirdgroupreceivedaplacebo.Attheendof
theperiodeachparticipantratedtheirmoodonascaleof1-5.Identifythetreatments.
A) Theexperimentaldrug,mood
B) Placebo,lowdosage,highdosage
C) Thedosageofthedrug
D) Moodlevel1,moodlevel2,moodlevel3,moodlevel4,moodlevel5
E) Theexperimentaldrug
31)
32) Aneducationresearcherwasinterestedinexaminingtheeffectoftheteachingmethodandthe
teacheronstudentsreadinglevels.257studentsparticipatedinanexperiment.Thereweretwo
differentteachers(JulianaandFelix)andthreedifferentteachingmethods(A,B,andC).Students
wererandomlyassignedtoateachingmethodandteacher.Attheendofthesemesterthestudents
tookareadingtestonwhichtheyreceivedascoreoutof20.StudentswhostudiedwthFelixusing
methodBachievedthehighestscores.Identifythefactor(s)intheexperimentandthenumberof
levelsforeach.
A) Teachingmethod(3levels),teacher(2levels),scoreonreadingtest(20levels)
B) JulianaandmethodA,JulianaandmethodB,JulianaandmethodC,FelixandmethodA,
FelixandmethodB,FelixandmethodC(6levels)
C) Teachingmethod(3levels)andteacher(2levels)
D) Scoreonreadingtest(20levels)
E) Theteacherandteachingmethodcombination(6levels)
32)
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33) Aneducationresearcherwasinterestedinexaminingtheeffectoftheteachingmethodandthe
teacheronstudentsreadinglevels.257studentsparticipatedinanexperiment.Thereweretwo
differentteachers(JulianaandFelix)andthreedifferentteachingmethods(A,B,andC).Students
wererandomlyassignedtoateachingmethodandteacher.Attheendofthesemesterthestudents
tookareadingtestonwhichtheyreceivedascoreoutof4.StudentswhostudiedwthFelixusing
methodBachievedthehighestscores.Identifythenumberoftreatmentsandlistthem.
A) 24;Score1,Juliana,methodA,Score1,Juliana,methodB, Score1,Juliana,methodC,
Score2,Juliana,methodA, Score2,Juliana,methodB, Score2,Juliana,methodC,
Score3,Juliana,methodA, Score3,Juliana,methodB, Score3,Juliana,methodC,
Score4,Juliana,methodA, Score4,Juliana,methodB, Score4,Juliana,methodC,
Score1,Felix,methodA,Score1,Felix,methodB,Score1,Felix,methodC,
Score2,Felix,methodA,Score2,Felix,methodB,Score2,Felix,methodC,
Score3,Felix,methodA,Score3,Felix,methodB,Score3,Felix,methodC,
Score4,Felix,methodA,Score4,Felix,methodB,Score4,Felix,methodC
B) 3;MethodA,methodB,methodC
C) 4;Score1,score2,score3,score4
D) 6;JulianaandmethodA,JulianaandmethodB,JulianaandmethodC,FelixandmethodA,
FelixandmethodB,FelixandmethodC
E) 2;Juliana,Felix
33)
34) Aresearcherwantstoexaminetheeffectoffertilizerandtheeffectofsunlightontheyieldof
tomatoes.Shebought60tomatoplantsatalocalgardenstore.Sherandomlyassigned30tomato
plantstobeplantedonthesunnysideofthehilland30tobeplantedontheshadyside.The30
plantswhichareplantedontheshadysidearerandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Thefirst
grouparegrownwithnofertilizer,thesecondgroupwithasmallamountoffertilizer,andthe
thirdgroupwithalargeamountoffertilizer.The30plantswhichareplantedonthesunnyside
arelikewiserandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Thefirstgrouparegrownwithno
fertilizer,thesecondgroupwithasmallamountoffertilizerandthethirdgroupwithalarge
amountoffertilizer.Alltomatoplantsareplantedatthesametimeandarealltreatedalike(in
termsofhowmuchtheyarewatered,weededetc).Eachplantisgrowntomaturity.Thetotal
weightoftomatoesobtainedfromeachplantisrecorded.Identifythefactor(s)andthenumberof
levelsforeach.
A) Fertilizer(3levels),location(2levels)
B) Nofertilizer,smallamountoffertilizer,largeamountoffertilizer(3levels)
C) Nofertilizerandsunny,smallamountoffertilizerandsunny,largeamountoffertilizerand
sunny,nofertilizerandshady,smallamountoffertilizerandshady,largeamountof
fertilizerandshady(6levels)
D) Sunny,shady(2levels)
E) Fertilizer(3levels),blockingvariable- location(2levels)
34)
8
35) Aresearcherwantstoexaminetheeffectoffertilizerandtheeffectofsunlightontheyieldof
tomatoes.Shebought60tomatoplantsatalocalgardenstore.Sherandomlyassigned30tomato
plantstobeplantedonthesunnysideofthehilland30tobeplantedontheshadyside.The30
plantswhichareplantedontheshadysidearerandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Thefirst
grouparegrownwithnofertilizer,thesecondgroupwithasmallamountoffertilizer,andthe
thirdgroupwithalargeamountoffertilizer.The30plantswhichareplantedonthesunnyside
arelikewiserandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Thefirstgrouparegrownwithno
fertilizer,thesecondgroupwithasmallamountoffertilizerandthethirdgroupwithalarge
amountoffertilizer.Alltomatoplantsareplantedatthesametimeandarealltreatedalike(in
termsofhowmuchtheyarewatered,weededetc).Eachplantisgrowntomaturity.Thetotal
weightoftomatoesobtainedfromeachplantisrecorded.Identifythetreatments.
A) Fertilizer,location
B) Nofertilizer,smallamountoffertilizer,largeamountoffertilizer
C) Nofertilizerandsunny,smallamountoffertilizerandsunny,largeamountoffertilizerand
sunny,nofertilizerandshady,smallamountoffertilizerandshady,largeamountof
fertilizerandshady
D) Fertilizer,blockingvariable-location
E) Sunny,shady
35)
36) Aresearcherwantstoinvestigatewhetherdifferentformsofexercisecanbeusedtohelp
hyperactivechildren.Agroupof90childrenisdividedintotwogroupsaccordingtoage -those
aged9-12andthoseaged5-8.Withineachagegroupthechildrenarerandomlyassignedtoone
ofthreegroups.Thefirstgroupwilljustdotheirnormalexercise.Thesecondgroupwillbegiven
anadditionalexerciseroutine(moderate).Thethirdgroupwillbegivenanadditionalexercise
routine(strenuous).Attheendofafourmonthperiodparentswillbeaskedtoevaluatetheir
childrensprogress.Identifythefactor(s)andanyblockingvariablesandthenumberoflevelsfor
each.
A) Blockingvariable:exercise(3levels),Factor:age(2levels)
B) Factor:exercise(3levels),Blockingvariable:age(2levels)
C) Factor:exercise(3levels),Factor:age(2levels)
D) Normalexerciseandage5-8,additionalexercise(moderate)andage5-8,additionalexercise
(strenuous)andage5-8,normalexerciseandage9-12,additionalexercise(moderate)and
age9-12,additionalexercise(strenuous)andage9-12(6levels)
E) Factor:Normalexercise,additionalexercise(moderate),additionalexercise(strenuous)(3
levels)
36)
37) Aresearcherwantstoinvestigatewhetherdifferentformsofexercisecanbeusedtohelp
hyperactivechildren.Agroupof90childrenisdividedintotwogroupsaccordingtoage -those
aged9-12andthoseaged5-8.Withineachagegroupthechildrenarerandomlyassignedtoone
ofthreegroups.Thefirstgroupwilljustdotheirnormalexercise.Thesecondgroupwillbegiven
anadditionalexerciseroutine(moderate).Thethirdgroupwillbegivenanadditionalexercise
routine(strenuous).Attheendofafourmonthperiodparentswillbeaskedtoevaluatetheir
childrensprogress.Identifythetreatments.
A) Exercise,blockingvariable-age
B) Normalexercise,additionalexercise(moderate),additionalexercise(strenuous)
C) Normalexerciseandage5-8,additionalexercise(moderate)andage5-8,additionalexercise
(strenuous)andage5-8,normalexerciseandage9-12,additionalexercise(moderate)and
age9-12,additionalexercise(strenuous)andage9-12
D) Age5-8,age9-12
E) Exercise,age
37)
9
38) Aresearcherwantstoinvestigatetheeffectivenessofacholesterol-loweringmedication.The450
participantsarefirstdividedintotwogroups-thosesufferingfromdiabetesandthosenot
sufferingfromdiabetes.Withineachgrouptheparticipantsarerandomlyassignedtooneofthree
groups.Thefirstgroupwillreceivealowdoseofthemedication,thesecondgroupwllreceivea
highdoseofthemedication,andthethirdgroupwillreceiveaplacebo.Attheendofasix-month
period,eachpersonscholesterolwillbetestedandthechangeintheircholesterollevelwillbe
recorded.Identifythefactor(s)andanyblockingvariablesandthenumberoflevelsforeach.
A) Factor:Medication(3levels),Factor:diabetes(2levels)
B) Factor:Diabetes,nodiabetes(2levels)
C) Factor:Placeboanddiabetes,lowdoseofmedicationanddiabetes,highdoseofmedication
anddiabetes,placeboandnodiabetes,lowdoseofmedicationandnodiabetes,highdoseof
medicationandnodiabetes(6levels)
D) Factor:Medication(3levels),Blockingvariable:diabetes(2levels)
E) Factor:Placebo,lowdoseofmedication,highdoseofmedication(3levels)
38)
39) Aresearcherwantstoinvestigatetheeffectivenessofacholesterol-loweringmedication.The450
participantsarefirstdividedintotwogroups-thosesufferingfromdiabetesandthosenot
sufferingfromdiabetes.Withineachgrouptheparticipantsarerandomlyassignedtooneofthree
groups.Thefirstgroupwillreceivealowdoseofthemedication,thesecondgroupwllreceivea
highdoseofthemedication,andthethirdgroupwillreceiveaplacebo.Attheendofasix-month
period,eachpersonscholesterolwillbetestedandthechangeintheircholesterollevelwillbe
recorded.Identifythetreatments.
A) Medication(3levels),blockingvariable- diabetes(2levels)
B) Medication(3levels),changeincholesterol
C) Placebo,lowdoseofmedication,highdoseofmedication(3levels)
D) Placeboanddiabetes,lowdoseofmedicationanddiabetes,highdoseofmedicationand
diabetes,placeboandnodiabetes,lowdoseofmedicationandnodiabetes,highdoseof
medicationandnodiabetes(6levels)
E) Medication(3levels),diabetes(2levels)
39)
Describethedesignoftheexperiment(completelyrandomizedorblocked).
40) Inaclinicaltrial,780participantssufferingfromhighbloodpressurewererandomlyassignedto
oneofthreegroups.Overaone-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedalowdosageofan
experimentaldrug,thesecondgroupreceivedahighdosageofthedrug,andthethirdgroup
receivedaplacebo.Thediastolicbloodpressureofeachparticipantwasmeasuredatthebeginning
andattheendoftheperiodandthechangeinbloodpressurewasrecorded.Thebiggestdecrease
inbloodpressurewasforthosewhoreceivedthelowdosageofthedrug.
A) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(experimentaldrug),blockedbydiastolicblood
pressure
B) Completelyrandomizedovertwofactors(experimentaldrug,diastolicbloodpressure)
C) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(experimentaldrug)
D) Blockedbyexperimentaldrug,blockedbydiastolicbloodpressure
E) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(diastolicbloodpressure),blockedbyexperimental
drug
40)
10
41) Aneducationresearcherwasinterestedinexaminingtheeffectoftheteachingmethodandthe
teacheronstudentsreadinglevels.257studentsparticipatedinanexperiment.Thereweretwo
differentteachers(JulianaandFelix)andthreedifferentteachingmethods(A,B,andC).Students
wererandomlyassignedtoateachingmethodandteacher.Attheendofthesemesterthestudents
tookareadingtestonwhichtheyreceivedascoreoutof20.StudentswhostudiedwthFelixusing
methodBachievedthehighestscores.
A) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(teachingmethod),blockedbyteacher
B) Completelyrandomizedovertwofactors(teachingmethodandteacher)
C) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(teachingmethod)
D) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(teacher),blockedbyteachingmethod
E) Blockedbyteacher,blockedbyteachingmethod
41)
42) Aresearcherwantstoexaminetheeffectoffertilizerandtheeffectofsunlightontheyieldof
tomatoes.Shebought60tomatoplantsatalocalgardenstore.Sherandomlyassigned30tomato
plantstobeplantedonthesunnysideofthehilland30tobeplantedontheshadyside.The30
plantswhichareplantedontheshadysidearerandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Thefirst
grouparegrownwithnofertilizer,thesecondgroupwithasmallamountoffertilizer,andthe
thirdgroupwithalargeamountoffertilizer.The30plantswhichareplantedonthesunnyside
arelikewiserandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Thefirstgrouparegrownwithno
fertilizer,thesecondgroupwithasmallamountoffertilizer,andthethirdgroupwithalarge
amountoffertilizer.Alltomatoplantsareplantedatthesametimeandarealltreatedalike(in
termsofhowmuchtheyarewatered,weededetc).Eachplantisgrowntomaturity.Thetotal
weightoftomatoesobtainedfromeachplantisrecorded.
A) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(fertilizer)
B) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(location),blockedbyfertilizer
C) Completelyrandomizedovertwofactors(fertilizerandlocation)
D) Blockedbyfertilizer,blockedbylocation
E) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(fertilizer),blockedbylocation
42)
43) Aresearcherwantstoinvestigatewhetherdifferentformsofexercisecanbeusedtohelp
hyperactivechildren.Agroupof90childrenisdividedintotwogroupsaccordingtoage -those
aged9-12andthoseaged5-8.Withineachagegroupthechildrenarerandomlyassignedtoone
ofthreegroups.Thefirstgroupwilljustdotheirnormalexercise.Thesecondgroupwillbegiven
anadditionalexerciseroutine(moderate).Thethirdgroupwillbegivenanadditionalexercise
routine(strenuous).Attheendofafourmonthperiodparentswillbeaskedtoevaluatetheir
childrensprogress.
A) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(exercise),blockedbyage
B) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(exercise)
C) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(exercise),blockedbyageandlevelofhyperactivity
D) Completelyrandomizedovertwofactors(exerciseandage)
E) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(age),blockedbyexercise
43)
11
44) Aresearcherwantstoinvestigatetheeffectivenessofacholesterol-loweringmedication.The450
participantsarefirstdividedintotwogroups-thosesufferingfromdiabetesandthosenot
sufferingfromdiabetes.Withineachgrouptheparticipantsarerandomlyassignedtooneofthree
groups.Thefirstgroupwillreceivealowdoseofthemedication,thesecondgroupwllreceivea
highdoseofthemedication,andthethirdgroupwillreceiveaplacebo.Attheendofasix-month
period,eachpersonscholesterolwillbetestedandthechangeintheircholesterollevelwillbe
recorded.
A) Completelyrandomizedovertwofactors(medicationanddiabetes)
B) Completelyrandomizedovertwofactors(medicationanddiabetes),blockedbycholesterol
level
C) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(medication),blockedbydiabetes
D) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(medication),blockedbydiabetesandcholesterol
level
E) Completelyrandomizedoveronefactor(diabetes),blockedbymedication
44)
Determinewhethertheexperimentissingle-blind, double-blind, orneither.
45) Aresearcherwantstoexaminetheeffectoffertilizerandtheeffectofsunlightontheyieldof
tomatoes.Shebought60tomatoplantsatalocalgardenstore.Sherandomlyassigned30tomato
plantstobeplantedonthesunnysideofthehilland30tobeplantedontheshadyside.Within
eachgroupof30plants,sherandomlyassignedplantstooneofthreegroups.Thefirstgroupis
grownwithnofertilizer,thesecondgroupwithasmallamountoffertilizer,andthethirdgroup
withalargeamountoffertilizer.Alltomatoplantsareplantedatthesametimeandeachplantis
growntomaturity.Thetotalweightoftomatoesobtainedfromeachplantisrecorded.Theperson
evaluatingtheresultsdoesnotknowwhichtomatoesreceivedfertilizerorwhichweregrownon
thesunnyside.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
45)
46) Aneducationresearcherwasinterestedinexaminingtheeffectoftheteachingmethodandthe
teacheronstudentsreadinglevels.257studentsparticipatedinanexperiment.Thereweretwo
differentteachers(JulianaandFelix)andthreedifferentteachingmethods(A,B,andC).Students
wererandomlyassignedtoateachingmethodandteacher.Attheendofthesemesterthestudents
tookareadingtestonwhichtheyreceivedascoreoutof20.StudentswhostudiedwthFelixusing
methodBachievedthehighestscores.Thepersonevaluatingtheresultsdoesnotknowwhich
teacherorteachingmethodthestudentswereassignedto.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
46)
47) Aresearcherwantstoinvestigatewhetherdifferentformsofexercisecanbeusedtohelp
hyperactivechildren.Agroupof90childrenisdividedintotwogroupsaccordingtoage -those
aged9-12andthoseaged5-8.Withineachagegroupthechildrenarerandomlyassignedtoone
ofthreegroups.Thefirstgroupwilljustdotheirnormalexercise.Thesecondgroupwillbegiven
anadditionalexerciseroutine(moderate).Thethirdgroupwillbegivenanadditionalexercise
routine(strenuous).Attheendofafourmonthperiodparentswillbeaskedtoevaluatetheir
childrensprogress.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
47)
12
48) 780mensufferingfromhighbloodpressurewererandomlyassignedtooneoftwogroups.Overa
four-monthperiod,thefirstgroupreceivedanexperimentaldrugandthesecondgroupreceived
aplacebo.Alargerdecreaseindiastolicbloodpressurewasobservedforthosewhoreceivedthe
drug.Thepatientsdidnotknowwhethertheywerereceivingthedrugortheplacebo.Neitherthe
techniciansadministeringthetreatmentsnorthephysiciansevaluatingtheresultsknewwhich
participantshadreceivedthedrugandwhichtheplacebo.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
48)
49) IstheAddisonWesleyAlgebraItextsuperiortothecurrentlyusedtext,inpromotinglearningof
algebra?EvaluatorsonlyareinformedthatGroupAwilltestfromthecurrenttextandGroupB
willtestfromAWtext.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
49)
50) IstheaspirinproducedbyWorldsBestPharmaceuticalCompanybetterthanthatofacompetitor
atrelievingheadaches?200headachesuffersarechosenatrandom.MigranedTestingService
administerstheexperimentandprovidestheresultsevaluation.Threelevelsaremade:
participantsreceivecontentsfromBottleA,BottleB,orBottleC.Otherthanthefactthatonebottle
containsplaceboaspirin,nootherinformationisgiventothetestingserviceregardingthebottles
contents.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
50)
51) DoSlimquickshakesreduceweightloss?TestersprovideSlimquickshakesforparticipantsin
groups1and5.Groups2,3,and4areprovidedwithStoutslowshakes.Resultsareevaluatedby
thegroupidentifier,withnotreatmentinformationcommunicated.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
51)
52) Doesanewbrandofhandlotioncauseanallergicreactioninsomepeople?Participantsare
allowedtojoinoneofthreestudies.Twoofthestudiesusewell -knownnamebrandlotionsand
thethirdistheNEWlotion.Theresultsdocumentwillbepreparedbyanoteddermatologist,
whoisinformedofthecompositionofeachgroup.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
52)
53) Doenergysnackbarsimproveafternoonalertness?100factoryworkerswereramdomlyassigned
totwogroups.Onegroupateenergysnackbarsatlunchandtheothergroupateplacebosnack
bars.Attheafternoonbreak(approximately1-1/2hourafterlunch),asignificantincreasein
alertnesswasobserved.Lateranalysisoftheexperimentresultsshowed87%oftheparticipants
exhibitngincreasedalertnesswerefromthegroupwhichateenergysnackbars.
A) Single-blind B) Double-blind C) Neither
53)
13
Answerthequestion.
54) Adouble-blindexperimentofanallergymedicationisbeingtestedon100participantsaccording
tothisdiagram:
IfGroup2receivesafulldoseofthemedication,whatshouldGroup1streatmentconsistof?
A) Aplacebo
B) A50%dose
C) Randomizeddoses
D) Blockeddoses
E) Stratifieddoses
54)
55) Anewtypeofpainrelieverisadministeredto30consentingpost-operativepatientsinvarious
hospitals.Althoughthepainrelieverhasalreadybeentestedforsafetyandeffectiveness,this
experimentistoobserveandcategorizeanyside-effects.Becauseofmaturityandbodymass,itis
decidedtotesttheadultsseparatelyfromthechildren.
Thegroupingoftheadultsseparatefromthechildrenisanexampleofwhat?
A) Controlling
B) Matching
C) Reductionofconfoundingfactors
D) Blocking
E) Stratifying
55)
14
56) TheAsianlonghornedbeetlekillstreesbyburrowingwithinthetrunkandbranchesand
disruptingthesapflow.Thisbeetlefavorshardwoodtrees,suchasmaple,elm,andash.Anew
pesticidewillbebetestedinamajormetropolitancity.Astatisticiandesignsanexperimentfor
200maturemapletreesandrandomlyassignshalfofthetreestoreceivethisnewpesticide,and
therestofthetreesreceiveacontroltreatment.
Isthereanyobviouswaytoimprovethisexperimenttoevaluatetheeffectivenessofthisnew
pesticide?
A) Yes,stratifyingmustbeused.
B) No,basicvariationshavebeenaccountedfor.
C) Yes,aplaceboismissing.
D) Yes,blockingmustbeused.
E) Yes,matchingmustbeused.
56)
57) Apharmaceuticalcompanywillbetestinganewone-dosagefitsallmedicationfortreating
depression.Thepharmaceuticalcompanyhas100willingtestsubjectsthatwillundergoa
30-day,double-blindexperiment.Theexperimentusesthefollowingdiagramasaguidefor
administeringthemedicationatvariousdoses,from5%to125%.
Whatisthemostobviousfactormissingfromthisproposedexperiment?
A) A100%dosage
B) Blockingmustbeused.
C) Acontrolgroup
D) Stratifyingmustbeused.
E) Nothingismissing.Basicvariationshavebeenaccountedfor.
57)
15
58) Aclothingmanufactureriscuriousifcelebrityendorsementswillinfluenceacustomersdecision
inbuyingitsproducts.Thisclothingmanufacturerpremieresitslatestseriesofcommercials
privatelytotwoseparategroupsofpotentialshoppers.Onegroupwillseeaseriesofcommercials
withoutcelebrities,andonegroupwillseeaseriesofcommercialswithcelebrities.Furthermore,
themanufacturerdecidestosplitupthemaleshoppersfromthefemaleshoppers.
Groupingtheshopperstogetherbygenderisanexampleofwhat?
A) Reductionofconfoundingfactors
B) Factoring
C) Blocking
D) Stratifying
E) Matching
58)
Identifytheflaw(s)intheexperimentorstudydescribed.
59) AtSt.Lukeshospitalin1998,674womenwerediagnosedwithbreastcancer.Fiveyearslater,88%
oftheCaucasianwomenand83%oftheAfricanAmericanwomenwerestillalive.Aresearcher
concludesthatbeingCaucasiancauseswomenwithbreastcanceranincreasedchanceofsurviving
fiveyears.Sincethereisnorandomassignmentandtheremayhavebeenlurkingvariables,this
conclusionisnotjustified.Whichofthefollowingarepossiblelurkingvariables?
I:Income
II:Neighborhoodwherepatientlives
III:Qualityofhealthcare
IV:Diet
V:Numberofyearssurvivingsincediagnosis
A) I,II,III,IV
B) I,III,IV
C) I,IV
D) II,IV
E) I,II,III,IV,V
59)
16
60) Researchersreportedthatformen,beingunmarriedincreasestheriskofdepression.These
findingswerebasedonthemedicalrecordsof400marriedmenand500unmarriedmen.Since
thereisnorandomassignment,thisconclusionisnotjustifiedbecausetheremaybelurking
variables.Whichofthefollowingarepossiblelurkingvariables?
I:Rateofdepression
II:Income
III:Typeofemployment
IV:Age
V:Gender
A) II,III,IV,V
B) II,III,IV
C) I,II,III
D) II,IV
E) III,IV
60)
61) Amedicalresearcherbelievesthatsupplementsofglucosaminecanhelptoreducethepainof
arthritis.Shewouldliketotestthesupplementattwodifferentdosagelevels.Shedesignsan
experimentasfollowstotestherconjecture.Shewillobtainagroupofvolunteerswhosufferfrom
arthritis.Eachpatientsconditionwillbeevaluatedbyadoctoratthestartoftheexperiment.
Volunteerswillberandomlyassignedtooneoftwogroups.Eachdayforthedurationofthe
experiment,patientsingroup1willreceivealowdoseofglucosamine,patientsingroup2will
receiveahigherdoseofglucosamine.Afterasuitableamountoftime(twomonths,forexample),
thedoctorwillevaluateeachpatientsprogress.Basedontheamountofinflammationandthe
patientsreportontheamountofpain,thedoctorwillgiveeachpatientanumericalscoreto
representtheirimprovement.Theamountofimprovementforthetwogroupswouldthenbe
compared.Shewillhavetheevaluatingdoctorandthetechniciansadministeringthesupplements
blindedtowhetherpatientsreceivealowdoseorhighdose.Identifythemostseriousflawinthis
experiment.
A) Theexperiementisnotdoubleblind,doctorevaluatingtheprogressmaybebiased.
B) Volunteersshouldhavebeenselectedrandomly.
C) Thereisnoblocking.
D) Therecouldbelurkingvariables.
E) Thereisnoplacebogroup.
61)
17
62) Apharmaceuticalcompanyhasdevelopedamedicationwhichtheybelievewillhelptoreducethe
painofarthritis.Theywouldliketotestthemedicationattwodifferentdosagelevels.Theydesign
anexperimentasfollowstotestthemedication.Theywillobtainagroupofvolunteerswhosuffer
fromarthritis.Adoctorfromthepharmaceuticalcompanywillevaluateeachpatientsconditionat
thestartoftheexperiment.Volunteerswillberandomlyassignedtooneofthreegroups.Eachday
forthedurationoftheexperiment,patientsingroup1willreceivealowdoseofthemedication,
patientsingroup2willreceiveahigherdoseofthemedication,andpatientsingroup3will
receiveaplacebo.Afterasuitableamountoftime(twomonths,forexample),thesamedoctorwill
evaluateeachpatientsprogress.Basedontheamountofinflammationandthepatientsreporton
theamountofpain,thedoctorwillgiveeachpatientanumericalscoretorepresenttheir
improvement.Theamountofimprovementforthethreegroupswillthenbecompared.The
researcherswillhavethetechniciansadministeringthemedicationblindedtowhetherpatients
receivealowdose,ahighdose,oraplacebo.Identifythemostseriousflawinthisexperiment.
A) Theexperimentisonlysingleblind.Thedoctorevaluatingthepatientsprogressisnotblind
towhichtreatmentpatientsreceived.
B) Therecouldbelurkingvariables.
C) Thevolunteersshouldhavebeenrandomlyselected.
D) Thereisnoblocking.
E) Thedoctorshouldchoosethebesttreatmentforeachpatient,insteadofallowingvolunteers
tobeassignedatrandomtoatreatment.
62)
63) Aresearcherwouldliketoinvestigatewhetherpeoplesufferingfrominsomniacanbehelpedby
takingyogaclasses.Shedesignsanexperimentasfollows.Shewillobtainagroupofvolunteers
whoaresufferingfrominsomniaandwhodonotcurrentlypracticeyoga.Eachpersonsdegreeof
insomniaatthestartoftheexperimentwillbeevaluated.Shewillinvestigatewhetheryogaclasses
everydayorthreetimesperweekaremoreeffective.Sothefactoryogawillhave3levels(no
yoga,yogathreetimesaweek,yogaeveryday).Eachvolunteerwillchoosewhichgroupthey
wouldliketobepartof.Attheendofasuitabletimeperiod,forexampletwomonths,each
personsdegreeofinsomniawillagainbeevaluated.Theimprovementforthethreegroupswill
thenbecompared.Thepersonevaluatingtheinsomnialevelswillbeblindedtowhichgroupthe
patientswerein.Identifythemostseriousflawinthisexperiment.
A) Thevolunteerswerenotselectedrandomly.
B) Thepersonevaluatingtheinsomnialevelscouldhavebeenbiased.
C) Therewasnoplacebogroup.
D) Therewasnoblocking.
E) Volunteerschosetheirtreatmentinsteadofbeingrandomlyassignedtooneofthegroups.
63)
64) Aneducationalresearcherhasdesignedtwodifferentmethodsforteachingastatisticscourseand
wouldliketoinvestigatewhichismoreeffective.Hedesignsanexperimentasfollows.Hewill
obtainagroupofvolunteerstatisticsstudents.Volunteerswillberandomlyassignedtooneoftwo
groups.Group1willbetaughtthestatisticscoursebyAnnaClarkusingmethodAandgroup2
willbetaughtbyBobBeaumanusingmethodB.Attheendofthesemester,studentswillalltake
thesametest.Thenthescoresforthetwogroupswillbecompared.Thepersongradingthetests
willbeblindedtowhichgroupstudentswerein.Identifythemostseriousflawinthisexperiment.
A) Thereisnoblocking.
B) Thereisaconfoundingvariable- namelytheteacher.
C) Sincethereisnorandomassignment,therecouldbelurkingvariables.
D) Thepersongradingthetestsmayhavebeenbiased.
E) Volunteersshouldhavebeenselectedrandomly.
64)
18
65) Amanufactureroftennisracketshasdesignedanewracketandwouldliketoinvestigatewhether
playerswillpreferittotheirpreviousdesign.Thecompanyobtains100volunteertennisplayers.
Volunteersarerandomlyassignedtooneoftwogroups.Group1willusethecompanysprevious
racketfirstandthenewracketsecond.Group2willusethenewracketfirstandthecompanys
previousracketsecond.Eachplayerwillserve30timeswitheachracket.Thenthepercentageof
goodserveswiththetworacketswillbecompared.Theplayersareblindedtowhichracketthey
areusing.Also,thepersonrecordingthepercentageofgoodservesisblindedtowhichracketthe
playersuse.Ifthegroupofvolunteersconsistsof50professionaltennisplayersand50beginners,
howcouldtheexperimentbeimproved?
A) Usematching-matcheachprofessionalplayerwithabeginningplayerbeforeassigning
playerstooneofthetwogroups.
B) Addanotherfactor-levelofplayer,sothattherewillbefourtreatments:newraketand
beginner,newracketandprofessional,previousracketandbeginner,previousracketand
professional.
C) Haveplayerschoosetheirgroupinsteadofassigningthemrandomlytoagroup.
D) Useblocking-firstdividethevolunteersintoprofessionaltennisplayersandbeginners.
Withineachblockrandomlyassignvolunteerstooneofthetwogroups.
E) Includeaplacebo.
65)
Provideanappropriateresponse.
66) Moredogsarebeingdiagnosedwiththyroidproblemsthanhavebeendiagnosedinthepast.A
researcheridentified50puppieswithoutthyroidproblemsandkeptrecordsoftheirdietsfor
severalyearstoseeifanydevelopedthyroidproblems.Thisisa(n)...
A) blockedexperiment
B) retrospectivestudy
C) survey
D) prospectivestudy
E) randomizedexperiment
66)
67) Placebosareatoolfor...
A) control
B) sampling
C) blinding
D) blocking
E) randomization
67)
68) Double-blindinginexperimentsisimportantsothat
I. Theevaluatorsdonotknowwhichtreatmentgrouptheparticipantsarein.
II. Theparticipantsdonotknowwhichtreatmentgrouptheyarein.
III. Nooneknowswhichtreatmentanyoftheparticipantsisgetting.
A) Ionly
B) IIIonly
C) IandII
D) I,II,andIII
E) IIonly
68)
19
69) Whichofthefollowingisnotrequiredinanexperimentaldesign?
A) control
B) replication
C) blocking
D) randomization
E) Allarerequiredinanexperimentaldesign.
69)
70) Aresearcherwantstocomparetheeffectofanewtypeofshampooonhaircondition.The
researcherbelievesthatmenandwomenmayreacttotheshampoodifferently.Additionally,the
researcherbelievesthattheshampoowillreactdifferentlyonhairthatisdyed.Thesubjectsare
splitintofourgroups:menwhodyetheirhairmenwhodonotdyetheirhair;womenwhodye
theirhair;womenwhodonotdyetheirhair.Subjectsineachgrouparerandomlyassignedtothe
newshampooandtheoldshampoo.Thisexperiment...
A) hastwofactors(genderandwhetherhairisdyed)blockedbyshampootype.
B) iscompletelyrandomized.
C) hasthreefactors(shampootype,gender,whetherhairisdyed).
D) hastwofactors(shampootypeandwhetherhairisdyed)blockedbygender.
E) hasonefactor(shampootype),blockedbygenderandwhetherhairisdyed.
70)
20
AnswerKey
Testname:CHAPTER13EXPERIMENTSANDOBSERVATIONALSTUDIES
1) B
2) C
3) B
4) C
5) C
6) B
7) B
8) A
9) C
10) C
11) D
12) C
13) C
14) C
15) C
16) C
17) E
18) D
19) C
20) C
21) D
22) A
23) B
24) B
25) A
26) D
27) C
28) C
29) D
30) D
31) B
32) C
33) D
34) A
35) C
36) B
37) B
38) D
39) C
40) C
41) B
42) C
43) A
44) C
45) A
46) A
47) C
48) B
49) A
50) B
21
AnswerKey
Testname:CHAPTER13EXPERIMENTSANDOBSERVATIONALSTUDIES
51) A
52) C
53) B
54) A
55) D
56) B
57) C
58) C
59) A
60) B
61) E
62) A
63) E
64) B
65) D
66) D
67) C
68) C
69) C
70) E
22