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Properties and Transformation of Matter



ABSTRACT
Matter undergoes changes all the time. It mainly has two properties. They are described as
physical or chemical properties. This experiment demonstrated that there are some elements
and compounds that undergo physical and chemical changes. Ice, which is solid, can melt into
water when put in room temperature but it can be frozen again. Ethanol evaporated when left on
a watch glass. Paper and magnesium ribbon can be burned with flame and etc. Chemical
changes only happen when the molecular composition changes.
INTRODUCTION
Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It has 3 phases; Solid, liquid and gas.
Matter has properties that can show the characteristics that describe them. The properties can
be either physical or chemical. Physical properties can be observed by an objects
measurements, texture, odor, boiling point, density and etc. Physical change occurs when
changes are done without really changing the molecular composition of an element or
compound.
Elements with chemical properties, however, have tendencies or potentials to undergo a
chemical change. Chemical change is when an element or compounds molecular composition
changes when reacted with something.
Objectives:
1. To demonstrate the differences in the properties of elements, compounds and mixtures.
2. To demonstrate some methods of separating components of mixtures.
METHODOLOGY
A piece of ice was placed in a 250mL beaker. It was allowed to stay at room temperature for ten
minutes. A few drops of ethanol were allowed to stand on a watch glass for 5 minutes. A piece
of magnesium ribbon was held using a pair of thongs and was ignited with a Bunsen burner.
The reaction was observed. A pinch of naphthalene was placed in a 250mL beaker. The beaker
was covered with a watch glass and was heated on low flame. A piece of paper was held over a
Bunsen burner using a pair of tongs. Lastly, a small piece of mossy zinc was placed in a test
tube and 5mL of diluted HCl was added.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Process Observations

Property
Physical/Chemical
Transformation
Physical/Chemical
Before After
Evaporation
of alcohol
Clear, colorless
liquid
Evaporated/disappeared Physical
Melting of Clear, colorles Turned to liquid Physical
2

ice solid
Ignition of
Magnesium
Ribbon
Solid, black
sheet
Changed color into white and turned into
a powdered form
Chemical
Sublimation
of
Nephtalene
White crystal
solid
Turned to oil substance Physical
Burning of
paper
Solid, white
thin sheet
Turned to ash Chemical
Reaction of
Zinc Metal
with HCl
Solid, black
powder
Changed color to white Physical

What distinguishes between physical and chemical properties?
Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the
substance. The general properties of matter such as color, density, and hardness, are examples
of these. Chemical properties are properties that determine how a substance changes into a
completely different substance. Flammability and corrosion/oxidation resistance are examples of
these.

What distinguishes physical change and chemical change?
Physical change is a change which does not produce a new kind of substance but simply results
in another form of substance. A change that involves the transformation of materials into
another kind of substance is called chemical change
CONCLUSION
We therefore conclude that the loss or gain of heat results in the change of state in matter.
REFERENCES
Ophardt, C. E, (2003) Study of Matter Virtual Chembook. Retreived from
http://www.elmhurst.edu