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giao_trinh_trac_dia_dai_cuong_6334

giao_trinh_trac_dia_dai_cuong_6334

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, ~ ~

TRAN VAN QUANG

,

TRAe I).A

• •

1)91 cU'O'ng

NHA XUAT BAN XAY Dl!NG HA NOI ~ 2001

MrJ l);\U

[FiIC di« Iii IIII!/l k!roil /i~)(' 1'(; ctic 1)/i(;I) do dll{)'(' ti('il 11t/1l1i f/{;fI 1II~lt dat d/_Itic djll!r hill I, dal/g ,'" kll'l! t/I/(o'/, Iltii dll!. ///(/III! Ii_}ji ('t;1 - loa] hu'" d6' I 'liflg ,,11l( X/(I; (/11.\,'(;; ('III' \-/1" d/ AS Ih/{~it kfttic_

CIIIIX \'6"i .1"/ plurt l!'i{;;, uill _\tl 1!0i. Ink diu /)//(/11 ta mo! sJ / -/111.\"('/1 1II()11 /tC/I II/III' luj/, dill 1'(/(1 ('(ii). Injl' dill dill /t iuh, !nll' dia (11I1r. Ink dia COIIX triult, tru« dia b.in dil ...

Troug 9//(1 triuh 111![i! IriJ;I. 11'1/1' diu eo (jIWII !t~; 111(" !liil) 1'()i C£l1 IIg(11I1t klioa ho« klt(/c II/IIi" I(}(;II lioc, vat 1.\-, Ilti!!/I vun, dia clia], diu 1."'. __

r.s. rlia eo vai tro (/'/(/1/ trong dOl voi IIf/1I kiuh ft" (I II (/c dun, (111//1' pli(JlIg ciillg 111111' do,' voi _\Ii)' ili/llg 1'(/ ban. Trang xuy 1 iI/llx > Inie dia ftWIII gia ttlf ni UI(, gitli dO~JI/ flf klulo silt. thief I;_;< th! CO/l,l: IIglti~/II ,III/ WI thea doi SI/O'/I diuh ('flU cOl/g trinl! kill cong trinl, (hi di W/O .1'lJ-t/(lIIg.

Do l'~ly, lu1{ - diu hi III/)/{ kh oa ho« kitollg tit.;' l/ti(;11 Imllg 1/11(/ triuh d(IO tao k.v ,IH _I'(IY (1I/lIg ("/llIg II/III 1119t S//I1:5II"h k.¥ IIII/(il kluu, Cuon "True dia d«i cuang" l'cii J J c/lI/rJIIg ,Ie- gia'! thi~1I "//l7~lg 1'(1'1 d/ co ')(;/1 I'll ((Ill Iftiif ('flU khoa 1/0(' fUI(' dia troug .\'(Iy (II.O/,'<{ co ban,

CII/il/X toi d(II'o'g(lng triuh h//y {'(Ie vun dI/ 1119! ("(Ieli r-i tung, IIg(11I g911 sollg kllrJlIg trauh kluJi fhit'll sot, /"il! ntoug ""~;II rI/(9'c ('{Ie _\' ki(;'1 g6" _v,jJllI' biuh,

Xin (-//(/11 tluut]: cam on!

TAc GIA.

3

NHljNG Kn~N TH(;'C co nAN vf~ TRAc f)!A

§l.l. BINH DANG vA KICH THU6c TRAI uk!'

Be mat t~r nhien cua tr.ii dilt nYt phirc tap vai dicn tfch khoang 510 trieu km", trong do 1~IC dia chi chiern 291:;';-" elm 1'.li 71 (ji. )(1 d:'.li duong. Tuy nhien. chenh lcch gitta noi cao nhat cuu J~IC dja (khoaug 9km) vii noi thap nhat ella dai duong (khoang II km) ciing kh6ng dang ke so voi ktch thuoc trai dtlt (dLTCrng kfnh khoang 12000 km). Do vay, co th~ coi "I//(!f lIIi'erl.' hie;1 truug liinh, yell tinh keo tldi (I'W ni(· 11./1.' diu va luii dao . f~1O flu/II11 flu_lf cOlIg /.:Iii'" kill" la dac tnrng cho hinh dang ella td i dAL M~I d~c tnrng nay gQi 1;1 mat thuy chuan (cac ten thuong gap: mat ruroc g6e, geoid). Vi¢t Nam lay gi;\ trj mat nuoc bien trung binh cua tram quail trac thuy trieu (j H6n D;It\ (Do SO'lI-Hi\i Phong) d~ xac dinh mat thuy chuan quae gia.

Doi voi kim vue nho, nguoi ta con dilllg m.it thLIY chuan quy uac (giu dinh). Cac mat thuy chutin quy (f{J·C song song vai mat thuy chuan.

Dac diem cua mat tbuy chuan: tai lxft ky diem nao ella mat nay, ph:.l.p tuyen luon trung vci phuong ella day doi di qua diem do,

Phuong cua day doi phu thuoc vao s~r phan b6 V~lt chat trong 16'p vo lnli d;ft rna SL.f phan bo v0-t chat lai kh6ng dong deu, Do do, ve m,~t hinh hoc mat thuy chuan bien d6i rat plurc tap.

5

D~ thuan I i¢ll cho vice Slt' dung V;l t inh to.in can x .ic di nil mot m,:l! co d:.l1lg chuan ttte vc mat 111nl1 hoc. \1~1t 11;IY phai (hip {rng duoc de ycu diu sau:

- Bic:u dicn diroc dU(')'i dang de phtrong trinh roan hoc.

- Gan v()'i mat thuy chuan nhat.

Tren co so' cac ket IU(1ll cua Iy thuycr V;:I cac s6 lieu thuc ngh icm ng1t'oi ta thay rtlllg. nell nhm roan canh thi mat thuy chuan grin giong mat ellipsoid tron xoay voi cac ban true Ian a, ban true nho b V;:I d(> det a (h lnh 1-1).

Q

M$t thuy chuan

M;;l.t ellipsoid

Hinh 1-1

a-b

( 1 - 1 )

a

Cac thong so ella ellipsoid r[11 quan trong voi khoa hoc ncn dil co nhieu nha khoa hoc trcn Ihe gioi nghicn ciru. Tuy nhien cac s6 lieu rtit khac nhau,

(J mroc ta, truoc day dung ellipsoid voi so lieu ella nha bac hoc Nga Kraxopxki ((]).II-KP \\:011(:1\'01 '01 cong bo nam 1940:

a = 6.37H.245 m b = 6.356.X63 111 a =

29X,3

6

Tir Ih;_\ng 7 nnm 20()O, then quyci dinh ella Thu llfang Chinh phu. Viet Nam str dung ellipsoid ljlly chieu quoc tc \vC;S-H4 voi:

h = 6.3S().752 m

U=

29:-;.25

Do (1<) dct (1 kh.i nho ucn khi do due khu virc khong kill. Ctl lht coi tuii dri! 1:1 hinh du v{1i h,\ll k inh R = 6371,1 ! kill.

~1·2. ANH HC'ON(; 1)0 CON(; TRAI HAT DEl\; cAe Yf~L TO no

I. An h hueng dt) c()ng Trai dat den do dai

Hai diem A, 13 tren Ill,)! dat: A'. B' b 111nh cnieu ella A, Bien mat thuy chuan (coi b mat diu) nhu hinh 1-2.

o

Hill"}·2

Gia sir OLllIg mat phang F t icp xuc voi mat cau a A' d~ thay the mat du trong phep chicu.

Khi d6 hlnh anh ella A, B tren m(ll phang F HI A", B"(A "B" = s).

7

Sai so ve do <.Iili khi thay [he 111(lt diu b('ri mat phang HI : f'..d:::: s - d

s:::: R. [g8

d = R. 0

·6.d :::: R (rg 0-0)

( ! -2) ( 1-3) (1-4 ) (1-5)

Ta co:

KIwi tricn ham tgO thanh chuoi vii giCI' Iai hai s6 dau [a duoc: 0'

1,,0==0+ --'

Co 3

Cong tlnrc (1-5) co dang:

0' MI=R .- 3

(1-6)

Thay (1-4) vao (1-6) va de 1 ien so sanh t a bieu dicn sai iech nay cJu6i dang sai so nrong d6i :

=

(1-7)

d 3R2

Xet 16i do chinh xac do chieu dai rlurc te' hien nay thi khu VLK do dele Irong pham vi ban kfnh 10 krn, co the' eoi la mat phang rna khong lam sai lcch do chieu dai,

, 6.d I

(d e= 10 km ---,)0 f'..d:::: 1 em va ---. =-..---- )

d 1.220.000

2. Anh huong d<) cong Trai dat den goc bang

Theo hrouz ci.ic du: 16no C;IC uoc trona mot da giac phang

.00 0 eo, Co

nho hon tong die goc trong cua da giac do khi no narn tren mat

cau mot dai hrong E :

I, A 11

E ::::--', .p

R-

(I-g)

E: dt) "HCJl gCJC ll1~l cau (sieu gi::ic cau) A: dicn tich da giac tren 11101 cuu

Ttl Y 1 hco db ch in h xac do g<k Illi'! qll yeo[ dinh ph'.I111 vi kh Ll vue co the' coi El mat phang. Vi du do goc chinh X:.lC l ' [ hI ph':1I11 vi ! 00 kill" duoc coi El mat phang,

3. Anh lnnmg el() cung Trai dilt den chicu cau

TIl co hinh 1-2, q El sai lcch do cuo khi thay 1ll~11 c:1u h~ng 111(11 phang, co the: cluing minh de dang:

d"

q ::= --- (1·9)

2R

Khi do cao voi do chinh x.ic tm Illlll thi d >50 m phai tinh den anh lurong do cong Trai el:!1 (d ::= SO III , q = 0,2 mrn). Trong do cao hinh hoc d(lt rn.iy l'~ giira tram do, sai so do anh huang do cong Trai It[lt CLIa tia ngtlm tnroc va sau trier tieu nhau.

§1-3. Ht T(_)A DO D~A LY

Quy dinh chung thong nhat cho loan bo Trai chit. Gia slr mat thuy chuan la mat cau co tam 0, true quay PP nhu hinh 1-3

* Giao tuyen ella m(1I cau voi 1lI0t phang chua true quay PP Ii'! kinh tuyen dia IY. Kinh tuycn g6c di qua dai thien van Grinuych a g:in London thu do mroc Anh.

'p

:p

Hi"" 1-3

9

" Gino tuycn ella mill cau voi mal ph~ng vuong g6e voi true quay Tr.ii dill L:I VI tuycn dia 19. VI tuycn 16n nhill Iii x ich d'.IO. Mat ph[lllg eh(f:! x ich Ui;lo 1~1 m~1I pil:l1Ig x ich dao.

Tou do dia J)I ella diem A (q"l,\ ' }cJ.

'" Vi d9 ella diem A (i~.".l J:t goc (P \,.10 hoi duong AO V~\ n1<)1 pili1llg x ich dao. D(l VI dual' I inh tir x fch 0,.10 ve hai phia Bile V;t Nam b.in c.iu, nrong I'rng 1:1 do VI bac V:I do VI nam. Gi,i Irj do VI thay doi lli 011 den (jOIi.

'" K inh do cua dic"m A 0 v , \) Iii g6e nhi dien hop boi Ill~lt phang chua k inh tUy61 gal' V(ii m(lt phang kinh tuyen qua A. Do kinh diroc tinh lif kiuh tuycn g6c v6 hai phia Dong V~I HIY lxin diu, 1 Hong (mg 1:1 do kinh dong V;I do k inh 1'1y. Gia tri ella k inh elt) thay deli tir ()" den 1 xo".

Vi du: To:..t d9 dia 19 diem A b\: (PA=211i1X'15"B }"\ = 107" 42'OX"D

Do kinh va do VI dLrq·c X;1e dinh nr cac ket qua do thien van.

H¢ toa do dia Iy dtrrrc the" hien bang nhung doan "trang den" V:l eric COil s6 ghi 1.1 bon goc khung ella ta ban do. H¢ toa d9 dia I)' nrong doi dan gi,111 song khong thuan ricn Irong stT dung VI toa dCl dia I)' t inh theo don vi goc eOI1 gi'l tr! dQ dai irng voi gi''i. tri goc rly ('5 nlurng khu vue kluic nhau trcn mat cau lai khac nhau. do d6 vice tinh to.in \"t'j.j loa d<.) uja Iy kha piurc tap.

§1-4. HI~ TOA D() PHANG THA:'\G G()C

I. Khai niern ve phep chieu ban do

Tat c;\ de cong t.ic do dac den lien hanh tren be mat tu nhien ella Tnt i c1rll, thong q ua cac so I ieu do ngiroi I a bien dien duoc

10

h inh d~.\IJg mal (tli I y' nhien 1611 It1 g it!)' phflllg (binh do. b,HI (ki ... .). Vice chuycn de ycu 16 Ii:r hinu ellipsoid sang hinh phimg ban gia cling co nhirng s,li lech. D~ han chc de sai lcch do ngiroi ta sit" dung de phep cnieu \),'111 do: phep chieu hinh non, phcp chien hinh rru dung, phcp chicu hl1111 In.l ngang ....

1. Phep chien hinh non

Long ru ngoai ellipsoid mot hinh non sao cho true cua no trung vci true quay PP' va tiep xuc voi ellipsoid 0 VI ruyen (~i: nao J6 (hinh 1---1-;I)_

0)

b)

Hinh 1-4

Chicu hroi VI tuycn V~l k inh tuycn ILl m(lt ellipsoid len 111,)1 non nho Will chieu 0, san do cAt hinh non theo mot duong sinh nao Ml Vfl trai phang (hinh i-4b). Liroi chieu co J,}c diem:

- Cac kinh tuycn la nhtrng duong thang g~p nhau cJ dinh S.

- Cac VI ruycn ia nlurng cung tron dong tam nhung erich nhau

kh6ng deu,

11

- Ty lc bien dang dai 111= 1 doi voi VI 1 u yen I iep xuc (Po' Cang x a vi tuycn (PII' Iy J¢ bien dang dai dlllg lang (01<1 doi v6i de VI I uycn ph fa t rong V1 tuycn % vii Ill> J doi V{'5i de VI tuycn phia ngoai VI tuycn (PI)'

Phcp chien nay phil hop voi eric quoc gia co d9 VI trung hinh tro len.

2. Phep chicu hinh tru dung

Trong phep chieu hinh non, khi VI tuyen ticp xtic 1a xich dao «(PII=O) thi de duong sinh CLIa hlnh n6n song song val nhau, khi do ta co phcp chien hlnh tru dirng (hinh I-Sa).

+: .

. i

- ~ -_ .. -1- _ .j.--.-

, -

, ,

t ----+- ..

_L Xk:n$

----------~--,--~:----

._...;. .• _.-1- _ +-----+----

--+---

4··

i.

f _ J

--.-i

---I.- -- -r- ..

-+ ---.

-t --- i

. _. ~

I

r 1- __._ -r

oj

Hinh 1-5

Sau khi chien lucri kinh tuyen V~I VI tuyen len mat tru, eftt mat tru thea mot duong sinh nao do r6i trai phang, Tren mat phang nay de kinh tuyen la nhtrng duong thang song song each deu

12

nhau, die vi tuycn cling HI nhtrng dirong IhAng song song nhung khong each dell vii vuong goc voi c.ic k inh tuyen (hinh l-Sb), T)' [¢ bien d'.lIlg dfli m= [ doc thco xfch dao, dtng vc hai CUe I)' I¢ bien dang dili dmg t.uig, a hai eire 111=:1).

Phcp chieu In) dung iluch hop \'6i c.ic quoc gia co do vi thap,

J. Phep chien hinh tru ngang

Ellipsoid Tnii dfil diroc cilia thanh 60 rmii, moi mui gioi han boi kinh tuyen Dong (Lu) va k inh tuycn Tay (Lj) voi hieu do kinh li'! 6(l; kinh tuycn true L" chin nuii chicu thanh hai phan bang nhau. etc mui duoc d;tnh s6 IhLr nr tir I den 60 Ill' k inh tuyen g6c ve phia Dong, nhu v{IY kinh tuycn Grinuych la gi6"i han phia Tay cua rmii I. S6 kinh ruyen true ella rmii nur n xac dinh nlur sau:

i, = 3() (2n-1 ) (1-10)

Dar ell ipsoiel Tnii dflt llQi I iep voi hinh tru ngang I heo k i nh tuycn true PO'P ella rmii nao do sao eho true cua hinh tru ngang I rung voi m(lt phfulg x ich dao ella ell ipsoid (hinh 1-6a).

k pi
/ .~~ .~ l \,
,. _I;; ,
i ,,1 '/, . , .i \
, ~ //' I I ,
I ,iii· ~ , , I I
\ , I
, .. I I " I
I I:" I -'\ I
- 1\-- - t-:~~t -:. -~ ,,;- 0 -__/.
/ .... _._-" ;
\ " I, .iJ~- - _. _- ,
" ,! ', \ \ \ .'
" ~~~~~\\ i , ,
\ , .
i -<;r ,
I 0'
m 0)

b)

Hillh 1-6

13

LAy tam cun ellipsoid 1~1 t.tm chien. Sau khi chicu xong urng mui, cal hinh tru thco hai dUl:l"Ilg sinh k V;I IH roi II"(\i phang. Hmh ch iC\1 moi mu i co d(IC diem SHU (h inh ! -nb):

+ Xfch dao V:I kinh tuvcn true 1:1 nhfrn« Ch({1ng Ih,'tng vuonu !!oc.

• ..". .... L .[,_.. ..._ ........

I linh chien ella GtC kinh luYC'1l , vi tuycn la nhirng JLrong congo

+ T;' I~ \1ic'n d;.lng ciai cua ki nh t uyen I n.1C b~l1lg l , cang x a kinh tuyen Ir\IC bien d •. ing diu cang ([mg. DO'.111 thang S co t9H do hai (1<"1\.1 EI (x I ,Y I) va (x~, y!), sci hieu chinh bien dang dai sc lit:

Vo'j:

(1-11 )

Hinh chieu ella rmii tren mat pldng rong hon so vrri b .. 111 than nuii tren ellipsoid. DiE! han chc bien dang, nguoi ta dung rmii chieu ;\.1. = 3°. ! oS ...

Kfeh thiroc ellipsoid climg trong phuong phap chicu nay liiy then s6 lieu cua Kraxopxki.

Vice chia de nuii chien cuug urong tt_t nlur plurong pn.ip chieu Gauxo nlurng so tlur ru duoc ghi tir I den 60 tinh III kinh tuycn I ~OO W ve plua Dong (hinh ! -7a). M~t tru ngang khong tier xiic v6i m(11 ellipsoid tai kiuh tuycn true ella rnui 11l~\ dl thco ha i eung cat I ruyen each dell k inh t uyen I rue I ~Okm (h Inh 1-7b). Ty I¢ bien dang dai doc theo hai cling nay bang 1 con 0 k inh tuycn true \il m = 0.9996.

14

Phuoug ph.ip chicu UTM lam gi'lm dune sai so bien dang llgo:ti bien va phan bo Ilfong doi dcu Irong pham vi ruui chieu.

Phuong phap chicu l1,\Y Sll' dung ellipsoid \vC;S-K4.

Mvi! Mud Mil/50
.' .. A
V V
!&7·W !MOW o· l/JOc 0)

Hinll }·7

II. H¢ toa dQ thang goc

b)

a) H~ toa dr) fIlling got" )'(1 {ulli () \'lIrJlIg kiloniet nia I)(ill do' dia Mill! GUI/.\{j'

Trong phcp chien Guux o, ('j mo: rruii chicu, kinh tuyen true va x ich dao Hl hai duong thang vuong g& vai nhau vIt tao thanh mol h¢ true toa do. True X IiI duong bicu dien k inh tuycn true, true Y Et (11ft)']]g bieu dien x ich dao. Gino cua hai duong nil)' EI g6c toa d9 0 (hinh 1-8a). Nhir vay Ill' x ich (h.10 len phia Btlc 19<1 (h) x mang drill duong (+), xuong ph fa ~ am mang dau (-). Tir k inh tuycn true sang phia Dong, toa 01.) y mang dau (+) vii sang ph fa Tay mang dilu [till (-).

D6i v6i c.ic kim vue a Rk ban cau, gi,' tri toa do x Ilion ilion duoug con gia tri loa ct<) y co the am hay duong. D~ thuan ticn cho t inh toiin va tranh toa do y am, true X diroc dai sang phia Tay 500km (hinh l-Sb).

15

.z t ,,'

I / [\

, \

I-"".<mi,: \

I ! II

I ,I:

I

-

y

I I "KIM tuyeh tric i /

i ,'"

<..

0)

b)

llillh }-8

Trcn hinh chien moi nnii, nglriJi la KC them nlurng dtrong thim£! son" son" voi de true viI each deu nhau khoanc each tluronc IiI

e t. '~co

chan kilomet goi 1;1 itr6i 0 vuong hay hroi kilomet cua ban do. Do

c.ich ghi s6 6 vuong etta cac nuii gi6ng nhau ncn c6 nhieu diem tren mat dtil cling co gia tri x va y. De: loa ttl) diem tren mat dflt El don tri, ngiroi ta ghi so thtr tL,r mui chien tnroc toa dq y.

VI du: Di6m A c6 gi;1 tri 19<1 do:

J x A == 2 438,43 km A1 y" == lX.298.87 km

Nlur vay ta bict diroc diem A rhuoc mui chicu thi] I X, c.ich kinh tuycn true vc phia Tay I~I 500,OOkm -29X,Xkm == 201, 13km va each x ich dao ve plua B;i.c la 243X,43km.

h) H~; tou d(i li/(ing g(Je I'I:{ /udi 6 \'/long kilotuet ClIU ban d()' dill Mil Ii UT M

G6c va h¢ true toa dq thang g6c giong nlur phuong phap Gauxo. Ole dirong IhCmg song song voi hai true deu co khoang

16

each bang nhau (I OOkm) nell goi la luoi 0 vuong 16n canh 100 x 100km. De: t ninh nh,1111 Jan, hang doc va hang ngang C ua hroi () vuong Ion do duoc d.inh dau bang cac chir cai in hoa theo nguyen tac:

+ I-I~lI1g ngang: B{\( driu ghi ttl k inh tuyen rso'w (hell phia Tay cua nni i so I) tlf do gh i hln I uot cho cac mui 1,2.3 sang phfa Dong hang 24 chir c.ii. Trang 24 chir cai khong dung chir cai J, o VI tranh nham 1[1l1 voi I V;I O. Ole nuii 4, 5, 6 lap lai niur tren V~L Ian ILTqt ghi cho het 60 nnii.

+ Hang doc: Cac chir cai dUCK ghi tLl Nam len Bac t inh nr x ich dao cho cac rmii co so tlur nr le (I, 3, 5 ... ) va t inh tir dirong each x ich (h.LO ve phfa Nam 500km cho cac rmii e6 so rhir tu chan (2,4,6 .. ). 20 chir cai (trir cac chir J, 0, W, X, Y, Z) diroc ghi lap lai sau 2000km. Viec lam n~IY tninh cho cac 0 vuong Ion canh raox IOOkm cung ten narn tren cung pham vi mot vung hao quat cua hroi 0 vuong,

Nho hroi 6 vuong canh Ion n~Ly loa d~) vuong g6c ella mot diem duoc xac djnh dan gian, nhanh ch6ng.

D€' phu hop voi khu virc va toan cau cling nhir dam bao de yell ctiu phat trien kinh te, phuc VI.I an ninh quae phong Ilr thang 7 nam 2000, hroi chieu mat tru ngang dong goc UTM duoc sLr dung lam hroi chien toa do phang co ban ella Viet Nam.

§l-S. V~ TRI DIEM TREN M!T uk!'

1. Vi tri mat bang

Til hinh 1-9a ta co:

x , = d COSet YA = d sino;

(1-12)

17

x

d

\ i

1---- - -------L~t tl,:' -----z_~_(~

----------=-::

~ ~

Hillh 1·9

2. V] tri dt) cao

DQ cao tuyer d6i (H) lit khoang erich then plurong d{IY doi til diem den mat thuy chuan (hinh 1-9b).

Do cao gia dinh cua mot diem III khoang each theo plurong day doi tir diem do den mat thuy chuan quy tree.

Hieu so 09 cao giira hai diem la khoang each giQa hai m(lt thuy chuan quy iroc di qua hai diem d6.

(1-13)

§1-6.l)~~H HC(j~G DUONG THANG

1. Kh:ii niern

D€ xac dinh vi tri mot dirong rhang, ncu chi bier chieu dai nam ngang thi chua du rna con phai biet goc giira dtrong thang do voi huang g6c nao do. Viec xac dinh quan he do goi la dinh huang duong thang.

IX

Trong Td\C dia, Illr6ng goc diroc chon eo tht la kinh tuyen thuc. kinh tuycn nr va kinh tuyen true ella nuii. Tirong irng co de khai nicm: g6c phirong vi thuc, phlftlllg V! IL( va g6e dinh huong.

Tai J11()t diem trcn mat dAl, kinh tuyen thirc va kinh ruyen ILf lcch nhau 11l~)1 goc () - gqi IiI 00 ILf ihlen hay goc lech kim nam cham. Kinh tuyen tir c6 the: nam a phla dong 11O~le tay ella kinh tuycn thuc, urong irng co goc lcch dong 00 va goc lcch 1<1y ()T' Quy iroc 60 mang duu duong V~I 6T mang drill run. Do do, plurong V! tlurc va plurong vi [[l1'.li mot diem khac nhau mot dai lLTqng 1;\ ().

Aile = AI ± 6 (+ khi ou, - khi 8T)

Ci,l [rj cua 6 [hay deli thco kh6ng gian V~I thai gian. Trong mot ng:ty dcm 0 co the thay deli toi J (I (I rung binh Ia ± 15'), voi chu ky 500 naITI 6 co [he lcch toi 22°,5. Vi the, plurong vi IU chi dung de dinh huong sa bo voi yell cau d(1 chfnh xac khong cao.

2. G6c phuong vi thuc A

UI g6c hop b{')'i huong Bac ella kinh ruycn thuc voi lnrong cua duong thi'lllg thea chien kim dong ho, Gi.i tri ella A thay d6i tir On den 360() (hinh J -lOa).

p

80

c

0)

b)

p

Hinh 1·10

19

Do huang Bik 1a huang tiep tuyen voi dirong kinh tuyen di qua moi diem nen & hai diem kluic nhau tren trai dilt thl huang Bilc khong triuig nhau rna hoi tu & true trai dar, tao vai nhau m91 goc y - d¢ gan kinh tuyen (hinh I-lOb).

y := /!,.,. simp TIle a hlnh I-lOa ta co AlI:= AT + Y

(1-14) (1-\5)

3. Goc dinh huong a

La goc hop boi huang cua kinh tuyen true (ox) voi huang cua duong thang thuan kim dong ho (hinh I-II). Gia tri cua no IU 0° den 360°.

Tai cac diem tren cimg mot duong thang gia tri cua g6e dinh huang khong d6i:

M

Hinh 1-11

Thea hinh (1-1 l ), goc dinh huang thuan aMN va g6e dinh huang nghich UNM lech nhau 180°.

UNM:= aMI' + 1800 (1-16)

Do cac d~c diem tren nell goc dinh huang diroc sir dung rong rai, tien loi ngoai thuc teo

4. Quan h¢ giUa goc dinh huong va goc phuang vi thuc Nguoi ta guy iroc tai mot diem, neu kinh tuyen true narn a phfa TAy kinh tuyen thuc, y nhan gia tri am (hinh l-12a) va nguoc lai y nhan gia tri duong (hlnh 1-12b).

20

,

b)

Hinh 1-12

Nhu vay, quan he gifra g6c dinh lnrong va g6c ph11C1t1g vi thuc tai diem bat ky Ht:

u=A - Y

(1-17)

5. Quan he ghra g6c dinh huang va g6c bang

Gia slr co cac doan thing gap khuc nhu hlnh 1-13, goe bang kep gitra hai doan thang iA Bi' goc ditrh huang canh khoi dau UAB"

A

Hinh 1-13

21

Theo hinh 1-13, g6e ~l a phia trai duong tinh (lurong di tit A den N), ta co:

U1 II ::: U "'I - (I 8011 - ~ I) (Xl II = aAIl + [31 - 180"

Nlur v,)y goc dinh huang t inh cho canh n sc la: a,,::: ull_1+ Bil - 18011

Va nell tinh tir g6c dinh huang e<;1n11 khoi d,"\L1 (ad::: UAIJ):

all ::::: ex d + i: [30 - 11 . 18011 0-1

(1-1~b)

Tinh nrong 11.( khi g6e bang phia ph<li duong unh ta duoc:

(I-18h)

1\'( (1-18a) va (1- l Sb) ta co th~ viet:

CLIl =CLd ±i:f3, +11.18011 i-I

( 1-19)

§1-7. HAl RAI ToAlS co BA:,\ TRONG TRAC t)~A

1. Hili toan thuan x

Bict 19a do diem A (x,\, y), chicu Qui bang V~l g6c dinh huang eanh AS I~l dAIl va aAW Tfnh loa d(;) ella B (XIl' YfI)

Thea hinh 1-14 ta co:

22

y

Hinlll-14

(1-20)

Trong do:

11xc\JJ = dAIl cosaAIl 11 YAB = d,\1l sinu-\Il

(1-21 )

Thay (1-21) V~IO (1-20) nlu!J1 duoc:

XIl = x, + dAIl cosaAIl Yll = Y A + d,\1l sinaAIl

( 1-22)

Bai toan l-Sa: Tinh toa c1Q uie:m M theo so do h inh (I -15).

A

M

Hillh 1-15

Voi: B(256,42m ; 5R9.76m)

~ = 131°46'7; aAIl=1451i28'6 d = 87,57111

Giai:

Theo (1-21) ta co:

11XBM = d. cosam .. 1 11YBM = d. sinaJJM

all>"] = aAB + B-180o (VI B if phia trai throng tfnh)

allM = 145°28'6 + 131 °46'7 -180° = 97° 15'3

23

vs

~Xll\1 = X7,57. cos 971\15'3 = -11,06 (m) ~YIlM== 87,57. sin 971'15'3 = X6,87 (rn)

Khi do:

X"l == XIl + ~XtlM = 256,420m - 11 ,06m == 245,36m YM == Yll + ~YB~l == 589,76m + 86,87m = 676,63m

2. Bai toan nguoc

Bier hai diem A (x .... , Y A) va B(xB, YIl) , tim chien dai bang va goc dinh huang canh AB.

Theo hinh 1-14 ta co:

r '--,-

dAIl = \/~X~ll + AY~B

r '-, ---, - ---- -,"

dAR= -...j(xB -x"t +(YB -YA)-

(1-23)

vs .

( 1-24)

Khi do: a = arts YII -¥~

AB 0

xll -x,\

(1-25)

D~ xac dinh gia trj chfnh X<:lC ella a,AIl' can cu van dau etta cac gia s6 toa 09 nhu hinh \-16.

.xx « 0 ''oy > 0

c\x> 0 ,c\y" 0

c'ox,. 0 ,W" 0

Hinh 1-16

,:\x" 0 ,'oy" 0

24

Biii loan i-ss.

Tinh toa <.1<) diem M theo sa do h rnh 1-15. Biet:

A (349,67m; 492,53111) B (264,38m : 587,93111) p = 129('18'3

d = 92,48m

Giai:

Gin xtic dinh goc dinh hirong aAll theo eric cong thuc (1-24) va (1-25):

_ rH - Y,\_ _ 587,93-492,53 _ 97,40 - -1141086

tgaAFI - - - -,"/

X H - X A 246,38 - 349,67 - 85,29

aAB = atg (-1,141986) = - 48°47'5

Theo hinh 1-16, goc aAFI nam a goc phan tu thir 2 nen aAFI co gia tri Ia:

aAIl = - 48°47'5 + 180°=131012'5

Viec tfnh toan toa dQ diem M nhu bai roan ! -5a va kct qua nhir sau:

las"! =80°30'8

L1x BM : + 15,24m L1YB:>l -+91,22m

{XM =279,62m YM =681,15m

25

Cau hoi va bai tap chuong I

I. Dinh nghia mat thuy chuan, 0 Vi¢1 Nam mat thuy chuan ch911 g6c 0 dau? Tai sao trong xay dung ngltb'i ta hay dung mat thuy chuan quy troc?

2. The nao la d¢ eao tuyct doi, ell) cao nrong doi, hicu d¢ cao gitra hai diem?

3_ Anh lurong ct¢ cong tr.ii dtit den cac ycu t6 do dac co ban nhu the nao? Nguoi ta co th~ h~U1 che duoc anh huong do eong trai eltit den ket qua do hay khong?

4. Diem A co t9<1 do dia Iy nhu sau: (P,\ = 21 °18'25" B I"A = 1 05i137'54" D Nell y nghia ella cac chir va so.

5. Noi dung V~I due diem cua plurong phap chien GaUX(1?

H¢ toa do phang thang goc Gauxo duoc bieu dien nhir the nao?

Tai sao d6i voi de ruroc a bac ban cau kinh ruyen true ella mui chieu diroc dich chuycn ve phfa Ttl)' 500km sau khi trai phang?

Diem B co 19<1 d(l vuong goc:

x[j = 2 486 972,56 m YIl= 18.315 '8,67,67 111

Giai thfch so lieu tren

6. Phep chien Gauxo va phep chieu UTM gi6ng va khac nhau a nhtrng diem nao?

7. Trong trac dia dung nhirng loai huong goc nao lam co sa eho dinh lurong duong thang. T<;Ii sao tren cung 111¢1 dirong thang, 0 cac vi tri khac nhau, goc phuong vi thirc co gia tri khac nhau?

26

8. Goc dinh huang Hl gl'? Ole c{lllg thirc bien thi moi quan h~ e iira "oe dinh 111(On" v6"j ,,6e pluroug vi tlnrc V~\ voi uoc bane?

~ o. to 0 0 .. C to

Bai tap 1-1: Tinh 19<106 diem M theo sO" do hinh l-I:'i voi s6 li¢u san:

A J x,\ ;= 1 97 AX III lY A ;= 256,52m

f XII =- 203,42m B ,

ly B = 32X,79m

f3 = 98°49'6 d = X5,72m

Bai t(ip J -2:

Hinh 1-17

Tinh toa d9 diem I theo so do h inh 1-17 voi s6 1 ieu 6 bang 1-1.

Bang 1-1

1-·- Diem I
A :
l ___ B I x(m)

y(m)

f-------+----,--.- -,~-- ------- --------_____;_-----------1

200,00 325,20 i 611131'4

_____ L__9_6_,4_X_J_~~8:25 J L 56_o_4_2'_7 _ __j

27

Bai uip 1-3:

Tfnh cac goc 01' ~"thea so d6 hrnh 1-17, cac so lieu a bang ( 1-2).

Bang 1-2

L L

~

L

-------t= I ._
Diem x(m) y(m)
A 329,52 403,61
B 203,85 318,92
I 212,47 485,18 28

Chuong II

nAN DO D~A HINH

§2-1. KHAI NI~M

1. Ball dlJ: HI. hinh ve thu nho va d6ng dang cua mot khu vue m~\ d[i\ then mot phtrong phap chieu nhat dinh, co ke den anh lnrong do eong trai dat.

Ban do co ty 1~ thay d6i a nhi1ng phan kluic nhau ella n6. Ty 1~ chinh la ty I~ cua huong duoc chon lam co sa cho viec lap han do (co tM la mot kinh tuyen hay mot VI tuyen). Ty I~ cua cac phan con lai la ty l¢ rieng,

Ban do duoc ehia thanh nhieu loai tuy then muc dich sit dung va noi dung bieu dien. Trong quy hoach nen kinh te quoc dan, qU:111 S,! va cong trinh ngiroi ra tlnrong sir dung him do dia hinh iiI. loai trcn do vira bieu dien dang d;:lt vita bieu dien dia vat.

2. Binh do': la hinh ve 11m nho va dong dang tren giay cac hinh chieu bang cua nhtrng khu vue khong Ion, khong ke: den anh huang d¢ eong trai dat. Binh do C() ty l¢ duy nhar, khong doi o moi noi,

3. Ml_it cat dia hinh: la sir thu nho mat cat dirng he mat Trai dat then mot huang nao do.

Do do, mat cat dia hinh In. dac tnrng eho dia hinh then tuyen ngoai thirc dia.

29

§2-2. TY L~ BAN n()

1. Tj I¢ ban do: Ja ty so giCi'a ell} cEli cua doan th<'lng trcn ban do vii do dill tlrnng (rng cua donn (htlllg (h'l ngoai lll,lt (HI duoc bicu thi dmri d'.l1lg phan s() co Ili' so hang I V~I 1ll {lIl s6 1:\ do thu nho .\1 :

d M 0

(2-1 )

De de d~lIlg trong slr dung . .\1 tlurong duoc chon la nhimg so tron tram, vi du 200. 500, 1000,2000 ...

Tren ban do, m{lt nglri'1i chi phan bier duoc doan thang Ion han 0.1 mm VI vay nguoi la hlY 0.1 nun lam co' so x.ic dinh el6 chfnh x.ic cua Iy' l~ (I).

I =O,J M mrn

(2-2)

TLr 2-2 nh(1I1 thay rang ty I¢ han do cang IOn thi mire ell? bieu dien dia hmh, dia vat cang ati.y du, chi tiet va chfnh xac.

2. Thuac t}; I¢: hi dung CI.l t inh chuyen deli chicu d~li qua lai

gilta ban do vii mat dELI.

Co hai loai thiroc ty' I¢: thuoc ty I¢ thang va thuoc ty I¢ x icn. a J T luro: t.;· !~; rl/(illg

Tren dll'ong thang el~1 lien ticp nhieu doan I hfmg a bang nhau, moi doan do goi HI don vi co ban ella tlnroc.

Tlurong a == :2 em J1() luang ling chicu dai chan ngoai thirc dia vtt ghi true t icp chien diu nay len Ii:rng elm} vi tluroc.

Tren om} vi CO him dan thuoc, nguoi ta chia lam n phan bang

nhau va goi UI 01) chinh xac ella tluroc ty l~ thang: t, == ~

n

Hinh 2 - 1 bien dicn thuoc ty I¢ thang voi M == 5000 va a = 2cm.

30

Ty I¢ 1: 5.000

ltV 0

Hinh 2-1

Khi sir dung, dung compa do V;'I dat true tier len thuoc 1)1 i¢ HI xac c1inh c1U0C tri so do dai.

. .. .

hj Tlntoi tov !~ xi(;"

Tuong tu nhu X[IY (hrng tluroc Iy I¢ thang, sau khi nhan diroc die doun dun vi co' b.in, IiI dirng c.ic duong vuong g6c AA', 00' co chien dai bang dun vi CO' ban (2cm) nhu hinh 2-2 V;'I chia cluing ra n phan bang nhau.

Qua de diem chia ke de duong thang song song voi duong day. Tier I~IC chia de dOi.1I1 AO , A '0' thanh m phan bAng nhau va noi voi nhau thco eric dirong x icn (a day lay n = m = 10).

r

/.-.5.000 I

A' 0'

---_L_~-~~

:_L_ .L~-

KKJ zoo

4fXJ

Hinh 2-2

f)9 chinh xac ella thiroc ty I¢ xicn tx In:

AO

Ix =-- = n.m

AO 20

--- =-- =02 mm

10.10 100 '

31

Nhir vay, vdi cung mot ty I¢, d¢ chinh xac ella thiroc t)! I¢ x icn cao han do chinh xtic ella tluroc 1)1 le thang m 1<111.

§2-3. p.HAN MANH BA:\ 06

Dc ticn 19'i cho in tin va cho siT dung moi h1 han do tlurong co kfch tluroc £,111 nlur nhau (50c11\ x 60 em) va co 111<)1 so hieu nhat

dinh, eo the: chia ban d6 theo oj ;:-48

die kinh ruyen va VI tuyen.

Quy iroc qu6e te quy dinh dung h1 ban do 1: I. 000.000 Hun co so M chia manh ban do. TO' ball do nay la nhirng manh khi chia Trai dat thanh nhirng dai VI tuyen 4() t inh ttl xieh dao vc hai cue va duoc dat len thea cac chir cai La tinh A, B, c. .. va cac cot kinh tuyen rong 6° t inh ttl kinh tuyen 1 gOO diroc danh so Arap (1,2,3 ... ) tir Tay sang Dong.

vr du ta han do 1: 1_ OXHXXl clura thu do Ha Noi co s6 hicu F-4g.

Tli to' I: 1.000.000 chia thanh cac ta ban do ty I¢ 1: 500.000

1: 200.000 va I: 100.000 nhir hinh 2-3 va bang 2-1.

32

A

B

c

b)

r-4{j

I II -L-j!!__
1
-H-
j_ ;+_
_- ~-
·i _df1
I Hillh 2-3

Ti:T to l: 100.000 (vi du F 48-144) phan chia thanh c.ic manh

1)' I~ 1: 50.000, 1: 2S .000 v{\ I: 10.000 dtroc t icn hanh thea

bang 2-2 va hJnh 2-4.

Bang 2-1

Kil:h
S6 rnanh ban d(i tluroc Vi tll.l S(; hieu manh
Ty \e n am tron ~ rn anh
r-4~
i'ltp i'lP,
I : 500. UOU 2x2 =4 2" ~" F4X-D
.,
1 :20().OOO (,x6=l6 4U' \" F4X-V/
1 . 1 ()() ()() () 12x 12 =144 20' lO' F4X-144 F 48 -144

->

1: 10.000

1 2
b
3 4 B

c d
C D Hinh 2-4

Hang 2- 2

---_._.-
S6 manh han Kfch thiroc Vi til! so hieu manh
Wl~ do nam trong Atp 6).
manh F4X-I44
I : ') () (lOU 2x2 = 4 10' 15' F4X-144-A
1:25 coo 4x4oo 16 '1' 7'3() " F4X-I44-A-a
1 , 1 o (X)() XxX=64 2'3u" 3'45"' F4X-I44-A-a-l 33

TO' ban d6 1: 100.000 ph fin ehia thanh 16 x 24 :::: 384 manh ty le 1 :5.000.

S6 hieu cua manh tlui n nao do duoc ghi la F48- J 44-(n). 6 day n Hi chir so Arap 1, 2 ... 384.

Lay manh 1: 5 .000 chia ra 2 x 3 :::: 6 manh ty l¢ 1 :2.000

so hicu ella rnanh 1 :2.000 la so hieu cua manh ty l¢ \:5.000 kern thea 1 trang 6 chir a, b, e, d, e, f.

Vi du : F48-144(l35-d).

D6i voi ban d6 ty 1¢ IOn (Ion h011 1:5.000) thirong phan manh theo luoi toa 09 0 vuong voi cac kfch tluroc khung 50cm x 50crn.

1. eu« dien dia wl-t

Dja v~\{ la nhttng vat th6 do thien nhien hay do con nguoi tao ra nhir song suoi, rirng mii, thanh pho, lang mac ...

Cac kf hieu bi611 dien dia vat phai don gian, (6 rang va thong nhat. Cac dia v~t co kfch thuoc khac nhau nen bieu dien cluing len ban d6 ding khac nhau:

a. Bieu dien dia vat thea ty I¢: d6i voi nhirng dia vat co hinh dang, kfch thuoc r6 rang nhu ao ho, sinh lay, lang mac, theo ty l¢ nguoi ta vc true ticp len ban d6 dung hinh dang va kich thuoc cua cluing,

b. Bieu dien dia vat khong thea ty I¢: d6i voi nhiing dia v~t co kich thuoc nho rna thea ty 1¢ ban d6 khong th~ thuc hien duoc nhu cay d9C l~p, gieng rnroc, nha tho ... thi dung cac kf hieu de bieu thi. Cac ki hieu nay d5. diroc guy dinh boi CI;IC Do dac va Ban d6 Nha nuoc.

34

e. V6i nhirng ct'lng trmh dang tuyen nhu song suoi, duong giao thong, bien gi6i ... nguai ta ket hop hai each bieu dien tren,

2. eu« dien dia hinh

Dja hinh Ja hinh dang eao thap khac nhau cua mat dat nr nhien. Co nhieu plurong phap bieu dien dia hrnh: kc van, 10 mau, ghi so, dirong dong mere ...

(J) Pll/tOllg philp ke' wJII:

Dung cac net ke dU1 doan bieu dien dang dat theo nguyen rae dia hinh doc cac net ke ngan, darn va day; dia hinh thoai cac net ke dai manh va thira.

Phuong phap nay cho phep nhln duoc khai quat dia hinh, song ban ve rei, khong biet d¢ cao ehfnh xac ella mot diem hoac cua mot khu virc. Plurong phap nay diroc sir dung trong cac ban do e6 hay ball db du lich ty l¢ nho,

h) Phuong pln;p to mau:

Dung rnau sac va d¢ d~111 nhat d~ bicu dien dia hlnh. Thong thuong doi mii duoc bicu dien bang mau nau, h~ thong thuy van (song, suoi, bien ... ) bicu dien bang mau lam. Niii cang cao, song bien cang sau mau cang darn. Dja hinh tiep giap voi hai loai tren la dong bang thirong diroc bieu dien bang mau xanh la rna. Do do khi nhin vao ban do nguoi ta cam nhan diroc su cao thap ella cac khu vue. Tuy vay cling khong cho ehinh xac cac thong so v~ di? cao elm diem hoac khu vue.

c. Phuong plulp ghi d¢ ClIO theo dien«:

Nguoi ta ghi tnrc tiep di? eao cua de diem d<\ie tnrng dia hinh len ban do. Uu diem ella phirong phap nay la eho bier ehfnh xac d¢ cao ella ditm, ella khu virc can nghien cuu nlnrng khong eho

35

bier khai quat duoc roan btl khu vue, mat khac do ghi d<) cao ella nhieu diem nen ban ve t6i.

d. Phuong p!IlJjJ ({[(img (fbl/g nun:

Duong dong mire li't duong noi lien cac diem co cung d¢ cao.

No cfmg chinh III hinh chieu cua giao tuyen gitra m~t dat tu nhien va mar thuy chuan guy iroc (hmh 2-5).

4GJr~8§>: :. I:

, " , • • , I ~. I

I ~ r I ~ t

• , ~ 4 I ~ j, ~

j I '. I " I' 'I I

I , j ~ • r. , j ., ,

I ' I. , • • ~ , t t ,

t t t. ."

~. ~

j f • I I ,I ., • I , • ~ ,

" 4. ,

Hinh 2-5 Duong dong nurc co cac dac tinh sau:

- Duong dong mire lien tuc va khep kin.

- Cac duong dong mire kh6ng cat nhau.

- Cac dirong dong mire cang sit nhau, mat dAt cang doc. Cac

dtrong d6ng mire ding xa nhau, mat dar cang rhoai,

- Duong vuong goc voi hai dirong dong rmrc ke nhau la dtrong doc nhat.

- Hieu so do cao gifra hai dirong d6ng mire k6 nhau HI. khoang cao deu h. Lira chon khoang eao Mu phu thuoc vao ty l¢ ban do, d" doc cua be mat dia hinh ... Khoang cao deu tlnrong duqc chon voi cac gia tri O,25m; O,5m; I,Om; 2,Om; 5,Om; lO,Om ...

36

Cac duong dong rmrc diroc the: hien bang net lien, mall nau (doi voi dia hinh trcn can) hoac mall lam (doi voi dia hinh d116i

~ .. ~

nuoc) cac dirong dong rmrc nay Iii doc duong dong rmrc chfnh.

De: de dang khi slr dung ban do dia hinh, Clf each 5 dirong dong nurc ngiroi ta lai 10 darn mot dirong va ghi ell) cao cua no (quay vt: phia cao) va dirong dam nay lit duong dong mire cai,

d nhirng khu chit it doc, dt bieu dien eric chi tic't nho cua dia hinh, ngirci ta dirng dirong dong mire phu (dirong dong nurc b6 tro) co khoang cao deu bang 1111<\ khoang eao d~lI etta dirong dong mere chinh va no duoc bieu dien bang net dirt.

V6i. nhfrng noi d(l doc 1611 han 45", cac duong dong rrnrc g"in nhir chap vao nhau, ngiroi ta se dung ciic ky hieu d~c biet d~ bieu dien.

Tuy hinh d,ing mat dfit rat da dang nhung theo phirong phap dirong dong mire co th~ chia thanh cac dang dia hinh chu yell (hinh 2-6).

Hinh 2·6

37

R5 rang plurong phap dtrong dong mire eho phep ta nhin diroc roan canh ella dia hlnh mat dat dong thai cilng eho bier d¢ cao khu virc can nghien CUll.

§2-S. S(rDI,ING BAN DO

1. Kh<ii niern

Ban d6 !a tai lieu goe khong thli thieu trong cac giai doan ella cong tac khao sat quy hoach, thief ke va thi cong cac cong trinh. D~ Slr dung tot ban do, din phai hieu diroc ban ehilt, noi dung, y nghia cua tat ca nhirng chir, so, ki hieu ... trlnh bay tren to' ban do.

Cac s6 lieu rhu diroc tit ban do cang tin cay neu ty 1~ ban d6 cang JOn, khoang eao deu cang nho va thai gian bien vi! cang gan hien tai ...

Trong qua trinh sir dung ban do, doi khi nguiri ta can phai dinh huang ban do de: d6i chieu voi thuc dia, Co hai each dinh huang:

Dung diu ban: dat dja ban len ta ban d6 trai phang sao cho kim dia ban a vi trf can bang nr do, diroug 1801l_ all ella dia ban rrimg voi khung dirng ella ban do, sau do xoay ta ban d6 cho den khi kim dia ban chi so O.

Dinh huang thea dia vat: chon tren ban do mot dia v~t dang tuyen (dirong xa, song ngoi ... ) mang ban do rai gan dia vat d6 ngoai thuc dia roi xoay to' ban do sao cho huang ella dia vat rren ban do trung voi huang cua dia v~t ngoai thirc dia. De: tranh nham l<1n, can quan sat cac dia v~tt khac flam a hai ben dia vat dang tuyen da chon.

38

II. Xac dinh cac yeu t6 tren ban do

1. Xac dinl: toa d¢ dia Ii ella mot diim

Tren m6i ta ban do, bon goc khung ghi gia tri do kinh, d¢ VI. a moi canh khung ban do nguoi ta chia thanh nhirng khoang trang den bieu thj gia tri d¢ kinh va d¢ VI chan den pluit goi la thang chia d¢. N6i de diem eo cung gia tri a cac canh khung d6i dien se diroc Iuoi toa d¢ dia 1)"'.

At Hlnh 2·7

Tit diem M can xac dinh toa do dia ly, ke hai duong thing.

Mot duong song song vci canh 0 kinh tuyen va mot duong song song voi canh 0 VI tuyen. Do cac doan thang MH va MY se tinh duoc cac gia so' !'!.cP va !'!., •. Khi do toa d¢ dia ly diem M se la:

H M
LI't'
11il.
.v CPM = CPi + !'!.cP AM = Ai + !'!.)._

2. Xae dinh. toa d(l vuong g6e ella mot dilm

(2-1 ) (2-2)

Gia sir can xac dinh toa do vuong goc ella diem 1. Tren co sa luoi toa do 0 vuong co san tren ban do, tao 0 vuong co chua diem I (gioi han boi cac dirong Xi' Xi+]. Yi, Yi+]) nhu hinh 2-H. Qua

39

goc Tay Nam ella a vuong V~l diem I ke dirong tlHfng, xac dinh diroc cac doan a, b va c.

Hill/i 2~R

Khi do roa do vuong goc cua diem I se Ia:

X I-X

XI = Xi + _!.:_ - .c. .a

b

(2-3)

(2-4)

3. Xcic dink d<j cao cua m(Jt die'm

Qua A. d~rng duong vuong g6e vci 2 duong dong mire b~ nhau (Hi' Hi+l) va do cac dai luong <I, b (hinh 2 - 9), khi do c1¢ cao cua diem A la:

H -·H H == H- + _,-_!_ _ _!_ a

,\ , a + b

(2-5)

H =H _Hi":..!._-~b

A ,+1 a-l-b

40

Hinh 2-9

Truong hop A narn kep giita hai duong dong rmrc cung d('l cao thi dt) cao cua A duoc lay gan dung 16n hon hay nho hon d¢ cao dlTemg c16ng rmrc g<.in nhar mot khoang g[il1 bang mra khoang cao deu (O,Sh),

4. Xtic llfnh dfj dai

Xac dinh 01) dai mot doan thing: dung cornpa va thuoc ty 1¢ do va tinh tnrc tiep fa chieu dai cua dO<;l11 thang do,

Xac dinh d¢ dai cua mot doan eong:

- Chia dirong cong thanh nhieu doan nho va xem rnoi dean nho nhu mot doan thang. Xac djnh chieu dai ella de doan thang d6 va c6ng cac ket qua lai.

- Dung may do dUCmg cong: d~t banh xe cua may 6 mot dau duong cong ung voi s6 doc ban dau la u{)' Lan banh xe doc duong eong cho den diem cuoi cimg, doc diroc so doc u., Cnieu dai duong cong d duoc tinh theo:

d = k (u,,-uo) (2-6)

voi k HI. gia tri mot khoang chia cua may do,

41

5. X6c dinh. di) doc va goc doc ella doan thong

Muon xac dinh dq doc hoac g6c doc cua dean thang, tnroc ticn can xac dinh dt} cao ella diem dau H, va diem cuoi He cling nhu chieu dai bang cua doan thang d .

G6c doc V:

. He =H, 1=-·--··

d

H -H

V = artg c d

d

(2-7)

Dt}doc i %:

(2-8)

Tren co sa e6ng thtrc (2-7), (2-8) ngtroi ta xay dirng cac bieu db d¢ doc va goc nghieng. Nhlrng bieu dO nay duoc bo tri i:J goc phia Nam cua to ban d6.

D~ xac djnh do doc dia hinh giira hai diem nao do, dung compa do khoang each gitra chung, gifr nguyen khan dQ va dat len bieu dO. Tinh tien compa song song voi true tung cho roi khi mot dau eompa trung voi dirong eong va dau con lai trung voi true hoanh, vi tri nay chinh la gia tri d¢ doc gifta hai diem (hinh 2-10).

Hinh 2-10

42

6. Xtie dinh tllyin eo dij doc eho truce tren ban do

GiA sLr can xac dinh tuyen ngan nhat tlr diem A t6'i diem B tren ban do v6'i dq doc i (h inh 2-11). Tir khoang cao deu va d¢ doc i ta elf dang X;:lC dinh khoang each nam ngang nho nhat a tren ban do tuong irng v6'i do doc i:

h

a=--

i.M

(2-9)

Hinh 2-11

Trang do M Ut mall so ty J¢ ban do. Mo khau d¢ campa bang gia tr! ada: tinh, tir A theo huong toi B, Ian 111qt d~lt cac khau d¢ do sao cho cluing cat cac duong dong mire ke tiep tai cac diem Pr- Pl"· (hoac t., t~). it nhat cluing ta nhan diroc hai tuyenthoa man d¢ doc i. Thea yell d.u ella thiet k€ se chon duoc tuyen can thiet.

43

Twang hop khau d¢ compa khong cat dirong dong mtrc ke' ticp, nghia la dia hinh khu V~TC d6 co do doc nho hon d¢ doc thiet ke, khi do co th~ chon mot vi trf b,'lt ky de' pluit trien ruycn, Day Hi. van M duoc irng dung nhieu khi xay dung de cong trlnh dang tuycn.

7. Xac dinh dien tich tren ban do

Tuy theo hlnh dang ella khu virc din xac dinh dien tfch tren ball d6, do chinh xac yeu diu rna SlT dung mot (rang cac phirong phap sau:

a) Phuong pltap gitii tich: up dung tnrong hop dicn tich can xac dinh la mot da giac.

* Neu cac dinh da giac df! bier toa do (Xi' yJ va duoc danh so thtr nr rheo chieu kim dong h6 (hmh 2-12), dien tich da giac tfnh theo cong thtrc:

! (x,-y,)

Hillh 2-12

44

(2-10)

1 n

A=-"y-(x 1 -x I)

2 £._. I 1+ 1-

,~I

(2-11 )

Vi du: Tfnh dien t ich cua eta giac thea sol i¢u sau:

r D'inh da giac 1 2 3 I 4
I
~_ x(m) 300 800 1200 100
L_ y(m) 300 400 600 I 1000
-- Gi::ii:

Thea (2-10) ta co:

2A = XI (Y :-y ,;) + X:(Y_l_Y I) + x , (Y .)-Y J + xiY:;-Y_') + x:;(y I-Y-I) (2-12)

Thay so:

2A == 300(400-1200) + ROO(600-300) + 1200(1000-400) + + 1000(1200-600) + 400(300-1000) = - 240.000 +

+ 240.000 + 720.000 + 600.000 - 280.000 = 1.040.000 A = 1.040.000: 2 = 520.000 (nr')

CIIlI _\': Tif (2-12) cling co the viet:

(2-13)

Neu viet toa dl) cac diem dtrai dang phan so (ttl so la x, mau sola y) va xep tlur tu nhu (2-13) khi do ve trill ella (2-13) bang hieu cua t6ng cac tich roa dl) ket uoi bang net lien va t611g cac tich toa do ket noi bang net dtrt.

45

llinh 2·13

Sa do (2-13) r[lt rien l<;ii khi dung may tinh d~ tinh roan.

,~ Truoug hop khong biet toa do de dinh da giac: chia da gi:k thanh cac tam giac, do Hit d. cac cann cua tam giac, khi do dien tich ella tam giac thir i HI:

,- -_ .. _._--- -

A;=,ip;(p; -a)(p,-b;)(Pi -e)

(2-14)

T d' a + b + e- l' h·' dai ca h ci

rang 0: p. == _'-_.'--_!_ . ·1· b cae leu ai cac can cua

.......... I 2 .,. c I' ]"I It..

tam giac i V~I dien tich cua da giae la:

(2-15)

Phuong pluip giai t ich cho dQ chinh xac cao han de phuong phap khac (dat toi 1 %0).

") P huong e!/iJjJ do' gUi: ap dung trong tnrong hop khu vue dn xac dinh dicn tfeh co duong baa bat ky.

'" Xac dinh bang luoi 0 vuong:

Tren to gi{iy bong, xay dung lu6i 0 vuong sao cho rnoi 0 vuong eo canh tir 2 den 4mm. Phu hroi 0 vuong len h111h can do, dern so 0 vuong nguyen nam trong dirong ranh gioi, cac 0 khuyet a mep hinh diroc don lai cho du thanh 0 nguyen qua uoc urong bang mat. Dien tich khu vue bang. so 0 vuong nhan voi dien tich mot 0 vuong tinh thea ty le ban do.

46

* Xac dinh bang lu6i cac dirong song song:

Ke nhfrng dirong song song each deu nhau mot khoang a (a = 2--:--4mm) tren giay bong. Phu luoi doc dirong song song len hinh can do. Dien tfeh ella hlnh hang tong dien tich cac hinh chir nhat co chien rong bang a con chieu dai do tnrc tiep theo cac duong trung binh ella bang bi gioi IWn boi dirong bien ella hinh.

Phuong phap do giai co iru diem la dan gian, nhanh chong nhirng di) chinh xac thap (2%-5%). De: kiem tra va nang cao d¢ chinh xac, phuong phap nay thuong duoc thirc hien vai ba Ian tren cung khu vue can x.ic dinh. Ket qua eu6i cling la trung binh cong ella cac hill 00.

c) PII/{o"lIg pluJP co hoc (dl/lIg miiy do dieu ticli):

Phuong phap nay ap dung cho khu vue co dirong baa hinh dang bat kyo Uu diem ella phuong phap nay lit don gian, nhanh chong va dap trng duoc dl) chinh xac rna cong tac xay dung ycu call (5%).

May do dicn tich co cac b¢ phan chinh: canh tay don eire, canh tay don quay, b.inh xe quay, bo phan doc s6 ... (hinh 2-14).

47

Tuy thea dien tfch can do nho hay 16n rna vi rrf <-101 kim eire O.

Neu khu Vl.IC do dtroi 400cm2 trcn ban do, kim eire 0 nam ngoai ranh gi6i dn xac dinh, con ncu 1611 hem dat kim eire hen t fang cua duong ranh gioi,

Gia Sl( din do khu virc nlur (hinh 2-15) co dien tfch nrong doi nho. Dftt kim cue 0 a ngoai ranh gioi do.

A

(r )'<.

, \

Hiuh 2·i5

- Nira yang do phai P (b¢ phan doc so (1 ben phai dirong noi kim CL.fC voi kim quay OA). D(lt kim quay len diem A bat ky trcn dLrong bao, d9C s6 doc ban drill 111' Di chuyen kim quay theo duong bao thuan chien kim dong h6 cho den khi Ira lai A, doc so "2,

Dien tich hinh can do 13:

(2-16)

Trong do c HI. gia tri moi khoang chia ella may do dien rtch, c dtroc xac dinh bang thuc nghiem.

48

- Nua vong do tnii T (b() phan d9C so nam ('j ben trai duong Au) lam nrong nr nhu mra V{lllg do phai.

Kct qua nhan diroc III trung binh c(mg cua hai rura vbng do. De' x.ic dinh c, dung ]l1<IY do dicn Itch 0 tren do mot hinh ttl bict dien uch Au (tlurong IiI vai ba o vuong ella hroi vuong goc), Khi do ta nhan diroc:

Au

C =._ .. ---

(2-17)

D~ (1:1111 bao do chinh x ac phai clung 1:.1111 han do khoug nhuu nat, grip nep va dat len 11l,)1 ban phang. Khi do ban kinh quay R ph,'li khong deli VJ b~ll1g gia tr! khi de dinh e. E6 trf diem cue sao cho goc (j khop khi do nr 30!) den 15011•

8. Lap nuit cat doc nh a bdn do

Gia sir din h}p 1110t cat doc dja hinh thea huang An tren ban do nhu hI nh 2-16. D(lt to' gi,'iy kc 1 y thea huong A B, danh dan tal C{l cue diem giao nhau gifra dirong AB voi cac duong dong In trc. TiT nhfrng diem nay, dVng cac duong vuong goc voi f;\R, t ren do c1{Jt do cao cua c.ic duong dong mire Wang ung thco I)' I¢ dung cua m01 de !\oi dfi.u mut cua ctic doan vuong goc nay bang duong cong, la nhan diroc m01 cat dtrng dia hinh theo huang AB.

49

69~- -

. ~

--

I Do cao I

Khoiing c:ic~

J

Hinh 2-16

50

Call hoi v~l bai tap clurong II

1. BAn d6 va birth d6 gi6ng va khac nhau a nhfrng diem nao?

2. Co to ban do ty It? 1: 10.000, hoi khoang each nho nhat ngoai tlnrc dia la baa nhieu de' eo th6 bicu dien len bun d6 do?

3. Hay trinh bay:

a. Nguyen tac phan manh va ghi s6 hieu cho de t6 ban d6 t)1 I¢ 1: 1.000.000?

b. Nguyen t.1e phan manh va ghi s6 hicu cho cac to han d6 eo ty I~ Ion han?

4. Dia vat Ii gi? Cac each bien dien dia vat?

5. Dia hinh la gl? Cac plurong phap bieu dien dia hinh? Tai sao ngay nay ngiroi ta sir dung plurong phap duong dong mile trong bien dicn ban d6 dia hinh?

6. Trinh bay cac phuong phap xac dinh chien dai giira hai diem thuoc mot tuyen nao d6 tren ban do?

7. Cach slr dung ban do de' xac dinh do doc mat dat gifra hai diem? Ap dung phirong phap nay de xac dinh tuyen dii biet d9 doc nhu the nao?

x. Cac plurong pluip X<IC dinh dien tfch mot khu vue tren ban do? Dieu kicn d6 ap dung cho moi plurong phap?

9. Cach sir dung ban d6 de xay dung mat cat doc dia hlnh? 10. Sai tap:

51

Bai t(ip 2·/: Tren ban ve ty I¢ I: 1.000 co 2 diem M va N (hinh 2-17). Diem M dfl. bier toa dQ (Xi' Y) , diem N diroc xric dinh toa d6 qua cac thong so a, b, c. Hay xric dinh goc dinh huang a~l'" bier:

{X = 18oo,00m M t

, Yi=2400,OOm

a = 45,3mm b = 124,7mm e = 165,6111111

N

b

Hinh 2-17

Bai t(ip 2-2: Tfnh d9 doc doan thang AB theo hinh (2-18) va cac sc lieu do duoc nlur sau:

Ty l¢ ban ve 1 :2.000

a=6mm b e Smm

dAB = 55,2mm

52

8

Hinh 2-18

Bai ttip 2-3: Tfnh dien tfch khu virc gidi han boi da giac (hinh 2-19) voi so lieu a bang sau:

Die:m xt rn) y(m)
1 51 \0,25' 6220,47
2 5255,60 6130,55
3 5400,75 6240,65
4 6350,55 6400,35
5 5210,15 6350,46 3

2

53

Bai tdp 2-4:

Cac di~m dac tnrng dia hinh cua rno: khu virc dtroc the' hien tren ban ve nlnr hinh 2-20. Vc cac dtrong dong ITIlk cua khu virc do vai khoang eao deu la 1m.

48.41

50.52 48.39
49.13
45.56 47.24 46.68
47.15 43.72
44.3R
49.19 46.31 41.51 47.38

4R.26

50.92

Hillh 2-20

54

Chuong III

KIEN THlfC CO BAN vf SAl SO

§3-1. KHAI NIEM vA PHAN LOAI SAl s6

Do dac mot dai luong la dem so sanh no voi mot dai hrong cung loai duoc chon lam don vi.

D~ xac dinh mot dai luong do, phai dung dung cu do rei tien hanh do theo mot phuong phap do nao do trong moi tnrong do nhat djnh. Song khong bao gio co diroc dung cu do tuyet d6i chfnh xac, mot phuong phap do th~t hoan chinh, con moi tnrong luon luon thay d6i. Do vay bat cir mot ket qua do nao cling chua sai s6.

Sai s6 (L\) In. hieu s6 gitra gia tri do (I) va tri thuc (X) cua dai hrong can do.

(3-1)

Tuy theo ngu6n g6c, dac tinh rna sai s6 chia ra cac loai: sai lam, sai s6 he th6ng va sai so ngau nhien.

1. Sai him: UI sai s6 gay nen do thieu can than, nham Ian trong khi do, ghi, tinh ...

Vf du: Khi do khoang each nham han mot doan thiroc. Sai him rhuong co gia tri Ian nhung M phat hien va loai trir nell co bien phap kiern tra.

55

2. Sai s(i' h¢ thong: La sai s6 gay ncn do su thieu chinh X{lC ella dung cu do, do thoi quen cua ngLrt.'ii do, do ngoai canh tnay d()i (nh i¢t do, do ,im, chier quang ... )

V f du: Dung thiroc vai cuon co chieu dai danh nghia lO,OOm d~ do doan rhang BaO 06, nhung chicu dai th~t ella tluroc khi do J ai Iii 19, 99m. Nlur vay rnoi Ifin d(lt tluroc sai s6 1 ern, day J a sai so h¢ thong do dung C,-! do gay ra.

Sai s6 he thong co tri s6 va dan kh6ng d6i su6t qua trlnh do. Dt loai trir hoac han che anh huang cua sai s6 h¢ thong can: kiem nghiem va dieu chinh dung cu do, ap dung plurong phap do thich hap hoac tinh s6 hieu chlnh vao kel qua do.

3. Sai s()' ngdu nhien: La sai s6 xuat hien do dieu kicn do luon luon thay d6i.

Vi du: Khi do cao hinh hoc, s6 d9C thea cac day chi co chua sai so do mia bi nghicng, do iroc hrong khi 09C s6, do khuc xa anh sang ...

Qua nghien cuu Iy thuyer va thuc Ie cho thay sai s6 ngau nhicn co Ih~ diroc coi la nhirng dai hrong roan h9C ngall nhicn 11I{1ll thco luat phan bo chuan ella Gauxrr va co eric tinh chat sau:

+ Trong dicu k ien 00 nh'll dinh sai s6 ngau nhicn khong virot qua mot gioi han nhal dinh.

+ Sai so ngiiu nhicn co tri s6 tuyet d6i cang nho thi c6 kha nang xual hien cang nhieu,

+ S6 lfln xuar hicn cua sai s6 ngltu nhien dirong xap xi so Ian XUi.Yt hicn ella sai s6 ngau nhicn am

+ Khi so Jan do tang len vo han, so trung binh cong cua sai s6 ngau nhien ticn toi O.

56

LimL~] =0

(3-1a)

,,--;."_" n

SJ-2. cAe TIEU eHuA~ f)f~ DA~H (aA. KET QIIA. DO ClJNG DO CHINH xA.e

* D€: danh ket qua do cung d¢ chinh xac (cac ket qua do nhan diroc trong cung mot dieu kicn do), ngiroi ta dung cac tieu chuan sau:

1. Sai sfi trung binh 0

±I~,l

e=~ n

Trong do: 6.i: sai so thuc Ian tlur i

n : so Ian do

V [ d,_, 3 -1: Hai nhorn A va B cung do cac goc trong mot tarn giac voi 10 hin do vii sai so khep cua rnoi Ian do ia (don vi giay):

Nhom A: +4, -3, -5, +3, +2, -1. +5, -4, -3, +4.

(3-2)

Nhom B: -I, +2, -S, -3, +2, -2, +9, +1, -4, -2. Thco (3-2) , sai so trung binh cua mo] nh6m iii:

8A = 3"4 OF! = 3"4

Nell chi dung sai so trung binh thi hai nh6rn do chinh x ac nhu nhau,

2. Sai s6' trung phuong (m)

Dc: khuyech dai pham vi bien dong cua sai lech Gauxo de xuat sai so trung phirong:

rl6.M

rn=±~I-n- (3-3)

57

V6i vi du (3-1) ta co: Il1A = ±3"6 va mfl = ±4"3 Nhu val' nhorn A do chfnh xac han nhom B.

Ciic cong tlurc trcn deu duoc lap voi sai s6 tlurc l-. , song trcn thuc Ie rat nhieu tnrong hop khong the biet diroc Ir! thirc X. VI vay Bccxen uil dua ra cong tlurc tinh sai s6 trung phirong:

r(vv] .

01 =± ,'-'--

\' n-l

(3-4)

Trang do : Vi = [. - L Et sai s6 xac suar nh::"ll

L la tr] xac SUitt nhat

Tir de cong tlurc (3-3) va (3-4) ta thay do ebinh xac tang khi solan do tang.

3. Sa; s(/ xae suat p

Lit sai s6 ngau nhien rna trang dieu kien do da biet nhirng sai s6 ngau nhien co trj so tuyet d6i nho hay k1n han no deu tlnrong gap nlnr nhau trong day do.

Neu viet cac sai s6 ngau nhien thea thtr nr tang dan thi sai s6 ij vi trf giua cua day sc eo gi.i tri gan bang sai s6 xac suar.

Ciing co th~ tinh sai 56 xac suar thong qua sai s6 trung phuong m:

2 P"" --Ill 3

(3-5)

4. Sai so luy¢t dOl va sa; so" tuong dOl

Cac Ioai sai s6 tren 1a sai s6 tuyet doi, chung deu co don V! do. Neu chi dung cac sai s6 tuyet d6i doi khi khong thti danh gia

diroc d() chinh xac cua cac day do.

58

Vi tiff 3 -2: T6 A do chieu dai 1000m voi sai s6 20em, 16 B do chieu dai 600m voi sai so ISem.

Trang tnrong hop nay ta sir dung sai s6 nrong doi _!_ la ty so T

giiJa sai so tuyet doi va tri so cua dai luang do.

Thco vi du 3-2 , ket qua la:

1 20

= _. __ =
T 100000 5.000
15 I
= = -_ .. ---
T 60000 4.000 Nlur vay t6 A do chinh X3c han t6 B.

§ 3-3. SAl s6 TRUl'\G PHCO~G CVA MelT HA.M so cAc DAI LUO~G DO

1. Ham tuyen tinh

Xct ham so:

z=x+y

(3-6)

V6i x, y la cac dai IU<1I1g do doc lap, luang irng co cac sai s6 thuc ~, va ~)' Khi x, y thay doi ITIQt luong ~, , ~y thi ham so z cung thay d6i mot hrong ~Z' nghia la:

z + ~z = (x + ~J + (y + ~)

(3-7)

Neu moi dai [u<1I1g do dtroc do n bin, nhu vay la eo n dang thirc dang (3-7). Binh phuong ca hai ve ella cac dang thirc tren, 1a c6 n dang thirc co dang:

2 2 2

i'!.zi = i'!.xi + Llyi + 2Llxii'!.Yi

Cong cac dang tlurc tren lai va chia eho n, la co:

(3-8)

59

n

n

n

n

Thco tinh chat ella sai so ngau nhicn, ta co th~ bo qua so hang cuoi cimg:

[~L~J [~x~~l [Ll,LlyJ

-- =----+---

n n n

Tren eo sa cong there (3-3), ta eo:

In", = m ', + rrr',

Tir (3-10), eo tht: suy ra cho ham co n bien so:

Z = ko± k1xI ± k2x2± .... ·· ±knx"

(3-10)

(3-1 J )

Trong d6 XI' Xl' ••. x, ht cac bien so doc lap, nrong trng e6 de sai so rrung phuong m., m2,·· rn.,

k., k., k2•· k"la cac hang so.

Khi d6 sai s6 trung phuong cua ham z se la:

o " k........" !") .., 2

m-,=k-,m-I + -2nr2+.'. + k-nm-n (~1-1 )

Vi tli.' 3-3_· Trang tam giae ABC, d~ xac dinh goc C nguoi ta do cac goc A va B nhan diroc so lieu sau:

A = 53°18' 19" voi rn, = ±3" B = 69°35'27" voi mB = ±4"

Tfnh gia tr! goc C va sai s6 trung phirong me GiiLi:

C = 1800-(A + B)

c= 180"-(3°18'19" + 69u35'27") C = 57°06' 14"

Sai so trung phuong me tinh theo (3-12): m='c = m='-", + m!B

1112,= 32+ 42= 25

- > mc=± 5"

60

G·, .', , C I' C 57°06'14" + <::"

ra tn cua goe a :::: __ '

2. Ham s6' dang tdllg quat Co ham so:

z:::: I(x., x2 .•• X,) x., X~ ... Xn: Cac bien so doc lap

~l' ~2··· ~,,: Cac sai s6 thijc urong img ella cac bien so. Ta e6 the: viet:

(3-13)

z + ~,.:::: f(XI+~I; X:>+~2.'· x,,+~J (3-14)

Khai trien thea chuoi Taylor va bo qua so hang phi tuycn tinh nhan diroc:

Of Of Of

z + ~,. :::: f(x; x2 ... X,,) + :;-- ~l + --~, + ... + _.- ~

ex, 0" 0,,, "

Nghia la:

(3-15)

Tren eo so· (3-11) vii (3-12) ta eo sai so trung plurong ella ham z Hi:

Trong do: a f : d<'.IO ham rieng phan ella ham z voi bien so Xi ax;

m.: sai so trung phuong ella Xi

Vi JIJ J -4: Do chien dai doan duong doe duoc 0 :::: 50,00111; OlD = ±0,05 m , g6e nghicng V = 15uOO ; Illy= ±30". Tinh chieu dai bang S va sai so tnmg phuong ella n6 (hinh 3-1).

61

Hilll! 3·1

Giai: TIlCO hinh ve chieu dai S la:

S =: D cosY

S =: 50,00. cos 15°00 =: 4g,29 (m) Va sai so trung phuong ella chien dai S:

" as: ~ as: m~.

Tl1 . =(- .. - ) Tn +( -_) -

S :lD [) ...,v 2

(J 0 P

as . r as

- - =: - Dsm"· - - =: I

av ' aD

Thay so ta co: Ills = ± 0,05 (m)

Nlnr vay chieu dai doan do la: S =: (4g,29 ± 0,05) m

§3-4. so TRll~G BINH CONG V A SAl s6 TRUNG PHUOI\'G eVA l\() KHI DO ClrNG DC) CHiNH XAC

Trong Trac diu, mot dai hrong thuong duoc do nhieu Uin va gi,i tri ella no la trung binh cac Ian do.

Trang cling dieu kicn do , mot dai luong nao d6 do n Ian voi

de tri II' 12 , ... , I" voi cac sai so {rung phirong nrong trng la m 1 '

In:~ , ... , 111, . SO trung binh c9ng L cua cac tr! do la:

11

'L.i,

L =: i':.!__

n

(3-17)

62

L la ham cac [rj do l, , theo (3-12) ta nhan diroc sai so trung

, I" I" I "

phuong cua L la D1L. 1111.- = ( - )-1111- + (- )-m~- + ... + ( )-tnll-

n n n

Gia Slr tnl= m, = ... = mil = III thi sai s6 1111. co gift tri:

III mi. = =t= ,,/n

(3-18)

Tir cong thLIC (3-18) ta nhan thny so trung binh cong co sai so nho han ... ./;; Ian so voi sai s6 cua moi Ian do. Vi vay so tnmg binh cong Ht s6 dang tin cay nhat.

Vi : ia so hieu chinh Ian thtr i, Vi = l, - L

Sai so trung plnrong cua so trung blnh cong thco s6 hieu chinh la :

i

" [vv] Il1L=± /- .. --

\, (n -J).n

Vi dIJ3-5: Chieu dai AB diroc do 4 Ian cung cI{) chinh xac voi de ket qua nhan duoc b b,lng 3-1. Hay xac dinh so trung blnh cong va sai so trung phuong CLIa no cung nlur sai s6 trung pluroug ella moi Ian do.

(3-19)

Bang 3·1

Lan do t, (m) v;=I,-L (m) vv
1 [78,75 -0,03 0,0009
2 178,g2 +0,04 0,0016
3 178,76 -0,02 0,0004
4 178,79 +0,01 0,0001
L 178,78
L 0,00 0,0030 63

Sai so rrung phirong moi kin do:

~-.--- ,._._-

" I vv] ,'OJ)030

III = ± ,---- - -- = ± ,'--- = ±O,03 (rn)

\,'(n-l) \' 3

Sai so trung phirong ella L:

m 0.03

Inl. = ;r- = =r: = 0,015 (m)

vn '\''4

Va chien dal AB \a L = 178,78 ± 0,02 (m).

§3-5. TIElJ CHlJAi'I DANH GIA KET QllA DO KHONG CiJ~G DO CHIJ\H XAC

Trang tlurc te, dieu kien do rhtrong thay dbi nen cac kct gmt do nhan duoc kh6ng cung do ehfnh xac va nhu vay, kh6ng Ih~ tinh roan theo cac bieu tlurc cua §.3-4.

D~ giai quyct, ngiroi ta dung so bo tro cho vice tinh toan cung mot hie c.ic tri do khong cung d9 chfnh xac, dong thai cling cho bier d9 chinh xac ella cac Ir! do. SO d6 goi Ia trong so va tinh theo cong thirc:

,

j.Lp = -----

, -r

m~

1

(3-20)

Trong do:

Pi - trong so etta Ian do thu i.

m, - sai so trung plurong cua Ian do i.

~l2 = C - he so trong so co gia tri Illy chon. Tuy nhicn C khong deli cho tat cit cac tri do duoc dcrn so sanh,

. .

Khi d6 so trung binh cong Lpclla day do khong cung do chinh xac Ia:

[PI] L ---p- [P]

(3-21 )

64

Qua (3-ll) {a (hay Pi cang Ion thi trj do nrong irng Ii chiem I)' trong cang lon Irong vice xac dinh tri trung binh trong s6 L; Day la ban chat trong so cua Irj do:

Nell chon ~l = m, thl Pi = ! (rrong so dan vi). Khi do ~l g9i 1;1 sai s(i (rung plurong trong so don vi, dtroc I inh thco cong tlnrc:

: lvvl

~t::: ± ,'----

\' n-I

(3-22)

Va sai so trung plnrong cua so trung binh trong sola:

u mLp::: ± -~-'--

.,j[P1

(3-23)

Thay (3-22) van (3-23) la co:

r [Pvv I

rn, ::: ± ,'------

-r \1 (n -1)[P]

(3-24)

§3-6. cAe DO~ vr 1)0 DiJNG TRO~G TRAC fJlA

1. Don vi do chilli dai

Drill vi do chicu dai lit met (01). M<;H met la chieu dai cua I .650.763,73 btroc song truycn trong chan kh6ng ella nguyen to KriptonX6 trong vung l]lIang ph6 x,\c dinh. Ngoai ra con hay dung ciic boi so' vii iroc so ella met nhu: kilornet (km), dex imet (dm), xangtimer (em), milimet (mm) ...

2. Don vi do goc

G6c diroc do bang do n Grad (gr) hoac Radian (rad).

- Mot do (1 ") Et gift tr] goc b tam chan cung co chieu dai bang

I h . , dut ,

-- C 11 VI ella UO'I1g tron.

360

65

D' '1 I' I' I I' (I' 1°) , " (I" 1 )

o COil c Hac C ua I H1I11 P lUI = - va gwy = _.

'. 60 60

- Mot Grad (I gr) ]a gi<i tri goc iJ tam chan cung co chien d:J.i

h~ 1 I ., l' 'C"·'·' d ang _ .... C 1U VI cua curong troll, ac uoc so cua gra· :

400

Xangtigrad:

F' 1'=

100

Miligrad:

I"C -I_ 100

- MQI Radian (I rad) I~l gia tri goc iJ tam chan cling co chieu d.ai b,'mg hall klnh ella duong tron. Cac 0011 vi do co th~ tich chuyen doi:

I Rad = 57",2957'6 = 63,6619Xn gr 10 = 0,01745 Rad = 10(9 gr l~r=O,1571 Rad=Ou,9

De de dang chuyen dbi cling troll tir don vi dai sang dan vi goc V~l nguoc lai, ngurri ta citIng h~ so chuyen dbi p:

p" = 570,3

p' = 3.43'6' p"= 206.265"

66

Cau hoi va bai tap chuong III

1. Sai so do dac la gr? Phan loai sai :;6 thea ban chat. Tai sao sai Him va sai s6 h¢ thong co the loai trir khoi kct qua do'?

2. Sai so ngau nhicn HI gl? Nell cac dac diem?

3. Trang do dac cung d() chinh xac, co nhirng rieu chuan nao danh gia dl) ehfnh de ket qua do? Cong tlnrc tfnh sai s6 trung phuong ella Gauxo va Becxen co diem nao giong va khac nhau?

4. Thanh I(lp cong thuc t inh sai so trung phtrong cua ham so

ctic ket qua do doc lap?

5. Tai sao nguoi ta n6i "So trung blnh cong la so dang tin cay nhfit"?

6. Cong thirc tinh trong so? Nell y nghia cua n6 trong vice xu ly eric ket qua do khong cung d¢ chinh xac?

7. Ea.i rap:

Bai tap 3-1: Ket qua do H \fin mot goc bang [?l, nhan duoc cac tri s6 ghi trong bang 3-2. Tinh tri s6 trung bmh goc 0 va sai so trung plurong cua goc tinh diroc.

Bang 3-2

Lan do Tri so do I Lin do ! Tri so do
\ 86°05'4 5 86"05'5
2 86°05'3 6 86°05'4
3 1 86"05'7 7 86"05'6
4 86°05'2 8 86°05'\ 67

Bai fg:p 3-2: Canh A-B duoc do 6 Ifin voi s6 lieu ghi trong b • .1ng 3-3. Tfnh sai s6 nrong d6i canh A-B

Bang 3-3

._ Tris6dO~
111 do Tri so do (rn) Lan do
._.
! HUN 6 4 18,887 I
- I
2 18,892 5 18,893 ;
._- "'
3 18,901 6 18,885 i Bai tap 3-3: Co tam giac ABC (hinh 3-2). Cac tri s6 va sai s6

wong irng:

a = 215,46 m ± O,08m y = 58° 17'3 ± 0'3

~ = 71°48'6 ± 0'3

Tfnh chien dai b cua canh AC va sai so trung plurong I11h

A

b

JI

c

a

Hiflh 3-2

68

Chuong IV DOGOC

§ 4-1. KHAI l\'I£M

Goc 13. mol trong nhtrng yell to co ban cua cong rae trac dia, C6 hai loai goc: goc bing 13 va goc dUng V.

1. Goc htlng 13 cua hai huang OA va os 13. goc nh] dien hop boi 2 mat phang thang clung, clura OA va OB (hinh 4-1 ).

A

Gia tri cua g6c bang bien d6i tir OO~36011 theo chieu kim dong ho.

2. Goc dung V (con goi 18. goc nghieng) cua huang ngam OA I~l goc tao bcii huang ngam voi mat phang nam ngang P (hinh 4-2).

69

A

o~p

Nell OA nam phia tren mat phang ngang V mang gia tri duong, tnrong hop nguqe lai V mung gia tr] am,

Gia tri cua V bien d6i tir 0°..;. 9011•

§4-2. MA Y KINH vi

May kinh vi Ia dung cu dt do g6e bang va g6c dirng. Ngoai ra con dung de: do khoang each va do cao,

Thco cau tao, may kinh VI duoc chia tam 3Im.li:

- May kinh VI kim loai: vanh de? lam bang kim loai va d9C s6 true tiep hang kfnh lup,

- May kinh VI quang h9C: vanh d¢ Jam bang v;)_t lieu trong suot, so d9C rruyen len kinh lup qua he thong lang k inh.

- May kinh VI dien tir: nho bo dem vii man hinh ngiroi ta de dang xac dinh duoc so d9C.

Thea d¢ chfnh x ac may kinh VI duoc chia thanh:

- May kinh vi d¢ chinh xric cao voi sai so trung plurong do goc:

tnB = ± 0"5 ..;. ±3"

- May kinh VI do chfnh X3c trung binh voi sai so trung phuong do goc:

mIl = ± 3"..;. ±to"

70

- May k inh VI d¢ chfnh xac thap voi sal so trung phuong do goc:

mil:::: ± 10" -;- ±60"

Du I~I loai nao may kinh VI cling g6m 3 phan chinh:

1. Gia may: bang go hay bang kim loai, tao thanh hoi 3 chan.

Cac chan co th~ thay doi d¢ dai,

2. De'may: la bi'1I1 de co 3 oc, cluing M can bang may khi do

(hinh 4-3).

3. Than may:

- Ban d¢ ngang va ban do dung.

- Ong kfnh.

- Cac loai 6c khoa, oc vi dong ...

0) Bun d¢: tren do khac vach (theo thang d¢ hay grad) gia tr] lang theo chien kim dong ho. Gia tri vach khac tuy thuoc V~IO 09 chinh xric yell call cua may. D~ x.ic dinh etC dang so doc, treu ban do con co vach chunn (vong chuan). De" bier duoc cac ball d¢ ail (1 vi tri Him vice hay chua nguoi ta g~n ong thuy van ban do.

h) Ollg tlIlIY: CO hai loai

- Ong thuy dai: diroc call tao tir mot 6ng thuy tinh hinh tru voi mar tren phia trong co dang cong tron, ban kinh R :::: 3m -;- 200m. Ong thuy duoc d6

Hillh 4-3

71

(lfiy chat long co de) nhot thap nlur ere hay con nong roi han kin lai. 6 nhict UQ thuong, khoi eh{lt long giarn tht rich 1,:\0 khoang tr6ng goi Ikt "bot nuoc". Mat tren cua 6ng thuy co de vach chi a each nhau 2mm tuong trng voi goc if tam r (hinh 4-4). Gia If! r cang nho thi do ehinh x,-IC ella 6ng thuy cang cao (rlurong r = 15" -:- 60"). Duong tier tuyen voi mat cong phia trong cua ong thLIY vii di qua diem gitra ("ctitlll khong") goi Ii true cua 6ng thuy dai. Khi hai dau "bot nuoc'' doi xirng voi nhau qua "diem khong" true 6ng thuy dai nam ngang.

Hinh 4-4

- Ong thuy tron:

Mat rrong ella 6ng thuy tron co dang chom cau, dinh mat chom cau Ht "diem kh6ng". Dirong ban kinh di qua "diem khong" Ia true cua 6ng thuy Iron (hinh 4-5). Khi "bot mroc" tap trung, true ong thuy tron a vi t r i thang dirng.

D(> ehfnh xac cua 6ng thuy tron thap han dQ ehinh xac cua 6ng thL1Y dai. Dung ong thuy tron trong can bang SCi b(> may.

72

a)

b)

Hinh 4-5

d 0/1,1; kinh

Cac bo phan chinh ella 6ng kinh don gian (ninh 4-6). 2

................... ,',.;

3

4

5

Hinh 4· 6

+ Kinh vat (1): Tao hinh anh that CI"!a vat. Anh nay nho hon kfch thircc vat va nam cling phia voi tieu ditm sau cua kfnh V~It.

+ Liroi day clnr thap (2): la mot t,'t111 kinh phang tren do khac hroi chi chir th~r (cac vach ehinh va cac vach do khoang each). Anh ella vat khi do sf: nam trcn hroi day chi} thap .

+ Kinh mat (3): Co tac dung nhu kinh hip qua d6 nhin thay <.Inh tren ltroi day chi} thap. Kfnh mat co th~ di chuyeu duoc nho mot oe goi la DC dieu lieu.

73

Khi thay doi vat ngarn, vi tri anh nrong trng ciing thay deli thco. Dc' dna anh vc luoi day chir thap, ngm'ii ta h6 trf mot IhALI kinh phan ky (4) giiJ'a kfnh vat va luui day chir thap dc' thay d6i lieu ctr salt ella kfnh V~1. Thau kfnh phan ky di chuyen doc true nho OC dieu anh (5).

Dirong thang n6i quang tam kinh v~t voi quang lam kinh mat va di qua tam cua mang day chir thap la true ngam cua 6ng kfnh.

DO ph6ng dai cua 6ng kfnh yX;

(4 - 1)

f,: tieu ctr kinh vat fm: lieu elf kfnh mat

Hien nay do ph6ng dai ella 6ng kinh trac dia thirong tir IS den

S() 1_', cOSo 2° an, vung ngam , -;- .

D~ doc duoc de dang va chinh xac cac gia tri goc tren b::U1 dl'? nguoi ta diu tao them bo phan doc s6.

- D6i voi may kinh VI kim loai dung du xich voi s6 dl'? chinh xac t:::: I (/: gia tri nho nhat cua vach chia tren ban do, n: s6 n

khoang chia tren du x ich). Khi doc s6 ta tim vach trung ella du xich va him do.

- Kfnh hie'n vi thang vach dung eho may kinh VI quang hoc.

Thang vach duoc khac true tiep len man anh ella kinh doc s6. Moi thang chia vach co gia tri bang I va duoc chia thanh n khoang bang nhau. Khi doc so, dira theo vach khac nao do cua

74

vanh de) narn 19t trong thang vach (hinh 4-7). Thco hinh vc so d9C tren him de) ngang la 1741155'0.

- Vai m.iy kinh VI dien nr, so doc the: hicn tnrc tier tren mall hinh.

Hillh 4-7

~4-3. Kn1M l'\GHltM V ADIEU CHI:"H CAC DIEU KltN co nAN CllA MAy KINH vl

De darn bao do goc duoc chfnh xac, UlC dieu kicn hinh hoc co ban cua may kinh VI phai duoc ton trong. Tuy nhicn, trong qua trinh sir dung, cac dieu kien nay eo the bi pha '10. Vi vay, dn phai kicm nghiern va dieu chinh cluing.

1. True ong thiiy dai tren ban d(j ngang phdi vuong goc voi true quay cua may

a) K i/lI/ IIghi¢/11

Sau khi can bang so bo may, quay may d~ cho 6ng thuy cUli song song voi duong noi 2 DC can nao do, xoay hai 6c din nay ngiroc chieu nhau cho bot thuy t~p trung.

- Quay may 90° , dung DC can con lai (6c 3) dua bot ruroc vao giira.

75

- Quay may di I gOO, neu bot nuoc khong lech hoac lech

thong qua ntra khoang chia thi dieu kien nay coi nlnr thoa man.

Neu bot ruroc lech nhieu han can phai dieu chinh. h) Dillll chinl«:

- Dung oc can 3 dua h91 thuy vc mot mra so cung Icch.

- Dung 6c dieu chinh iJ dau ong thuy dai d~ dira bor thuy

I ~ P trung.

Tlurcng phai thirc hien vai Hin cac buoc a, b dieu kien nay moi d ,:1 111 b ;'\0.

2. True ngdm cua ong kinh pluii vuong g6c vai true quay cua ong kinh

a] Kieln !lgliiflJl_·

D~I may a diem A, sau khi can bang may, quay may v~ ngam diem B (each may 25 7 40m). Diem B phai r6 va dQ cao gan bang db cao 6ng kfnh. Do a hai vi tri 6ng kinh duoc cac tri so T va P. Tinh sai Iech:

P - T - 1800 = 2e

(4-2)

Ncu 2c ~ 2t (t: do chinh xac ella bo phan doc so) thi coi nhu dieu kien nay aa dam baa. Nell 2e > 2t can phai dieu chinh.

h) Die'll ("hillli:

* Giir nguyen tinh trang cua may, tinh so doc da hieu chinh:

P' = p+ c

(4-3)

Tim so doc dung P' tren ban el(> ngang. Liic nay day dirng cua luoi chi day chir thap lech khoi di~m B.

* N6"i long cac DC giir hroi day chir thap, dieu chinh d~ trung tam hroi day chir thap trung diem B sau do van chat cac DC lai.

76

Di6u kien nay thuong tien hanh mot so Ian rnoi thoa man.

3. True quay Clta (/nx kinh phdi vuong goc voi true quay cua nltiy

Dat m{IY kinh VI each luang cong trinh 20 -i- 30m, sau khi can bang may, ngam diem A 1'5 net iJ trcn cao, co dinh ban do ngang. H<';\ eng kinh ngang tam dQ cao may, danh dau duoc diem Al trcn urong, Dao ong kinh va lam tirong II! duoc diem A2 ••• Ncu hai hinh chieu Al ' A1 vuot fa ngoai chi kep cua lucri chi thi phai dua may vao xuong sira clura.

Dicu kien Bay rat quan trong khi si'r dung may kinh VI chuyen true len tfing cao, trong k iern tra S~( thfing dung ella cong trinh ...

4. Day chi dung chinti Iwji chi' thfjp pluii tiding dung

a) Kielll IIghi~'1I/

Sau khi can bang may, hucng 6ng kfnh tai mot day doi Ireo a noi khuat gi6 each may 20 -;- 25m. Neu hinh anh day doi trung voi day chi dung thi dieu k ien nay thoa man. Nguoc h.li hinh anh day doi V~\ day chi dirng 1<.10 vo'j nhau mot goc lech, can phai dieu chinh.

h) Di(;"1/ chinh

Ncri long cac OC gifr hroi d{lY chir thap va xoay lucri chi cho den khi day dung trung voi hinh anh ella day doi, sau do van chat cac oc gill.

Sau khi k iern nghiern va c1i~L1 chinh dieu kien nay can kiem tra lai dieu kicn thtr hai,

. .

77

5. Vi tri diem 0 cua ban di) dung (MO) phdi on dinh. gtin hdng 0

Vi Irt diem 0 la so d9C tren ban do dirng khi true ngam nam ngang va bot thuy cua ong thuy dai trcn ban do dung tap trung.

II) Kil'll /lghi~1II

Sau khi can bang may, ngam vc diem B (day ngang chinh trung diem B) roi doc so tren ban do dung iJ ca hai vi tri, duoc ctic so d9C Tva P. Truoc khi doc so phai chinh cho bot rnroc ella ong thuy dai tren ban d(> dirng tap trung. MO diroc xac dinh theo cong tlurc:

T+P± 3600 MO=

2

(4-4)

h) Dii!lf chinh

Dung oc vi dong han eli) dirng dat s6 doc bang so doc dil dicu chinh sai so MO, khi do bot ruroc lech khoi vi trf giira. Dung vit rieng cua 6ng thuy tren b~111 d9 dirng dua b91 ruroc van giira.

San khi dieu chinh xong phai k iem tra I<.I-i.

QUiI trinh kiern nghiem va dieu chinh m,IY kinh VI phai tuan theo tlnr nr trcn day nharn dam bao cho de kct qua da hieu chinh truoc khong hi thay doi khi dieu chinh de dicu kien tiep theo.

§4.4. DO GOC BA~G

I. Thao hie tai mol tram do

. .

I. Dinh. tam rei can may

Dinh tarn may 13 lam cho true quay cua may di qua dinh g('"lc can do (tam moe), con can may 13 dira true quay ella may ve vi

tri thang dtrng. Trang thirc te, dinh tam va can may co lien quan anh hirong Un nhau, can phai lam dung dan nlnr sau:

a) Diuh tum S(! bo: Sau khi da V~1n chat may V~1O giu ba chan nho oc noi co moe day doi, d(ll so bo gii\ ba eh,111 sao eho dau nhon ella quit doi roi vao lam moe, Co dinh chac ba chan, khi do dau qua doi co the: ra khoi rum moe. NO'i long oc n6i, xe dich may cho 16i khi dau qua doi trung tam m6c.

h) ell! I//(/Y sa h¢: Dung ba oc can dicu chinh sao cho hQI thuy cua 6ng thuy tron tren ban dQ ngang t(tp trung.

c) D[1I1i tdtn IiIllY chiuh .Hf(·: Noi long DC noi, nhin qua be) phan dinh tam quang hoc, dich chuycn rruiy cho tarn ella no trung voi tam moe. V~l11 chat oc noi.

J) elm fI/(IY chinh X(IC:

8(11 eho true ong thuy dai tren ban dQ ngang song song voi dirong noi 2 trong 3 oc can m.iy, van hai 6c nay IIguqe chieu nhau cho b91 thuy tap trung.

Quay may di YO(), dung oc can con It)! de" dieu ehinh cho bQI ruroc IQ_p trung.

Sau khi can may chinh xac, dieu kien dinh tam co Ihe hj ph.i vit, can phai lam lai IU buoc c Ira di eho den khi ca 2 dieu k ien nay duoc dam biola.

2. Ngam 11l1}c tieu

Truce khi ngarn muc lieu phai dicu ehinh de nhin 1"6 hroi chir thap bang each lurona onu kinh len mot phong lien san" van oe

~ b b . b' _

dieu chinh kfnh mat cho den khi thay lubi chu thap r6 net. De

ngam muc liCLI chinh xac, nhanh chong, can time hicn thea hai btroc:

79

a) Bdt IIlIfC tieu sa bo: Nho h9 phan ngam sa bo gan phia ngoai 6ng kinh de: tim rnuc tieu, khi rnuc tieu trimg voi dirong chuan cua bo phan ngam sa bo thl kho.i De ham ban 00 va ong kinh, dung OC dicu quang dicu ch inh cho anh ella muc tieu n5 net.

h) Bilt 1111/1" tieu chiuh sac: Dung de 6c vi doug ban do ngang vii 6IJg k inlt de dira Hung tam mang day chir thap V~lO dung 1ll~IC lieu.

3. Diit gia tri sodoc huang ban diiu

Trong do g6c ciing nhu h6 Irf goc bang, lnrong ban drill

I' d d ~ " ao do (()"OO'{)()" I ~ 180" , . I' tmrong tree '.11 mot goc a, nao 0 10<;lC _... vat n a

n

sO vong do goc), etch Jam nhu salt: Mb 6c ham vanh chuan ngang quay may 06 tim so doc gi.ln dung voi gii.l tri <10• Khoa be ham vanh chuan ngang, dung OC vi d(mg vanh chuan ngang de' d~l! dung gia I!"\ a". Sal! do me OC ham ban d¢ ngang, dua may vt: ngam chinh xac diem dau nhu m~IC 2.

Il, Cac phuong phap do g6e bang

I. Phuong pluip (10 clan (do cling)

Phuong pluip nay thlfeJng ap dung cho tram do co hai hirong do (hinh 4-8).

A

B

Hinh. 4-8

M6i vong do durrc tao boi hai nira yang do doc I~p nhau a hai vi tri ella ban d(> dirng (11I1a vong do thuan T - khi vj trf ban do dirng a ben trai nguoi do V~l rura vong do dao P khi ban d(> dung if ben phai nguoi do).

a) N //-(/ vong do tlutdn:

- Dat gi,i tri lurong ban d.iu, ngam chfnh X{IC A duoc gia tri a..

- Me oc ham vanh chuan ngang, quay may rhuan kim dong

ho ngam chinh de B d9C duoc so b I' Gin tri g6c in:

(4-5)

h) Nua vong do dao _.

- Dao ong kinh qua thien dinh.

- i\16 6c ham vanh chuan ngang quay may ngam B, doc duoc b..

- Xoay vanh chuan ngang ngtroc kim dong ho ngarn v~ diem

A, doc duoc tri s6 a2 Gia tri goc khi do dao kfnh IA:

(4-6)

c) T ill I! gill tri goc /'I/O l'CJllg do:

(t: d(> chmh xac cua may)

l' -, - • , , d PI' P [31 - f\,

till sna In goc ella von" 0 a: = _. ---'

13 .... :;, 2

(4-7)

CIII15':

Neu tai mot In.1111 do n vong thi gia tri huang ban dan se khac

I 1800, ;c., d ' .. . 'I' b) h cc -,

n tau _- -- 0 rnoi vong 0 va gJa tn goc a trung 1I1 c(;mg ella

n

cac yang do. Neu chi do 1 vong do, a mra yang do dao kinh phai xoay may eli 90° sau do moi rien hanh do.

81

\/j tllJ 4-/: Ghi so V;I t inh roan ket qua do gee bang 0 voi 2 vong do thco plnrong phap do CUIlg-, nell trong bang 4-1:

Bang 4-1

2. PII/(O'lIg plllip do roan vong

Phuong ph.ip nay ap dung eho tn.IITI do co nr 3 hirong trc len nlur hinh 4-9.

a

A

Hillh 4-9

X2

a) NI(o \'(}/lg do thuan:

- D~t tri sci lnrong han drill

~ Quay lllay thuan kim don3 116 J[\n luot ngarn A, B, C, D, A urong irng duoc eric so doc a., hi' CI, d., a.'.

hJ N/((J )'d/lg do dao

Dao 6ng kinh qua thien dinh, quay may ngiroc chieu kim dong h6 !{In hrot ngam A, 0, C, B, A nrong (rug diroc cac so doc

a,', d., C2' b.; a~~

c) Tinh gi'l tFt truug binh ('{Ie hll'CfIIg

l\cu su chenh lcch 0' de lmang gilb hai mra vong do nho hon sai so cho phep thi tinh gia tri trung binh eho moi huang do, Tren eo sa do la eo Ih6 tinh goc bing kep giira de ImOOg,

Neu mot tram do, do n vong th) gia tri hirong ban dau a moi ISO"

vong do se khric nhau - _ -- va gii\. tri goc la trung blnh cong cac n

vong do.

Vi £II.! 4-2: Ghi SO va tinh loan ket qua do goc bang a vong do IIHI nhat, thea phuong ph.ip do loan nay, nell trang bang 4-2.

Bang 4-2

----~------~------~

rf

,

1

. j) _.

r'_I!11 ong. 10:1ll S':; doc him ,I<) II t:<lllg Gi.ilri
do Jo ,10 Trung blnh Gi,j II"! goo: 1 g()C
I _-
Vilri , Vi Iri 11lI<inS villlg do 3
' billl dt) I ]"iii him d(l phai ' binh
_. ~-
; jO()"()5'41 (16)
A ()U"(l5"4( 1 ) I XU'05 'o( 1 () 00"05"4( I I ) 6:-;"14"21 1 ~~ ~
0 I .. ~~
H oX" 1 9'()(2) 14X"t '}'7(t)) 6X"19'6(12)
- XI"17'7(IX) r------
C 14Y"."lT2(3) 32Y"37'4(X) 149":17'3 (1:1)
1 46"06'5( 19) 1------ .
L D 1Y_~"4:rX(4) 115"4:1'')(7) 2Y.'i"4J'X (14) 64"21'6(20)
r----
A OU"U5'2('i) I X(t'U'i''i(6) UO'U'i'4 (15) ~3

Ngoai hai plurong phap co ball tren con co cac plurong phap do lap (dung cho tram co hai huang do), phuong phap t6 hop (dung cho tram co nhieu huang do) ... Tuy nhien, trong do dac cong trinh, ngtroi ta it dung cac phuong phap nay.

§4-S. CAC SAl s6 CHl; VEll TRONG DO GOC BA~G

Nhirng nguyen nhan chinh gay ra sai s6 trong do goc bang 18.= moi truong do, dung CL.l do va do ngiroi do. Thong qua viec nghien ciiu c.ic sai so nay nguoi [a tim fa duoc bien phap Hun giam hone 100:li trir dirac cluing ra khoi cac ket qua do.

1. Sai .'iif do moi trtrang

a) Khi tia ngam truyen trong moi truong do, no bi khuc XO;l thea hai chieu: ngang vii dung lam cho no lcch khoi mat phang thang dung di qua tJ.m may va diem do. De khac phuc, tia ngam phai each vat can IOn hen 1 III thco ca hai phirong ngang va dung.

b) Do sLTang mu, bui ... lam giam cirong d9 anh sang se kho khan cho bitt muc tieu, VI vay co gang do khi thai tiet t6t va dung tieu ngam co C{IC doan sail trang, do xcn kc.

e) Do anh sang mat tnli chieu true tiep vao may lam cho ciic bo phan ella may gian no kh6ng dell. VI vay, can dung 6 che cho may khi do vao nlumg hie nang nong.

2. Sai s6' do may

Truoc khi do thong thuong may kinh VI da diroc kiem nghiem va hicu chinh, song kh6ng the thou man hoan loan cac dieu kicn hinh hoc cua may va do cling Ia nguyen nhan dan den sai so.

Tuy nhien, neu do goc iJ hai v] trf ban d9 se khac phuc duoc sai so do true ngarn khong vuong goc voi true quay ong kinh

84

cling nlur true quay 6ng kfnh kh6ng vuong g6c voi true quay may, con khi dar gia tri hLf(mg ban dEll! cua moi vong do khac

IRO"

nhau -_." sc Hun giam sai so cac vach khac khong dell nhau n

ella vanh do.

3_ Sai so do nguoi do

(_J) Sai sd do dfllli tam nuiy

Thea hinh 4-10 may d~t lcch tarn doan em:

6A = ~-W = ~~.p

SA

A

8

o (sai)

Hinh 4-JO

Nhir vay, anh huang ella sai so nay cang 16·n khi khoang each tir may den tieu cang nho va bun kinh lech tarn en] dng IOn. De han che, giam em bang each dung bo phan dinh tam quang hoc.

h) Sai sr)' do dinl! tam tieu (hint! 4-11)

Tieu bi lech tam do dar tieu fa ngoai moe hoac do dung ticu nghieng. Sai so 6 do dinh tam lieu tai A Ja:

(4-9)

85

o

A' (SUI)

A(~)

Hinh 4-11

D~ khuc phuc, ngoai vice o0-t ticu dung 1[\1n moe va dung lieu thang, khi do co gtl11g ngam dcn g(}C hose g,i.n g6c lieu.

('j Sai so'l/g/il/I !lI1I_·

60"

m,,=+-

- Y'

60": goc nhin toi IWI1 cua mitt nguoi do. Y': dl) phong dai cua eng kinh.

d) Sui .w'/ do doc III"

(4-10)

m-r= ---

2

t: 09 chinh de ella bo phan doc so.

So vrri cac sai so thanh rhein kluic, sai so do O(,lC so anh huong 16n hall d. Do do, khi do g6c can luu y den sui so nay.

(4-11 )

§4-6. DO GOC DUNG

Gia slt can xac dinh g6e dung ella hirong AB D~t may I,~i A, can bang may.

X6

- Do thuan kfnh: Hirong eng kinh t6'i diem B (dung day ngang chfnh cua luoi chir thap de: b{1.1 Il1L.I.C tieu), din bang bot thuy dai tren ban dQ dung doc duoc gi~i. tri T.

- Dao ong kfnh thao tile nhir mra vong do thuan kinh, diroc gi~l :rj P.

Tuy thuoc vao tirng loai may (do c.ich khac vach a ban cia dung) rna co each t inh goc dirng V cho phi) hop,

Vi du voi may Then 020 ta co:

P + T ± 1 xoo

M ~ . __ . --_ _-- .. -

()~ 2

(4-12)

Va goc nghicng diroc t inh thea de c6ng there sau:

V = Mo-T V = P - M,

(4-13) (4-14 )

P-T v=-_··

2

(4-15)

Cach do goc nhir trcn cho ket qua nhanh chong nhung do eh inh xac thap, tlurong <lP dung khi (10 ve chi 1 ic"{ diu hinh. K hi lap luoi khong chc ell? cao do ve, yeu c.iu etl? chinh x.ic can hon, nguoi ta eta goc dirng theo plurong pluip S<l.U day: tai moi vi trf 6ng kinh btti mL.IC rieu ba Ifin urong ullg voi day tren, day gilra, day duoi, nrong Crng doc diroc cac so doc Tt, Tg, Td va Pt. Pg, Pd. Goc dirng tfnh theo kel qua ella 6 so do tren.

X7

Cau hoi va bai tap chuong IV

I. Co may 10~i gee theo quan diem cua trac dia? Neu dinh nghia tirng Ioai.

2. May kinh vi gorn nhimg bo phan ehfnh nao? Tile dung cua tung b<) phan chfnh do?

3. Tai sao tnroc khi do goc, phai kiern tra, kiem nghiem va dieu chinh may kinh vi? Nell trinh tl.T va each kicm nghicrn, dieu chinh cac <lieu kien co' ban ella may kinh vi'?

4. Trlnh bay "plnrong phap do cung" trong do g6c bang. Pham vi ling dung?

5. G6e bang AOE (hinh 4-8) diroc do htmg phuong phap do cling, so lieu vong do thir nhat nhu sau:

- Nira vong do trai:

al ::: 001109'4 b, = 49°4H'7

- Nita vong do phai:

a, == 180°09'6 b, = 229°48'7

Sai s6 a cac I1n doc so Ja nlur nhau va bang ±O'2. Hay:

a. Ghi so lieu vao s6 do va tinh toan tri s6 g6e.

b. Tinh sai s6 rrung plurong ella goc (chi do doc s6 gay ra), 6. Trrnh bay each do g6c bang theo phuong phap do roan vong? Pham vi ling dung?

88

7. Cac sai so anh hirong den do goc bang? Bien phap han che?

8. Cac X<1c djnh Mil v~ g6e nghieng tai moi tram do?

9. Dung may kinh VI Theo 020 dar tai A, do goc dung earth AB duoc so lieu sau:

T== 84°46' P == 275()14'

Sai so doc so tl cac vi tri ban d9 lit nhu nhau va bang ±O'2.

Tinh gia tri goc dung thea cac each khac nhau va sai so tirong ling?

89

Chirong V

DO CHrEt) DAI

Gii't sir co hai diem A va B trcn mat dut tv nhicn (hinh 5-1).

Ao, Bo 1~1 hinh chieu cua A, 13 tren mat thuy chuan. Do chieu dai 1~1 xac dinh khoang erich nam ngang d cua doan AB.

B

d

).ITC

Hillh 5-1

DC: x.ic dinh chieu dai AB, co th6 dung phuong phap do true tiep (so stinh tnrc ticp chien di,i C<in do vci chien dai ella dung cu do) hoac do gi.in tiep (chien dJ_j dn xac dinh diroc tinh qua 1 dai 1 uong khac diroc do tnrc tiep).

1. Dung Cll do dai

- Tluroc de Ioai nhtr rluroc go, thuoc vai (do dai voi dQ chinh xac thap), tlnroc thcp (do dai voi dQ chinh xac trung binh) va thiroc Inva (do dai do chinh x.ic cao),

90

- Mriy do xa quang hoc: dira tren nguyen ly xac dinh 1119t trong 2 dai luong cua tam giac thi sai (111nh 5-2) V~l dung cong tlnrc nrong irng ell! tfnh ket qua:

(5-1 )

-.-

o

b

fIill" 5·2

b: canh day.

~: goc thi sai (goc chan) Neu ~ khong deli, din do b Neil b kh6ng doi, can do r>

- May do xa song dien tic may d~1 (; A, thiet hi phan xa song 6" B chien dai AB la:

d == vt 2

(5-2)

v: van t6e truyen song trong khi quyen

t: thoi gian song di y~ tren quang QUang AB.

Tirong irng vrri cac loai s6ng ta co I1UIY do dai anh sang va 111<.\Y do dai YO tuyen dicn,

91

2. Tily thea tinh cJull cua cong trinh ta co: - Do dili dt) chinh X:lC cao:

=

T 10-1 !Of>

- Do dhi ell? chfnh x.ic Irung blnh:

I I

==--- _-

T 5000 10000

- Do dai voi at) chinh xac thap:

I 1

=- ~----

T 200 5000

§5-2. DO CI-IIElJ DAI BANG THL'6c THEP

1. Dung cu do

TI1U'O'C thep co nhieu loai voi chien cia! 20, 30, 50, 100m chieu rong ban 10 --:- 15mm, do day 0,2 --:- O,3mm. Vach khac tren rluroc den xangrimet. De: nang cao do chinh xac, ij deximet dfill ticn nglrai tu khac vach den milimct. Tluroc diroc cuon trong killing S{ll hay hop kin, hai diiu tluroc CO' Yang df keo ding thiroc hoac Ireo qua nang khi do.

Tnroc khi do phil! kiem tra, kiem nghiem tlnroc de: hie' thuoc co dam bao yell dlu do dac hay kh6ng va chieu dai tlurc te ella tluroc.

2. Dint: duong thiing

111011g rhuong chieu dai AB can do Ian han nhieu hin chieu dai ella thiroc, Vi vay ngiroi ta can xac djnh cac diem Irung gian I, 2, 3 ... trcn huang AB (hinh 5-3) sao eho khoang each ella 2 diem trung gian ke nhau nho han chieu dai ella tluroc. Viec lam nhu vay goi Iii dinh duong thang.

92

A

B

2

n

Hinh 5-3

Khi do voi ttl) chinh xac thap co the: dinh chrang rhang bang m5t thuong, khi can do ue) chinh xac cao, phai dinh bang may.

a) Dil/II d/((})/g 11/(111g bang ,mIl

D~01g lieu a diem A va B, mot ngiroi dirng erich A khoang 2- 3m ngarn sao cho 2 lieu trimg nhau. Ngl(ai rhu hai dung sao lieu theo SL.T chi dEtn ella nguoi ngtun sao cho lieu lrL!l1g voi huang 2 tieu ban d.iu vii danh dau diem. Lim urong nr cho de diem khac,

Trong dieu kien dia hlnh phtrc tap, t{im ngam cua AB khong thong suot, viec dinh dirong thang diroc tlurc hicn thea plurong ph .. ip nhfch dan (hinh 5-4). Khi de diem A C, 0 nam tren mot

D,

Hillh 54

93

dlrong rhaug V~I C, D, B cling nam tren IlH)[ duong thang hie do 4 diem A, C D, B se [hAng hang.

h J Difl" dll"CllIg (lilJllg f;/ing uur;

f);) [ may kinh VI (1 A sal! khi can bang nuiy, ngam ve tieu (). H.

Kho.i oc ham vanh tit') ngang. khi do 6ng kinh quay xung quanh true quay cua no v21 1,.10 ra 11101 phfmg [h,lng dung. Tar d de V! tri sao lieu narn trong mat phang nay dell thuoc huang AB.

3. Do wi tinh chieu dai

Dung thurrc thep x ac dinh true ticp chien dai gilia 2 diem trung gian ke nhau, Sau khi kCl thtic de doan di [lr A den B (do eli) nhat thiet ph;ii do ngLr{.1C iai tir B vc A (do vc), vice lam nay de loai trir sai s6 sui lam V;l 1;1 co S('1 cho viec danh gi;_\ 09 chinh xac kef qua do.

6S S. - S '

Neu sai so luang doi' = _(!I.~"- tho;_i man yell diu dat ra

~. S S[~ -

cua cong trinh [hI tinh gi:i trj [rung binh do eli va do vc lam kCI qua cuoi cling.

(5-3)

Chien dai S do diroc Ii-! chicu d;\i nghieng, can tinh chuycn ve chieu dai bang d.

Nell dia hinh giira A vii B l~l doc deu, xac dinh goc nghicng V (hinh 5-5) v~. unh diroc :

d =: S eosV

(5-4a)

Neu dia hinh gifra A va B co do doc thay dbi (hinh 5-6) hO(IC do dl) chinh xac yell cau, can x.ic dinh hieu do cao gina de C<}C phan doan. Khi do chieu diu bang ella dO;.l11 thang thtr i la:

94

d, = Si + 8.S, h2 8.S- = - -'--

1 2S

,

(5-4 )

(5-5)

d

L_ a,

Hillh 5-5

8

d,

dn-!

dn

A"

I"

Hinh 5·6 Va chieu dai della doan AB sc Hi:

(5-6)

Sl5

Trong do: S,: chieu dai 00 true tiep a doan i

hi. 0(> chcnh cao gifra hai coc phan doan i

4. Cac sai Sir trong (to chieu ddi b/ing thuac thep

a) Sui SlY do kie;1I IIghi~'llI 1/II(ac.-

I,: chien dai thuc te

1(1: chieu dai danh nghia

h) Sai s(/ do anh II/(dng (·lla .\"~( tha y a6j· /lliifl a¢:

M2 = «l.; t.t

C(: h¢ so gii"in no vi nhiet cua vat lieu lam thmrc

t.t: chenh lech nhiet d9 gifra khi do va khi kiern nghiem r) Sai s6' do tluro:: hi /lgllihlg (M/l1I 5 -7)

~h

d

Hinh 5-7 h2 t./, = ... -

, 2S

d) Sol w;' do dillli duoug rli{1I1g: (hlJ/h 5-8) t.:'

L\/, = -~

~ 2S

('j Sal sS do ,II/file hi \'6/1g: (liinh 5 -9) 8t.2

!J.I = _' ..

5 3!

96

(5-7)

(5-R)

(5-9)

(5- 10)

(5-11 )

2

~

,4-

d ~

3

Hinh 5-8

/~S

.s

Hinh 5-9

f) Sai so' do 1~li' k(;o tbuac kho!1g d/II ;),1 ~ =. ~~ti ~ (j.E

(5-12)

Trang do:

.6P: chenh Iech lire keo thtroc khi do so voj khi kiem nghiern E: h¢ so dan h6i cua vat lieu Jam tlurrrc

q: tiet dicn thuoc.

Ngoai ra con ph,ii tfnh den sai .0,6 do iluroc hi eong theo plurong ngang, sai s6 do doc so, do vach khac cua tlurcc kh6ng deu ...

Dung thtroc thcp tlnrong d~ xac dinh chieu dai theo phuong pluip d5. trinh bay iJ tren, d¢ ebfnh xac cao nhat dar

khoa lIN A~ .- d ,. de hf h xa h

oang- - --;.. - _- -. ell muon 0 VC11 0 c m xac cao an

2.000 3.000 '

dn phai dung tluroc thep ehia vach den milimet va plnrong phap do ch~t che han.

97

§5~3. no CHIEli DAI BA:"oJG MAy co c~p DAY no KHOANG CACH vA MIA »(NG

May eo cap day do khoang each la may kinh VI hay may thuy binh. C~IP d;_IY do khoang each duoc khac d6i xirng voi day ngang Cl'ta hr6i chir thap vrii khoang each p. Mia dai 3 -:- 4m, vach kho'\c dell xangrimet. Khi do khoang each. true mill a vi Irf thang dting di qua diem can do. {)~ X;_1c dinh khoang each AB. (li)1 may (). A, mia a B.

1. Truong hop tia Ilgllm tuitn Ilgang

True ngllIlg 0'0 cat mia a Q. Hlnh anh cua de day do khoang each c, C 6 tren mia la C va E.

Trt;Cmriy I

c

r .

p~ 0' -.-t

l '----t------++1

e

I . . I Ij

Hillh 5·10

9X

TLr hai tam giac dong dang CFE va c'F e' ta co:

D' n (5-13)
==
f P
va: D'= f (5- [4)
.n
p Kho.ing each 0 tir true quay cua may den min Iii: 0= D' + f + 6

(5-! 5)

Trang do:

f: tieu cu cua kinh vat

p: khoang each giira 2 day do khoang each

6: khoang each tir true quay cua may den tarn cua kfnh vat n: khoang each trcn mia giita hai diem Eva C

V6"i moi may cu the: f + 8 = C tlurong kh6ng d6i va diroc g9i f

la hang so ella may va ly so .. = Keung kh6ng dni dune goi l~l

P

h~ so do dai.

Chien dai D sc lu:

D = Kn+ C

(5-16 )

H~ so C thuong rat nho so voi khoang each can do ncn co the' bo qua, khi do:

D=Kn

( 5-17)

Dc" & dang trong tfnh roan, ngiroi ta Call 1'.10 may sao cho K = 100 (co tnrong hop bang 200).

2. Truong hop tia ngtim nghieng

Khi do a dia hinh doc, tia ngam co goc doc V. Khi do gia tr! can tfnh n' nho hall gia tri doc diroc tren mia n :

99

n':::: n.cos V

(5-18)

E

Lb

--t-----------_:.:::__-------+-

Hillh 5-11

Khoang each nghieng D:

D:::: Kn':::: Kn cosY

(5-19)

Khoang each nam ngang Dr]:

Do:::: D. cosY:::: Kn cos'V Cong tlurc (5-20) co the viet duoi dang:

Do =: Kn( l-sirr'V) :::: Kn - Kn sin"Y

(5-20)

(5-21 )

Trong do f'..D = Knsin2y nl so hicu chinh rir chien dai nghieng vc chieu dai bang, dai hrong nay co the' xac dinh nhanh chong trong bang tra chuyen dung.

Trong thuc te voi Y~ 2() co th~ coi chieu dai nghieng xap xi chieu dai hang.

lOP

Do chicu dai theo plurong phap nay nhanh chong, phu hop voi dia hinh plurc tap song do chinh xac thap ( 1 :300).

§S-4. DO CHI:ELJ DAI BANG S()NG DIBN TU

1. Nguyen I_v (to

Gia slr crin do khoang each D gifra hai diem A v<i B. Tai A d~1 may phat song tin hieu, tai B dat thiet hi phan xa tin hieu. Nell xac dinh duoc V;Jn toe truycn song dien lit thl khoang each AB se co chicu dai tfnh thea cong thirc (5-2).

2. Xac dinl: van toe

Toe do rruyen song dien ur trong khong gian v diroc tinh theo cong thirc:

c V=-

n

(5-22)

Trong d6:

c: toe do song dien nr truyen trong chan khong c = 299792,5 km/s

n: h~ so klnic xa ella khf quyen, pill.' thuoc 'lao chien dai buoc song A v~\ cac dieu b¢n khac nhu lip suat. dt) ilm, nhiet do, ham hrong bui ...

3. Xac dinh' thoi gian t

Thai gian song eli ve tren tuyen do duoc xac dinh thea hai each:

- Phuong phap do xung: la do tnrc tier thai gian truycn xung dien tit rren khoang each can do. Plurong phap nay co do chfnh xac thap, hien nay it dung.

101

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