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Date of Experiment:2.5.

2012
Report due date:16.5.2012
Report submission date:
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FLOW MEASURING APPARATUS
(Short Report)

GEORGE KENJI PUTRA (0304559)
Group Members
Chang Zhi Ming
Low Heng Yang
Wong Xian Xuan













School of Engineering
Taylors University
Malaysia
16 May 2012


1

Table of Contents


TITLE 2

ABSTRACT 2

1.0 INTRODUCTION 2

2.0 EXPERIMENT DESIGN

2.1 Materials 3

2.2 Procedures 4

3.0 RESULTS & DISCUSSION

3.1 Table of Data 5

3.2 Table of Results 6

3.3 Calculation Details 6

4.0 ERROR ANALYSIS 14

5.0 CONCLUSION 14

2

TITLE

Flow Measuring Apparatus

ABSTRACT

The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate the characteristics of several dif-
ferent commonly used measuring fluid flow rates such as: Venturi meter, Orifice
meter, and so on.
Head losses (H) binded with each flow measuring methods were determined. The
conclusion had been made that the increase in velocity will result in a decrease in
pressure.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This experiment used the application of the Steady Flow Energy Equation (Bernoullis
Equation) to find the head loss (energy loss). The purpose of the experiment is to
demonstrate the characteristics of various methods of measuring fluid flow rate by
calculating the discharge in venturi meter, orifice meter and a rotameter. Other that,
head losses were calculated and compared to which in wide-angled diffuser and
right-angled bend.


3

2.0 EXPERIMENT DESIGN
2.1 Materials

Flow Measuring Apparatus, Volumetric Bench, Stop Watch

Figure 1: Flow measuring apparatus.



Figure 2: Cross sectional view of flow measuring apparatus.

4


Figure 3: Stop Watch.
2.2 Procedure

1. Close the apparatus valve fully then open it by 1/3 open with the air purge
closed.
2. Switch on the bench and slowly open its valve until the water start to flow,
allow the apparatus to fill with water. Then, continue to open the bench
valve until the valve is fully open.
3. Fully clos the apparatus valve.
4. Couple the hand pump to the purge valve and pump down until all the ma-
nometers read approximately 280mm.
5. Dislodge the entrained air from the manometers by gentle tapping with fin-
gers.
6. Check that the water levels are constant. A steady rise in levels will be seen if
the purge valve is leaking.
7. Open the apparatus valve until the rotameter shows a reading of about 10
mm. When a steady flow is maintained, measure the flow with the Hydraulic
Bench as outlined in Figure 2.
8. Record the readings of the manometers in Table 1.0.
9. Repeat the procedure with different reading of rotameter.


5

3.0 RESULTS & DISCUSSION
3.1 Table of Data

Table 1.0 shows the reading manometers level and the time taken to fill up the vol-
umetric bench.

Manometric Levels (mm)
Rota-
meter
(cm)
Water
Mass
m
(kg)
Time
t (s)
Test
No.
A B C D E F G H I
1 299.33 170 267.67 275 282 143 168.67 139.67 26 15 15 61.0
2 292.33 180 265 271 280.33 157 180.67 154.33 41 14 15 61.5
3 290 187 263.33 268 275.67 172 190.67 169.67 60.33 13 17 83.0
4 284.67 195.67 264 268.67 275 181 197.67 177.67 69.67 12 10 52.0
5 280 203.67 261 267.67 271.33 190 205.67 188.83 81 11 13 62.3
6 278 212.33 261.33 265 270 202.67 215.67 201.5 95.33 10 24 149.0
7 276 220.67 261.33 265.33 270 211.67 222.67 211.17 107 9 5 46.0
8 274 227 261.33 265 270 220.67 230 219.5 116.67 8 14 108.0
9 272.33 232.83 261 264 269.33 229 236.67 228 125 7 7 74.5

Table 1.0


6

3.2 Table of Results
Table 1.1 shows the results of mass flow rate and dimensionless head loss of each
meter which is calculated by using data from table 1.0.

Test
No.
(k/s) H / inlet kinetic head
Venturi
(4)
Orifice
(8)
Rota-
meter
Calibration
curve
Weigh
tank
m/t
Venturi*
(10)/(11)
Orifice
(12)/(13)
Rota-
meter
(15)/(16)
Diffuser
(18/(19)
Elbow
(21)/(22)
1
0.406 0.0125 0.313 0.246 0.402 23.42 1.442 -1.488 0.0230
2
0.379 0.0118 0.293 0.244 0.399 23.92 1.655 -1.402 0.0240
3
0.363 0.0108 0.273 0.205 0.425 21.93 1.742 -1.190 0.0209
4
0.337 0.0103 0.253 0.192 0.381 23.01 1.991 -1.377 0.0230
5
0.312 0.0095 0.233 0.209 0.408 23.21 2.318 -2.294 0.0226
6
0.290 0.0087 0.213 0.161 0.416 22.34 2.652 -1.467 0.0221
7
0.266 0.081 0.193 0.109 0.435 22.97 3.089 -1.898 0.0213
8
0.245 0.0074 0.173 0.130 0.442 22.87 3.589 -2.050 0.0228
9
0.225 0.0067 0.153 0.094 0.471 22.25 4.278 -1.994 0.0225

Table 1.1
3.3 Calculation Details
1. Calculation of Discharge
a) Venturi Meter
Formula:

)+

(kg/s) Equation 4

Example:




7







b) Orifice Meter
Formula:

)+

(kg/s) Equation 8

Example:

















8

c) Rotameter
Rotameter Calibration curve was used to calculate the mass flow
rate(kg/s).

Figure 3: Rotameter Calibration curve











0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
Rotameter Scale Reading (cm)

Example:


d) Weigh Tank (m/t)
Formula:
Mass of water / Time taken

Example:








Mass
Flow
Rate
(kg/s)
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1


9

2. Calculation of Head Loss
a) Venturi Meter
Head Loss,

Equation 10
Inlet kinetic head,

+ Equation 11
Dimensionless head loss =



Example:


















10

b) Orifice Meter
Head Loss,

) Equation 12
Inlet kinetic head,

Equation 13
Dimensionless head loss =


Example:





















11

c) Rotameter
Head Loss,

Equation 15
Inlet kinetic head,

Equation 16
Dimensionless head loss =


Example:















12

d) Wide-Angled Diffuser
Head Loss,

Equation 18
Inlet kinetic head,

Equation 19
Dimensionless head loss =


Example:















13

e) Right-angled Diffuser
Head Loss,

Equation 21
Inlet kinetic head,

Equation 12
Dimensionless head loss =


Example:



14

4.0 ERROR ANALYSIS

Human error is the only one participator when someone get inaccurate calculation.
And also, inacurate reading of water mass can be occur when someone doesnt use
the sign that given at the device.
5.0 CONCLUSION

Conclusively, fluid flow rate can be determined by several methods using the flow
measuring apparatus and relating to the Bernoullis Equation. The mass flow rate of
venturi meter is higher if compared with orifice meter and rotameter.