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Chapter 8, Political Geography

A. Globalization an important political trend particularly
in the Post-Cold War era.
. Cold War !as bet!een democracy "#$A% and
communism "&ormer #$$R% arms buildup in both
'. A&ter &all o& #$$R in ((, Cold War !as o&&icially
*. +o! most o& !orld is coming together economically,
politically, and e)en militarily
,. -his has resulted in a loss o& cultural di)ersity i.e.
go to Guam, an island in the $outh Paci&ic, and &ind
a .ard Roc/ Ca&0
1. 2urther, the standard &or globalization is usually set
in the #$A
a%. -his can be a source o& resentment to other
b%. 3oo/ at it this !ay !ould you !ant to emulate
$hi4ite 5uslim !ays6
Key Issue #1: Where are states located6
7. State An area organized into a political unit and ruled
by a go)ernment that controls internal and &oreign a&&airs
. $tates occupy space "territory% and ha)e boundaries
'. $tates ha)e so)ereignty !hich means they control
their o!n internal a&&airs
*. $tates are good e8amples o& &ormal or uni&orm
,. A synonym &or state is country i.e. don4t con&use
the state o& Colorado !ith the &ormal de&inition o& a
state Colorado is not a &ormal state9
1. $ometimes it is :uestionable !hether or not an area
is a true state "according to our de&inition%
a%. ;8ample is <orea=
%. -!o countries6 +orth "communistic,
controlled by Russia% and $outh "democratic,
controlled by #$A%
'%. >n (1?, +orth <orea in)aded $outh <orea
and started the <orean War
*%. Cease-&ire in (1*, but still ' countries
,%. ((', #+ admitted both + and $ <orea as
separate states
1%. $outh <orea is doing much better
economically than +orth
@%. +orth <orea has nuclear !eapons
b%. ;8ample China and -ai!an
%. -!o parties in China "+ationalists and
Communists% a&ter &all o& 5anchu Aynasty
'%. Ci)il !ar resulted, in (,(, +ationalists led
by Chiang Chi-she/ &led to island o& -ai!an and
established the Republic o& China.
*%. Bn mainland China, 5ao Cedong
established People4s Republic o& China
,%. China is recognized by #+, but -ai!an is
not recognized as a state
c%. ;8ample Antarctica
%. Bnly large landmass not part o& a so)ereign
'%. $e)eral states claim territory, but not
recognized by #$A, Russia, or others
*%. Are research stations on Antarctica
C. $ize o& states
. 3argest is Russia D o& !orld4s landmass E.
million s:uare /ilometers
'. $mallest "microstates% is 5onaco .1 s:. /ilometers
A. Ae)elopment o& the state
. Concept o& di)iding earth into independent states
has been only since 8??s
'. >dea o& modern states started in ;urope
*. 2irst states that pre-date modern states !ere city-
a%. 2ound &irst in 5esopotamia
b%. Are so)ereign states that comprise a to!n and
surrounding country
c%. Cities and agricultural area surrounded by !alls
d%. Gree/s had city-states and it is said to ha)e
contributed to its do!n&all "no political union%
,. Roman ;mpire height o& political unity in ancient
1. <ingdoms &ollo!ed &all o& Roman ;mpire
@. Colonization ne8t
a%. Colonization mostly by ;uropean states
b%. Colonization is an e&&ort &or one country to
establish settlements and to impose political,
economic, and cultural principles on another4s
territory "territory is either unsettled or sparsely
c%. Colonies established to promote Christianity
d%. Colonies established to pro)ide resources "Gold%
e%. +umber o& colonies an indicator o& po!er "Glory%
E. 3a! o& Aiminishing Returns
a%. 7asically says that e)entually a country needs
more colonies to supply them !ith resources
8. Imperialism control o& territory already occupied and
organized by an indigenous society
(. 3argest colonial empire established by #nited
a%. 7ritish o&ten created colonial go)ernments
that allo!ed colonies to retain some o& their o!n
b%. ;&&ecti)e &or 7ritish
?. >ndependence &or most 7ritish colonies a&ter
. 5ost populous remaining colony is Puerto Rico
a Commom!ealth o& the #$A
Key Issue #2 Where are boundaries dra!n bet!een states6
F. Boundaries are in)isible lines dra!n that delineate a state4s
. -ypes o& boundaries=
a%. Physical mountains, ri)ers, deserts, etc.
c%. Cultural
d%. Religious
e%. Race
&%. 3anguage
G. 1 basic shapes o& states=
. Compact e&&icient go)erning e.g. Cambodia
'. Prorupted access or disruption - compact state !ith a
large proFecting e8tension e.g. -hailand
*. ;longated isolation length must be @ times !idth
e.g. Gietnam
,. 2ragmented state separated by another state or !ater
e.g. #$A
1. Per&orated A state that completely surrounds another
e.g. $outh A&rica
.. 3andloc/ed states
. #sually disad)antaged because no outlet to seaHocean
&or trading purposes
'. 3andloc/ed states most common in A&rica
Key Issue #3 - Why do boundaries bet!een states cause
>. Bne state may contain di&&erent ethnic groups
. ;.g. Cyprus
'. -!o ethnic groups -ur/s and Gree/
*. >sland is closer to -ur/ey, but Gree/s occupy E8D o&
,. Cyprus gained independence &rom 7ritain in (@? and
guaranteed -ur/s !ould ha)e a say in go)ernment,
education, etc.
1. (E, Gree/s seized go)ernment control
@. -ur/ey responded by in)ading Cyprus and gaining
control o)er *ED o& island
E. +o! a bu&&er zone and -ur/s li)e in northeast and
Gree/s in south!est
I. $ingle ethnic group can li)e in se)eral areas
. Armenians li)ing in Armenia and AzerbaiFan
'. Armenians ha)e li)ed in this area &or *??? years
*. 7ecame Christian in *?* AA and li)ed many centuries
in a Christian area under -ur/ish 5uslim rule
,. -ur/s /illed hundreds o& thousands o& Armenians
1. A&ter WW>, Armenia got their o!n state, but !as
subse:uently di)ided by Russia and -ur/ey in ('
@. Armenia gained independence in ((
E. 7ut Armenians and AzerbaiFanis ha)e been at !ar
since (88
8. Con&lict mostly o)er Armenians li)ing in +agorno-
<araba/h under AzerbaiFanis rule
<. Russia largest multinational state
. Russia recognizes *( nationalities, but many !ant
'. Bne in particular, the Chechens, are $unnis, spea/ a
Caucasian language, and ha)e distinct social customs
*. Chechens claimed independence in (( as #$$R
,. Russia in)aded in late ((, and in (((
1. Chechnya contains petroleum and Russia !ants
stability in order to protect &oreign oil companies
Key Issue #4 Why do states cooperate !ith each other6
3. Political, economic, and military cooperation
. Auring Cold War era, a&ter late (,?s to early ((?s,
many states Foined #nited +ations in an e&&ort to
pre)ent WW>>>
'. #+ established in (,1 !ith ,( states no! ha)e 81
*. $!itzerland and -ai!an are ob)ious e8ceptions "not in
,. Auring ((?s, #+ became peace /eeping &orce
especially in 5iddle ;ast, ;astern ;urope and $ub-
$aharan A&rica
1. Bther organizations include=
a%. +A-B "@ Aemocratic states including #$A and
b%. BA$ "Brganization o& American $tates% includes
all states in Western hemisphere e8cept Canada and
Cuba !hich !as e8cluded a&ter Cuban missile crisis in
c%. BA# "Brganization &or A&rican #nity% includes all
A&rican states e8cept $outh A&rica
d%. ;uropean #nion "&ormerly /no!n as ;uropean
;conomic Community, the Common 5ar/et, and the
;uropean Community%
%. ;# !ants to promote de)elopment through
economic unity
'%. Went to a common currency, ;uro, in (((
*%. Western ;urope no! !ealthiest mar/et in !orld
At present, economic success is more important than military