P. 1
Toan Khảo sát hàm số

Toan Khảo sát hàm số

|Views: 472|Likes:
Published by dominhchi

More info:

Published by: dominhchi on Dec 05, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/06/2013

pdf

text

original

Chuang I

, .. ..

UNG Dl}NG eUA D~OHAM,

Kf hieu K la khoang hoac doan hoac nira khoang. Gia sir ham s6 y = f(x) xac dinh tren K .

Ham s6 y = f(x) duqc goi la d6ng bien (hay ,tang) tren K neu v6i hai diem xl' X2 b~t kl thuoc K

Xl < X2 =::) f(Xl) < f(X2) .

Ham s6 y = f(x) dUQC goi la nghich. bien (hay gidm) tren K neu v6i hai diem xl' X2 b~t kl thuec K

Xl < X2 =::) f(XI} > f(~}·

Ham s6 dOng bien hoac nghich bien tren K dug<; goi chung la dan di~u tren K. Nh~n xiI. Tit dinh nghia tren ta thay :

Neu ham s6 dOng bien tren K thl dO thi cua no di len tit trai sang phai (H. I a) ; Neu ham s6 nghich bien tren K thl dO thi ciia no di xuong tit trai sang phai

(H. Ib).

s s
y ~
0 x 0 x
a) b)
Hinhl
5 1) , = 2x -1 .

y 1 + x '

2) y = (x+ 1)2(x - 2).

Neu ham s6 y = I(x) c6 dao ham bac nhat rex) = ° voi moi x tren khoang

(a, b) thl I(x) = C, C 1a hang s6, tren khoang d6.

ou« ki~n cdn eua tfnh dan di~u

Neu ham s6 I(x) c6 dao ham tren K thl

a) I(x) dong bien tren K => rex) ~ 0, '\Ix ,E K;

b) I(x) nghich bien tren K => rex) s 0, '\IXE K. Dieu ki~n du eua tfnh don di~u

Gia sir ham s6 I(x) c6 daoham tren K. Khi d6

a) r(x) > 0, '\Ix E K => I(x) dong bien tren K;

b) rex) < 0, '\Ix E K => I(x) nghich bien tren K.

Chu s. v m nhtmg ham s6 gap b chuang trlnh phd thong ta c6 quy t~c thuc hanh sau: Neu l(x) c6 dao ham tren K thl

a) I(x) d6ng bien <=> rex) ~ 0, '\Ix E K ;

b) I(x) nghicb bien <=> f'(x) s 0, '\Ix E K.

CACVIDV

Bai toan 1.1. TIm cac khoangdong bien, nghich bien cua cac ham s6

LUigidi

1) Ham s6 xac dinh tren K = (-00 ; -1) u (-1; +(0) va c6 dao ham bac nhat

(2X -1)' 3 '

y' = 1 = 2 > 0, '\Ix E K.

+ x . (1 + x)

Bbi vay, y d6ng bien tren m6i khoang (-00 ; - 1) va (-1 ; + (0) . 2) Ham s6 xac dinh vm moi x E R Dao ham bac nh~t

y' = 2(x + l)(x - 2) + (x + I? = (x + 1)(3x - 3).

6 .

7

Til d6 ta c6 bang xet dau

x

-1

1

y'

+

o

o

+

y ~o -4~

v ay ham s6 dong bien tren cac khoang (-00 ; - 1), (1; + (0) va nghich bien tren khoang (-1 ; 1).

Bai roan xet tinh don dieu cua ham s6 c6 mot s6 dang CC1 ban. Dang don gian

nhat rna cluing ta gap la ham s6 don dieu tren toan true s6. '

Bai toan 1.2. Xac dinh m. de ham s6

2 2 2 . 1 22

Y = mx - cos x -'- msmxcosx + 4 cos x

luon luon dong bien.

LOi gidi: Ta viet lai ham s6 duOi dang

y = 2mx - cos2x - ; sin2x + ~COS4x - i.

Til d6 dao ham bac nhat c6 dang

y' = 2m + 2sin2x - mcos2x - ~ sin4x = (2 - cos2x)(m + sin2x)

= 2m + 2 sin 2x - 2m cos 2x - sin 4x.

Ham s6 luon dong bien khi va chi khi y' ~ 0 vci moi x hay m + sin 2x ~ 0 voi moi x . Dieu nay xay ra khi va chi khi m ~ 1 .

Bay gia ta xet tnrong hop ham s6 dan dieu tren mot khoang (a; b) nao d6.

2 2. 2

8" , 13 Ch h' 6 x + 2m x + m

ar toan .• 0 am s y = 1

x+

1) Xac dinh m de ham s6 dong bien tren moi khoang xac dinh.

2) Xac dinh m de ham s6 dong bien tren khoang (-1; 0). Loi gidi

1) Tfnh dao ham bac MAt cua ham s6 ta duoc

, (2x + 2m2)(x + 1) - (x2 + 2m2x + m2) x2 + 2x + m2

.y = (x +1)2 = (x + 1)2

x

Do d6 dau cua y' trung voi dau cua ham s6 f(x) = x2 + 2x + m2.

Ta nhan thay f(x) ~ 0, '\Ix * -1 khi va chi khi f(x) ~ 0, '\Ix E JR. Khi d6

L\' = 1 - m2 ::; 0 ~ Iml ~ 1 .

y

Hinh 2

2) Ta can tim m de f(x) = x2 + 2x + m2 ~ 0 vm x E (-1 ; 0). Tnroc het, ta hay chi ra tat ca cac tnrong hop c6 the xay ra bang hlnh ve (h.2). Tit d6 suy ra, dieu kien d6i voi m la :

(a)

hoac

(b)

{L\ >0

hoac

o s Xl < X2'

trong d6 Xl' X2 la cac nghiem cua f(x) . Chung ta c6 the giai ca ba tnrong hop n6i tren, Tuy nhien ta c6 the giai ngan gon han dua tren nhan xet rang

(c)

Xl + x2 = -1

2 .

Khi d6, hai h¢ (b) va (c) deu khong thoa man dieu kien nay. Bm vay, ta chi con phai xet tnrong hop (a). Cu the ta c6

L\' ::; 0 ~ Iml ~ 1.

ehu y. Trong tnrong hop t6ng quat, cac he (b) va (c) diroc giai dira vao dinh If ve dau cua tam thtrc bac hai

{fC-l} ~ 0

Xl < x2 s -1 ~ S

-1> _. 2 '

{ f(O) ~ 0

o ::; Xl < X2 ~ S

0< 2'

Dap so: 1) Iml ~ 1 ; 2) Iml ~ r

Tnrong hop thtr ba, cluing ta tlnrong gap la xet tfnh dan dieu cua ham s6 tren mot nita khoang (hoac nita doan).

8

9

Bai toan 1.4. Xac dinh m d~ ham s6 Y = (m + l)x3 + mx2 - x dong bien voi moi x < -1.

Lui gidi. Can xac dinh m de dao ham bac nhat

y' = 3(m + l)x2 + 2mx _:_ 1:2: 0 voi moi r < -1.

Bai toan quay ve xet dau mot tam thirc bac hai. D~ thuc hien dieu nay tnroc het ta phai xet dau h¢ s6 cua x2 •

a) Tnroc het xet tnronghop m = -1. Khi d6

, 1

y' = -2x - 1 :2: 0 <=> x :s; - 2 .

Do d6 y' :2: 0 voi moi x < -1. Vay m = -1 la mot gia tri can tim.

b) Tnrong hop m > -1 . Khi d6, ham s6 y' c6 do thi la parabol quay be lorn len tren, do d6 nhfing tlnh hu6ng thoa man yeu cau cua bai toan diroc th~ hien tren Hlnh 3. Til d6 ta suy ra cac dieu kien nrong U'ng voi hinh vi;'! la :

y

u

x

Ta c6 L\' = m2 + 3(m + 1) = m2 + 3m + 3 > 0

voi moi m (do L\m = 9 -12 < 0). Khi d6

{Y'(-l) > 0

-1 :s; Xl < x2 <=>' -m

-1 < -:---

3(m + 1)

Hlnh3

<=> { m + 2> 0 => {m > -~ => m > _~.

3(m + 1) > m m > -"2 2

Ket hop voi dieu kien ban dau ta c6 m > '-I .

c) Tnrong hop m < -1. Khi d6 y' < 0 voi moi x , hoac y':2: 0 voi Xl < X < x2 . Do d6 khong th~ xay ra y' :2: 0 voi -00 < X < -1 .

Dap so: m :2: -1.

x

Bai toan 1.5. Cho ham s6 Y =. mx3 + 3x2 - 3(1 + m)x + 1. Xac dinh m de ham s6 nghich bien v6i -1 < x < 2 .

LUi gidi. Bai toan nrong dirong v6i viec xac dinh m de

Y' = 3mx2 + 6x - 3( i + m) $ 0

v6i -1 < x < 2 . De giai bai toan nay chung ta xet cac tnrong hop sau :

a) Tnrong hop m = O. Khi d6, y' = 6x - 3 $ 0 <=> x $ .~ , boi vay gia tri. nay

cua m khong thoa man.

b) Truong hop m > 0 (~.4). Khi d6, til hlnh ve suy ra dieu kien can tim la xI $ -1 < 2 $ x2' v6i

xI' x2 la nghiem cua y'.

Til d6 ta c6

{Y'(-1)$0 {-9$0,

y'(2) $ 0 <=> 9m + 9 $ 0 <=> m $ -1 (loai).

y

Hinh4

c) Truong hop m < O. Khi d6 y' c6 d6 thi la parabol quay ~ lorn xu6ng du6i (h.5). Nhtrng tlnh hu6ng c6 the xay ra diroc the hien tren hlnh ve. Til d6 suy ra dieu kien can tim la

{ d > 0 y
~ < 0 hoac (a)
. xI < x2 s -1
{ d >0 x
hoac (b)
. 2 s xI < x2'
Tac6 Hinh5 ~' = 9 + 9m(1 + m) = 9(m2 + m + 1) ~' > 0 v6i moi m (do~m < 0).

Do d6 hai he dieu kien (a), (b) duoc giai nhir sau :

{Y'(-I) $ O{· -9 s 0

(a) <=> S <=> 1

-1>2' -l>-m'

Bat phirong trlnh thu hai vO nghiem do m < O.

10

11

{y '(2) s 0 {9m + 9 s 0 .. { m. ~-1

(b)¢) 1 ¢)¢) 1

2 < -- 2m > -1 m > --.

. m 2

H¢ cu6i cung v(J nghiem,

V ~y bai toan v6 nghiem.

Bai toan dum day cho thay chung ta co the chimg minh mot bat dfu1g tlurc dua vao viec khao sat tinh don dieu cua ham s6.

Bili toan 1.6. Chung minh

2

Ix,. . 0

cos x > - T VOl moi x '¢ •

Lhi gidi. Cdch 1.

2

Xet ham s6 f(x) = cosx + x2 -1. Ta phai chtmg minh f(x) > 0 voi rnoi

x '¢ o. Tnroc he't ta thay rang ham s6 f(x) xac dinh voi moi x , va co dao ham bac nhat

f'(x) = -sinx + x

D6i voi ham s6 hrong giac sin x chung ta da biet rang, voi 0 < x thl x > sinx nen j'(x) > 0 va voi x < 0 thij'(x) < o. Tir do ta co bang bien thien

x

o

+

-00

o

f'(x)

f(x) +00 ~ +00

o

BCri v~y I(x) > 0 vm rnoi x '¢ 0, hay 2

IX,. . 0

cos x > -"2" VOl moi x '¢ •

Cacn 2. Trong each giai tren co the chung ta thay bat dfu1g thuc x > sin x khi o < x khong th~t su hien nhien, Chung ta co the lam ro dieu do theo each sau. Sau khi tfnh dao ham bac nhat f'(x) ~ -sin x + x, ta tfnh dao ham bac hai

f"(x) = -cosx + 1.

Ro rang f"(x) ~ 0 voi Vx, do do f'(x) dong bien voi moi x.

BAI T ~P THl/C HANH'1

Do f'(O) = 0 nen theo nhan xet vi'ra tim diroc ta co f'(x)·< Ov6i x < 0 va f'(x) > 0 v6ix > o. BOO vay fix) dat gia tri nho nhat tai x = O. nghia la

f(x) > f(O) = 0 v6i moi r '* O.

Bid toan 1.7. ChUng minh fang:

2sinx + tanx > 3x, \:Ix E (0;;)

LUi gidi. Ham s6 f( x) = 2 sin x + tan x - 3x lien tuc tren mla khoang [0 ; ;) va co dao ham cap mot :

2 3 3 2 . 1 (I - cos X)2 (2 cos x + I)

f'(x) = cos x - cos x + = _;__ __ ....;_-,,-- __ ---'-

cos2x cos2 X

BOO vay, v6i moi x E [0; ;) thi f'(x) ~ O. Do do ham s6 dong bien tren nita

khoang [0; ; l Suy fa f(x) > f(O), 'Ix E (0; ;).

V~y 2sinx + tan x > 3x, \Ix E (0;;).

1.1. Xac dinh tfnh dong bien.nghich bien cua cac ham s6

1 x2 - 2x + 10

1) Y = 2 + x-I; 2) Y = 2(x -I)

1.2. Cho ham s6 Y = mx2 + 2x + I. TIm moi gia tri ciia tham s6 m de:

I) Ham s6 dong bien v6i moi x ;

2) Ham s6 nghich bien v6i moi x > -I ;

3) Ham s6 dong bien vm 0 < x < I. 1.3. Cho ham. s6

x3

Y = (a2 - 1)3 + (a + l)x2 + 3x + 5,

trong do a la tham s6. Hay xac dinh a . de ham so luon IUOn dong bien.

12

13

1.4. Xac dinh m de ham s6 sau dOng bien voi moi x > 2 : x2+x+l y=----

x-m

1.5. Xac dinh m de ham 56

2x2 + mx + 1 Y = -3mx+3

dOng bien vm moi x thoa man ditu kien Ixl ~ 1.

1.6. Cho ham s6 Y = x3 + mx2 + x - I. TlID moi gia tri ciia m de:

1) Ham s61uOn luon dOng bien;

2) Ham s6 dOng bien vm moi x > -I .

1.7. Cho ham s6 Y = mx3 + 2x2 + x: TlID t~t ea cac gia tri ciia m de:

I) Ham so luon IUOn dong bien;

2) Ham s6 nghich bien vm moi x < -1 ;

3) Ham s6 dOng bien vmlxl < I. 1.8. ChUng minh b~t ding thuc sau :

tan x > sin x, ( 0 < x < ;).

1.9. TlID m de ham s6 f(x) = sinx - mx + 3 nghich bien tren toan true s6. 1.10. Cho ham s6

x2 - (m + l)x + 4m2 - 4m - 2

Y = ---,-----'-------

x - (m -1)

(I)

TlID cac gia tri cua tham s6 m de ham s6 xac dinh va dOng bien tren khoang (0 ; +(0).

§2. Cl/C TR! rnA HAM 56

Cho ham s6 y = f(x) xac dinh va lien tuc tren khoang (a; b) (a co the la -00 .; b co the la +00) va diem Xo E (a; b).

Diem Xo du(JC goi la dilm cue dai cua ham s6 Y = f(x) neu tOn tai s6 h > 0 sao eho f(x) < f(Xo) vm moi x E (xo - h; Xo + h) va,r :I:- xo'

14

Gia tri eire d':li cua ham s6 ducc kf hieu boi y(xo) = Ymax•

Tirong nr, diem Xo goi Ul dilm cue tilu cua ham s6 Y = I(x) neu t6n tai s6 h > 0 sao cho lex) > l(xo) voi moi x E (xo - h ; Xo + h) va r ;:t:. Xo.

Gia tri C,!C tieu cua ham 86 duoc kf hieu bm y(xo) = Ymin.

Cac diem cue dai va cue tieu diroc goi chung la dilm cue trio Gia tri C,!C dai, gia tri C,!C tieu (hay cue dai, cue tieu) diroc goi chung la cl;lc trjclla ham s6. Diem M(xo ;/(xo» duoc goi la dilm cue dai (dilm cue tilu) cua d6 thi,

DJNH u. Neu ham s6 Y = I(x) co dao ham tai Xo va dat cue tri tai diem do thl !'(xo) = o.

Dilu kien du de' co cue tri

Gia sir ham s6 Y = I(x) lien tuc tren khoang K = (xo - h ;xo + h) va co dao ham tren K hoac tren K \ {xo} .

a) Neu !'(x) > 0 tren khoang (xo - h ; xo) va !'(x) < 0 tren khoang

(xo ; Xo + h) thl Xo la mot diem eire dai cua ham s61(x).

b) Neu !'(x) < 0 tren khoang (xo - h;xo) va !'(x) > 0 tren khoang (xo ; Xo + h) thl Xo la mot diem eire tieu cua ham s6 I(x) .

Quy tac tren co the phat bieu ngan gon nhu sau :

Khi qua dilm Xo tit trdi sang phdi, neu dao ham !,(x)dJi ddu tit duang sang am ttuang ung, tit am sang duang) thi tai Xo ham Sf)' dat gia tri cue dai (tuang ung, cue tilu).

Tim cue tri bdng d{lo ham Cftp hai Neu tai diem Xo rna !'(xo) = 0 va :

i) l"(xo) > 0 thi Xo Ia diem eire tieu ; ii) I"(xo) < 0 thi Xo la diem Cl,TC dai.

Gid. tri lon nhat va gia tri nho nhat cua ham so Cho ham s6 Y = I(x) xac dinh tren tap D.

a) 56 M diroc goi la gia tri Ian nhdt cua ham s6 Y = I(x) tren t~p D neu I(x) ~ M vm moi x thuoc D va t6n tai Xo E D sao cho I(xo) = M.

Kf hieu M = maxj'(x).

D

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->