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define action potential

2.what are active and passive transducers?
3.state the frequency range and amplitude of a normal ECG bio-electrical signals.
4.draw the electrode configuration of a aVr output.
5.give the different types of oxygenators used in heart lung machine. does the PH value determine the acidity of alkalinity in blood fluid.
7.what is meant by single channel telemetry?
8.define the term thermograph.
9.what is pacemaker?
10.mention the importance of defibrillator protection circuit in ECG recorder.
11(a)(i)discuss the different ways of transport of ions through the cell membrane.
(ii)explain the different parts of central nervous system and their activity.
11(b)(i)briefly explain the action of piezoelectric transducer as arterial pressure sensor.
(ii)explain the working of a fibre optic temperature sensor.
12(a)(i)draw the electrical equivalent circuit of a micro electrode and explain its electrical
(ii)explain with neat diagram the working of EMG.
12(b)(i)elaborate on the medical equipment maintenance and safety parameters in handling it.
(ii)clearly explain the different lead system sin ECG wave form recording.
13(a)(i)what are the methods for measuring blood pressure?draw a typical setup and explain.
(ii)explain the measurement of heart sound with suitable diagram.
Seventh Semester
13(b)explain the measurement of blood PO2 and PCO2.
14(a)(i)explain the principle of computerized tomography.
(ii)briefly explain the different modes of ultrasonic scanning with suitable diagrams.
14(b)(i)describe a telemetry circuit using a sub-carrier also list its advantages.
(ii)write a note on biometric systems.
15(a)(i)explain the principle of DC defibrillators.
(ii)draw and explain the schematic of evoked response audiometer and explain.
15(b)(i)explain the stone disease problem and the method used to overcome with neat diagram.
(ii)write a note on dialysers.