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ǭơǀǻƕƨȈǘǻDŽȈƦdzơƨdzȁƾdzơĿƨǴưǸƬǷƨȈƸȈLjŭơDzǠǧƽǁǶLjƫơƨȇơƾƦdzơǀǼǷǎƼǴǷ
ǹƢǯƢǸǯƢǷƢŤƢŮƢǸǐƻȁƆơƾȇƾē ǾȈǧƩƗǁƢĔƗńƛǮdzƿȃDŽǠȇȁǵȐLJȍơǽƢšƨȈƟơƾǠdzƢƥ
Ŀ ƪǻƢǯ Ŗdzơ ƨȈźǁƢƬdzơ ƩƢǫȐǠdzơ ńƛ ǂǜǼdzƢƥȁ ƢȀLjǨǻ ƨȈƸȈLjŭơ ǽƢš ƨȇƽȂȀȈdzơ DzǠǧ Čƽǁ
ƢǷǺǷDŽdzơǁȁǂŠǶǰƸƬLjȇȁǁōǀƴƬȇǹƗƔơƾǠdzơơǀŮċƾƥȏǹƢǯǦǼǠdzƢƥǶLjƬƫȁƧǂƫȂƬǷƢȀǴǸů
ǹƗ Ŀ ȄǘLJȂdzơ ǁȂǐǠdzơ Ŀ ƣǂǤdzơ ƶų ƢǸƐǴǫ ƨǠǷƢƳ ƨȈǘŶ ƨȈƦǴLJ ƧǁȂǏ ǶLJǁ ńƛ ȃƽƗ
ĿǶȀǷǁȁƾƥƢŮƢƳǁȁƨLjȈǼǰdzơƪǠǴǘǓơƾǬdzƢŮȐƻǺǷƐȏƛśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơȃǂȇ
ƨȈƥǂǤdzơƨȈǟơƾƥȍơDZƢǸǟȋơńƛƪǴǬƬǻơƧǁȂǐdzơǽǀǿǹƗƾȈƥƨȈǘǸǼdzơƧǁȂǐdzơǽǀǿDzȈǰnjƫ
DZȐǤƬLJơ ńƛ DZƢǸǟȋơ ǮǴƫ ƾǸǠƫ ǹƗ ǹƿƛ ƣǂǤƬLjŭơ ǺǷ Ǻǰȇ Ń ȄǘLJȂdzơ ǁȂǐǠdzơ Ŀ
ƢǿǂȇȁƾƫƧƽƢǟƛȁǹȂȈƸȈLjŭơǹȂȈƫȂǿȐdzơƢȀǟƾƬƥơŖdzơśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȎdzƨǿȂnjŭơǁȂǐdzơ
ƾȈnjǻȁǂƯƖŭơƾȈnjǻƢȀǼǷȁƨǧȁǂǠŭơƨȈƥƽȋơDZƢǸǟȋơǮǴƫǮdzƿȄǴǟDZƢưǷƶǓȁƗōDzǠdzȁ
 ǵ  DzȈǨȇƾǼǷ ƩȐƷǁȁ Ŗǻơƾdz ƨȈŮȍơ ƢȇƾȈǷȂǰdzơȁ  ǵ  ƾǻȏȁǁ
ǹƗƔƢƥƽȌdzDZƢǸǟȋơǽǀǿƨǠȈƦǗƪƸũȁ ǵ ƪȈǣƾȈdzǹȂŪƔơǂǷȋơǕȂǬLJȁ
ȏƛ ƢǿƾȈǫ ǺǷ ǁǂƸƬȇ Ń śǸǴLjŭơȁ ǵȐLJȎdz ƨŤƢǫ ǁȂǏ ǶLJǂdz ǶȀƬǴȈƻȋ ƨǼǟȋơ ơȂǬǴǘȇ
DzȈǴǬdzơ



ƨǟƢƴºnjdzơȁƧƔȁǂºŭơȁǵǂºǰdzơȁƨǬǴĉŬơȁǪƌǴƌŬơǺLjŞǦǐƬȇ ƆƢǻƢLjǻƛȆǠǷơȂǴċȈƼƬȇǹƗƔơǂǬǴdz
ƨºǔǿƢǼǷȁǪƸǴdzǁƢǐƬǻȏơȁƾȈƷȂƬdzơȁƶǷƢLjƬdzƢƥǦǐƬȇƆƢǼȇƽȁžƧƾȈǬǠdzơƹȂLJǁȁƨǨǠdzơȁǩƾǐdzơȁ
ƢºȀũǁƢºǸǯǶǴLjŭơǹƢLjǻȍơȁǵȐLJȎdzƆƧǁȂǏǹȂũǂƫǶǰĈǻƗƨǜƸǴdzȂdzȁĻƾǬƬǟơǹƛDzǗƢƦdzơ
ƆƢǷƢŤǹȂƠǘűǶƬǻƘǧƨǏƢƻƨǨǐƥȄǘLJȂdzơǹȁǂǬdzơĿȁǁȂǐǠdzơŐǟƨȈǟơƾƥȍơǾdzƢǸǟƗĿƣǂǤdzơ
ƣǂºǤdzơƢȀȈǴǟƾǸƬǟơŖdzơdžLJȋơƢǷȁŸśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȎdzƣǂǤdzơƢȀũǁŖdzơƧǁȂǐdzơƢǷǺǰdzȁ
ƔơȂºLJȁƨºȇơƾƦdzơƨǘǬǻńƛƽȂǠǻǹƗƢǼȈǴǟśǠƬȇǽǀȀǯƨǴƠLJƗǺǟƨƥƢƳȎdzŸǮǴƫƧǁȂǐdzơǶLJǁĿ
śƬǧƢºǬƯśºƥƨǫȐǟďȆƸȈLjŭơƣǂǤdzơȁǵȐLJȍơśƥƨǫȐǠdzơǹƘƥ ǽďȂǼǻǹƗƢǼȈǴǟǪǨƬǻŃǵƗƢǼǬǨƫơ
ǝơǂǐdzơȁƨȀƳơȂŭƢƥƢēơǂƬǧƤǴǣƗĿDŽȈǸƬƫśƬǨǴƬű

ǭơǀºǻƕƨºȈǘǻDŽȈƦdzơƨdzȁƾdzơĿƨǴưǸƬǷƨȈƸȈLjŭơDzǠǧČƽǁǶLjƫơǵȐLJȎdzńȁȋơǵƢȇȋơǀǼǸǧ
ƨȈƸȈºLjŭơǽƢºšƨȇƽȂȀȈdzơDzǠǧČƽǁǹƢǯƢǸǯƢǷƢŤƢǸǐƻȁƆơƾȇƾēǾȈǧƩƗǁǺȇƽǽƢšƨȈƟơƾǠdzƢƥ
ƨºȈŭƢǟǺºǷDzºǰdzǞƴǨŭơǦȈȇDŽƬdzơǾǻƗȅƗƆƢƳȁƽDŽǷƆƢǰǧƛǵȐLJȍơǹȂȈƸȈLjŭơċƾǟƿƛƢȀLjǨǻ
ƨºȇƽȂȀȈdzơƨǻƢȇƾdzơƨȈǏȂǐŬȁƔơȂǣȍơǂǘƻǺǷƨǠǷƢŪơǵȐLJȍơƨdzƢLJǁǾǴưŤƢŠƨȈƸȈLjŭơƨǻƢȇƾdzơ
DZȂºǬƫƢºǸǯƶȈLjǸǴdzDzǟƢǧǁȁƽǹȁƽȆǸȈǿơǂƥȍơȅƾȈƷȂƬdzơƭǁȍƢƥśǸǴLjŭơǮLjŤǾǴưŻƢŠ
ńƛȁƨȈƸȈLjŭơȁǵȐLJȎdzƨȇŚnjƦƬdzơƨǠȈƦǘdzơńƛǂǜǼdzƢƥȁ  ǹȂƬƦdzƩǁƢȀǼȇơǁƢȈdzȂƳ
ƩƢºƷȂƬǨdzơńƛƢǔȇƗǂǜǼdzƢƥȁƆƢǠǫȂƬǷƆơǂǷƗƢǸȀǼȈƥƔơƾǠdzơȁǝơǂǐdzơǹƢǯƢǸȀǼȈƥĿơǂǤŪơDžƢǸƬdzơ
ŕºƷȁƢȈǻƢƦLJƛȁƨȈǴǬǏȁƢȈǬȇǂǧƗDZƢſȁǂǐǷȁǵƢnjdzơƽȐƥĿƨȈƸȈLjŭơƣƢLjƷȄǴǟƨȈǷȐLJȍơ
ǂȇǂŢƣǂŞȄǸLjȇƢǷȁƨȈƦȈǴǐdzơƣȁǂūơńƛƨǧƢǓƛƢLjǻǂǧƣȂǼƳȁƢȈdzƢǘȇƛƣȂǼƳǺǷƔơDŽƳƗ
ǁōǀºƴƬȇǹƗƔơƾǠdzơơǀŮċƾƥȏǹƢǯȄǘLJȂdzơƢƥȁǁȁƗĿƨȈǻƢǸưǠdzơƨȇǁȂǗơŐǷȍơǁȂȀǛĽƢȈǻƢƦLJƛ
ǁȂǐǠdzơĿƣǂǤdzơƶųƢǸƐǴǫƨǠǷƢƳƨȈǘŶƨȈƦǴLJƧǁȂǏǶLJǁńƛȃƽƗƢǷǺǷDŽdzơǁȁǂŠǶǰƸƬLjȇȁ
ƢŮȐƻǺǷƐȏƛśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơȃǂȇǹƗĿȄǘLJȂdzơ

ǵȐºLJȍơǹƗńƛǺȇȁƾdzȂƥDZƢNjǁƢǷŚnjȇǵȐLJȍơDZƢȈƷƣǂǤdzơǦǫơȂǷǹơȂǼǠƥDZƢǬǷȆǨǧ
ƨȇǂǰºLjǟǶƟơDŽǿƢđDZDŽǻƗȁƨǠLJƢNjăȆǓơǁƗƢȀǼǷǞǘƬǫơȅǀdzơƨȈƸȈLjǸǴdzŅƢƬdzơƾȈƷȂdzơǺȇƾdzơȂǿ
ƨȀƳǺǷǵȐLJȍơǺǷǥȂŬơǂǟƢnjǷȅǀǤƫƨǬȈǬūơǽǀǿƪdzơǃƢǷȁ  ȃŐǯ
ƢǸǯȆǷȐLJȍơǂǘŬơǶȈƴŢǺǷƣǂǤdzơǺǰŤǹƗƾǠƥŕƷȃǂƷƗƨȀƳǺǷƔơƾǠdzơǂǟƢnjǷȁ
ƨºȈǫƢǨƫơDZȂƦǫńƛśȈǻƢǸưǠdzơǁơǂǘǓơȁǵǵƢǟƢǼȈȈǧȄǴǟňƢǸưǠdzơǵȂƴŮơĈƾǏƾǠƥDZƢǬȇ
ǮdzƿǺǷǶǣǂdzƢƥȁ DŽdzȂǯDZȂƥ ǵǵƢǟƨǨƸĐơƢȀǗȁǂNjȁDŽƫȁȂdzǁƢǯ
ȃȂºǬdzơǾºȈǧƩǂǘȈºLJǂǐǟĿŕƷƆȐǸƬŰƆơǂǘƻȁƆƢǸǐƻǵȐLJȎdzǾƬȇƙǁĿƣǂǤdzơǂǸƬLJơ
ƣȁƙƾºdzơǾȈǠºLJĿƣǂǤdzơǝƢǘƬLJơƾǬǧƨȈǷȐLJȍơȆǓơǁȋơǶǜǠǷȄǴǟƨȈƥǂǤdzơƨȇǁƢǸǠƬLJȏơ
ȄºǴǟǵȐºLJȍơǺǰdzȃǂƻƗƩơǁƢǔƷǺďƳƾȇǹƗDzƥƤǟȂƬLjȇǹƗŃƢǠdzơȄǴǟǾƬǼǸȈǿǑǂǨdz
œǼȇȂºƫƾºdzȂǻǁƕDZƢºǫƢºǸǯȁƨǴǟƢǧƧǁȂǐƥȃƾƸƬȇDzǛǺǿơǂdzơƪǫȂdzơĿǾȈǬǼƬǠǷǦǠǓ
ƣǂºǤdzơƧǂǘȈºLJȄǴǟƆơƽǁȆǷȐLJȍơȅƾƸƬdzơƩƢǏƢǿǁƛǹƜǧ ž
ǾºȈǧƩƾċȈLjƫȅǀdzơǂǐǠdzơǮdzƿƨdzȂǘƦdzơȁƽƢůȋơǂǐǟǵƢȀǴƬLJơńƛȅƽƚȇƾǫƢŲƆȐǠǧƩƗƾƥ
ĿǂºǰǨdzơǃȂºǷǁǃǂºƥƗƾƷƗǺǷƶȇǂǐƬdzơơǀǿȁǹȁǂǫƧƾǟʼnƾǬdzơŃƢǠdzơƨȈǷȐLJȍơƧǁƢǔūơ
ȄǴǟǂǘȈLjȇȅǀdzơŏŅƢūơďȅǂǰǨdzơǁƢȈƬǴdzƨƦLJƢǼŭơƨȈǨǴŬơǂǧȂȇǺȇǂnjǠdzơǹǂǬdzơĿƨȈƥǂǤdzơƧǁƢǔūơ
ƨǣƢȈºǏƧƽƢǟƛȄǴǟDzǸǠȇȁƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơƧƾƸƬŭơƩƢȇȏȂdzơĿƆơƾȇƾŢȁĺǂǤdzơǁơǂǬdzơǞǼǏDŽǯơǂǷ
ǂºǔƸƬŭơŃƢºǠdzơȄºǴǟƾȇƾŪơǂǘŬơǾǻƗȄǴǟ ƣƢǿǁȍơǵȂȀǨŠƧǂŭơǽǀǿƆƢǻǂƬǬǷ ǵȐLJȍơ
ƽƾºŪơśǜǧƢƄơǺǷǦdzƢŢǁƢȈƬdzơơǀǿǶǟDŽƬȇȁǵǵƢǟŐǸƬƦLJƭơƾƷƗƾǠƥƆƢǏȂǐƻ
ȏǺȇǀdzơƣǂǠǴdzǺȇƽƢǠŭơDzȈƟơǂLJȍǺȇƾȇƚŭơśȈǰȇǂǷȋơśǫǂnjƬLjŭơǒǠƥȁǺȇƽƾnjƬŭơƽȂȀȈdzơȁ
śǻƢºůśȇǁƢºƸƬǻơȁśƸƬǴǷǺȇƽDZƢƳǁȃȂLJƾȈǠLJƽǁơȁƽƛDZȂǬȇƢǸǯǵȐLJȍơĿǹȁǂȇ
ȏȁƣǂǤdzơȄǴǟƾǬūơȁƾLjūơǮdzƿńƛǶȀǠǧƾȇ  DzƥƢǼǬdzƢƥǶȀLjǨǻƗǹȁǂƴǨȇ
ƨȇƽƾǠƬdzơȁƨƯơƾūơǶȈǫǺǷǾǴưŻƢǷȁďĺǂǤdzơŃƢǠdzơȅƗǂǔƸƬŭơŃƢǠdzơŚǷƾƫȃȂLJǶŮċǶǿ

ƨºŭȂǠdzơǾºȈǧƪºǬǴƻǂǐǟĿŕƷŚǤƬȇǹƗǶǴLjŭơǂƻȉơǺǟǵȂȀǨŭơơǀŮǺLjƬȇŃȁ
DzǠǧƽȁƽǁǹƗȁƾƦȇǺǰdzǺLjƸƬƫǹƗǾȈǧƧǁȂǐdzơǽǀđƆƢĈȇǂƷǹƢǯƆƢǨǴƬűƆƢǠǓȁĿƢǬưdzơƱǃƢǸƬdzơȁ
ƨºȇƢǣĿǂºǷƗơǀºǿȁǵƢǟDzǰnjƥƨȈƟơƾǟƪdzơǃȏƧƾƸƬŭơƩƢȇȏȂdzơƆƢǏȂǐƻȁƣǂǤdzơ
ƨȈǼȇƾdzơǂǿƢǜŭơǹƗǺǷǒǠƦdzơǾdzȂǬȇƾǫƢǷǶǣǁȁƾƷơȂdzơƤǘǬdzơƨdzȁƽǽƾċȈLjƬƫŃƢǟĿƧǁȂǘŬơ
ǵƢºǜǼǴdzƾȇƾēǾǻƗȄǴǟƧǂŭơǽǀǿǵȐLJȍơƨǣƢȈǏƽƢǟƗƣǂǤdzơōǹƛƮȈƷƨǼďȈƥƾǠƫŃƔơƾǠdzơơǀŮ
ǞǫơȂǴdzǞƦƬƬŭơǹƜǧ ȂǧȂdzȆŻǁ ƆȐȈƦLJƣǂǤdzơǾƴȀƬǻơȅǀdzơďȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơŏňƢǸǴǠdzơ
ǮdzƿŚǣȃǂȇǹƗǾǼǰŻ

ƎǂƌǗȋơǺǷƧƽƾŰƨǟȂǸůȄǴǟǵȐLJȍơǽǂȇȂǐƫĿƾǸƬǠȇƣǂǤdzơǹƗƩȐƦǼȇǂǫśǨȈƬLJǂǬȇȁ
ƨǧƢǬưdzơƩƢƫȂȈƥȁǪƟƢƯȂdzơȁƤƬǰdzơǹȂǘƥĿǾǼȇDŽţĻƆƢȈǸǯơǂƫƆƢƯǁƛDzǰnjƫŖdzơǂȇȂǐƬdzơǖƟƢLJȁȁ
ơǀºǰǿȁȃǂƻƗƆơǁȂǏƢǿǁȁƾƥƾdzȂƬdzǁȂǐdzơǮǴƫǝƢƳǂƬLJơƪǫȁśŹǹƗńƛƨǷƢǠdzơƧǂǯơǀdzơȁ
ǵȐºLJȍơǺºǟƨºǨǴƬƼŭơǵȐǟȍơDzƟƢLJȁĿƮȇƾūơǹȁƽǵȂȇǂŻƽƢǰȇȏȁ 
ƾºȈǨȇƽȆǟċƾȇƢǸǯǵȐLJȍƢǧƆƨȇƢǣƣƢǿǁȍơȁƨǴȈLJȁǦǼǠdzơǀƼƬȇȅǀdzơŏŅȂǏȋơŏňȐǬǟȐdzơ
ǁƢȈǴǷǺǷǂưǯƗƢđǺȇƾȇƧƾȈǬǟDZơDŽƬƻơǶƬȇơǀǰǿȁ  ƣƢǿǁȍơƾŏdzȂȇǺȇƽȆŭƢNjȁǂȇ
ǺºǟƩƢºǸȈǸǠƬdzơȁǕƢŶȋơȁƾǟơȂǬdzơǺǷƨǼǨƷńƛƨǨǴƬűǩơǂǟƗȁƩƢǧƢǬƯńƛǹȂǸƬǼȇǦǐǻȁ
 xvi ƾȈǠLJƽǁơȁƽƛȃǂȇƢǸǯǾǟƢƦƫƗǺǟȁǾďȈƦǻǺǟȁǺȇƾdzơ

ƢºĔƗƢºǼǿǦȈǔǻȁ ƨȈƟơƾǟƩƔƢƳǵȐLJȍơǽƢšƨȈƸȈLjŭơDzǠǧƧƽǁǹƗƢǨǻƕƢǻǂǯƿƾǬdzȁ
ƨƦºLjǼdzƢƥȆºǠȈƦǘdzơǺºǷǹƢºǯǾǻƗDzȈǻơƽǹƢǷǁȂǻǚƷȐȇƮȈƷȆǟƢǧƽǦǫȂǷǺǷƩƔƢƳ
ȄºǴǟƔƢǬƦdzơńƛśȈƸȈLjŭơǞǧƽȁǵȐLJȍơƧǂǛƢǼŭėƢȈƫȂǿȏƆƢǷƢǜǻǁȂǘƫǹƗƨȈƸȈLjŭơƩƢǟƢǸƴǴdz
ƪºdzȂŢȁǩǂnjdzơĿƨȈƸȈLjŭơȆǓơǁȋơǵȐLJȍơƶLjƬǯơǹƗƾǠƥƢǸȈLJȏ  ǶȀǼȇƽ
ǵȐºLJȍơǽƢºšƨȈƸȈLjǸǴdzńȁȋơDzǠǨdzơƧƽǁƪǻƢǯƆơƿƛƾȇƾŪơǺȇƾdzơńƛǶȀǼǷƧŚƦǯćƽơƾǟƗ
ǢdzƢƦdzơǂƯȋơǾdzǹƢǯȅǀdzơǂǷȋơdžǨǼdzơǺǟǝƢǧƾdzơĿƨƦǣǁǺǷȁDzȀŪƢƥƆƢǨǴǤǷǥȂŬơǺǷƨǠƥƢǻ
ƾƟƢǬǟDZȐǓǹƢȈƦƫƨǸȀŠļȂǿȐdzơǵƢǜǼdzơơǀǿǞǴǘǔȇŃśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơƧǁȂǏǾȇȂnjƫĿ
ƆơǂºǷƗǾǫƢǼƬǟơƨdzƘLjǷƢȀȈǧǹȂǰƫƨƳǁƾdzƆƢǔȈǤƥȁƾƦȇǵȐLJȍơDzǠƳńƛƢǿơƾǠƫDzƥ ǖǬǧȁƾǠdzơ
ƢºǷǁƾǫśǸǴLjǸǴdzƆƢȀƳȂǷļȂǿȐdzơŅƾŪơǵƢǜǼdzơơǀǿǺǰȇŃǂǷȋơǞǫơȁĿȁDZƢǸƬƷȏơƾȈǠƥ
ǁȂºǗǾȈǴǟȁǶȀǼȇƽǺǟDZȂƸƬǴdzśǸǴLjŭơǺǷƨȈǴƥƢǫǂưǯƗơȂǻƢǯǺȇǀdzơśȈƸȈLjǸǴdzƆƢȀƳȂǷǹƢǯ
ǺºǟǝƢǧƾºdzơǹƗĿDzưǸƬƫƨǴǔǠŭơǽǀŮƨƳȁƽDŽǷƨƥǁƢǬǷ ńƛƾǼƬLjȇƆƢƥƢǘƻǵƢǜǼdzơơǀǿƨǻƾLJ
ǵȂƴŮơDŽȈǯǂƬƥǮdzƿǪǬƸƬȇȁȆǫȐƻƗȏDzǗƢƥǺȇƽǾǨǏȂƥǵȐLJȍơƨŦƢȀǷƤƳȂƬLjȇƨȈƸȈLjŭơ
ǒǫƢºǼƬƫǵȐLJȍơDZȂLJǁƩƢǨǏǹƗƩƢƦƯƛǺǰǷƗơƿƛǾǻƗȁžǾďȈƦǻƧŚLJȄǴǟȁǵȐLJȍơǶȈdzƢǠƫȄǴǟ
ƧƽƢºǟƛĽǺǷȁǵȐLJȍơǶȈdzƢǠƫǹȐǘƥƩƢƦƯƛŚLjȈdzơǺǷƶƦǐȇǹƿƛƧċȂƦǼǴdzƾƟƢLjdzơǦȇǂǠƬdzơǞǷ
ǪūơǺȇƾdzơƨȈƸȈLjŭơƨǻƢȇƾǴdzǁƢƦƬǟȏơ
ǺºǰŻƢǷDzǫƗǵȐLJȎdzƧǁȂǏƨǘǻDŽȈƥȂȈƸȈLjǷǶLJǁƱȁƽDŽŭơŅƾŪơƣƢǘŬơơǀǿǝƢƦďƫƢƥȁ
ƶƦºǏƗƮȈƷ Ʃơȁ ƨǷƢƬǬdzơĿƨȇƢǣƨȇŚƫƢǰȇǁƢǯƧǁȂǏƢĔƛƢȀǼǟDZƢǬȇǹƗ
ǺȇƾºdzơǾºǻƗȁƢŮǒȈǬǻȁƨȈƸȈLjŭơȄǴǟƱȁǂƻȁƨǟƾƥǾǻƗȄǴǟǵȐLJȍơǂȇȂǐƫƾƟƢLjdzơƾȈǴǬƬdzơ
DZƢƳƾºdzơďœǼdzơǽǁƢƦƬǟƢƥDZȂLJǂdzơƧǁȂǏƪũǁǩƢȈLjdzơơǀǿĿȁǹƢƯȁȋơƧƽƢƦǟńƛȂǟƾȇȅǀdzơ
 ǾLjǨǻǁƾǐŭơ ȃǂƬǨǷƉƣƢƬǯǺǷǂưǯƗdžȈǴǧǹƕǂǬdzơƢǷƗ

ǾºȈǴǟ DZȂºLJǂdzơƧƢºǧȁȄǴǟƢǷƢǟśLjŨȆǔǷDzƦǫƾdzȁȅǀdzơȆǬnjǷƾdzơƢǼƷȂȇČƾǠȇȁ
ƨdzƢLJǁǵǵƢǟƤƬǯśƷ DzȈǻơƽǹƢǷǁȂǻ ƾȈǴǬƬdzơơǀǿdžLJƚǷ ǵȐLjdzơ
ƽơƾºƳƗDzºȈǟƢũƛƔƢǼƥȋƧǂǯƢŭơƧǁȂǘLJȋơȁƨǟƾƦdzƢƥǵȐLJȍơƢȀȈǧƪǠǻƨǧǂǠŭơǞƦǻǹơȂǼǠƥ
ǹƗȄǴǟȆǬnjǷƾdzơČǂǐȇȁ žDzȈǻơƽDžƢǿƢLJǹȂƳ DZƢƳƾdzơƶȈLjŭơ
ʼnƾºǬdzơǺȇƾȀǠdzơǺǷƩƢǨǘƬǬǷǺǷǹƕǂǬdzơǪȈǨǴƬƥDZȂLJǂdzơǵƢǫƮȈƷƨȈƸȈLjǸǴdzǦȇǂŢǵȐLJȍơ
ơǀºǿȄǴǟƨȈǫơƾǐŭơƔƢǨǓƛDZȁƢƷȁǩǁƢŭơȅǁȂǘLjǼdzơƤǿơǂdzơDžȂȈƳŚLJƧƾǟƢLjŠƾȇƾŪơȁ
DZȁƗȆǬnjǷƾdzơƢǼƷȂȇǹƗƢǸǯ ǾLjǨǻǁƾǐŭơ ƔƢǸLjdzơǺǷǾȈǴǟDZDŽǻƗǾǻƗǾƟƢǟƽƢƥǪȈǨǴƬdzơ
ǺǷƢȀǫȐǗƾǠƥDZȂLJǂdzơƢȀƳȁDŽƫŖdzơNJƸƳƪǼƥƤǼȇǃƧƾȈLjdzơƨǐǫśȈƸȈLjŭơǺǷDZȁƢǼƫǺǷ
ȄºǴǟƆȐȈºdzƽǵǁƢºŰƱơȁǃǽǂǜǻĿǹȂǰȇƽƢǯƢǷǩƢLJȁ ǽƢǼƦƫƾǫDZȂLJǂdzơǹƢǯȅǀdzơ ƾȇǃ
ǾºLjǨǻȆǬnjǷƾdzơƢǼƷȂȇǦǴǰȇŃȁ DzȈȈǻơƽǹƢǷǁȂǻ ƨǨǠdzơǵƾǟȁDZȂƦǬŭơŚǣǭȂǴLjdzơ
ƱơȁDŽºdzơǮdzƿǁȁƽȁNJƸƳƪǼƥƤǼȇǃǺǷǵȐLjdzơǾȈǴǟDZȂLJǂdzơƱơȁǃƨǨLjǴǧĿƮƸƦdzơƔƢǼǟ
œǼdzơȆǬnjǷƾdzơǶēơȁDzƦǫǺǷơƾƟƢLJǹƢǯȅǀdzơřƦƬdzƢƥƧċȂǼƦdzơƗƾƦǷƔƢǤdzƛȄǴǟǵȐLJȍơƾȈǯƘƫĿ
ƧǂƥƢºǟƩơȁŗdzÅƔƢǓǁƛDZƢūơȄǔƬǬǷƤLjƷƆƢȈƷȁǾȈǟƾȇƢǷǾȈdzƛƢǨȈǔǷǹƕǂǬdzƢƥƤǟȐƬȇǾǻƘƥ
 ǾLjǨǻǁƾǐŭơ

ƆƢƴĔǵȐLjdzơǾȈǴǟDZȂLJǂdzơǎƼNjȄǴǟǵȂƴŮơƾǸƬǠȇȅǀdzơƾȈǴǬƬdzơơǀđǹȂǠƥƢƬdzơǮLjŤȁ
ǺºǷĎȆƸȈºLjǷǵǵƢǟƢȀǨdzƗȅƾǼǰdzơƨdzƢLJǁǹơȂǼǠƥƨdzƢǬǷǮdzƿȄǴǟDZƢưǷƶǓȁƗƐDzǠdzȁ
džºLJȋơǹȐǘƥƩƢƦƯƛƨȈdzȁƚLjŠƢȀȈǧƢǠǴǘǔǷȅƾǼǰdzơǩƢƸLJƛǺƥƶȈLjŭơƾƦǟȂǿĺǂǟDzǏƗ
ƨǠǓơȂƬŭơǾƫƘnjǻȁDZȂLJǂdzơăǶąƬĄȇǹƗȅƾǼǰdzơȆǟċƾȇDZȂLJǂdzơƧċȂƦǻǦȇǃȁǵȐLJȍơƢȀȈǴǟƾǼƬLjȇŖdzơ
ǶºǴǠdzơDzºưǷƢȀȈǴǟǥǁƢǠƬŭơƧȂƦǼdzơƩƢǷȐǟǺǷƆƢĈȇƗĉƾƦȇѝDZȂLJǂdzơȅƗǾǻƗȁǾƫċȂƦǼƥơǂnjƦȇŃ
ǵơƾǠǻơȄǴǟƆȐȈdzƽDZȂLJǂdzơƩƢŸǃƽƾǠƫȅƾǼǰdzơǩƢLJǮdzƿńƛƨǧƢǓƛƩơDŽƴǠŭơDzǠǧȁƤȈǤdzƢƥ
ƾºŞǂºnjƬǻơǾǻȋǦǼǠdzƢƥǵȐLJȍơǶȀƬȇǹƗȅƾǼǰdzơƪǨȇŃȁƧȂƦǼdzơǹȐǘƥǾȈǴǟƤƫǂƬŭơƨǨǠdzơ
ǪºnjǼŭơƧƾǟƢºLjŠDZȂºLJǂdzơǞǓȁǺǷǹƕǂǬdzơǹƗȁƨȈǻƢǘȈNjƨdzƢLJǁœǼdzơƨdzƢLJǁǹƘƥȁǦȈLjdzơ
ǺºǷDZȁƗȅƾǼǰdzơǹƢǯȁ ƨdzƢLJǂdzơ ǩǁƢŭơȅǁȂǘLjǼdzơƤǿơǂdzơDžȂȈƳŚLJ
ƨºƯȐƯƾǠƥƔƢǸLjdzơńƛƾǠǐȈLJǾǻƘƥƘƦǼƫDZȂLJǂdzơǹƘƥȄǟċƽơśƷǪǴǠŭơƩȂƥƢƬdzơƧǁȂǘLJƗƱċȁǁ
ǾºƬǠũȄǴǟƆƢǛƢǨƷǾƥƢƸǏƗǂƌǘǓơƺLjǨƬdzƢƥǽƾLjƳƗƾƥȁǮdzƿƭƾŹŃƢŭȁǾƫȂǷǺǷǵƢȇƗ
ǹƗǾLjǨǻƪǫȂdzơ ĿśǟƾǷƨƦǠǰdzơǦǬLJĿƆƢǬǴǠǷDzǛƮȈƷƨǰǷńƛǾǴǬǻȁƩȂƥƢƬdzơƨǫǂLJńƛ
ĿǺǸǰȇƨȇǂǨdzơǽǀǿȄǴǟǶLJƢūơƽǂdzơDzǠdzȁ ƨdzƢLJǂdzơ ǭƢǼǿńƛǾƬǴǬǻƨǰƟȐŭơ
ǂºǷȄǴǟȁǾdzȂǫǹȐǘƥǦnjƬǰȈdzƢđǵƢȈǬdzơȅƾǼǰdzƢƥƆƢĈȇǂƷǹƢǯƧǁȂǼŭơƨǼȇƾŭơńƛƧƾƷơȁƧǁƢȇǃ
DzºǠǧǺºǟœǼºdzơDŽƴǟȄǴǟƣǂǤdzơƾǼǟƆƢǠǗƢǫƆȐȈdzƽƨǴǗƢƦdzơƧǁȂǘLJȋơǽǀǿƩǁƢǏǁȂǐǠdzơ
ĿƾǼƬLjƫƧǁȂǘLJȋơǽǀǿǹƗńƛƧǁƢNjȍơƢǼǿƾȈǨŭơǺǷǾǴǠdzȁƶȈLjŭơƾȈLjdzơǥȐşƩơDŽƴǠŭơ
ǺȇƾȀǠdzơĿǽƽȂǠǏȁƶȈLjŭơƾȈLjdzơƮǠƥƨǐǫȁDzȈƟơǂLJƛřƥƩȂƥƢƫƨǐǫńƛƢȀǴȈǏƢǨƫȁƢŮȂǏƗ
ƨȈǷȐLJƛǁƽƢǐǷȄǴǟƢǿƽƢǼƬLJơǺǷǂưǯƗƾȇƾŪơȁʼnƾǬdzơ

ǹƗƢǿȂƳȁǂǷȆǟċƽơŖdzơƨǷƢǸūơƧǁȂǘLJƗDzưǷƢȀƴLjǻȁŚǗƢLJȋơ ǝơƾƬƥơƨȈǴǸǟƪǴǏơȂƫȁ
ơǀºǰǿƲºăLjǼĄƫȃǂƻƗƧǂǷȁǾȈǴǟȆƷȂdzơDZȁŗƥǾƥƢƸǏƗǞǼǬȇŕƷǾǻƌƿƗǺǷDzǯƘƬdzƢđǁƽœǼdzơ
ǾǻƘƥǵȐLjdzơǾȈǴǟDzȇŐŪǦǏȁ  ŕǷDzȈųƛĿƽǂȇƮȈƷDzȈųȍơȄǴǟƆơƽƢǼƬLJơƧǁȂǘLJƗ
ƨºǤǴƥǥȂdzƘǷƐȐdzơǞǷDzǷƢǠƬdzơĿǹƢLjǻȍơƨǠȈƦǗ ȆǿƢǸǯȁƨǷƢŧƧƘȈǿȄǴǟƶȈLjŭơȄǴǟDZōŗƫ
ǾºƬǠȈƦǘdzǁƢƦƬǟơǹȁƽƢĔȂǸȀǨȇƨǤǴƥǽŚLjǨƫǵȐLJȎdzǶȀƬȀƳơȂǷĿǹȂȈƸȈLjŭơDZȁƢƷ ǥȂdzƘŭơ
DzºƥƨƥċǁƾŭơƨǷƢǸūơȁǪǴǠŭơƩȂƥƢƬdzơļǁȂǘLJƗDzǏƗśƦȇƢǷơǀǿȁƨǨǴƬƼŭơǺǰƫŃǹƛƨǴǬƬLjŭơ
ơǀºǿǵƢēơƾƷńƛ DZƢưŭơDzȈƦLJȄǴǟǮLJƢǼdzơDžǂǘƥȁȆLjǴƥơǂǘdzơǵƢȈdzȁ ǶȀǔǠƦƥǂǷȋơDzǏȁ
ĿǺǰȇŃƔƢȈNjƗǺǷǹƕǂǬdzơĿƢǷńƛȃDŽǠȇǮdzƿĿƤƦLjdzơōDzǠdzȁƨȈƸȈLjǷƨǬǗǂǿǾǻƘƥǺȇƾdzơ
DzȈųȍơĿƢǷǞǷƢȀǬǧơȂƬdzƤȇƿƢǯȋƢƥƢȀƬǠǻśǧǂǘƬŭơśȈƫȂǿȐdzơǁȁƾǬǷ
ȄºǟċƽơƾǬǧǪnjǼǷDZƢǼȇƽǁƢǯœĈǼdzơǹƗȆǟċƾƫŖdzơƧǁȂǘLJȋơDzǏƗǂLjǨȇƢǷƾȈǯƘƬdzƢƥơǀǿȁ
ƽƢºǫƢƥƢƦdzơƤǐǼŭǽǁƢȈƬƻơǶƬȇŃƢǷƾǼǟȁƢǷȁǁĿƆȏƢǼȇƽǁƢǯǹƢǯDZȂLJǂdzơǹƘƥśǧǂǘƬŭơǒǠƥ
ĿŖǻơƽDzưǷƣƢċƬǰdzơǒǠƥƾǸƬǟơƾǫȁ ŖnjƦdzơ ƨLjȈǼǰdzơŚǷƾƬdzǩƢǬnjǻơƨǯǂƷĿƣǂǠdzơ
ǾºƥǁƽȅǀºdzơǁȂưdzơƧǁȂǘLJƗƢǷƗƨȈǟơƾƥȍơǶŮƢǸǟƗĿƧǁȂǘLJȋơǽǀǿȄǴǟƨȈŮȍơƢȇƾȈǷȂǰdzơ
ǹȂǰƫǹƗƢǷƛƢĔƗƶǓơȂdzơǺǷȁƢǿŚǣǺǷƆȏȁơƾƫDzǫƗȆȀǧǾȈǻǂǫȄǴǟǦƸǐŭơDzǸƸȈdzDZȂLJǂdzơ
ƧǂǬƦdzơƧǁȂLjdzƆƢǗȂǴǤǷƆƢǸȀǧȁƗƆƢǨȇǂŢ

ȏŖdzơƤȇƿƢǯȋơǒǠƥDZȂLJǂdzơƧƢǧȁDZȂƷƪƴLjĄǻďȆǐƼnjdzơƶȇǂƴƬdzơƧƽƢǟȄǴǟƆƢȇǂƳȁ
ǹƗǶǟDŽºȇǺǷǭƢǼȀǧǵȐLJȎdzǺȇƽƢǠŭơƨǻƢLJǂƫĿƆƢƷȐLJƪǴĉǤĄƬLJơƢĔƛƮȈƷƢǿǂǯƿǺǷǍƢǼǷ
ȄǴǟƆƢǷȂǸLjǷƩƢǷǾǻƗǂƻȉơǒǠƦdzơƾǯƚȇȁƣȐǰdzơǾƬǸȀƬdzơȁƉǝăǂăǏƨƥȂǻƤƦLjƥƩƢǷDZȂLJǂdzơ
  džȇǁƢºƥȂȈƯƢºǷǶǟDŽȇȁ DzȈǻơƽǹƢǷǁȂǻ ƧǂǯƢǷƨȇƽȂȀȇƧƗǂǷơƾȇ
ǝǂǏƨƥȂǻǾƬƥƢǏƘǧƨdzƢǸưdzơŕƷƆơǂŨƣǂNjǶLjdzơǂƯƗǺǷňƢǠȇDZȂLJǂdzơǹƢǯƢǸǼȈƥǾǻƗ 
ǹƗdžȇǁƢƥƨǴǯƢNjȄǴǟǶǿǺŲŚưǰdzơǶǟDŽȇȁ ǾLjǨǻ ǁƾǐŭơ ǾƬǸȀƬdzƢǧǂȇǃƢǼƻƨƦȇǁǃĿǞǫȁȁ
DzƥƨȈưȈǴưƬdzơƨǫƾǻDŽdzơƨǯǂƷǶȀȇƗǁĿƢǷdžLJƚǷǾƦǰƫǁơȅǀdzơǵǂŪơƤLJƢǼƫƨȈƯȐưdzơƨƬȈŭơǽǀǿ
ƨǷȂǟDŽŭơƨƯƽƢūơǽǀŮǵȐLJȍơĿǂȇŗŬơǶūDzǯƗȁǂǸŬơƣǂNjʼnǂŢƤƦLJǶȀǼǷǒǠƦdzơǞƳǂĄȇ
ƧƢºǧȁDzƦǫƢǻƢǯǂȇŗŬơǶūDzǯƗȁǂǸŬơƣǂNjʼnǂŢǹƗƪƦưƫŖdzơƨȈźǁƢƬdzơǪƟƢǬūơśǴǿƢƴƬǷ
ƨȈǠȈƦǘdzơDZȂLJǂdzơ

ǺºǟƨƸȈƸºǐdzơƩƢǷȂǴǠŭơƧƽƢȇǃǶǣǁƢƥȁǁȁƗĿǁƢnjƬǻȏơĿŚǗƢLJȋơǽǀǿƩǂǸƬLJơȁ
ŕƷƨdzȁơƾƬǷŚǗƢLJȋơǽǀǿǒǠƥƪdzơǃƢǷȁƨȈƦȈǴǐdzơƣȁǂūơƔƢǼƯƗȁƢȈǻƢƦLJƛƨƥơȂƥŐǟǵȐLJȍơ
ǭƢǼȀǧƨȈƥȁǁȁȋơƣȂǠnjǴdzƨǷƢǠdzơƧǂǯơǀdzơĿƺLJǂƫƢǷƢȀǼǷǹƛDzƥƨȈƫƢǷȂǴǠŭơȁƨǧǂǠŭơǂǐǟĿ
ǽơȂƸǧƨȇDŽȈǴųȍơƨǤǴdzơĿDZȁơƾƬǷDZȂǫDZƢưŭơDzȈƦLJȄǴǟ
(If the mountain does not come to Mahammad, Mahammad
goes to the mountain )
ȄǴǟǾƫǁƾǫǹƢȈƦƫǾƥƢƸǏƗǺǷƵƢūƛƾǠƥDZȁƢƷDZȂLJǂdzơǹƗƢǿƽƢǨǷƧǁȂǘLJƗȄǴǟřƦǷȂǿȁ
ǭǂºƸƬȇŃƢǷƾǼǟȁǵȁƾǬdzƢƥǽƢȇƛƆơǂǷƕDzƦƳńƛ,ǁƢNjƘǧDzLJǂdzơȁƔƢȈƦǻȋơƨȈǬƥDzưǷƩơDŽƴǠŭơDzǠǧ
ƆȐƟƢǫDzƦŪơńƛƤǿƿȁǶLjƬƥơǽȂƳȂdzơȄǴǟDzǷȋơƨƦȈƻƩƢǷȐǟDZȂLJǂdzơȃƗǁȁǾǻƢǰǷǺǷDzƦŪơ
DzƦŪơńƛƤǿǀȈLJƆơƾǸŰǹƜǧĊƾǸŰńƛƌDzƦŪơĉƩƘȇŃǹƛ

ǹȁǂºǬdzơƢƥȁǁȁƗĿřȇƾdzơƾȀnjŭơȄǴǟǵȐLJȎdzǂǧƢLjdzơƔơƾǠdzơǁƢȈƫǹƢȈǤǗǺǷȁƾƦȇƢǷǶǣǁȁ
ǺºǷƆơƽƾºnjƫōDzºǫƗǾƬdzƽƢůȁǵȐLJȍơƧǂǛƢǼŭǶēƢȈƷơȂƦǿȁǺċŲśȈƸȈLjŭơǒǠƥǹƢǯȄǘLJȂdzơ
ǶȀǟƢºǼǫƛȁśǸǴLjŭơƨǬƯƤLjǯDzƳƗǺǷǹƢǯǹƛȁƨǻȁǂŭơǺǷƆơǁƾǫǶȀǔǠƥȃƾƥƗDzƥǶǿŚǣ
ĿƢºǰǟĿǹƢǰȈǼȈǷȁƾºdzơƨºǨƟƢǗƽơǂǧƗƾƷƗȆLjǴƥơǂǘdzơǵƢȈdzȁƔȏƚǿǺǷȁƨȈƸȈLjŭơǩƢǼƬǟƢƥ
ƨȈƸȈºLjǷƨǬǗǂǿǵȐLJȍơĿȃǂȇȆLjǴƥơǂǘdzơǵƢȈdzȁǹƢǯǂnjǟƮdzƢưdzơǹǂǬdzơǺǷƩƢȈǼȈǠƦLjdzơ
ǵȐºLJȍơśºƥƨǯǂƬnjŭơǶLJơȂǬdzơĿǺǠǸƬdzơȄǴǟśǸǴLjŭơǞȈƴnjƫśȈƸȈLjŭơȄǴǟśǠƬȇǾǻƗȁ
ȄǴǟǾƥDžƘƥȏƆƢǗȂNjơȂǠǘǫǹȂǸǴLjŭơȅƗǶĔƗȁ DzȈǻơƽǹƢǷǁȂǻ ƨȈƸȈLjŭơȁ
ƨȈƸȈLjŭơƨǻƢȇƾdzơǩƢǼƬǟơǪȇǂǗ

ȅƗǂºdzơǵƢºǟ Cluny řƊǴƒǯǂȇƾdzƆƢLjȈƟǁŚƬƻơȅǀdzơǮLJƢǼdzơDžǂǘƥŘƦƬȇȁ
śǸǴºLjŭơƔơƾǟǹƗȁ ǭDŽƬȇǂǯdžǸȈƳ ȃŐǯƨȈƸȈLjǷƨǬǗǂǿǵȐLJȍơǹƘƥ
ǺºǷǾºǻƗȆƠƫǂȇȁ ǾLjǨǻǁƾǐŭơ ǎǴƼŭơǾǻƗƗƾƦǷǶȀǔǧǁĿǖǬǧǂǐƸǼȇƶȈLjǸǴdz
ǵȋƾdzȁǾǻƘƥǹȂǼǷƚȇȁƶȈLjŭƢƥǹȂǼǷƚȇǞǫơȂdzơĿǶĔȋ ƨȈƸȈLjŭơǩƢǼƬǟƢƥśǸǴLjŭơǝƢǼǫƛŚLjȈdzơ
ƲƴūƢºƥǶȀƬǬǗǂǿǒƷƽǺǷƾƥȏǹƢǯƨȇƢǤdzơǽǀǿńƛDZȂǏȂǴdzȁʼnǂǷǾǷƗǹȂǸǜǠȇȁƔơǁǀǟ
ƨºȇƢǤdzơǽǀǿńƛƆȏȂǏȁȁǵȐLJȍơǺǟƨƸȈƸǐdzơƩƢǷȂǴǠŭơǂǧȂƬƥƐȏƛȄƫƘƬȇȏơǀǿȁśǿơŐdzơȁ
ƨȈŻƽƢǯȋơƩƢLJơǁƾdzơǵƢȈǫńƛǪȇǂǘdzơƆơƾȀŲƨȈǼȈƫȐdzơńƛʼnǂǰdzơǹƕǂǬdzơƨŦǂƬƥǮLJƢǼdzơDžǂǘƥǂǷƗ
ƨƴūƢƥśǸǴLjŭơƨǟǁƢǬǷƣȂƳȂƥǵƢƬdzơǾǟƢǼƬǫơǮLJƢǼdzơDžǂǘƦdzƤLjŹƢĈŲȁƢƥȁǁȁƗĿǵȐLJȎdz
ȏȅƗǂºdzơơǀǿċǺǰdz ǾLjǨǻǁƾǐŭơ ƾǬūƢƥȏƤūƢƥȁƧȂǬdzƢƥȏDzǬǠdzƢƥȁƵȐLjdzƢƥȏ
ǵȐLJȍơǽƢšǮLJƢǼdzơDžǂǘƥȅǂǏƢǠǷǦǫơȂǷĿƆƢǷƢǟƆȏȂŢDzưŻ

ļȂǿȐdzơǵƢǜǼdzơǝƢĈƦĄƫǦǬǴƫǾďȈƦǻƧǁȂǏǾȇȂnjƬƥǵȐLJȍơƧǁȂǏǾȇȂnjƬdzƣȁƙƾdzơǶȀȈǠLJĿȁ
ȆǬnjǷƾdzơƢǼƷȂȇƭǁƛǎȈƸǸƬdzơȁƮƸƦdzơƔƢǼǟǹȁƽȄǘLJȂdzơǁȂǐǠdzơĿƨȈƸȈLjŭơǺǟǞǧơƾŭơ
ǹƢºǷǁȂǻ ƾºǸŰƧċȂƦǻǾƥƾǠƦăƬLjĄƫȁƩơċȂƦǼdzơDzǯǾȈǴǟDžƢǬƫƆƢǠǷƢƳƆơǁƢȈǠǷơȂǠǓȁȁȅƾǼǰdzơȁ
ƧƢȈƷǹȂǰƫǹƗȆǿȁƨȈdzƢƬdzơƨƯȐưdzơƝƽƢƦŭơĿǾǴǯǵƢǜǼdzơDZơDŽƬƻơǺǰŻȁ DzȈǻơƽ
ǪƟƢºǬƷǶŮơȂºǫƗǃƢƬŢǹƗȁƩơDŽƴǠŭơDzǠǧǺǷƔƢȈƦǻȋơǺǰǸƬȇǹƗȁƨǷƢǬƬLJȐdzȏƢưǷƔƢȈƦǻȋơ
DzºnjǧǹƗȄǴǟDzȈdzƾƬdzơȂǿǵƢǜǼdzơơǀŮȆLJƢLJȋơǥƾŮơǹƘƥŚǯǀƬdzơńƛƔǂŭơƱƢƬŹȏƧƾdzƢƻ
ƾǿơȂnjdzơƪǓǁƢǠƫƢǷƾǼǟȁǾƫċȂƦĄǻǦȇǃȄǴǟƆƢȈǧƢǯƆȐȈdzƽČƾǠȇƝƽƢƦŭơǽǀǿǺǷďȅƗǪȈǬŢĿœǼdzơ
ƾǿơȂnjdzơǮǴƫDzȇȁƘƫĿǹȂȈƥǂǤdzơǹȂȈƸȈLjŭơƣƢƬǰdzơƽƽǂƬȇŃǽǂȇȂǐƫƽơǂȇƢǷǞǷœǼdzơƧƢȈƷǺǷ
ƢºǷǹƗƨdzȂǬǷȄǴǟǮdzƿĿǺȇƾǸƬǠǷƧƾȇƾƳƾǿơȂNjǩȐƬƻơȁƗƽȂǐǬŭơǂǷȋơǞǷƤLJƢǼƬȇƢŠ
ǂºǷȋơċƾǠƬȇŃǹƛȁŕƷ ǾLjǨǻǁƾǐŭơ ƆƢȈǬȈǬƷǾƫơƿĿǹȂǰȇǹƗċƾƥȏǪūơƔơƾǟƗŚǔȇ
ȅƗǂºdzơơȁƾºǸƬǟơǶĔƘƥǁơǂǫȍơĿƆƢƳǂƷǹȂȈƥȁǁȁȋơƣƢĈƬǰdzơƾŸŃǾȈǴǟȁDZƢǬdzơȁDzȈǬdzơƽǂů
Guibert of ȂǿƢºȀǧǵȐLJȍơǺǟǶēƢǷȂǴǠǷƢȀǼǷǹȂǬƬLjȇǁƽƢǐǷDZȂǬdzơǺǷȂǤǴdzơȁǵƢǠdzơ
ǶºǿơƿƗǃȁƢºƴƬȇǺȇǀdzơǮƠdzȁƗǂnjdzƢƥǹƢLjǻȍơǂǯǀȇǹƗDZȂƦǬŭơǺǷǾǻƘƥƵďǂǐȇ Nogent
 ǹǁƊǀăLJĿdžƦƬǬǷ ŚưǰƥǂnjdzơƽȁƾƷ

ƨŤƢǫƧǁȂǏȄǘLJȂdzơǁȂǐǠdzơĿƨȈƸȈLjŭơǺǟǹȂǠǧơƾŭơǶLJǁǶȀǧȐLJƗǾǟƾƬƥơƢǷȄǴǟƢȇǂƳȁ
ǞºǫơȁǺºǟŐǠƫȏƧǁȂǏžǞǫơȂdzơǺǟǹȂǰƫƢǷƾǠƥƗdžȈȇƢǬŭơDzǰƥƪǻƢǯśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȎdz
ǺȇƽƗƾǬǧǾȈǴǟȁƣǂǤdzơǽƾȇǂȇȁǽơǂȇƢǸǯǵȐLJȍơǺǟŐǠƫƢǷǁƾǫǾƫǁƢǔƷȁǾƬdzƢLJǁȁǵȐLJȍơ
ǮŎǴŤǺǷǽƾǠƦƬLjƫŖdzơƨǠnjƦdzơƩƢǨǐdzơȁǶȀƬdzơDzǯǾƥƪǬǐdzƗȁƢȇƢǘŬơDzǯƣƢǰƫǁƢƥǵȐLJȍơ
ǂƻȉơǁȁƽƤǠdzĿƆƧǂǐƸǼǷǵȐLJȍơƨǨȈǛȁƩƾǣȁƣǂǤdzơƧǃȂŞƨǴǷƢǯƪƸƦǏƗŖdzơƨǬȈǬūơ
džȈºdzƢǷDzǯDzưŻȅǀdzơȁƾǠdzơȂǿǵȐLJȍƢǧƢȀƬȇȂđȁƢēơǀƥƢƥȁǁȁƗǁȂǠNjǃDŽǠȇȅǀdzơǒȈǬǼdzơ
DZȁƢºƷĽǾƦǴǏȁƶȈLjŭơƨȈǿȂdzƗǂǰǻƗȁƮȈǴưƬdzơƗƾƦǷǵȐLJȍơǂǰǻƗƾǬǴǧǒȈǬǼdzơȅƗƆƢȈƸȈLjǷ
ƩƢƸǘºnjdzǹȂǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơǑǂǠƫơǀǰǿȁƨȈƸȈLjŭơƧƾȈǬǠdzơŚǷƾƫǦǼǠdzƢƥǶȀȇƗǁƤLjƷ
ĿƽȂǸºǐdzơƪǟƢǘƬLJơƨȈƦǴLjdzơĿƨȇƢǣƨǠǷƢƳƧǁȂǏƲƬǻƗƢŲǕơǂǧȍơĿƨǼǠǸŭơĺǂǤdzơDZƢȈŬơ
DzǔǧƗȂǿƢǷȂŴƩơǁȂǘƬdzơDzǯǾƳȁ

ƆƢºǔȈǤƥȁƆƢºƬȈǬǷȆƸȈLjŭơǽơǂȇƢǷDzǯǹȂǴưŻƧǁȂǐdzơǽǀǿĿǹȂǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơǁƢǏ
ǦºǼǠdzơǺºȇƽǵȐºLJȍơȁžǹȂƬƠƬǨǷƧǂƥơǂƥȁǹȂǟƽƢűȁǶŮƨǨǟȏǁƢǨǯȁǹȂȈǼƯȁǹȂǸǴLjŭƢǧ
ǽȂºǬǼƬǠȇŕƷDžƢǼdzơƔơǂǣƛȁƨǬȈǬūơǦȇǂŢƾǸǠƫȁDzƟƢǔǨdzơńƛǂǬƬǧơǺȇƽƨȈƷƢƥȍơȁDzȈƳƾƬdzơȁ
ƢºǷƗžƨºǔǫƢǼƬŭơǁƢǰǧȋơǺǷƤȇǂǣǖȈǴƻǺǟƧǁƢƦǟǹƕǂǬdzơȁžƨȈƷƢƥȍơȁƗƧȂǬdzơƢǷƛƆȐǤƬLjǷ
DzƦǫǾdzȅƾǐƬdzơȁǵȐLJȍơƨǻơƽƛǺǷƨȈƸȈLjǸǴdzƾƥȏǹƢǯǾȈǴǟȁDZƢƳƾdzơƶȈLjŭơȂȀǧDZȂLJǂdzơ
ƆƢȈƟƢĔǾȈǴǟƔƢǔǬdzơ

ǁȂºǐǠdzơǹƢºċƥƛƣǂǤdzơĿƨǴȈƼƬŭơƨȈǟơƾƥȍơDZƢǸǟȋơƾǸǠƫǹƗǹƿƛƣǂǤƬLjŭơǺǷǺǰȇŃ
ǹȂȈƸȈºLjŭơǹȂȈƫȂǿȐdzơƢȀǟƾƬƥơŖdzơśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȎdzƨǿȂnjŭơǁȂǐdzơDZȐǤƬLJơńƛȄǘLJȂdzơ
ƾȈºnjǻ ƢȀºǼǷȁƨǧȁǂǠŭơƨȈƥƽȋơDZƢǸǟȋơǮǴƫǮdzƿȄǴǟDZƢưǷƶǓȁƗōDzǠdzȁƢǿǂȇȁƾƫƧƽƢǟƛȁ
DzȈǨȇƾºǼǷƩȐºƷǁȁŖǻơƾºdzƨȈŮȍơƢȇƾȈǷȂǰdzơȁ ǵ ƾǻȏȁǁƾȈnjǻȁǂƯƖŭơ
DZƢºǸǟȋơǽǀºǿƨǠȈƦǗƪƸũȁ ǵ ƪȈǣƾȈdzǹȂŪƔơǂǷȋơǕȂǬLJȁ ǵ
ǹȂǸǴºLjŭơǁƢǐǧƽȁƾƷȁƗƽȂȈǫǹȁƽǵȐLJȎdzǁȂǏǶLJǂdzǶȀƬǴȈƻȋƨǼǟȋơơȂǬǴǘȇǹƗƔƢƥƽȌdz
DŽǻȂºƳƭƾȇŚǷȆLJƾǯƚȇȁƾăƦǠĄȇƆƢŮƛȁƆȏƢƳƽƶƦǏƘǧœǼdzơƢǷƗǹƢƯȁƗƧƾƦǟȁśȈƥƢǿǁƛƧǂƥơǂƥ
ǂǠºnjdzơĿƾƟƢLjdzơƾȈǴǬƬdzơǹƗǂƯƖŭơƾȈnjǻĿ *ƨǼLJơǂLjǴdzƨȇƾȈǴǬƬdzơƧǁȂǐdzơǹơȂǼǠƥƨdzƢǬǷĿ
ǶĔƗȄǴǟśǸǴLjŭơǂȇȂǐƫȂǿȆLjǻǂǨdzơȆǸƸǴŭơ
 
ƨºǼƬǨdzơDžƗǁƔƢǼƥƗǶǿȁǾLjƟƢǼǯŚǷƾƫȁ ƶȈLjŭơŚǬŢȁǽǂǯĿǶēƢȈƷǹȂǔŻǁơǂNjƗ
džȈǴƥƛǁȁǂnjdzơDzǯǁƾǐǷȁ
ǹȂǠnjƥƨǬdzƢǸǟǶȀǼǷŚưǯȁǹƢǘȈnjdzơƧǂǷƛƪŢǶȀLjǨǻƗǹȂǠǔȇȁƅơǹȂǿǂǰȇǶĔƛ 
ƢȀǴǸǯƘƥDzƟƢƦǫǶȀǼǷǹƗƢǸǯ
ǺȇǁƾºǐǷǭǁƢºǠŭơńƛǹȂǠǧƾǼȇȁśǗƢȈnjdzơǹȂǴƥƧǂnjƦdzơƽȂLJǶȀǼǷȁǹȁǂǫȅȁƿ 
ƣȐǰdzơƵƢƦǻDzưǷƨƦȇǂǣƢƫơȂǏƗ
ƵǂºƫǝȂºǷƽƽȂǠƬdzƨǜūǶȀǼǷƵǂǨdzơǝȂǷƽǂǸȀǼƬǧƨNjƢȈŪơǦǗơȂǠdzơǶȀȈǴǟƤǴǤƫ 
ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơƨȈƷƢǼdzơǺǷƢǷƗȃǂƻƗƨǜū
ƧƾºȈƷȂdzơƨǸºLjdzơǶǿǃȂºǠƫƮȈƷǺƟƢNjƪȈǬǷȂǿƢǷŏDzǰdzƾȈLjšǶēƢȈǯȂǴLJǹƜǧ 
ǶȀǧŅƢƬdzƢƥȁƨȈƸȈLjŭơƧƾȈǬǠdzơȅƗDZƢǸǰǴdz
ƔơǂǠºNjǝƾºƬƥơơǀǰǿȁǶǿơǂLJƗǹȂǴǯƘȇȁƩƢƳȁDŽdzơƽƾǠƫȁǩǂdzơȁƨLJƢƼǼdzơǹȂLJǁƢŻ 
ȏƨǼȈȀŭơƨǼƟƢnjdzơƧǁȂǐdzơǽǀǿǶƷȐŭơ
śǸǴº
ºLjŭơǂº
ºǨǯȂº ºǿǁȁǂººnjdzơǽǀº
ºǿDzº ºǯƤƦº ºLJǹƗƾº ºȈǯƘƬdzōȏƛƔȆº
ºnjdz 
  ƨȈƸȈLjŭơƨǻƢȇƾdzƢƥ

ƢºǷȄǴǟƨȈǼƦǷȆǿDzƥƨȈǧǂǠǷǪƟƢǬƷƧƾȈdzȁƪLjȈdzƧǁȂǐdzơǽǀǿǹƛƆȐƟƢǫDŽǻȂƳƽǂǘƬLjȇȁ
DzưǷĿȁ  ǶēơƽƢǟȁǁƢǨǰdzơƩơƾǬƬǠǷǾȇȂnjƫĿƨƸǴǐŭơƩơƿƨȈǼȇƾdzơƩƢǘǴLjdzơǾƫƘƫǁơ
ŃƢǸǯƨǬȈǬūơǺǟƮƸƦǴdzƽơƾǠƬLJơȄǴǟǞǷƢLjdzơȁƗƝǁƢǬdzơȁƗƤƫƢǰdzơǺǰȇŃǥȁǂǜdzơǽǀǿ

ƢȈƸȈLjǷdžȈdzǺǷDzǯȄǴǟǪǴǘƬdzƢŮƢǸǠƬLJơǶďǸĄǟĽȄǘLJȂdzơǁȂǐǠdzơĿƢǏȂǐƻǶǴLjŭơȁƗĺǂǠdzơȄǴǟǪǴǘƫƨȈǸLjƫ
(Saracen)
ƨǬƦºLjŭơǶēơǁȂǐƫǞǷǒǫƢǼƬƫŖdzơƨdzƽȋơDzƦǬƬdzƆƢǬǴǘǷƽơƾǠƬLJȏơśȈƫȂǿȐdzơśǠǧơƾŭơȃƾdzǺǰȇ
śǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơǺǟ

DZȂºȀůȆLjǻǂǧǂǟƢNjƢȀǨdzƗŖdzơƾǻȏȁǁǂƯƖǷƨǸƸǴǷĿǁȂǐdzơǽǀǿDzǯƪLjǰǠǻơƾǫȁ
ƾºǓǾºƫȏȂǘƥȁƨºųǂǨdzơǮºǴǷǹƢŭǁƢNjǂƯƖǷƨǸƸǴŭơǽǀǿƽďƾǠƫȁǵǵƢǟŅơȂƷ
ǺºǷƆơƾƟƢǟǹƢŭǁƢNjǹƢǯƢǸǼȈƥƿƛǵǵƢǟƨȈźǁƢƫƨƯƽƢƷńƛƨǸƸǴŭơǽǀǿƾǼƬLjƫȁśǸǴLjŭơ
ƨºǸƸǴŭơǺǰdzƢǿȁƽƢƥƗȁǾnjȈƳƧǂƻƚǷǮLJƢƦdzơǺǷǹȂƥǁƢŰǶƳƢǿƢȈǻƢƦLJƛȄǴǟƨȇǂǰLjǟƨǴŧ
ǮǴǷƨǸƸǴŭơĿƆƢǸȀǷƆơǁȁƽƤǠǴƫŖdzơƩƢȈǐƼnjdzơǺǷȁśǸǴLjŭƢƥǮLJƢƦdzơśŦƢȀŭơDZƾƦƬLjƫ
ƾȈnjǻ ȂdzȂƥƗǾdzȎdzȆǴǐƫȁƆơƾǸŰƾƦǠƫȁƣǂdzơǽǂǰƫƨȈǐƼNjȂǿȁDzȈLJǁƢǷǶǴLjŭơƨǘLjǫǂLJ
ƢȀºLJƗǁȄǴǟȁǹƕǂǬdzơƢȀǼǷƨŮȉơǺǷƨǟȂǸůƾƦǠȇřƯȁơǀǿDzȈLJǁƢǷȁ DZơƾǻơǁ
DzºǯƾºǼǟƢȈdzƢǟœǼdzơƩȂƥƢƫǹȂȈǼƯȂdzơƔȏƚǿǞǧǂȇȁ  ƾǸŰǶǿŚƦǯ
DzȈºLJǁƢǷǝǂǔƫƨǯǂǠŭơdžȈǗȁȆŧƢǷƾǼǟȁ  ǂǐǼdzơǶŮǪǬƸƬȈdzƨǯǂǠǷ
ǹȂǸǘƸȈǧǽƽȂǼƳȁDzȈLJǁƢǷǾȈǴǟƤǴǬǼȇǮdzǀdzǶȀǼǟȄǴƼƬȇǾǻƗōȏƛƔƢǟƾdzƢƥƾǸŰńƛǽƽȂǼƳȁ
  ǂȇǃƢǼŬơȁƣȐǰdzơǾLJȁƾƫƮȈƷǩƾǼƻĿǾǻȂǬǴȇȁǾdzƢưŤ

ƽƽǂºƫȁƧƾȈǬǠdzơĿƣǀƥǀƫȄǘLJȂdzơǁȂǐǠdzơĿƣǂǤdzơǶǿơǂȇƢǸǯśǸǴLjŭơDZƢƷơǀǰǿ
ƧǁȂǘLJȋƢƥǾLjǨǻƪǫȂdzơĿǖƦƫǂȇȁƨǼȈȀǷƨƥȂǬǟƾǸŰDZƢưǸƬdzdžȈǻƾƬdzơơǀǿDzưŻȁǦǫơȂŭơĿ
ǺǷDZȂLJǂdzơƨȈǐƼNjśƥƹǁƢǐdzơǒǫƢǼƬdzơƨǸƸǴŭơǽǀǿƾǯƚƫȁœǼdzơƩȂǷǺǟǂǯǀdzơƨǨdzƢLjdzơ
ƶȈLjŭơƩȂŭƧǂƻƢLJƧƢǯƢŰƢǼǿČƾǠȇȅǀdzơǾƫȂǷĿŕƷȃǂƻƗƨȀƳǺǷƶȈLjŭơƨȈǐƼNjȁƨȀƳ
ǹƗȁƾºȈƷȂƬdzơǺȇƽȂǿȁǭǂnjdzƢƥǵȐLJȍơǶǏȂȇǹƗƨƦȇǂǣƨǫǁƢǨǷƢȀǴǠdzȁDzȈųȍơĿƽǁȁƢǸǯ
ȆƟơƾºǠdzơǂȇȂǐƬdzơơǀǿDzưǷĿƨƥơǂǣȏȁƾƦǠȇƢŮƛƨǰǷĿǵƢǼǏȋơǶǘƷȅǀdzơDZȂLJǂdzơƶƦǐȇ
ƢȈǻƢƦLJƛĿśǸǴLjŭơƾǓƨųǂǨdzơǮǴǷƩȏȂǘƥƾƴŤƨǸƸǴǷĿśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȎdz

ǵȐºLJȎdzǽǂȇȂǐƫĿǾLjǨǻȆƟơƾǠdzơƣƢǘŬơ ǵ ƪȈǣƾȈdzǹȂƳǦǛȂȇȁ
ȅǀºdzơ The Fall of Princes ƔơǂǷȋơǕȂǬLJǾƫƾȈǐǫǺǷǞLJƢƬdzơƔDŽŪơĿœǼdzơȁ
ƣȂǴºLJƘƥƪȈǣƾºȈdzǝƢǘƬLJơǵȐLJȍơǶȈdzƢǠƫȁœǼdzơƧƢȈƷǺǟƮȇƾūơĿǦdzƚŭơǾȈǧDzLJǂƬLjȇ
ǺǟǽǂǐǟĿƧǂƫơȂƬŭơƤȇƿƢǯȋơȁŚǗƢLJȋơDzǯǂnjŹǹƗơǂǘLJǺȇǂnjǟȁƨƟƢǷǺǷDzǫƗĿǂǯƢǷ
ǂǘºLjdzơǺǷƪȈǣƾȈdzDZȂǬȇƨȈǻơȂȀnjdzơȁǝǂǐdzơƩƢƥȂǻȁǝơƾŬơȁǂƸLjdzơȁDzȈƳƾƬdzơœǼdzơ
śLjǸŬơȁDžƽƢLjdzơńƛśLjǸŬơȁƮdzƢưdzơ
   
DZƢƳƽǂƷƢLJœǻ
ƨŻƾǬdzơƤƬǰdzơDzǯȄǴǟǞǴōǘǷ   
ǞȈǓȁDzǏƗǺǷƣǂǠdzơƧǂȇDŽƳĿƾdzȁ   
  ǹƢƯȁȋơƧƽƢƦǟĿǾƫƢȈƷƆƢȈǔŲ   

ȃȂǣƗœǼdzơǹƗȁȆƸȈLjŭơȅƽȂȀȈdzơƭơǂƬǴdzƨǸǴŭǵȐLJȍơǹƗƧǁȂǘLJƗǂȇȁƾƫƪȈǣƾȈdzƾȈǠȇȁ
žȆƷȂdzơDZȁDŽǻȁƧȂƦǼdzơȄǟƽơȁȐǠƥǾǴƦǬƫȆǯǵȐǰdzơDZȂLjǠŠńȁȋơǾƬƳȁǃƨŸƾƻ ƧƾȈLjdzơ
ƧǁȂǘºLJƗȁƨƥǁƾŭơƨǷƢǸūơƧǁȂǘLJƗƪȈǣƾȈdzǁǂǯƢǸǯǾƥƢƬǼƫŖdzơǝǂǐdzơƩƢƥȂǻƢŮǁŐȇȆǯ
ǞǧƽřƯȁǾǻƘƥœǼdzơƪȈǣƾȈdzǶēơȁǹƕǂǬdzơƨƥƢƬǯĿǽƾǟƢLJȅǀdzơȅǁȂǘLjǼdzơƤǿơǂdzơDžȂȈƳŚLJ
ƾºǼǟƧƽƢºƦǠǴdzƨºǠǸŪơǵȂºȇDzȈǔǨƫƤƦLjƥƢŠǁ  ƨǠǸŪơƧƽƢƦǟńƛƨǼLJơǂLjdzơ
ƢȈǟƾǷDzǠǨȇȏƢŠǾƥƢƸǏƗǂǷƘȇȂȀǧƨȈǫȐƻȋơƨȈƳơȁƽǃȏƢƥœǼdzơƪȈǣƾȈdzǶēơƢǸǯśǸǴLjŭơ
ȂºǿƱȁDŽƫśƷĿśǸǴLjŭơȄǴǟǞƥǁƗǺǷǂưǯƘƥƱơȁDŽdzơʼnǂŢDzưǷƢǏƢƻƔƢǼưƬLJơǾƸǼǷƅơǹƗ
ƽƢǟơȁǾƬċȈǨȈǯȁœǼdzơƩȂŠȅƽƢǟŚǣƢǷƢǸƬǿơƪȈǣƾȈdzȃƾƥƗȁ  ǮdzƿǺǷǂưǯƗ
ǂȇǃƢºǼƻƨºƦȇǁǃĿƢǿǂƯƛǖǬLJǝǂǏƨƥȂǼdzDzťȂǿȁœǼdzơǑĈǂǠƫǺǟƧǂƫơȂƬŭơƧǁȂǘLJȋơǂǯƿ
  ǾƬǸȀƬdzơ

ƣƽȋơśºƥǵƢƴºLjǻȏơȁǪǧơȂƬdzơǾȈǧdžǰǠǼȇƆƢȈƥƽƗƆȐǸǟŖǻơƾdzƨȈŮȍơƢȇƾȈǷȂǰdzơDzưŤȁ
ǶȈºƸŪơĿœǼdzơŖǻơƽƢđǎźŖdzơƨƥȂǬǠdzƢǧśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơDZƢȈƷƢǸȀǨǫȂǷĿƨLjȈǼǰdzơȁ
ƢǿŚǷƾºƫœǼdzơƨdzȁƢƸŠǪǴǠƬȇƢǸȈǧƨLjȈǼǰdzơǂǜǻƨȀƳȁƔȐŝdžǰǠƫ ǹȁǂnjǠdzơȁǺǷƢưdzơǞǘǬŭơ
ǦdzƢºLjdzơǪºnjǼŭơDZƢǼȇƽǁƢǰdzơƾǸŰƧǁȂǘLJƗȄǴǟơƽƢǼƬLJơǩƢǬnjdzơȁƨǫǂǨdzơǝǁDŽƥDzƻơƾdzơǺǷ
ǂǘºnjȇĽǶƠƬǴȈdzƪLJȍơŕƷǺǫǀdzơDzǨLJƗǺǷśǨǐǻǽǂǘNjœǼdzơƨƥȂǬǟƪǻƢǯơǀŮȁƢǿǂǯƿ
ȃǂºȇŖdzơƨƥȂǬǠdzơǽǀŮƨȈnjƷȂdzơƨǠȈƦǘdzơǹƛ ƨȈŮȍơƢȇƾȈǷȂǰdzơ ƨȇƾƥƗƧǁȂǐƥ
ƨȈdzƾƬŭơœǼdzơƔƢnjƷƗƩƢȇȂƬƄǃDŽǬŭơǦǏȂdzơǮdzǀƥƧċƾƷƽơƽDŽƫƤǰƫǂŭơǵǂŪơƤLJƢǼƫƢĔƗŖǻơƽ
ƨȈºNjȂLJƢǷƧȂºnjǻĿǽǁƾǏƢđœǼdzơǩDŽŻŖdzơƨǬȇǂǘǴdzǞȇǂŭơǦǏȂdzơńƛƨǧƢǓƛǾȈǫƢLJśƥ
ƨǨȈű
ǾȈǫƢLJśƥǽƙƢnjƷƗńƾƬƫ   
śǨǐǻńƛǾǘLJȁǂǘnjǼȇƮȈƷ   
ǁǀǫȁǾȇǂǯȂǿƢǷśƦƬLjȈdz   
ƨǐƷƢǧƧǂǜǻǾȈǴǟƪȈǬdzƗƢǷƾǼǟȁ   
ǽƾȈƥǽǁƾǏǪnjȇȂǿȁřǬǷǁ   
ȅǁƾǏǩDŽǷƗǦȈǯǂǜǻơDZƢǫȁ   
śǨǐǻńƛƾǸŰǂǘnjǼȇǦȈǯǂǜǻơ   
ƢŏŭƘƬǷĈȆǴǟǂŻȆǷƢǷƗȁ   
śƦƳƢūơŕƷǺǫǀdzơǺǷDžƗǂdzơǁȂǘnjǷ
ŃȋơǶȀǨǴȇǶǿơǂƫǺȇǀdzơDzǯȁ   
ǩċDŽŲǂNjǹȂǫċDŽǸĄȇȁ   
ǑǁȋơȄǴǟƨǼƬǨdzơǁȁǀƥơȂǟǁǃǶĔȋȁ   
 ǶȈƸŪơ ǩƢǬnjdzơȅǁƿƢƥƨƥȂǬǟơȂǬƸƬLJơ   

DzºǠǧǞǷƢđƢnjƫƆƢǘƟƢǣǵƢǠǘdzơƔƢǠǷȋơƢđDzȈŢŖdzơƨȈdzȉơĿȃǂȇŖǻơƽǹƗƢǼǿƶǓơȂdzơǺǷ
ƔƢºƳȁƨºƥȂǬǠdzơƩƔƢºƳǮdzǀdz ȂǰȈǷƕƽǭƢƳ ƆȐǗƢƥǪūơƤǴǬȇȅǀdzơœǼdzơ
DzǰnjdzơơǀđǦǏȂdzơ

ǺǷƗȂLJƗȏƮȈƷŖǻơƽǶȈƸƳǺǷDzǨLJȋơǭǁƾdzơȅƗƨǠLJƢƬdzơƧǂƟơƾdzơĿœǼdzơƨƥȂǬǟǹƛ
ƧǁƢƯƛĿƨƥȂǬǟƨȇƗƢȀȈǿƢǔƫȏDzƥǖǬǧƨǟƢǜǧƩƢƥȂǬǠdzơǂưǯƗƪLjȈdzdžȈǴƥƛƨƥȂǬǟȏƛǾƬƥȂǬǟ
ǂƎȀǜĄƫȁ ǭȂǴƫƢƫ śȀŭơȅƾLjŪơǑơǂǠƬLJȏơĿȁǦǏȂdzơƨǟƢnjƥȁǃơDŽƠſȏơ
ǾºdzǾǴưŻƢǷǞǷƤƫƢǰdzơƢđDzǷƢǠƫŖdzơƨȇƾŪơȃƾǷœǼdzơȄǴǟŖǻơƽƢȀǠǫȁƗŖdzơƨƥȂǬǠdzơƨȈnjƷȁ
ƔƢºƳƢǷƤƦLjƥƢēȂǫȁƢȀǰLJƢŤȁƢēƾƷȁƨLjȈǼǰdzơƩƾǬǧƾǬǧƨLjȈǼǰdzơȄǴǟǂǘƻǺǷǵȐLJȍơ
ƮȈƷ ǂȀǘŭơ ƢȇƾȈǷȂǰdzơǺǷňƢưdzơƔDŽŪơĿƆƢƷȂǓȁǂưǯƗơǀǿơƾƥȁœǼdzơǾƥ
ȁƾºƦƫƨºǻǁƢǬŭƢƥȁ  ƧǁƢLjŬơǮǴƫńƛƨLjȈǼǰdzơƨƥǂǟƨȈǓǁƗǪnjƥśǼƬdzơǵƢȈǫDŽǷǂȇ
ǽơǂºȇƢºǷńƛǮºdzƿƽǂǷȁœǼdzơƨƥȂǬǟǺǷƢǠȇȁǂƫȁƧƾƷDzǫƗƤdzƢǗĺƗǺƥȆǴǟǵƢǷȍơƨƥȂǬǟ
ǦºȈǨţƤƳȂƬºLjȇƢºŲŐºǯȋơǝƽƢƼŭơƢȇƢƸǓƆƢǠȈŦśǸǴLjŭơǹƗǺǷȆƸȈLjŭơƣǂǤdzơ
ǶȀƬƥȂǬǟ

 ǶȈºƸŪơǺǷńȁȋơƧǂƟơƾdzơĿśǸǴLjŭơǺǷƨƯȐƯǺǰLJƗŖǻơƽǹƗƣơǂǤƬLJȐdzŚưŭơǺǷȁ
ǶºǴǟȐƳǁ ƾNjǁǺƥơȁƢǼȈLJǺƥơǶȀǼǷǹƢǼƯơƔȐǔǨdzơśȈǼƯȂdzơȁśǟƾƦŭơƨƦƸǏ ǞǘǬŭơ
ǾƬȈºLJȁǂǧȁǾºǴƦǼƥǥȁǂǠǷƾƟƢǬǧ ǺȇƾdzơƵȐǏƮdzƢưdzơƢǷƗƨȈǘLJǁȋơƨLJǁƾŭơǺǷƨǨLjǴǧȁ
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ȄǘLJȂdzơǁȂǐǠdzơĿƣǂǤdzơƾǼǟśǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơǽƢšǦǫơȂŭơȁǂǜǼdzơ















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śǸǴLjŭơȁǵȐLJȍơǺǟƧƾƟƢLjdzơƨȈƟơƾǠdzơǂǜǼdzơƨȀƳȁǺǟƢǧơǂŴơǂȇƾǬƬdzơǺǷȂǴţȏƨǬȇǂǘƥǶǿǂȇȂǐƫDzǰnjȇȁ
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