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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
1 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 1-1
DASH 8 Q400 CONVERSION &
TRAINING MANUAL

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DASH 8 Q400 CONVERSION & TRAINING MANUAL .............................................................................1-1
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................................................. 1-3
1. PREFACE...................................................................................................................................................1-5
1.1 FLIGHT TRAINING PHILOSOPHY.................................................................................................. 1-6
1.1.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................1-6
1.1.2 Training Philosophy .....................................................................................................................1-6
1.1.3 Training Administration ...............................................................................................................1-7
1.2 AMENDMENT RECORD................................................................................................................... 1-8
1.3 LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES............................................................................................................. 1-9
2. DIFFERENCES TRAINING.....................................................................................................................2-1
2.1 COCKPIT PROCEDURES TRAINING .............................................................................................. 2-2
2.1.1 Overview.......................................................................................................................................2-2
2.1.2 General .........................................................................................................................................2-2
2.1.3 Flight Deck Layout -.....................................................................................................................2-3
2.2 FLIGHT DECK CHECK.................................................................................................................... 2-19
2.2.1 General .......................................................................................................................................2-19
2.2.2 Before Start Drills ......................................................................................................................2-19
2.2.3 Review Following EFIS Displays/Controls ................................................................................2-20
2.2.4 FMS Operation...........................................................................................................................2-21
2.3 FULL FLIGHT SIMULATOR TRAINING....................................................................................... 2-22
2.3.1 General .......................................................................................................................................2-22
2.3.2 Exercise Contents .......................................................................................................................2-23
2.3.3 Exercise 601 ...............................................................................................................................2-23
2.3.4 Exercise 602 ...............................................................................................................................2-23
2.3.5 Exercise 603 ...............................................................................................................................2-24
2.3.6 Before Start Drills ......................................................................................................................2-25
2.3.7 Engine Starting...........................................................................................................................2-25
2.3.8 Taxiing........................................................................................................................................2-26
2.3.9 Normal Take Off .........................................................................................................................2-28
2.3.10 Climb ..........................................................................................................................................2-31
2.3.11 Cruise .........................................................................................................................................2-32
2.3.12 Descent .......................................................................................................................................2-32
2.3.13 Steep Turns .................................................................................................................................2-32
2.3.14 High Angle of Attack Recovery...................................................................................................2-34
2.3.15 All Engines Operating Circuits ..................................................................................................2-41
2.3.16 Control Lock Release..................................................................................................................2-41
2.3.17 Brake Release .............................................................................................................................2-41
2.3.18 Runway Alignment......................................................................................................................2-41
2.3.19 Take-Off Roll to V1.....................................................................................................................2-42
2.3.20 Captain's Take-Off......................................................................................................................2-42
2.3.21 First Officer's Take-Off...............................................................................................................2-42
2.3.22 Rolling Start................................................................................................................................2-42
2.3.23 Roll-On Take-Off ........................................................................................................................2-42
2.3.24 Cross Check ASI's During Take-Off ...........................................................................................2-43
2.3.25 Rotation ......................................................................................................................................2-43
2.3.26 Circuit.........................................................................................................................................2-43
2.3.27 Normal Landing..........................................................................................................................2-44
2.3.28 Stable Approach .........................................................................................................................2-46
2.3.29 Crosswind Take-Off ....................................................................................................................2-49
2.3.30 Lateral Control ...........................................................................................................................2-49
2.3.31 Crosswind Landing.....................................................................................................................2-50
2.3.32 Bad Weather Circuit and Landing..............................................................................................2-51
2.3.33 Instrument Approaches...............................................................................................................2-54
2.3.34 Plan ahead..................................................................................................................................2-54
2.3.35 Approach Speeds ........................................................................................................................2-56
2.3.36 Holding.......................................................................................................................................2-57
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2.3.37 Non Precision Approach............................................................................................................ 2-57
2.3.38 RNAV (GNSS) Approach............................................................................................................ 2-58
2.3.39 Use of Flight Director................................................................................................................ 2-59
2.3.40 ILS Approach............................................................................................................................. 2-59
2.3.41 Raw Data ILS Approach............................................................................................................ 2-63
2.3.42 Navigation Source Selection...................................................................................................... 2-64
2.3.43 Tracking Tolerances .................................................................................................................. 2-65
2.3.44 Standard Calls ........................................................................................................................... 2-65
2.3.45 Missed Approach - One or Two Engines Operating.................................................................. 2-66
2.3.46 Go-around.................................................................................................................................. 2-66
2.3.47 Reduced Flap Landing............................................................................................................... 2-68
2.3.48 Application................................................................................................................................. 2-68
2.3.49 Rejected Take-Off ...................................................................................................................... 2-68
2.3.50 One Engine Inoperative Circuits ............................................................................................... 2-70
2.3.51 Considerations ........................................................................................................................... 2-71
2.3.52 Application................................................................................................................................. 2-72
2.3.53 Circuit and Landing (One Engine Inoperative) ......................................................................... 2-74
3. Q400 DIFFERENCES TRAINING SYLLABUS & RECORD............................................................. 3-1
3.1 Q400 DIFFERENCES TRAINING FILE AND LINE TRAINING RECORD PREAMBLE. ..............3-2
3.2 DHC-8-400 DIFFERENCES TRAINING FILE ..................................................................................3-3
3.2.1 Minimum Requirements (Simulator) ............................................................................................ 3-7
3.2.2 Cockpit Procedures Training....................................................................................................... 3-8
3.2.3 DHC-8-400 Simulator Exercise 601............................................................................................ 3-8
3.2.4 DHC-8-400 Simulator Exercise 602............................................................................................ 3-8
3.2.5 DHC-8-400 Simulator Exercise 603............................................................................................ 3-9
3.2.6 DHC-8-400 Simulator Proficiency Exercise 604......................................................................... 3-9
3.3 APPENDIX 1 - COMMAND FORM SCHEMATIC.........................................................................3-44
3.4 APPENDIX 2 - PROFICIENCY CHECK FROM SCHEMATIC (CYCLIC) ...................................3-45
3.5 APPENDIX 3 - ROUTE CHECK FORM SCHEMATIC ..................................................................3-46
3.6 APPENDIX 4 - UNSATISFACTORY PROGRAMS FORM SCHEMATIC.....................................3-47
4. OPERATIONAL REFERENCE MATERIAL ....................................................................................... 4-1
4.1 SIMULATOR/AIRCRAFT DIFFERENCES .......................................................................................4-2
4.2 CYCLIC PREPARATION GUIDE ......................................................................................................4-3


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1. PREFACE
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1.1 FLIGHT TRAINING PHILOSOPHY
1.1.1 Introduction
This manual provides information associated with conversion training associated with the
Dash 8-400.
The QantasLink Conversion and Training Manual Section 1 addresses initial endorsement,
line training and recurrent training for QantasLink Dash8-2/300 operations.
The primary purpose of this manual is to enable crew to fully prepare for training, thereby
maximising the potential of achieving quality learning outcomes. It can further be utilised by
crew as ongoing reference in preparation for cyclic training and proficiency events, ensuring
the highest level of safety through pilot skill and standards is achieved.
All Aircrew members must comply with the directions, instructions and procedures contained
in this manual in the performance of their duties. Deliberate deviations from required
practices have the potential to impact in training outcomes and pilot standards.
All Aircrew are encouraged to contribute ideas for the improvement of the content or the work
practices covered by procedures in this manual. Submit any ideas to the Manager Training
& Development.
The Manual will be amended on a regular basis to conform with changing operational
requirements, and on receipt of such amendments it is the responsibility of the individual
manual holders to incorporate the changes without delay and to record the revisions on the
Log of Revisions included in the Manual.
1.1.2 Training Philosophy
Q400 Differences training together with cyclic training and proficiency assessments involving
abnormal operations are normally to be carried out in an approved simulator. If
circumstances require the conduct of training beyond normal operations in aircraft, the
Manager Training and Development will be required to convene a risk assessment and seek
approval from the Flight Standards Review Group and CASA prior to this occurring.
All training sessions will be the subject of thorough pre- and post- flight briefings addressing
details of the training to be conducted and the training objectives for the session. Each
planned manoeuvre will be reviewed to an appropriate level of detail.
Specific procedures associated with normal and abnormal operations are described in this
manual only to the extent necessary to assist in the training process. Consequently, this
manual should be read in conjunction with the appropriate sections of the FCOM, AEPM and
FAM.
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1.1.3 Training Administration
The rules and procedures to be followed during Flight Training are described in the Training
and Check Manual:
The structure of the Flight Operations Department, including the CAR 217 Organisation, is
described in section one
The training pathways for new entrant and upgrade promotional training is described in
section 2
The description of the Cyclic Training and Proficiency program, in-aircraft training procedures
and recent experience training is located in section 3
The process of selection and training of Training and Check Captains is described in
sections 4 and 5

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1.2 AMENDMENT RECORD
A MAIS bearing the amendment number will accompany all formal amendments to
this manual. Enter the amendment number in order, together with the date filed and
the initials of the person entering the data on the form below.
AMENDMENT
No.
PART
AMENDMENT
AMENDMENT
DATE
ACTIONED
BY
DATE
AMENDED
Issue 1


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1.3 LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
Page Date Page Date Page Date

1. Section 1
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3. Section 3
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2.1 COCKPIT PROCEDURES TRAINING
2.1.1 Overview
This training course is designed for current Dash 8 200/300 Flight Crew converting onto the
Dash 8 400. The training path for both Captains and First Officers comprises four primary
elements as follow:
1. Ground School comprising:
DHC-8-400 Type differences course,
DHC-8-400 Type performance course, and
DHC-8-400 FMS and systems integration training.
2. Cockpit Procedures Trainer & Full Flight Simulator training,
3. Line training conducted on revenue flying operations, and
4. A route check.
2.1.2 General
Following the successful completion of the initial ground school, aircraft ground time will be
utilised for a session of instruction on:
The Differences in Layout of the Q400 cockpit
Operation of various Flight Deck systems, particularly the Electronic Flight Instrument
System (EFIS) and the FMS
Flight deck drills and their associated checklists
The Instructor will provide training input throughout the exercise where required, however a
thorough preparation by the candidate is required to establish an adequate level of
knowledge ensuring meaningful learning.
All drills and checks should be completed as per the Flight Crew Operating Manual and the
instructor will provide explanation or training input as required to complete the drills.
The cockpit inspection includes circuit breakers, location of the various items of emergency
equipment and review of all the aircrafts documents.
The Trainee should familiarise him/herself with the adjustment of the seats and rudder
pedals. Cockpit lighting and the location of all switches and controls should be thoroughly
reviewed. The Instructor will review with the trainee the ARCDU operation, the electronic
flight instrument system, the AFCS and the associated system test procedures required
during the Before Start Drills.
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2.1.3 Flight Deck Layout -
The following diagrams provide a general overview of the flight deck layout that will be
reviewed during the exercise. No detailed system discussion will be conducted during the
initial overview, this discussion will be conducted as part of the before start drill sequence.
Further details may be extracted from the AOM.
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Following the general overview of the flight deck layout, the Check Captain will provide
guidance as necessary to review each of the following. Although no requirement is
established for the demonstration of competencies at this stage of training, a thorough
preparation by reviewing the following items as detailed in the FCOM will facilitate achieving
the learning objectives :
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2.2 FLIGHT DECK CHECK
2.2.1 General
The Flight Deck Check should be completed in accordance with the FCOM section 3.2.6. A
high level of discipline is required with the conduct of the flight deck check to ensure
omissions do not occur. Training input will be provided if necessary, however there is an
underlying expectation that crew will be able to recall the necessary items due to
commonality with the DHC8-2/300 aircraft
Common Errors
Conducts items out of sequence
Adds additional items that are not required
Omits required items
2.2.2 Before Start Drills
The before start drills are defined separately for both the Captain and First Officer in FCOM
section 3.8. The drills will be conducted by the trainees including the First Flight of the Day
items. During the conduct of the drills the Check Captain will provide discussion opportunity
on the functionality of controls and switches together with operational procedures. Training
input will be provided as necessary to ensure correct operation and adequate understanding
of each system with specific emphasis on the following:
ADC Test
Stall Warning System Test
Auto Feather Test
ARCDU Operation
o Expanded Pages
o TCAS Test
o Channel Function
o Frequency Selection and Transfer
o Speaker operation/adjustment
o Volume Control
o Dimming Control
o TXPR operation (observe TCAS indications when ON)
o Emergency Mode (demonstrate audio COM 1 & Hot MIC)
o HOT MIC (demonstrate speakers disabled)
Control Locks must be removed prior to Aileron Trim Test
Operation of ICP (setting speed bugs/QNH/MDA/DH)
Completion of before Start Checklist
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2.2.3 Review Following EFIS Displays/Controls
Operation of EFCP
Select both MFDs to NAV
Select each PFD NAV source to VOR and FMS observing CDI colour and
NAV source annunciation
Select various map scales and observe display
Select 360degree plan view with FORMAT and observe display
Select ARC Map FORMAT and observe display, identify that CDI may be
changed on MFD but PFD may still remain in FMS mode with no changes to
active lateral navigation
Select TCAS display on MFD and observe display. Note TCAS reverts to
AUTO with Range beyond 40nm
Select TERR display on MFD and observe indications
Select Bearing pointer to ADF, VOR and FMS while observing indications
Select DATA and observe indications of VOR, Airports, Both and None with
sequential pushes
Select MFD to PFD and observe indications, including AVAIL indicating on
PFD
Select MFD to ENG and observe indications, including composite systems
display on opposite MFD
Operation of ESCP
Select Both MFDs to SYS
Press each SYSTEM button to display corresponding system page and review
each page.
Identify the default system page of ELEC
Select MFD 1 to Doors and MFD2 to Electrical
Select ALL and demonstrate cycling through system pages
Operation of ESID
Identify NORM selection on ESID
Discuss Failure of ATT or HDG (AHRS) with indications and refer to QRH for
ATT fail.
Select ATT/HDG Source to 1 or 2 and discuss system operation while
observing indications
Discuss Failure of IAS or ALT (ADC) with indications and refer to QRH for IAS
fail.
Select ADC Source to 1 or 2 and discuss system operation while observing
indications
Although no formal requirement of competency is established for this stage of training,
candidates must ensure they have reviewed all required items as detailed above.
Subsequent training events associated with Full Flight Simulator Training are designated
competency based assessments and require flight crew to demonstrate the conduct of drills
without training input to be assessed as competent.
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Common Errors
The most common deficiency or error observed with this stage of training is a lack of
preparation on the part of the trainee, whereby an inability to conduct a required procedure
occurs. A thorough preparation by reviewing all FCOM drills will provide adequate levels of
knowledge for satisfactory progress.
2.2.4 FMS Operation
This portion of the cockpit procedures training builds on the syllabus items covered in the
FMS ground school. Crew should have ability to demonstrate to the Check Captain the
following items without training input. The purpose of the assessment is to establish crew
competency in the conduct of basic FMS operation prior to undertaking Full Flight Simulator
activities
FMS initialisation
Loading of basic Flight Plan
Insertion of SID
Manual Leg Change
FPL amendment to destination not in original FPL
Insertion of STAR
Insertion of Approach
Fuel Page and Fuel Data Entry
The following items will also be reviewed and training provided as necessary. Although a
formal competency assessment is not required on these areas, the crew must demonstrate
an adequate level of knowledge of the location of the relevant pages and data entry.
Flight Details/Weight Entry
Fix page
Common Errors
Rushes Data Entry causing data entry errors
Fails to obtain confirmation from other crew member prior to executing


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2.3 FULL FLIGHT SIMULATOR TRAINING
2.3.1 General
Full Flight Simulator training is designed to introduce a pilot who is current on DHC8-2/300
aircraft to the DHC8-400 series aircraft. The training is structured on a competency based
training platform, where the objective is to provide training to crew whereby they can
demonstrate competency in normal and abnormal manoeuvres.
Each exercise or manoeuvre contains its individual elements of competency, however in
general terms, trainees should consider the term competency as an ability to conduct or
perform a required sequence to the required standard without training input.
As guidance, Check Captains are required to make assessments of a number of items in any
given lesson plan. These items may be annotated with specific instructions for the Check
Pilot.
Where a specific training item is annotated with the comment Monitor, the Check Captain
will ensure compliance with the identified item. If training input is required to ensure
successful completion of the item it will be provided by the Check Captain. There is no limit
to the amount of training that can be provided, however if training input is provided the item
CAN NOT be assessed as competent in the trainees Q400 conversion file.
Where a specific training item is annotated with the comment Completed without error,
the Check Captain is to ensure compliance with the identified items. If errors are observed,
these should be identified and corrected with training input following completion of the
required task. If training input is provided the item again CAN NOT be assessed as
competent in the trainees Q400 conversion file.
Where a specific training item is annotated with the comment able to recall, the Check
Captain is to ensure the trainee has the ability to recall the required function and or
indications associated with the item. If the trainee is unable to recall the function or
indications, the Check Captain should provide training input and demonstrate the functions.
If training input is provided the item CAN NOT be assessed as competent in the trainees
Q400 conversion file.
The Full flight simulator activities provide ample opportunity for crews to demonstrate
competency in the execution of the required items. A crew progressing at an expected
normal rate should complete all required competencies within the rostered period of three full
flight simulator sessions.
Prior to each simulator exercise, trainees can expect a detailed briefing aided with Power
Point Presentations that will include in many cases visual animations or videos related to the
exercise being undertaken. A copy of these presentations will be made available on CD prior
to the event to assist trainees in their preparation.
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2.3.2 Exercise Contents
Full Flight Simulator activity contains elements of normal and abnormal operations designed
to support the development of competency in handling the Q400 aircraft. In some sessions
the elements are repeated to allow repeated practice of significant items. It is expected by
the end of full flight simulator training competency will be demonstrated in all required
elements.
The following paragraphs contain the elements of each full flight simulator activity. Each
element is described in detail in subsequent sections to facilitate a thorough preparation by
the trainee.
2.3.3 Exercise 601
Before Start Drills
Engine Starting
Taxiing
Normal Take Off
Climb
Cruise
Descent
Steep Turns
Aileron Trim Runaway
Stalling
ILS Approach
Normal Landing
Normal Circuits
Shut Down
Battery Start
2.3.4 Exercise 602
Before Start Drills
Engine Starting
Abnormal Start Procedures
Taxiing
Normal Take Off
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Climb
Cruise
Descent
ILS Approach
Normal Landing
Reduced Flap Landing
Asymmetric Circuits
Crosswind Operations
Bad Weather Circuit
Rejected take Off
2.3.5 Exercise 603
Before Start Drills
Engine Starting
Taxiing
Normal Take Off
Climb
Cruise
Descent
GNSS RNAV Approach
ILS Approach
Normal Landing
EFIS Malfunctions
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2.3.6 Before Start Drills
The drills to be conducted before the engines are started are detailed in the FCOM. The
sequence in which the drills are conducted has been determined by the physical location of
the relevant items. The procedures begin at the Captains circuit breaker panel and proceed
around the flight deck systematically addressing the:
Overhead panel
Glareshield panel
Flight instrument panels
Forward side panels and engine instruments and
Centre console
2.3.7 Engine Starting
Before attempting the initial engine start, review the engine start limitations.
Ensure that the seat position and rudder pedals are adjusted to allow unrestricted operation
of all flight controls and the brakes. Seat harnesses should be secured.
Engine starts are normally made with the flight crew in visual and interphone communication
with the ground crew. Complete the BEFORE START checklist. If required, obtain start-up
clearance from ATC and a clearance to start each engine from the ground crew, who will
ensure the area is and remains clear. Prior to actually selecting START for each engine,
visually confirm and advise that the propeller area is clear.
The Q400 engines are controlled by FADEC (Fully Automated Digital Engine Control) and
this presents a substantive difference to the DHC8-2/300 aircraft. The start technique for the
Q400 requires the selection of condition levers to START FEATHER on initial identification of
Nh rise allowing FADEC to control fuel flow in addition to ignition sequencing
The FCOM provides information relating to engine starts as follows:
Section 1.8 - Power Plant Limitations
Section 2.3.1 -Technical information related to engine start.
Section 3.9.1 Engine Start Procedure
Flight crew must be familiar with the detailed FCOM areas as they form the required
standard against which competency must be demonstrated.
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Common Errors
Fails to utilise correct communication with Ground Crew
Fails to select condition lever to START & FEATHER on Nh indication
Fails to check SELECT and START lights are out
Fails to check oil pressure greater than 44psi
Fails to check ENG OIL PRESS warning light, ENG FUEL PRESS and ENG HYD
PUMP caution lights extinguish
Fails to utilise correct terminology of STARTER OUT when SELECT and START
lights are both extinguished
Calls STARTER OUT prior to both SELECT and START lights being extinguished
2.3.8 Taxiing
Prior to taxiing the hydraulic system quantities and pressures should be checked in
accordance with the AFTER START drills and checklist as detailed in FCOM section 3.10.
With the condition levers selected to MAX, the power levers should normally remain at DISC,
however they may be placed slightly forward of the disc position to assist in noise reduction.
Care should be taken in this case to avoid positive thrust and prop blast if remaining on the
parking bay for any extended period. Apply the toe brakes fully then slowly and smoothly
release the park brake. Release the toe brakes and if necessary, advance the power levers
in the discing range to start the aircraft moving. Allow the aircraft to move forward before
turning. Control taxi speed with the power levers in the discing range and avoid prolonged
use of the wheel brakes.
Do not attempt to commence taxiing with the power levers at or near FLT IDLE as the thrust
is considerable at this setting and the aircraft will accelerate quickly to a speed well in excess
of a comfortable taxi speed.
Steering with the tiller provides a maximum nosewheel deflection of 70 from centreline. If
tighter turning is required differential braking and power, together with maximum deflection of
the tiller can be used to deflect the nosewheel beyond 60 at which point it will disconnect
from the steering mechanism and caster up to 120 either side of centre.
To reconnect, centre the nosewheel and normal steering will be available.
On the ground, the rudder pedals will turn the nose wheel up to 8 either side of centreline.
This function is for use during high speed taxi and take-off and landing.
Taxi speed should be reduced below 15 kts prior to turning on normal taxi ways (minimum 18
m wide) and 10 knots on narrow taxiways (less than 18m but not less than 15m wide). Harsh
over controlling may cause the nosewheel steering to disconnect requiring reconnection as
previously described.
Specific details relating to normal Taxi are contained in FCOM section 2.6.1 and Narrow
Taxiway operation in FCOM section 2.6.2. Caution should be exercised on narrow taxi ways
and Captains should exercise caution in applying judgemental oversteer to ensure the
inbound main wheel does not compromise the taxiway edge.
Obstruction avoidance during turns is ensured by observation of wing-tip clearance, the tail
of the aircraft always being within this arc. Control locks should be engaged during taxi.
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On wet or slippery surfaces, nose wheel steering angles and taxi speed should be kept to a
minimum to avoid the necessity for harsh brake application and possible skidding.
Reverse taxiing is not permitted in the Q400, with the section 2.6.2 being reserved in the
FCOM.
Common Errors
Excessive power used to initiate taxiing.
Excessive power used during taxi, requiring frequent brake application.
Taxiing too fast.
Large, coarse nose wheel steering corrections.
Rapid or harsh steering application to initiate or recover from turns.
Not taxiing on the centre line.
Undershooting turns and putting the inboard main gear off taxi-ways.
Riding Brakes causing excessive brake ware
Trying to steer with brakes during brake application.
Application of brakes too late, and therefore, too hard.
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2.3.9 Normal Take Off
This section summarises the procedures to be applied during normal take offs and should be
read in conjunction with details provided in the FCOM. The FCOM provides information
relating to take offs as follows:
Section 1.8 - Power Plant Limitations
Section 2.7 Technical information relating to Take Offs
Section 3.12 Drills and Standard calls for Take Offs
Take-Off Roll to V1
Although the First Officer maintains a check on engine instruments throughout the take-off
roll, the Captain alone makes the decision to continue or reject the take-off for any reason.
Rejecting a take-off will require retarding of the power levers so the Captain's hand must
remain on the power levers, until reaching V1, for all take-offs.
Captain's Take-Off
The Captain retains controls the power levers on all take-offs.
The Captain maintains directional control using the rudder pedals.
The Captain advances the power levers to approximately 60% of the normal take-off torque.
They then calls "SET POWER", keeping their right hand on the power levers.
The First Officer will call Autofeather armed, advance the power to the detent position using
the power lever shafts and then lift their hand from the power levers. Engine parameters,
particularly torque and ITT, must be monitored throughout the take-off.
The First Officer (Pilot Not Flying) will call 70 KNOTS. This call serves as a cross check of
ASIs during the take off roll.
The First Officer will call "V1" and ROTATE at the appropriate speeds. It is important that
the V1 callout is completed by the time the actual IAS reaches V1 on the IAS indicator.
Therefore, some anticipation will be necessary depending on the rate of acceleration.
The Captain places both hands on the control column and rotates the aircraft to the required
body angle. When a positive rate of climb is achieved the gear is retracted and the take-off
proceeds as described in the FCOM.
First Officer's Take-Off
The same general procedure as for a Captains take-off, except as follows:
When the Captain calls your controls the First Officer takes full directional control of the
aircraft with the rudder pedal steering and places both hands on the control column. After the
F/O says: On Centre Line, Call me V1 at, set power, the Captain will call Autofeather
armed, set the power by advancing the power levers to the detent position and continue to
guard the tiller and brakes in case of a rejected take-off.
The Captain will make the appropriate calls for 70 KNOTS, V1 and ROTATE.
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Rolling Start
Rolling starts are required. After the aircraft is lined up the brakes are released and power is
applied as the take-off roll begins. The correct power for take-off must be set by the time the
aircraft reaches 50kt.
Roll-On Take-Off
Roll-On take-offs are performed without stopping at the end of the runway. Roll onto the
runway using nosewheel steering. From this point on all other procedures are the same as
for a rolling start take-off.
Cross Check ASI's During Take-Off
It is essential practice for the Pilot-Not-Flying to call 70 kts and "V1". The Pilot-Flying is
responsible for checking his own airspeed and ensuring rotation is commenced at VR. Any
disturbance (engine monitoring, radio etc.) may distract the PNF and cause him to call V1 at
an incorrect speed or forget to call it at all.
Rotation
In training it is common for the Trainee to overshoot VR, resulting in nosewheel lift off well
after VR and mainwheel lift off well after V2. A delayed rotation can be critical when the take-
off is runway length or obstacle limited and an engine failure occurs. A delay in rotation will
result in a longer take-off roll, exceeding V2 and a take-off climb path below the required
flight path.
Rotating to the correct take-off attitude too soon may extend the take-off roll or cause an
early lift off which will result in a lower rate of climb and the predicted flight path will not be
followed.
Over rotation on take-off adversely affects take-off performance. The nose high attitude will
cause an increase in drag delaying acceleration to lift off speed.
Over rotation generally goes with early rotation and if an engine failure is suffered, the results
could be disastrous.
During take-off with an aft C of G, the aircraft is more responsive in pitch and some
anticipation may be required in order to avoid over-controlling.
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Common Errors
Uses tiller steering for directional control instead of rudder pedal steering.
Rough nosewheel steering.
Uses too much runway aligning the aircraft in the take-off position. Use a short turn
on and correct for proper alignment at the start of the take-off roll.
Sudden brakes release
Does not cross check his ASI for 70 kts and "V1" calls.
Under rotates at VR - requires more runway.
Over rotates at VR.
Rotates late.
Does not rotate until Rotate call is made
Rotation rate is too low
Rotation rate is too high.
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2.3.10 Climb
The Q400 utilises three standard climb profiles. These climb profiles are summarised in
FCOM 3.12.4. During full flight simulator differences training type I and type II profiles will be
utilised.
When initially selecting IAS on the flight guidance controller, type II (intermediate) or IAS 185
should be requested and selected. When the aircraft is established above the LSALT or
MSA, a type I (high speed) or IAS 210 should be selected providing due consideration for
track direction and weather conditions.
The increased power of the Q400 introduces a need to monitor carefully the IAS during
transient altitude captures associated with step climbs or climb restrictions. When any mode
change occurs from IAS to ALT the pilot flying must monitor the IAS and make necessary
power reductions to ensure the company airspeed limitation of VMO minus 10 is not
exceeded.
When transitioning from an interim altitude to a climb, a variety of techniques may be utilised
however the following will assist trainees in ensuring appropriate automation management
and control.
If the IAS is below the intended climb speed (Cruising 190KIAS and then planning to climb at
210 KIAS), the following procedure may be utilised to establish a climb profile. With the
aircraft established in stable level flight;
Select IAS on the FGC
Advance power smoothly to the detent (the increased thrust will cause a climb based on the
nominated airspeed being maintained as the active vertical mode)
Roll the pitch wheel smoothly at a gradual rate to achieve the desired IAS (rapid rolling of the
pitch wheel should be avoided to avoid unwanted large or rapid pitch changes)
If the IAS is above the intended climb speed (Cruising 235 KIAS and then planning to climb
at 210 KIAS), the following procedure may be utilised to establish a climb profile. With the
aircraft established in stable level flight;
Select IAS on the FGC
Roll the pitch wheel smoothly at a gradual rate to achieve the desired IAS (the FGC will
command a climb to achieve the nominated IAS)
Advance power smoothly to the detent (the increased thrust result in the aircraft establishing
in a stabilised climb)
Any combination of the above or other techniques are suitable for crew to utilise, however
care and consideration must be applied to ensure that any limitations are not exceeded
together with ensuring flight profiles are consistent with expectations. By way of example, it
would be inappropriate to select IAS and then increase the power briskly to detent power if
cruising at VMO minus 10 and transitioning to a climb. The FGC will take a short period to
recognise the IAS increase associated with the power application prior to commanding an
increase in pitch attitude. This process may result in a potential VMO over speed.
Additional information may be found in FCOM section 2.8
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Common Errors
Fails to control transition from ALT to nominated climb profile speed
Fails to verbalise mode changes
Engages inappropriate modes resulting in undesired aircraft profile
Fails to select MCL following selection of 850 Np at transition
2.3.11 Cruise
With the aircraft established at the required cruising altitude the procedure detailed in section
2.9 of the FCOM should be utilised. The significance of using the intermediate cruise speed
power setting can not be over emphasised as it provides significant improvements to engine
life as well as providing long term fuel savings when compared to the selection of MCR As a
result the use of MCR is not approved.
Some early model aircraft have a prohibited NL range of 85% to 86%. In these aircraft a
placard is fitted to the base of the Engine Display (ED) stipulating continued operation in the
range is prohibited. Should the intermediate speed cruise setting result in the NL falling in
the prohibited range in these aircraft, then 87% NL should be set.
Common Errors
Sets ISC Power Setting prior to reaching 300 KTAS
Fails to select MCR prior to setting ISC power setting
Sets ISC power setting with resultant NL between 85% and 86%
2.3.12 Descent
Descent practices are predominately consistent with those utilised in DHC8-2/300 aircraft, in
that a nominal three degree profile is adopted. FCOM section 2.11 provides detailed
technical information relating to the conduct of normal descents however it is important that
the trainee is aware of the changing VMO between 10,000 and 8,000.
During this period the trainee must maintain sound situational awareness and adopt
appropriate practices that ensure an ability to maintain profile while providing sufficient
protection from airspeed limitations being exceeded. During training check pilots will provide
guidance to ensure trainees are equipped with a process that will ensure compliance.
One suggested practice is for crew to reduce power to flight idle at F120 when established in
a descent at VMO minus 10.
Common Errors
Reluctance to establish airspeed at VMO minus 10
Fails to plan ahead and make power reduction to ensure 250 KIAS at 10,000ft
Fails to plan ahead and make power reduction to ensure VMO minus 10 at 8,000ft
2.3.13 Steep Turns
The handling of the Q400 during steep turns is predominately consistent with DHC8-2/300
aircraft. Small variations in airspeed and power settings for entry are present however the
technique for the conduct of the procedure is common.
Noteworthy is the need for the crew member to interpret a TAPE type presentation for
airspeed and altitude during the manoeuvre.
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Set the aircraft up in level flight at 180 KIAS. Approximately 28% torque on each engine will
be required. Make a coordinated entry into a 45 degree banked turn; adding 10% extra
torque each side to prevent speed loss. Initiate roll-out with 10 degrees of heading to go,
reducing power as the bank angle passes 30 degrees.
Tolerances: Angle of bank 5
Airspeed 10kt
Altitude 100 feet
Roll-out heading 10
Common Errors
Entry
Too high a roll rate. This will generally result in loss of height or rapid application of
elevator to prevent height loss, eliminating smoothness of entry.
Reluctance to roll to the correct angle of bank.
Premature back pressure resulting in a climb during entry. This is generally followed
by steepening the bank angle to arrest the climb rather than using the elevator to
check the climb and then smoothly correcting the altitude deviation.
Maintenance
Fails to scan altimeter resulting is sustained altitude deviations
Fails to scan airspeed resulting in sustained airspeed deviations
Fails to maintain sufficient elevator pressure when approaching required bank
angle. A continuous descent generally results.
Reluctance to make the required power change resulting in a change in airspeed.
Tends to chase performance.
Recovery
Roll out commences too late; overshoots required heading.
Maintains back pressure for too long during roll out and consequently climbs.
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2.3.14 High Angle of Attack Recovery
2.3.14.1 Introduction
An aircraft stalls when the angle of attack increases to the stalling angle. At this angle the
airflow separates from the upper surface of the wing causing a substantial loss of lift. Since
high angle of attack is usually associated with low speed, pilots normally consider a stall to
be a low speed event. However, a stall is fundamentally a high angle of attack event and the
aircraft will stall whenever the stalling angle of attack is reached, regardless of speed.

Stalling can be related to a speed and pilots must have some knowledge of the stalling
speed for their aircraft. The stalling speed will vary with gross weight, flap setting, engine
thrust and load factor.

The Q400 stall warning system provides a display of stalling speed to help the pilot maintain
a safe margin from stalling.
2.3.14.2 Stall Warning
The Q400 incorporates two angle of attack sensors on the forward fuselage. The stall
warning modules (SPMs) use data from these sensors to determine corrected angle of
attack. When the corrected angle of attack reaches a predetermined warning threshold the
stick shaker activates. The Q400 also incorporates a stick pusher system. If the angle of
attack increases to the pusher threshold, the pusher system activates to provide a nose
down elevator input that assists the stall recovery process.

Since the system uses angle of attack to detect proximity to a stall, it provides a reliable
warning regardless of speed, gross weight and load factor.

The Q400 system also incorporates a means to account for ice on the airframe. If there is ice
on the wings the aircraft will stall at a lower angle of attack. When there is or may be ice on
the aircraft, the REF SPEEDS switch is selected to INCR by the pilot. With INCR selected
the stall warning computer reduces the stick shaker and stick pusher activation threshold
angles. In this way the stall warnings are provided at a higher speed to preserve the margin
above the stall with ice on the aircraft.

It is important to recognise that this bias is active whenever the REF SPEEDS switch is
selected to INCR, regardless of whether there is ice on the aircraft or not. It is paramount that
the pilot maintains airspeed above the increased stall warning speeds whenever INCR is
selected. Similarly, it is important that the REF SPEEDS switch is selected off when the
aircraft is no longer affected by ice.

Q400 aircraft incorporate a red low speed cue on the PFD airspeed display. This provides a
continuous display of the reference stalling speed computed by the SPMs for the current
configuration and flight conditions. In addition to this warning, airspeed at or below the
reference stalling speed will be displayed in red.
2.3.14.3 Minimum Reference Airspeed
The minimum reference airspeed is the minimum speed scheduled in the AFM at which the
aircraft is intended to be flown. That is, the reference airspeed (V
2
, VFR, VBG, or
1.23VSR/VREF) applicable to the phase of flight or manoeuvre without any Company
procedure or personal additives applied. It is normally determined (as a function of weight
and flap setting) directly from the speed cards provided on the flight deck or by reference to
the PFD speed bugs.

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The pilot must also account for any change to the scheduled speeds imposed by the QRH,
MEL or otherwise, to account for unserviceabilities or configuration differences, if applicable.
Additional airspeed factors will be required when operating with REF SPEEDS INCR
selected. The flight deck speed cards include reference airspeeds applicable to REF
SPEEDS INCR.
2.3.14.4 Stall Avoidance
There are five aspects to avoiding a stall.

Avoid low speed
Since pilots identify stalling with low speed, the primary means of avoiding a stall is to
maintain airspeed above the minimum reference airspeed for the configuration and weight.
Minimum reference airspeeds, as a function of weight and flap setting, are published on the
speed cards displayed on the flight deck. Minimum speed callouts, whenever configuration is
changed, help the pilot maintain continual awareness of the minimum reference airspeed.

Attitude/power awareness
Avoid a high pitch attitude/low power combination that will be associated with or indicative of
a high angle of attack condition.

Load factor awareness
Avoid high manoeuvring load factors that could be associated with reaching the stalling angle
at a high airspeed. The manoeuvring load factor increases as the bank angle increases and
has a direct impact on the speed at which the stick shaker and stick pusher will activate.

Autoflight mode awareness
Both pilots must be aware, at all times, of the active and armed autoflight modes, especially
when automatic mode transitions occur. This is particularly important during descent and
approach when altitude capture or other vertical flight path changes must be accompanied by
power changes to maintain the intended airspeed and prevent airspeed decaying below the
minimum reference airspeed.

Icing awareness
Remain aware of the icing state of the aircraft and ensure that the ice protection systems are
selected accordingly. The aircraft may stall at a higher speed, with reduced warning margin
or possibly with no warning at all, if there is ice on the airframe.

The state of the REF SPEEDS switch should be considered carefully.
If INCR is selected, the stall warning speed thresholds are biased upwards. If INCR is
selected but there is no ice on the aircraft a stall warning will occur well before the
aircraft approaches a stall.
If REF SPEEDS is off when there is ice on the aircraft, the aircraft could stall with no
warning.

In terms of avoidance, it is important that the REF SPEEDS switch is in the correct position
for the flight conditions. To avoid a stall the switch must be on if there is ice on the aircraft.
To avoid an inappropriate (early) warning the switch should be off when the aircraft is
aerodynamically clean.

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2.3.14.5 Stall Recognition
The following symptoms may be associated with an impending or actual stall:
Low IAS,
Proximity to the low airspeed cue on the PFD,
Red airspeed indication on the PFD,
High pitch attitude,
Airframe buffet,
Uncommanded wing drop,
Sudden pitch down,
Stick shaker activation,
Stick pusher activation.

All are associated with high angle of attack and may occur in isolation or combination,
depending on the flight conditions.
2.3.14.6 Stall Recovery
The single most important action to recover from a stall or impending stall is to reduce the
angle of attack. This principle is reinforced by the AFM procedure which is titled:

HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK RECOVERY PROCEDURE

The subtitle to the AFM procedure is more detailed

Recovery from Stall Warning and Stall (stick shaker, unusual
airframe buffet, uncommanded wing drop, activation of stick
pusher, and presentation of red low airspeed cue).

The procedure is included in Section 5 of the FCOM.

The following points should be noted carefully. The autopilot must be selected off. This will
occur automatically if the stick shaker has activated but if other symptoms such as airframe
buffet occur first, the autopilot must be disengaged manually by the pilot.

The primary recovery action is to reduce pitch attitude (to reduce angle of attack). Relax any
control column pull force and/or move the control column forward to reduce pitch attitude.
This may cause loss of altitude so the amount of pitch down must be limited according to
height above ground.

Power must be increased. Advance the POWER levers to the RATING detent and the
CONDITION levers to MAX/1020. Power increase will cause the aircraft to pitch up so the
need for nose down elevator input to stop the aircraft pitching up into a secondary stall is
reinforced.

If the aircraft is banked, apply roll control to level the wings. This will reduce any load factor
effects that may adversely affect stalling speed and will reduce altitude loss. Roll control
remains effective at low speed and must be used to achieve and maintain wings level. Small
rudder inputs may be used to stop any yaw (skid ball centred), particularly as power is
applied. Large rudder inputs to correct bank must not be made. Excessive rudder inputs will
cause large yaw and roll excursions that will delay recovery from the stall and could lead to
loss of control.

Accelerate to the minimum reference airspeed for the current configuration and any
additional airspeed factors, if applicable. The Pilot Monitoring will refer to the scheduled
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speeds card and call out the appropriate minimum reference airspeed. Do not change
configuration.

Provided the pitch attitude is managed correctly, these actions will reduce angle of attack
and accelerate the aircraft away from the stalling speed. The procedure is completed when
the airspeed has increased to at least the minimum reference airspeed permitted for the
current aircraft configuration and the aircraft flight path is stabilised. The configuration should
not be changed during the recovery. Retracting the flaps would serve only to increase the
stalling speed and delay the recovery.

2.3.14.7 After the Recovery
Subsequent actions will depend on the phase of flight in which the stall event occurred. If
deviation from the intended flight path has been contained it may be possible to continue with
the planned flight without further action.

Following stall recovery below the MSA, conduct the normal go-around/missed approach
procedure and climb to a safe altitude. During descent, approach and landing the appropriate
minimum reference airspeed would be VREF. Having accelerated to VREF for the current
configuration the aircraft has achieved the minimum speed required to initiate the go-
around/missed approach procedure. Furthermore, the normal go-around/missed approach
procedure will ensure compliance with minimum airspeed requirements for subsequent
changes of configuration.

If acceleration and clean-up is required without climbing, the flaps must be retracted
progressively. Do not retract the flaps until the aircraft achieves the minimum reference
airspeed permitted for the new configuration.

The minimum reference airspeed must be adjusted for any additional factors such as those
specified in the QRH or MEL for system malfunctions. Additionally, the minimum reference
airspeed must be increased if the REF SPEEDS switch is selected to INCR. Furthermore, if
INCR is selected, the minimum reference airspeed may be quite close to the speed limit for
each flap setting. The Pilot Flying must adjust the power and attitude to control acceleration
so that the flap speed limits are not exceeded.
2.3.14.8 Summary
Disengage the autopilot.
Reduce pitch attitude.
This is the single most important action to reduce angle of attack. The amount of pitch
down must be limited according to height above ground.
Increase power.
Advance the power levers to the RATING detent and the condition levers to MAX.
Power increase will cause the aircraft to pitch up so the need for nose down elevator
input to stop the aircraft pitching up into a secondary stall is reinforced.
Accelerate to the minimum reference airspeed.
When the minimum reference airspeed has been reached, attitude and power can be
adjusted to adopt or maintain the desired flight profile.

Subsequent actions will depend on the phase of flight in which the stall event occurred.
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2.3.14.9 Other considerations
There have been a number of cases of momentary activation of the stick shaker that were
not associated with genuine proximity to a stall. Possible scenarios include system
malfunctions or turbulence when operating close to minimum speed. However, the pilot
cannot and must not attempt to weigh-up the veracity of a stall warning before deciding to
respond. If a stall warning occurs the recovery procedure must be applied without losing
valuable recovery time deciding if the warning is genuine.

However, it takes time for the pilot to react to the warning and initiate the recovery procedure.
It is possible that a transient warning may stop before the recovery can be initiated. If the
warning stops before recovery action can be initiated, the pilot must immediately check
attitude, speed and power setting and continue flight at or above the minimum reference
airspeed for the configuration.

In summary, if a warning occurs, apply the recovery procedure immediately and in full. If the
warning is momentary and stops before the recovery can be initiated, check attitude, speed
and power and continue at a safe speed.

There have been cases where a stall warning occurred because the pilot reduced speed
thinking that REF SPEEDS switch was OFF when in fact it had been left at INCR. As speed
was reduced the stall warning occurred unexpectedly. It must be understood that checking
the REF SPEEDS switch before committing to the stall recovery procedure is not permitted.
If a stall warning occurs the recovery must be initiated. If it is subsequently determined that
the warning occurred because the REF SPEEDS switch was left at INCR unnecessarily, the
switch should be selected off after the recovery has been completed.
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2.3.14.10 Recovery Procedure Diagram

























2.3.14.11 Simulator Training Exercises
The stall recovery procedure will be practised in a number of different situations:
Stick shaker events:
High level, clean configuration
Low level, approach configuration (REF SPEEDS OFF and INCR)
Low level, go-around configuration
Stick pusher
Low level, approach configuration (REF SPEEDS INCR)

Note: At least one stick shaker exercise must be entered with the autopilot engaged.

In each case the following training outcomes must be achieved.
Autopilot disengaged (may occur automatically)
Pitch attitude reduced (commensurate with height above ground)
Power increased to RATING detent
Pitch-up with power avoided by appropriate elevator control
Roll control used to achieve and maintain wings level
Appropriate rudder input to control yaw
Aircraft accelerated to minimum reference airspeed
No change to configuration below minimum reference airspeed
Appropriate decision to resume normal flight or conduct go-around
Go-around conducted correctly, as appropriate
Speed maintained above minimum reference airspeed for configuration
Configuration speed limits observed appropriate attitude and power management
Pilot Flying
Reduce pitch attitude
Advance Power levers to
RATING detent
Accelerate to minimum
reference airspeed
Pilot Flying
Call:
STALL
Set Power
Disengage AP
Pilot Flying
Adjust attitude and power to
achieve desired flight profile
or
Conduct go-around, if required.
Pilot Monitoring
Check/advance
Condition levers to MAX/1020
Check NTOP achieved
Call MIN SPEED ___
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2.3.14.12 Common Errors
Aircraft allowed to pitch up as power is applied
Power increase will cause the aircraft to pitch up. The pilot must anticipate this
change and adjust the elevator input to ensure that the aircraft does not pitch up.

Excessive nose-down elevator input
The aim is to reduce angle of attack by pitching down. Pitching down will almost
certainly result in losing altitude. Whilst this may be acceptable at high level, at low
altitude any height loss must be minimised. The pilot must rapidly assess the extent
of deviation from normal attitude and speed and adjust the attitude down to stop the
warning without sacrificing too much altitude in the process.

Excessive altitude loss
Once the attitude is reduced and power is applied, the aircraft will accelerate rapidly
so the pilot can (and should) pitch up to minimise any altitude loss without
compromising acceleration to the minimum reference airspeed. However, the rate of
pitch change must be managed carefully to avoid a secondary stall due to high g
loading induced by increasing pitch attitude too quickly.

Configuration speed limits exceeded
With the power levers in the RATING detent and pitch attitude reduced the aircraft will
accelerate rapidly. The pilot can (and should) pitch up to avoid exceeding any
configuration speed limits during the recovery.

Rudder used to control roll
Roll control must be used to achieve and maintain wings level. Rudder should be
used to control yaw (skid ball centred), particularly as power is changed right rudder
with power increase. Excessive rudder inputs or rudder input reversals will cause roll
excursions, delay the recovery and could contribute to loss of control.

Secondary stick shaker activation
Secondary stick shaker activation can be caused by not anticipating aircraft pitch up
as power is applied thus allowing the angle of attack to reach the stick shaker
activation point again. The pilot must anticipate this change and adjust the elevator
input to ensure that the aircraft does not pitch up excessively.
Secondary stick shaker activation can also occur as the pilot pitches up to minimise
altitude loss. As noted above (Excessive altitude loss) , the rate of pitch change must
be managed carefully to avoid a secondary stall due to high g loading induced by
pitching up too quickly.




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2.3.15 All Engines Operating Circuits
Circuit pattern operations are excellent practice for establishing good habits. Stay ahead of
the aircraft, complete checklists at the appropriate times and strive to fly the pattern with
precision.
The Trainee should practice circuits using the patterns and procedures outlined on the
following pages together with those detailed on the pre differences training power point
packages. Fly smoothly with precision. Anticipate trim changes as any change in power or
airspeed will result in a substantial rudder trim adjustment being required. Give yourself
enough distance for final approach so as to be in landing configuration, established on
centreline and holding a constant glidepath with a sink rate less than 1000 fpm. These, plus
good airspeed control will set you up for a good touchdown. Do not crowd yourself for space
or time. Allow enough of both for correctly banked turns onto final approach and unhurried
cockpit procedures.
Either glideslope, T-VASIS or PAPI reference provide useful assistance during circuit
training. Once the final approach is established and final flap setting made, it should only be
necessary to make small adjustments to attitude airspeed and trim.
If the required threshold height is not attained for any reason, the Trainee should perform a
go-around as described in the FCOM. An approach from an abnormally high or low final
profile should not be continued and if the Trainee makes no effort to initiate a missed
approach the Instructor should call "GO AROUND" and ensure that it is safely executed.
The speeds recommended with each flap setting allow considerable margin above stall for
normal manoeuvring. During flap extension, allow the speed to decrease to the proper flap
manoeuvring or approach speed and trim stick forces to zero.
When making a flap or landing gear down selection, the Pilot Not Flying should check the
airspeed before making the selection. Both pilots should monitor that the flaps and landing
gear have achieved the desired position.
2.3.16 Control Lock Release
The control lock should not be released until a line up clearance has been received and the
aircraft is entering the runway and then only after an instruction from the Captain to conduct
the line up drills. In strong wind conditions delay releasing the control lock until the aircraft is
headed approximately into wind. The Captain will switch on the taxi light after the take-off
clearance has been received or the runway is confirmed as clear.
2.3.17 Brake Release
Release the brakes slowly and smoothly for all take-offs prior to the application of power.
2.3.18 Runway Alignment
If the aircraft is not aligned on the runway centreline before brakes release, steer the aircraft
toward the centreline at the start of the take-off roll. Do not use valuable runway taxiing to do
this. Once aligned, strive to maintain the aircraft on the centreline by using the rudder pedals.
Adherence to these criteria will automatically aid the pilot when contending with an engine
failure or correcting for a crosswind.
Starting early in the training, the Instructor will insist that the Trainee stay on the centreline.
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2.3.19 Take-Off Roll to V1
Although the First Officer maintains a check on engine instruments throughout the take-off
roll, the Captain alone makes the decision to continue or reject the take-off for any reason.
Rejecting a take-off will require retarding of the power levers so the Captain's hand must
remain on the power levers, until reaching V1, for all take-offs.
2.3.20 Captain's Take-Off
The Captain retains controls the power levers on all take-offs.
The Captain maintains directional control using the rudder pedals.
The Captain advances the power levers to approximately 60% of the normal take-off torque.
They then calls "SET POWER", keeping their right hand on the power levers.
The First Officer will call Autofeather armed, advance the power to the detent position using
the power lever shafts and then lift their hand from the power levers. Engine parameters,
particularly torque and ITT, must be monitored throughout the take-off.
The First Officer (Pilot Not Flying) will call 70 KNOTS. This call serves as a cross check of
ASIs during the take off roll.
The First Officer will call "V1" and ROTATE at the appropriate speeds. It is important that
the V1 callout is completed by the time the actual IAS reaches V1 on the IAS indicator.
Therefore, some anticipation will be necessary depending on the rate of acceleration.
The Captain places both hands on the control column and rotates the aircraft to the required
body angle. When a positive rate of climb is achieved the gear is retracted and the take-off
proceeds as described in the FCOM.
2.3.21 First Officer's Take-Off
The same general procedure as for a Captains take-off, except as follows:
When the Captain calls your controls the First Officer takes full directional control of the
aircraft with the rudder pedal steering and places both hands on the control column. After the
F/O says: On Centre Line, Call me V1 at, set power, the Captain will call Autofeather
armed, set the power by advancing the power levers to the detent position and continue to
guard the tiller and brakes in case of a rejected take-off.
The Captain will make the appropriate calls for 70 KNOTS, V1 and ROTATE.
2.3.22 Rolling Start
Rolling starts are required. After the aircraft is lined up the brakes are released and power is
applied as the take-off roll begins. The correct power for take-off must be set by the time the
aircraft reaches 50kt.
2.3.23 Roll-On Take-Off
Roll-On take-offs are performed without stopping at the end of the runway. Roll onto the
runway using nosewheel steering. From this point on all other procedures are the same as
for a rolling start take-off.
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2.3.24 Cross Check ASI's During Take-Off
It is essential practice for the Pilot-Not-Flying to call 70 kts and "V1". The Pilot-Flying is
responsible for checking his own airspeed and ensuring rotation is commenced at VR. Any
disturbance (engine monitoring, radio etc.) may distract the PNF and cause him to call V1 at
an incorrect speed or forget to call it at all.
2.3.25 Rotation
In training it is common for the Trainee to overshoot VR, resulting in nosewheel lift off well
after VR and mainwheel lift off well after V2. A delayed rotation can be critical when the take-
off is runway length or obstacle limited and an engine failure occurs. A delay in rotation will
result in a longer take-off roll, exceeding V2 and a take-off climb path below the required
flight path.
Rotating to the correct take-off attitude too soon may extend the take-off roll or cause an
early lift off which will result in a lower rate of climb and the predicted flight path will not be
followed.
Over rotation on take-off adversely affects take-off performance. The nose high attitude will
cause an increase in drag delaying acceleration to lift off speed.
Over rotation generally goes with early rotation and if an engine failure is suffered, the results
could be disastrous.
During take-off with an aft C of G, the aircraft is more responsive in pitch and some
anticipation may be required in order to avoid over-controlling.
2.3.26 Circuit
The correct technique following gear retraction is to maintain a constant body angle to
Acceleration Altitude. At this point the flaps are retracted, bleed air is selected ON, the auto
feather is selected OFF, the SPU OFF and PTU to NORMAL selected off and the climb
power is then set. The condition lever setting for normal climb power is 900 NP.
After levelling off at circuit height the power levers are set to approximately 25% torque to
have the speed established not above 190 KIAS on downwind. When stabilised, the
autopilot should be engaged and flap 5 selected followed by the condition levers being
selected to 850 NP. Following this the approach should be briefed, the ICP utilised to set the
required bugged speeds and the approach checklist completed
Select gear down abeam the landing threshold, followed by Flaps 15. Allow airspeed to
reduce to a range between Vref + 15 and 150 KIAS and reduce power to approximately 15%
torque to maintain this speed during the initial descent.. Adjust the rate of descent on base
leg to turn final at 700 - 800 ft on the glidepath. Reduce speed to be at Vapp by 500 feet AGL
to achieve a Stable Approach. The Vref additive will be dependant on the environmental
conditions existing at the time and this is described in FCOM section 2.12. It is important
crew understand that the Vapp speed is based on a Vref additive which is incorporated into
the stable approach parameters. Vref is a fixed speed that can not be changed with the
utilisation of a Vref additive as part of a special briefing, thereby creating an artificially high
approach speed. Tolerance calls should be based on the stabile approach criteria of Vref to
Vref +20.
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Between 800 to 1000 ft AGL select flaps to 35 degrees (if required) and then condition levers
to MAX. The checklist should be completed at this point. Once on final with landing flap
selected, speed should be maintained at Vapp throughout the final approach.
2.3.27 Normal Landing
Below 50 ft the aircraft should be flared and the power levers retarded smoothly and
progressively towards FLT IDLE. The rate of flare should be matched to the power reduction
and will be determined by the perceived rate of sink. During landing with an aft CG loading,
the aircraft is more responsive in pitch and some anticipation may be required in order to
avoid over controlling. After touchdown the nose wheels should be gently lowered onto the
runway, then the power lever latches lifted and DISC selected. If required, reverse thrust may
be applied, but possible propeller and window damage on loose runway surfaces should be
considered.
During the landing flare sound pitch awareness should be maintained and any pitch attitudes
in excess of 6 degrees must be corrected. If a sink rate is detected at low altitude, a
standard sink recovery must be initiated where power is applied. The desire to arrest the
sink by applying back pressure must be avoided due to potential of a tail strike occurring at
pitch attitudes in excess of 7 degrees.
The aircraft should be kept straight by the use of rudder pedal steering. The toe brakes may
be used to achieve the optimum speed at the runway turnoff however heavy braking to
achieve an intersection turn off should be avoided.
During the landing roll the First Officer will engage the control lock when the Pilot Not Flying
calls 50 knots.
Use of reverse on landing should be demonstrated and practiced during training. Although a
very effective mode to assist in deceleration, the incorrect use of reverse can cause
significant damage to propeller blades and fuselage/windows. The preferred option when
landing on longer runways is to exit at an intersection that requires minimal braking and
reverse. If operationally required on shorter runways, appropriate use of reverse in
conjunction with brakes may be applied but in all normal operations power levers must be out
of the reverse range and returned to disc by at least 60kts.
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Common Errors
Maintains too high an airspeed throughout approach and landing.
Makes too flat an approach.
Dives at end of runway and then over-rotates when attempting to stop a high rate of
descent and lands hard and short.
Maintains too shallow bank angle on base leg, over-shoots runway centreline and
"S" turns on final.
Attempts to angle onto centreline, generally following excessive bank angle on
base, and never lines up properly.
With flap extension, holds the attitude with elevator and does not trim to zero stick
force after each selection.
Fails to obtain Vref at 50 point crossing the threshold
Flares too high and/or over-rotates during flare
Flares at high speed/power and floats excessively
"Pumps" controls during the flare instead of a smooth, controlled action.
Too slow in applying brakes.
Holds nose in air after touchdown.
Applies discing before nose wheel/ground contact
Aims for end of runway instead of 50 feet threshold height.
Flies final approach with both hands on the control column.
Over controls ailerons on final.
Normal Circuit
Flaps Zero
Bleeds On
Set climb power
Flaps 0
Bleeds on/NORM
Autofeather off
SBY HYD/PTU NORM
C/Levers 900
After Take-
off Checklist
At 1500 ft Above Airport
Select ALT,
Level-off
Accelerate to 190 KIAS
Reduce Tq to ~25%, Trim
Autopilot
Maintain height
Turn after 30 sec
Allow IAS to decrease to
Vref +15 150KIAS
Flap 35
C/Ls max
Check position
Adjust power and
attitude, as
required
30 sec 30 sec
Gear Down
Flap 15
Gear Down
Flap 15
SBY HYD/PTU on
Gear Down
Flap 15
Bleed air On/ Min
Complete checklist
Landing
Checklist
By 500 ft
V REF to +20
Flap 5
Establish 170 KIAS
C/Levers 850
Brief/Bug Speeds
Approach Checklist
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2.3.28 Stable Approach
A stable approach is defined as an approach where:
The aircraft is on the correct flight path
Only small changes in heading and pitch are required to maintain the correct flight
path
The sink rate is less than 1000fpm
The aircraft is in the correct configuration for landing
The aircraft speed is stable at Vapp and between :
Visual Approach: Vref to Vref+20 from 500ft AGL and below
Instrument Approach : Landing straight ahead: established at Vapp between Vref to Vref+20
from 500ft AGL and below or if intending to circle then Vref +10 -150 KIAS until on base
(then visual approach criteria apply).
If the aircraft is outside of these parameters without a previous special approach briefing and
correction can not be achieved without introducing significant power or profile changes, (eg
expected windshear etc.) then a go around/missed approach is mandatory.
Common Errors
High IAS/ROD on final approach
Late landing flap configuration
Safety systems (FOQA) data suggest that some pilots have historically used an incorrect
approach technique. They approach the runway at high speed (presumably to achieve self or
ATC imposed targets) then reduce speed to configure the aircraft and meet the stable
approach parameters as quickly as possible.
A high speed approach followed by a rapid speed reduction/configuration to arrive at the
stable approach gates is poor technique as this does not allow for ATC track shortening,
environmental changes or technical handling errors.
What happens if an error in technique or a change in environmental conditions means that
the aircrafts energy and/or position does not permit the required parameters to be met?
Some pilots use the technique of reducing the ROD to enable the speed reduction necessary
- i.e. go high on the slope. Unfortunately this means that a higher than optimum ROD will
then be required to regain the correct approach slope. If this ROD is high enough it will
exceed the stable approach parameters leading to a requirement to conduct a go-around.
Approach technique differs depending on the Dash 8 variant you are flying. It takes
considerably longer to reduce momentum in a heavy Q400 series aircraft compared to a
light DHC8 -200.
The definition of a stable approach is one where the approach parameters are constant.
Minimum and maximum values have been attributed to these parameters; however the
important thing to remember is that the momentum of the aircraft should be constant during
the latter stages of the approach. The Q400 has a relatively moderate level of momentum
which can be affected by changes in wind direction/speed, shear, etc. Any deviations to the
standard constant flight path must be quickly and assertively counteracted.
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Although the nominated gate is 500ft AGL (VMC and IMC), an allowance of variables must
be made to ensure the flight path is constant and within the stable approach parameters well
before these minimum altitudes. Therefore an aiming gate of 600ft is suggested. This will
allow a buffer for unforseen errors/ environmental changes and reduce the risk of a go
around caused by an unstable approach.
The current ATC requirement to maintain 160 kts until 4 nm on final, applicable to some of
our ports, seems to be at odds to the QantasLink stable approach policy. Some pilots have
used the DME/GPS to define this distance. The requirement is 4 track miles to run to the
landing runway threshold. The position of the DME/WPT may not accurately provide this
information. On a 3 degree approach the aircraft should be approximately 1200 AGL at 4 nm
on final. This altitude should provide sufficient time to reduce speed from 160 kts, configure
the aircraft and achieve a stable approach and landing.
The correct technique is to be on slope at the required speed early in the approach, ensuring
that the ROD is CONSTANT for several hundred feet before the required gate.
If a change in wind strength, etc results in a steeper than normal approach, immediately
pitching the nose down to achieve the required slope could exceed the maximum ROD. A
better technique is to gradually increase the ROD to a maximum of 1000 ft/ min to regain the
approach slope.
If the ROD exceeds 1000 fpm on short final the approach is unstable and a go around should
be conducted.
The best defence for avoiding an unstable approach, leading to a go around, is to achieve
the required speed, configuration and ROD early and then assertively control the aircraft to
maintain CONSTANT SPEED and RATE OF DECENT.
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VISUAL APPROACH AIMING GATES

















Note: All distances are track miles to run to the landing runway threshold not
to the DME or airport reference point

Figure 1: Visual Approach Profile

500 ft AGL
CONSTANT
STABLE
APPROACH
4 nm / 1200 ft AGL
2 nm / 600 ft AGL
Landing flap
Established at Vapp
ROD<1000 fpm
On slope
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2.3.29 Crosswind Take-Off
The maximum demonstrated crosswind component is 32kt on a hard dry runway, this figure
reduces to 14 kt on a contaminated runway. Further information relating to this limitation
may be found in FCOM section 1.6. Normal directional control techniques should be used.
The use of into wind aileron is advisable in strong crosswinds.
In order to remain within the take-off splay after take-off, a correction of 1 degree per 2kt of
crosswind should be made to the heading bugs.
2.3.30 Lateral Control
During a crosswind take-off, directional control is maintained through the rudder pedal
steering. It is not normally necessary to use differential engine power during the take-off run.
Partial application of aileron control may be made into wind. This should be limited to about
15 degrees of wheel rotation, more than this will cause excessive flight spoiler deployment,
and will unnecessarily increase drag.
At VR rotate and lift off cleanly to avoid scuffing of tyres as the wheels leave the runway.
Common Errors
Relaxes crosswind corrections too early during rotation.
Does not apply the correct amount of aileron to balance the crosswind component
effective at a particular stage of the take-off, eg. a fixed amount of aileron will most
likely be insufficient early in the take-off run and excessive at take-off.
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2.3.31 Crosswind Landing
Crosswind landings will not normally be practiced in training until the Student has
demonstrated proficiency in normal landing approaches. For maximum training value, a
crosswind of 30kt will be utilised in simulator training activities.
There are two accepted methods used in performing an approach to a landing in a
crosswind. They are the "crab" and "sideslip" methods. The Trainee initially should be
allowed to use whatever crosswind approach technique he/she has used with DHC8-2/300
aircraft. Observation of his/her technique will dictate the type of crosswind instruction
needed.
If the Trainee uses one method satisfactorily the Instructor should let him/her continue to use
it; changing may complicate the problem.
In crosswind or strong, gusty conditions, the appropriate threshold speed may be increased
by one third of the wind speed, up to a maximum of VREF plus 15kt. The nosewheel should
be lowered onto the ground as soon as possible after touchdown, to enable directional
control to be maintained with rudder pedal steering. Into wind aileron will also assist during
the landing roll.
Common Errors
Fails to maintain aileron application into wind.
Oscillates rudder and lateral control.
Applies too much rudder when correcting "crab" for touch-down.
Uses excessive sideslip.
Does not use proper "crab" (wind drift correction) on approach.
Does not use proper "sideslip" to hold course on final approach.
Applies discing before nose wheel to ground contact
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2.3.32 Bad Weather Circuit and Landing
The bad weather circling approach to land is a demanding procedure which must be carefully
planned and accurately executed.
Accurate altitude control is essential to provide adequate terrain clearance at the low levels
associated with bad weather manoeuvring. Timing and turns onto pre-planned headings will
ensure correct spacing downwind to maintain visual contact with the runway and to provide
enough room to manoeuvre.
It is assumed that the aircraft has completed an instrument approach and is in the landing
configuration prior to reaching the MDA. Increase power to that required for circling power
just before reaching the MDA to avoid a significant speed loss and to reduce workload.
The Pilot Flying should control the flight path primarily using flight instruments while the PNF
supports the PF by supplying precise and timely information regarding position, descent
point, heading and timing. Although this information is provided, the PF must maintain
situational awareness during the procedure.
Critical areas requiring consideration prior to conducting a bad weather circuit are:
planning of the visual segment of the approach
circuit joining procedure
spacing and wind allowance in the circuit
visual acquisition of the runway
speed control on base and final
go around technique
Often the instrument approach is fully briefed and yet no mention is made of the planned
flight path once visual. A briefing covering the expected relative position of the runway, the
turn direction and expected wind effect would greatly improve both pilots situation
awareness and reduce the need to make snap decisions.
Some crew are under the perception that they must fly over the upwind threshold to join the
circuit. While this is true when joining the circuit in day/VMC, the aim when conducting a bad
weather circuit is to position the aircraft as far from the runway as possible, while remaining
within the visibility and circling area restrictions (see Figure 2). If the runway is visually
acquired in a position too close to turn downwind immediately, position the aircraft to fly
upwind, to one side of the centreline, to enable visual tracking relative to the runway. This
spacing should be sufficient to allow the turn from downwind to crosswind to be completed
prior to crossing the runway centreline. Timing for the crosswind leg commences when
crossing the runway centreline.
A common error is to try to acquire the runway visually at inappropriate positions in the
circuit. The bad weather circling approach is a mixture of instrument and visual flight. While it
is incumbent on the crew to maintain visual reference with the landing threshold, too much
time spent looking at the runway and ignoring the flight instruments will cause flight path
deviation. The time the PF is able to spend looking at the runway is minimal and should be
carefully managed. Note that the perspective of the runway may not accurately define the
aircrafts attitude/flight path.
Taking time to accurately set the engine power on base may not be intuitive, however
accurate power setting will enable accurate speed control on base and final. If possible
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complete the turn prior to setting the power. When the decision to descend is made, the
engine power must be reduced otherwise the aircraft will not decelerate to the approach
speed required by the stable approach policy. Take a second to set the correct torque
(approximately 15% AEO or 30% OEI), and maintain a pitch attitude of 0 degrees on the ADI.
Within 45 degrees of the final approach heading, look up and complete the turn onto final leg
visually. If the descent point has been misjudged resulting in above vertical profile indications
on VASIS/PAPI, do not make large changes to pitch/torque in an attempt to rapidly capture
the correct profile. This can destabilise the approach possibly causing an EGPWS advisory.
If a Go Around is required, then do just that: (the full go around and missed approach
procedure). A common error is to descend from the circling MDA and decide to make
another circling approach by climbing back to the circling MDA. Usually this is because the
crew expect that the aircraft will readily climb back to the MDA. In reality, it will take a long
time to climb to the MDA when the aircraft is configured for landing and operating with One
Engine Inoperative. When operating on two engines an excessively high workload will be
encountered in a very short period of time, all while operating at low altitude and the aircraft
could easily leave the circling area as a result.
Common Errors
Flies wide circuit - loses sight of runway
Flies close circuit - unable to manoeuvre onto final
Allows Flight path deviations to occur through automation distraction
Flies high circuit - enters cloud
Flies square base overshoots
Fails to descend when approach slope intercepted
Fails to reduce power when approach slope intercepted
Attempts to acquire runway visually at inappropriate positions in circuit
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BAD WEATHER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM



































Figure 2: Bad Weather Circuit


















60
10 Sec
30 Sec
TURN POINT A
Within Circling
Area, as soon as
Rwy Visible.
30AOB.
Maintain IAS Vref +10 to 150 KIAS
(T: 35% AEO)
(T: 70% OEI)
Check spacing, Adjust Hdg for wind
Vref to +20kts
By 500 AGL
At descent point:-
. Reduce torque
T: 15% AEO
T: 25% OEI
. Do not allow nose
to drop.
. Hold 0 attitude
through turn.
Roll wings level
Look for Runway
Determine descent point
Note:
If high on PAPI / VASIS
do not make large changes
to pitch attitude or power.
V/S 1000 fpm (MAX) to
avoid EGPWS SINK
RATE
TURN POINT B
10 Seconds Past Threshold
Spacing sufficient to allow turn onto
crosswind to be completed prior to
crossing runway centreline
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2.3.33 Instrument Approaches
General
The purpose of this training is to familiarise the student with the handling, configuration
requirements and procedures associated with the conduct of instrument approaches in the
Q400. Although primarily designed to assist pilots during differences training, the following
material also complements the normal operating procedures contained in the FCOM.
Maximum concentration and effort are required to fly a successful instrument approach. A
thorough review and understanding of the holding, approach, and missed approach
procedures are essential. It is emphasised that proper scan methods as well as correct
speed and attitude control techniques are prerequisites for a successful approach.
Prior to commencing an instrument approach a full briefing should be given by the Pilot
Flying. This would normally be conducted prior to top of descent and should include
reference to
Top of descent point
STAR clearance details (if applicable)
The type of approach and chart date
LSA/MSA
Procedure entry details
Holding Pattern entry details
Tracking, altitude and timing specifications for the approach
Final Approach Fix
Minima (MDA or DA and visibility)
Missed Approach procedures (including IMC Acceleration Altitude)
Any other limitations and notes.
Expected manoeuvring for landing after becoming visual
Landing and Go-Around Flap setting and associated speeds (set ASI bugs)
Go-Around torque, plateau height and escape procedure.
2.3.34 Plan ahead.
Anticipate the effect of wind on the conduct of procedure turns, rate of track interception,
inbound heading and rate of descent as these will all be affected by changes in wind
throughout the approach.
During descent prior to an approach all the relevant Navaids should be tuned and identified.
If the approach is being conducted using VOR, Localizer or ILS ensure that the NAV source
(enunciated on the PFD and MFD) is selected to VOR or ILS mode. In the case of VOR and
LOC approaches the use of VOR mode (Blue Needles) is mandatory if the approach is not
wholly contained in the FMS data base.
ILS approaches must be flown in ILS mode (Blue Needles) as the aircraft FMS equipment
does not support FMS ILS approaches
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Once this is completed the Pilot Flying will conduct the Flight Instrument readout.
Subsequent procedures, for the various type of approach available, are described in the
following paragraphs.
Whenever it is depicted on the approach chart, the Maltese Cross marks the position of the
Final Approach Fix regardless of the type of approach being conducted. If there is no such
marking the FAF is defined as: the end of the turn onto the final approach track or at 5DME
on a GPS/DME arrival.
Upon commencing the final approach segment, stabilise the configuration, power, speed and
body angle. From this point, only small changes should be necessary in the above areas.
In each of the following procedures, the condition levers are normally advanced to MAX at
the final approach fix. When operating with an abnormality (eg. Reduced flap landing) or in
normal operations if the FAF is close to the MDA or Map, early advancement may be
warranted to avoid de-stabilising the final stages of the approach.
This statement does not preclude crew from selecting condition levers to max prior to the
FAF in normal operations to assist in workload management. In all cases the standard calls
as required by the FCOM must still be made to ensure correct configuration
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2.3.35 Approach Speeds
The ICAO PANS-OPS speed limitations for each instrument approach segment (specified in
Jeppesen and DAP-IAL) must be observed unless otherwise requested by ATC, in controlled
airspace.
The maximum indicated airspeeds applicable to the Q400 (ICAO Performance Category C)
are as follows:
Initial Approach 240kt
Final Approach 160kt
Missed Approach 240kt
Visual Circling Approach 180kt
As the maximum speed for many network reversal approach procedures is nominated as 170
KIAS, the aircraft should be configured for approach (Gear Down/Flap 5) before the IAF to
ensure this speed is not exceeded.
When commencing the inbound turn for a reversal procedure, the flaps should be selected to
15 and subsequently
As a guide for planning the necessary speed reduction, in nil wind conditions with 850 Np
and the power levers at FLT IDLE, reduction from 235 to 210 KIAS will take approximately 1
nm in level flight, or 3 nm when descending at 3nm/1000 ft, and further speed reduction to
150 KIAS will take approximately 6nm. A greater distance must be allowed in tailwind
conditions, heavy weights or when conducting a steep descent.
1. Plan to arrive at the Final Approach Fix (FAF) at a speed of Vref +10 to 150 KIAS.
2. At the FAF, the PNF calls On Final and the PF calls for condition levers to MAX, and
complete the LANDING checklist.
3. Speed should be further reduced to be at Vapp and the mean speed maintained
between VREF to VREF +20 by 500 feet AGL if conducting a runway aligned
approach.
4. If a circling approach is planned or anticipated, maintain Vref + 10 -150 KIAS during
the circling manoeuvre, until the turn to final is initiated. Speed should then be
reduced further to be at Vapp with the mean speed between VREF to VREF +20 by
500 AGL.

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2.3.36 Holding
AIP holding procedures must be observed at all times, unless otherwise cleared by ATC.
Holding at low altitudes is undesirable because of higher holding fuel consumption and
increased climb fuel if diversion to an alternate becomes necessary.
The recommended holding speed is 190 KIAS. The configuration for low or high level holding
will normally be clean.
During holding and approach procedures bank angle must not exceed 25. Apply appropriate
corrections to heading when inbound and outbound in the holding pattern to compensate for
drift. When tracking inbound, note the drift. After turning outbound, an into wind heading
adjustment of twice the drift (2 minute pattern) or three times the drift (1 minute pattern) will
ensure that the inbound track is regained when the aircraft is turned inbound.
When holding is conducted utilising the FMS, crew should monitor FMS holding by cross
checking the FMS turn points against timed holding procedures using the aircraft clock.
2.3.37 Non Precision Approach
(NDB, VOR, LLZ)
If the approach is not fully contained within the FMS database, plan to conduct the approach
in Blue needles (VOR or ILS as the NAV source) on the PFD with the approach loaded into
the FMS and displayed on the MFD to aid in situational awareness.
Commence speed reduction to 210 KIAS and start manoeuvring for direct entry (if
appropriate) when within 10 miles of the aerodrome.
Approaching the IAF:
Configure the aircraft with Flap 5 and 170 KIAS (for NDB),
After passing the IAF reconfigure if not already accomplished:
Arm the altitude alert system and flight Director as required
Start timing (if required)
Commence the landing checklist.
At the appropriate distance or time commence the turn to intercept the final approach track
and select flaps to the landing configuration.
If track guidance is provided by a VOR and an international DME is available the approach
mode may be selected by pressing APP on the flight guidance controller. VOR APP will
illuminate in white on the advisory display and will change to green when the final approach
course is captured.
If track guidance is provided by a localizer NAV should be pressed. LOC will illuminate in
white and will change to green when the final approach course is captured. If track guidance
is provided by an NDB then HDG SEL mode may be used, although the workload associated
with frequent adjustments to the heading bug may render it counter-productive during a
manually flown approach.
At the Final Approach Fix advance the condition levers to MAX if not already selected,
reduce speed to Vref + 10 to 150 KIAS, and complete the LANDING checklist. Reduce speed
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further to be at Vapp by 500 feet AGL if anticipating a runway aligned approach. If a circling
approach is planned or anticipated, maintain speed between Vref +10 to 150 KIAS during the
circling manoeuvre, until the turn to final is initiated. Speed should then be reduced further to
be at Vapp with the mean speed between Vref to Vref +20 by 500 AGL. Any Vref additive
will be dependant on the environmental conditions existing at the time and must be inclusive
of the above tolerances.
During the approach successive altitude limitations should be set in the Altitude Alert system
and the Missed Approach altitude set once established at the MDA or at the Missed
Approach Point. The decision altitude function of the Radio Altimeter should be set to 200
feet as an advisory of terrain proximity. Any VOR or MDB approach flown using the FMS
requires ground aids to be monitored on either bearing pointer needles or alternatively the
PNFs MFD maybe selected to CDI.
2.3.38 RNAV (GNSS) Approach
Use of the autopilot is encouraged for all RNAV (GNSS) approaches to reduce workload and
assist with FMS orientation and monitoring. Under normal circumstances the PFD for both
pilots will display FMS mode with a compass rose, while the MFD will provide a pictorial map
display including terrain.
The procedures for programming the FMS for an approach are described in the
Supplementary Procedures section of FCOM.
When cleared or established OCTA, track direct to the most suitable initial approach fix (IAF).
Once the approach is added to the flight plan consistent with DHC8-2/300 aircraft, no pilot
input on the FMS is required at this point to proceed with the RNAV (GNSS) approach.
A page displaying the TO waypoint name (in magenta) must be displayed at all times during
the approach.
In order to further enhance situational awareness for both pilots, the Pilot Not Flying must call
the passage of each waypoint (eg. "Passing Echo India). The subsequent track and distance
must be checked for reasonableness as always, but a formal call and response is not
required. Nominating (and setting in the AAS) the next available altitude would normally
occur in association with the waypoint passage call. The AAS may be set with reasonable
anticipation prior to the passage call to avoid nuisance altitude captures.
Reduce to 210 KIAS by the IAF. After passing the IAF continue the speed reduction to
establish the landing configuration by the FAF, and commence the landing checklist.
APR must be displayed on the FMS by the FAF. If it is not, the NAV flag symbology will be
displayed and a missed approach must be conducted.
When visual, continue and land. If circling is required the circling MDA must be maintained
until a position from which a continuous 3visual descent is reached. No action on the FMS
or NAV Source selector is required since the CDI continues to display the final approach
course (which is normally aligned with the runway).
Any temptation to enter a PVOR should be avoided due to potential distraction from the
primary task of flying the aircraft.
Distance from the missed approach waypoint will continue to be displayed on the HSI.
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If not visual at the missed approach waypoint conduct a missed approach. Fly the aircraft as
the first priority, pressing the GA button will activate the missed approach in the FMS.
The missed approach can be activated after the final approach fix by pressing the GA Button
(UNS 1c FMS). Directional guidance continues to the Missed approach point before
sequencing to the Missed Approach.
When the missed approach is executed using the GA buttons, LNAV will be retained as the
active lateral navigation mode by the PNF.
If it becomes necessary to conduct a missed approach from a position before the published
missed approach point, immediately commence a climb and continue tracking via the
approach to the missed approach waypoint. The FMS will continue to provide track guidance
via the approach waypoints to the missed approach waypoint and through the missed
approach procedure regardless of when the missed approach is activated. Upon reaching
the MSA the aircraft may be tracked as desired.
2.3.39 Use of Flight Director
The flight director should be used for all approaches except when operating with an
unserviceable flight director in accordance with the MEL. Raw data approaches are also
permitted for crew practice (in VMC) or training/checking.
In all non-precision approaches ALT SEL must be armed (with the appropriate limiting
altitude in the AAS).
Precision Approach (ILS)
All ILS approaches must be flown in approach (LOC and GS) mode. The flight director
should remain engaged in approach mode until after landing.
A precision approach provides guidance in both azimuth and glidepath. The Instrument
Landing System (ILS) is the only precision approach currently available to QantasLink Q400
aircraft.
All ILS approaches will be flown with the assistance of the flight director except when a raw
data (no flight director) approach is considered necessary for crew practice (in suitable
weather conditions) or training/ checking.
Aircraft manipulation, speed and configuration requirements and standard calls are the same
in either case. Notwithstanding this, Flight Director Coupled (autopilot engaged) and Raw
Data ILS approaches are described separately so that particular handling and management
techniques appropriate to each may be described more fully.
During descent, correctly tune and identify all the navigation aids associated with the ILS.
Both NAVs should be tuned to the ILS frequency and both HSI course selectors adjusted to
the ILS front course. When this is completed, conduct the Descent Instrument Check.
2.3.40 ILS Approach
Commence speed reduction to achieve 210 KIAS by the Initial Approach Fix and commence
the LANDING checklist, when reconfiguration has occurred.
Select vertical speed (if on descent) and heading mode in the AFCS VS and HDG SEL will
illuminate in green on the advisory display. Change NAV source from FMS to ILS and when
cleared to intercept the localizer press NAV on the Flight Guidance Controller - LOC will
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illuminate in white on the advisory display and will change to green when the localizer is
intercepted.
When cleared for final approach, press APP on the Flight guidance controller to arm the
approach mode. If LOC is already armed, GS will be added and will illuminate in white on the
advisory display. GS will change to green when the glideslope is captured.
If LOC mode had not previously been selected (using the NAV push button) pressing APP
will select both LOC and GS at the same time.
The initial approach altitude (or such lower altitude as may be specified by ATC) must remain
set in the Altitude Alert system until the aircraft is established on the localiser and:
on the glideslope with GS captured in the AFCS, or
above the glideslope with GS armed in the AFCS, or
above the glideslope and passed the initial approach fix,
Whereupon the DA should be set.
From the IAF continue reducing speed to Vref +10 to - 150 KIAS. Extend the gear when
below the landing gear extension limiting speed. Select Flap 15 when below the Flap 15
Extension limiting speed and the landing gear indicator is indicating the landing gear is down
and three green lights are visible. Plan to arrive at the Final Approach Fix (FAF) with gear
down, Flap 15 and airspeed Vref +15 to - 150 KIAS. A torque of 18%% will maintain descent
on the glidepath in this configuration.
At the Final Approach Fix (Glideslope/Altimeter check point if co-incident) PNF calls DME /
OUTER MARKER height checked or XX feet high / low as appropriate. PF responds with
Checked. PNF calls ON FINAL, PF replies with Condition Levers MAX. PNF sets
condition levers and PF sets power as appropriate, complete the Landing Checklist when
called for by the PF.
A torque of approximately 18% will maintain descent on the glidepath at Vref +10 to - 150
KIAS. Reduce speed further to be at Vapp by 500 feet AGL. Any Vapp will be determined
from Vref and an additive which will be dependant on the environmental conditions existing
at the time and must be included in the above tolerances.
At the Final Approach Fix:
set the Altitude Alert System to the Missed Approach Altitude to avoid nuisance
chimes during the flare and touchdown and
set the Pilot Not Flyings heading bug to the heading of the first turn in the missed
approach procedure
At 1200 ft RAD ALT the AFCS will enter DUAL mode. This will be annunciated in green on
the advisory display and both HSI SEL arrows will illuminate. In this mode the Flight
Guidance computers receive information from both NAV receivers and display commands
based on an average of their input. Comparator checks are also performed to detect a failure
in one NAV system. Whenever DUAL mode is active, deviation outside the Category II ILS
window will be annunciated (in amber) on the advisory display as EXCESSIVE DEVIATION.
Although this does not indicate an out of tolerance condition for CAT 1 (or less) approaches,
it does indicate deviation from track and corrective action should be taken.
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The Decision Altitude function of the Radar Altimeter should be set to 200 feet as an advisory
of terrain proximity.
If visual at the Decision Altitude, continue the approach and gradually reduce speed to the
required threshold speed. In crosswind conditions the runway will not appear directly in front
of the aircraft. Do not turn towards the runway when the runway comes into view - maintain
the heading that corrects for the crosswind.
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In all cases, guard against unintentionally ducking under the desired approach path, thus
prejudicing the wheel height across the threshold, with the resulting increased rate of sink
and short touchdown.
Do not make large scale power reductions approaching the threshold in an endeavour to
reduce speed to V
REF
. Accept the speed comfortably achieved at the threshold. If at the
Decision Altitude, or at any time thereafter, the aircraft is in a position from which a normal
landing cannot be made or adequate visual reference cannot be maintained, immediately
execute a missed approach in accordance with the crew coordination procedure in the
FCOM. Since the aircraft is already established at a speed in excess of the missed approach
speed, a smooth rotation to the Go-Around attitude should be initiated immediately.

ILS Approach
Reduce to 210 KIAS
by IAF
On Final
Condition levers MAX
100 Above
Checked
DECIDE
Visual or
No Contact
FAF
Vref+10 150
KIAS
Descent
instrument check
PF PNF
IAF
Outer Marker
Height Checked
Checked
Gear Down
Flap 15
Landing Checklist
500 ft AGL
Vapp
P
L
s

F
lt

I
d
le
T
q
1
8
%
T
q
1
8
%
Landing or
Going Around
FLAP 5
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2.3.41 Raw Data ILS Approach
ILS procedures may be flown without the assistance of the flight director and such an
approach is termed Raw Data. The visibility required for a manually flown, raw data approach
is generally greater than that required for the flight director assisted or autopilot coupled
approach. The following is a description of the technique to be used when flying an ILS
approach on raw data.
Correctly tune and identify all required radio aids. Ensure that the inbound track (or front
course) of the ILS is selected on both EHSIs. This will allow "fly to the needle" sensing
regardless of whether the aircraft is tracking inbound or outbound on the localizer.
The airspeed and configuration requirements for a raw data ILS are the same as those
already described for a Flight Director assisted approach. The following text is intended to
explain the actual handling techniques associated with accurately tracking along the localizer
and glidepath without Flight Director assistance.
Establish an intercept heading and have a drift corrected heading for final in mind before the
CDI comes alive. Anticipate the speed at which the CDI will move when it becomes alive.
Crosswind behind you will give a faster a moving needle and require a full 25 degree bank
turn onto the localizer.
If the CDI stops moving during the turn onto the localizer - stop the turn. If CDI slows during
the turn, reduce the rate of turn.
Become established on the localizer as soon as possible. Check the initial heading is correct
by stepping up the scan rate to see small CDI movements. Reference to the expanded scale
localizer pointer may assist in early detection of track deviation.
If a tracking correction is indicated by a slow LLZ movement, make a small (5 degree)
heading change towards the needle. If the movement is fast, make a larger (10 degree)
heading change.
Do not exceed 10 degrees angle of bank during tracking corrections. A good rule of thumb is
to use the same bank angle as the required change in heading.
When the CDI is centred again, take off half the heading change.
If a locater is provided, it may be used to confirm that the new heading is maintaining the
required track.
Maintain headings accurately but remember that drift may change during the descent.
Glideslope corrections should be made as soon as the need becomes apparent, so that a
large correction to power or attitude is unnecessary. Total "fly up" to "fly down" range is only
1 to 1.25 degrees, so variations of position on the glideslope will be magnified more than
track errors on localizer presentation. Keep corrections small, but positive.
Use both power and elevators to correct any fly-up or fly-down indications. If a fly-up
correction is required, raise the nose slightly with the elevators and increase the power to
prevent a speed loss that would otherwise accompany use of the elevators alone. If a fly-
down correction is required, lower the nose slightly and reduce power to prevent a speed
increase.
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Speed corrections will also warrant coordinated use of both power and elevators. If speed is
too high, reduce power and anticipate the need for slightly higher nose attitude to prevent
sinking below the glideslope. If too slow, increase power and lower the nose attitude slightly
to prevent flying above the glideslope. Use elevator pressures, not trim, for transient pitch
adjustments.
Once established on final, only small corrections should be made to heading, attitude and
power. Establish a corrective trend and wait it out. Avoid over controlling. Fly precise
headings and attitudes. Do not chase the LLZ and GS needles.
2.3.42 Navigation Source Selection
En-route and terminal navigation is normally conducted with the navigation source selected
to RNAV and an appropriate flight plan or procedure active in the GPS/FMS. With the
exception of RNAV GNSS approaches, instrument approaches conducted in IMC must be
conducted in VOR.
In most cases, VOR may be selected at the pilots discretion at a convenient time prior to the
approach.
Since FMS equipped aircraft support DME arc navigation, FMS may be retained throughout
a DME arc leg whilst monitoring DME distance on the independent DME display
Where the GPS/FMS flight plan (eg STAR) delivers the aircraft onto the approach, the point
at which VOR or ILS is selected must be considered carefully.
As a general principle use the FMS to establish the aircraft on the approach track. The FMS
flies tracks and will anticipate turns according to airspeed and wind to achieve the required
flight path without overshooting the next leg. FMS should be retained as long as possible to
take advantage of the track guidance it provides. For example, a STAR that terminates with a
turn onto a localiser should be flown in FMS at least until the turn is commenced. Select VOR
or ILS either during or immediately after the turn.
The vertical flight path must be considered too. VOR or ILS must be selected in time to
display the navaid information required for the approach. Vertical flight path consideration
may dictate early selection of ILS in order to display glideslope information. This will be the
case where the turn onto final occurs close to the point at which the descent begins.
In short, pilots must review the procedure to be flown both laterally and vertically to
determine a suitable point to select VOR or ILS instead of FMS. The lateral flight path is best
managed by FMS until lateral guidance from the approach navaid is required. The vertical
flight path may require earlier selection of ILS to display glideslope information. This would
require the pilot to intercept the lateral flight path using conventional navigation.
Note that even with VOR or ILS selected the FMS continues to navigate and may be used to
assist with turn anticipation and heading selection by referring to the MFD. Aircraft control
would be affected using the HDG SEL function of the AFCS with LOC or VOR APP armed to
intercept the final approach course.
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2.3.43 Tracking Tolerances
NDB 5 degrees of nominated track; for NDB procedure, descent
shall not be commenced unless establish within this tolerance;
VOR 5 ; for VOR procedure, descent shall not be commenced
unless established within this tolerance;
ILS and LLZ scale deflection (and equivalent on expanded scale); able to
land from minimum altitude without undue manoeuvring and;
DME/GPS arrival a) Tracking within 5 for NDB or 5 for VOR when tracking
on the defined track or, if a specific track is not defined by the
procedure, within the specified sector at all times;
b) Descent below LSALT or limiting altitude for a step, not
before the distance specified in the arrival procedure for
commencement of descent to the next step;
GPS/NPA scale deflection at each waypoint passage and on final
approach, descent must not be started unless established
within this tolerance; GPS approach mode must be active
during final approach;
DME or GPS arc 2 nautical miles
2.3.44 Standard Calls
The Pilot Not Flying shall advise on the development of the visual segment as the approach
progresses and call visual when the DAP requirements for continuation of the approach are
satisfied. Visual may be called by either pilot at any stage of the approach at which point (at
the Captains discretion) instrument approach procedures may be discontinued. For more
information refer Crew Monitoring and Advisory Calls FAM Section 8.

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2.3.45 Missed Approach - One or Two Engines Operating
The following definitions should be understood.
Baulked Landing:
The go-around manoeuvre conducted if an all engines landing is abandoned after the
selection of landing flap.
Missed Approach:
The go-around manoeuvre conducted, either:
o in association with an instrument approach if visual reference has not been
established by the missed approach point
o or, with one engine inoperative.
2.3.46 Go-around
Is a generic term that is applied to either scenario. For Q400 operations, both Go-around and
Missed Approach are used, the precise meaning being established by the context.
The procedures and crew coordination applicable to a Go-around/ Missed Approach are
detailed in the Crew coordination section of the FCOM. The initial actions are the same in the
all engines operating and one engine inoperative cases, as follows:
Call GOING AROUND, press the GA button on one of the power levers.
Advance the power levers to the detent position and pitch up to the attitude commanded by
the flight director. The PNF will ensure that the condition levers are at set to MAX.
Call SET POWER/MAX POWER, FLAP 5/10/15, GEAR UP.
It is important that the initial power lever advancement by the Pilot Flying is adequate but not
excessive as there have been cases reported where the detent position has been
inadvertently passes. The PNF must monitor the power lever advancement to ensure torque
and/or temperature limits are not exceeded.
The go-around flap setting is one setting less than the landing flap setting which is recorded
on the Landing Data card. If a go-around is initiated above the Acceleration Altitude with the
speed in excess of Vbg, the flaps may be selected straight to zero followed by gear retraction
and setting of power, however it is recommended that the standard missed approach crew
coordination procedure be followed.
IAS mode may be selected after flap retraction and normal climb procedures apply
thereafter.
Once the aircraft is climbing at the required body angle, HDG SEL, and ALT SEL modes may
be adjusted along with the Pilot Flyings heading bug.
After a go-around is commenced, the Pilot Not Flying must ensure that the missed approach
altitude is selected in the Altitude Alert system and that ALT SEL is armed.
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13 June 11 Conversion & Training Manual 2-67
The missed approach altitude may be set prior to commencing the missed approach after the
MDA has been captured and ALT mode is established but ALT SEL must not be armed until
after the go-around button has been pressed. If ALT SEL is armed before the missed
approach is commenced, it will be cancelled when the go-around button is pressed.
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2-68 Conversion & Training Manual 13 June 11
2.3.47 Reduced Flap Landing
General
The procedures and technique to be adopted for a reduced flap landing are described in the
Reduced Flap Landing checklist in the QRH and include the following:
To avoid a Too Low Flap annunciation from the GPWS as the aircraft descends through
200 ft AGL with less than Flap 15 selected, the GPWS Flap Over-ride will be pressed ON.
2.3.48 Application
Enter the circuit using normal entry procedures and checklists.
Extend the downwind leg 30 seconds past the landing threshold or longer if conditions
permit.
Maintain V
REF
+10 until established on final approach.
The condition levers should be advanced to MAX (1020) early in the approach (on base leg)
to enable the approach flight path to be stabilised as soon as the aircraft is lined up on final.
When established on final, reduce speed to V
REF
and stabilise the power and body angle.
Approximately 15% torque and 4 nose-up can be expected. Do not de-stabilise the
approach by chasing airspeed fluctuations on short final - maintain the correct power and
body angle.
Power should not be reduced until at or immediately prior to touchdown. At approximately
100 feet raise the nose of the aircraft to adopt a pitch attitude of between 5 to 6 degrees.
This attitude should be maintained through the normal flare height until touchdown. Caution
should be exercised with the body angle close to the maximum of 6 degrees, any sink rate
detected close to the ground should be corrected with a standard sink recovery technique
where power is applied to arrest the sink rate.
WARNING - Do not exceed 6 nose-up attitude during the landing as this may cause the tail
of the aircraft to strike the ground.
After touchdown, lower the nose wheels and bring the power levers to DISC without delay.
Use reverse if necessary when below 150 KIAS.
2.3.49 Rejected Take-Off
Considerations
Regardless of which pilot is executing the take-off, the responsibility for the decision to reject
a take-off and to physically stop the aircraft rests with the Captain. If the First Officer
observes a failure that they are convinced it will affect the safety of the aircraft when
airborne, they will call "FAILURE".
The Captain's decision to stop the aircraft will be signified by the application of the brakes,
retarding the power levers and calling "STOPPING ". If the First Officer was conducting the
take-off, the Captain will immediately assume full control of the aircraft.
The First Officer will not apply the brakes during any take-off condition, unless they are
convinced the Captain has become incapacitated.
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
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The only variable applicable to a rejection at any particular speed prior to V
1
is brake
pressure required. In any rejected take-off, initially apply maximum brake pressure. If it is
apparent that more than adequate runway remains the brake application may be reduced to
that which will ensure the aircraft is stopped before the end of the available distance
The aircraft should be brought to a full stop before any drills are initiated. After a high speed,
heavy weight aborted take-off, prolonged taxiing is not recommended as the wheels and
tyres are hot. Where possible use wheel chocks and leave the park brake OFF.
Application
On recognition of the failure, the Captain Trainee will rapidly perform the following
procedures:
Apply the brakes and retard the power levers to disc
call STOPPING
Select reverse as required
Trainee First Officers will perform the following procedures:
Hold the controls
Advise ATC Stopping Runway ___
Call 50 Knots and engage the control locks
Common Errors
Does not recognise failure.
Slow reaction.
Fails to use brakes.
Fails to anticipate yaw due to asymmetric propeller drag when DISC is selected.
Fails to Hold Controls
Fails to engage control locks
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
2-70 Conversion & Training Manual 13 June 11
2.3.50 One Engine Inoperative Circuits
Take-Off with Engine Failure after V
1

Recognition of power loss is dependent on recognition of asymmetric thrust, a decrease in
performance and/or a power loss as indicated on the engine instruments.
Flight crews must be trained to be conscious of engine instrument readings at all times and,
in particular during take-off. Flying the correct take-off profile on all take-offs with regard to
airspeed and body angle are paramount.
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
13 June 11 Conversion & Training Manual 2-71
2.3.51 Considerations
Engine Failure Recognition
Close, reliable crew coordination is necessary for early recognition. The Captain alone
makes the decision to GO or NOT GO, but it is virtually impossible for them to continuously
monitor the engine instruments while visually controlling the aircraft during the take-off roll.
The engine instruments will be monitored by the First Officer. The decision to reject the take-
off is still the Captain's but they must rely heavily on the First Officer.
The initial stages of all take-offs should be performed as if an engine failure has occurred. In
the event of an unnoticed engine failure occurring after V
1
, the profile and procedures will still
be correct and safe. (ie rotate to 8 then 10 as detailed in FCOM).
Directional and Lateral Control
If the pilot is intent on keeping the take-off path on or parallel to the runway centreline, the
correct rudder input will be applied naturally as power decays on the failed engine even in a
crosswind. After the initial pedal displacement, little or no change in pedal position will be
required to hold a straight take-off path. Up to 5 degrees of bank towards the live engine may
be used to facilitate directional control, balanced flight, and improved performance. This will
result in half a skid ball to the live engine side, however this technique is not required to
achieve certification performance.
Don't oscillate the rudder or control wheel. If changes are required, strive to make them
smooth and well coordinated.
Excessive rudder will cause a marked deterioration in performance. The Q400 rudder is very
effective and easy to over control.
When stabilised on speed during climb, rudder and aileron trim may be used.
Rotation
There is a tendency to rotate too early and rapidly with a known engine failure. Early rotation
may actually increase the required take-off distance to a height of 35 feet. Make the rotation
smoothly but not prematurely.
Obstacle Clearance
For obstacle clearance with an engine out, follow the procedure as detailed in the ARDM.
Maintain V
2
during second segment climb or until clear of obstacles.
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2-72 Conversion & Training Manual 13 June 11
2.3.52 Application
Procedure
The crew coordination procedure to be conducted is detailed in the FCOM and summarised
as follows:
Apply the rudder as required to maintain heading as the thrust decays.
At VR, rotate smoothly to a lift-off body angle of 8. Directional control should
be maintained by use of rudder with aileron utilised to maintain wings level as
required.
When a positive rate of climb is observed, call for the gear to be retracted.
Nominate which engine has failed and wait for confirmation from the Pilot Not
Flying.
Maintain V2 during climb to the nominated Acceleration Altitude and then fly
the aircraft level at that altitude to accelerate.
At VFR, retract the flaps and at VBG set maximum continuous power and then
commence further climb.
Complete the engine shutdown drill, or
Conduct the Engine Failure/Fire/Shutdown QRH checklist.
Conduct the Normal After Take Off checklist.
Advise ATC and the Cabin Crew
The passengers should also be briefed at the first available opportunity.
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13 June 11 Conversion & Training Manual 2-73
Common Errors
Tries to correct yaw with aileron instead of rudder.
Oscillates rudder and control wheel.
Rotates early.
Rotates late. Remember obstacle climb path.
Under rotates or pitches nose down immediately after lift-off.
Does not adopt the required attitude after lift off.
Does not correctly identify the engine failure.
Uses insufficient rudder and consequently banks towards the inoperative engine.
Does not accelerate in level flight
Descends during the third segment
Fails to make good scheduled engine-out flight path.
Makes large changes in airspeed and asymmetric thrust while holding constant
rudder and attempts to correct by applying a large wheel displacement. Note that
rudder requirement changes with airspeed.
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2-74 Conversion & Training Manual 13 June 11
2.3.53 Circuit and Landing (One Engine Inoperative)
These landings are performed to familiarise the Trainee with the approach and landing
techniques with one engine inoperative. The techniques and procedures for an engine out
landing are similar to those applicable to a normal landing.
Level out at the appropriate circuit altitude (normally 1500 ft AGL). Allow the aircraft to
accelerate then reduce power to maintain 170 KIAS and select flap 5 (approximately 45%
torque at 1020 RPM). Select gear down abeam the landing threshold, followed by flap 15.
With one engine inoperative, the use of the PTU and SPU must be considered. The QRH
Checklist provides guidance on which must be operative in individual cases.
On base leg, commence descent and maintain a minimum speed of Vref +15 KIAS.
With Gear down, Flap 15, condition levers MAX and airspeed Vref +15 to 150 KIAS a 3
degree glidepath will be maintained with 25% torque. If necessary, Flap 35 degrees may be
used for landing.
Aim to turn onto final at 700 ft. Reduce speed to be at Vapp at 500 feet AGL. The Vref
additive used to establish Vapp will be dependant on the environmental conditions existing at
the time, however a target approach speed (Vapp) must be flown.
Maintain the correct glidepath and airspeed to arrive at the threshold at the required speed
for the flap setting.
Rudder trim may be centralised before landing. The aircraft should be landed with minimal or
hold off and the nosewheel gently lowered as soon as the main wheels have contacted the
ground.
Both power levers should be brought into the DISCING range after the nosewheel has been
lowered.
Rudder pedal steering is more than adequate to maintain directional control during the
ground roll.
Common Errors
Forgets to increase power on the operating engine to maintain speed and flight
path.
Oscillates rudder on final approach.
Oscillates roll controls on final approach.
Holds excessive airspeed on final approach.
Does not coordinate rudder with power and airspeed changes.
Varies approach path from normal approach and landing.
Allows a reducing airspeed from 500 rather than flying Vapp.
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-1
3. Q400 DIFFERENCES TRAINING
SYLLABUS & RECORD
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-2 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
3.1 Q400 DIFFERENCES TRAINING FILE AND LINE TRAINING
RECORD PREAMBLE.
This training file provides a permanent record of completed training for flight crew that have
transitioned from the DHC8-2/300 variant to the Q400.
The training file is extracted from the Training & Check manual and duplicated here to
assist trainees in preparing for each training event undertaken.
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-3
3.2 DHC-8-400 DIFFERENCES TRAINING FILE

DHC-8-400 DIFFERENCES TRAINING ACTION FILE AND CHECKLIST

The Trainee is to present this Training File to the particular Training Captain, Check Captain, or
Instructor at each of the training sequences listed below for sign off on successful completion.


Capt/First Officer: __________________________________________ Staff No: ________________


ARN:______________________ Base: _______________________


FUNCTION COMPLETED BY
FUNCTION REQUIRED
TRAINING
COMPLETED
NAME SIGNATURE
DATE
Manuals Issued

Type Engineering
Differences Course

Type Performance Course

FMS & Systems
Integration Training

Observation Flights

Cockpit Procedures
Training

Simulator Training

Simulator Proficiency
Check

Emergency Procedures
Training

Line Training Check to
Line

Paymaster advised

Training File Reviewed

Training File Archived



THIS FORM TO BE FILED IN CREW FILE ON COMPLETION
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-4 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
CAPTAIN
FIRST OFFICER _________________________________________ BASE: _________________

SIMULATOR TRAINING COMMENCED: __________________ COMPLETED: __________

AIRCRAFT LINE TRAINING COMMENCED: __________________ COMPLETED: __________

AIRCRAFT FAMILIARISATION TRAINING
COCKPIT PROCEDURES TRAINER/FLIGHT
TRAINING DEVICE
FULL FLIGHT SIMULATOR
DATE TIME
PROG
TOT
INSTRUCTOR DATE TIME
PROG
TOT
INSTRUCTOR







AIRCRAFT LINE TRAINING

ASSIGNED LINE TRAINING CAPTAIN

FLIGHT TIME SECTORS APPROACHES
DATE DAY NGT TOTAL LHS RHS TOTAL
ROUTE FLOWN
INST VIS























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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-5

Line Training summary Continued

FLIGHT TIME SECTORS APPROACHES
DATE DAY NGT TOTAL LHS RHS TOTAL
ROUTE FLOWN
INST VIS




































LINE COMPETENCY FLIGHT
DATE ROUTE CHK CAPT SAT/UNSAT
DATE ROUTE CHK CAPT SAT/UNSAT
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-6 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
TRAINING FILE AND RECORD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES

Herewith is your training file. Please take note of the following:

1. You are responsible for producing this file to the Training or Check Captain, or
Simulator Instructor carrying out the particular rostered training.

2. On completion of any entries made in the file, you should resume custody of the
file and note the comments made.

3. All entries made in the training file must be signed by both the relevant
Training or Check Captain, or Simulator Instructor and trainee.

4. Requirements for your training are attached. You should ensure that each
requirement is completed before the next phase is commenced.

5. This file is to be made available to the Flight Training Manager on request. It
should also be presented to the Flight Training Manager, whenever an entry
appears therein which calls for his attention, and upon completion of line
training.

6. Trainees should ensure the relevant documentation is completed for
submission when completing final checks:
Completed file (entries signed)
Licence
Completed up to date Log book
Medical Certificate

7. On satisfactory completion of the Competency Flight, the above documents are
to be delivered to the Flight Training Manager who will initiate action for the
particular approvals required for the category of operation for which the training
was undertaken.

8. On completion of training this file is to be retained as a permanent record
of training.

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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-7
3.2.1 Minimum Requirements (Simulator)
Captains and First Officers:

When available Supernumerary observation flights prior to commencing simulator
training - 3 sectors recommended. Entries of Observation Flights to be made in
table at bottom of this page and certified completed by the Pilot in Command of
that flight.

Simulator flight time 12 hours (minimum) for 2 pilots.

The sequences in the Simulator Conversion guide are designed to be completed
in three sessions of approximately 4 hours each.

Prior to commencing Simulator Training the candidate will have successfully
completed the DHC-8-400 differences Ground School as detailed in Section 10 of
this Manual.

Training for DHC-8-400 differences shall normally be completed in three
simulator exercises with each pilot candidate receiving a minimum of six hours of
simulator training time. Due to unforeseen circumstances, eg. simulator down
time/or slow candidate progress, the instructor may further break the
endorsement exercises into smaller segments. However, the candidates training
file must be clearly marked on completion of each exercise.

An approved simulator instructor or Check Captain will conduct exercises 601,
602, and 603.

A proficiency check will be conducted at the completion of the detailed training.
The results of the proficiency check shall be recorded on a separate FT9.


LOG OF SUPERNUMERARY OBSERVATION FLIGHTS

DATE
AIRCRAFT
REGISTRATION
AIRCRAFT
CAPTAIN
SECTORS OBSERVED
(MINIMUM OF 3 REQUIRED)
VH-
VH-
VH-
VH-
VH-
VH-
VH-
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-8 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
3.2.2 Cockpit Procedures Training
Flight deck layout
EFIS / FMS operation
Before start drills
Engine start limitation
Normal & abnormal checklists
3.2.3 DHC-8-400 Simulator Exercise 601
Pre-start drills & Check List. Enter and crossfill FMS flightplan
Normal engine start (External power or APU)
Taxiing and brakes
Normal Take-off and departure via SID using FMS
Steep turns
Stalls
ILS Approach and landing flap 35
Circuits Take-off flap 5, 10 & 15 Landing Flap 15 & 35
Missed approach
Normal taxi in and shut down.
Battery start
3.2.4 DHC-8-400 Simulator Exercise 602
Pre-start drills & Check List. Enter and crossfill FMS flightplan
Normal engine start (External power or APU)
Normal Take-off
Vectors for ILS Approach and landing flap 35
Crosswind circuits
Flap 0 approach & landing
Asymmetric circuits
Single engine missed approach
Circling Approach
Rejected Take-off
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-9
3.2.5 DHC-8-400 Simulator Exercise 603
Line flight 1(LOFT Exercise):
Cockpit preparation, drills & Checklist
Departure via SID Climb to cruise altitude.
Descent and RNAV approach, Flap 35 landing
Line flight 2 (LOFT exercise)
Normal turnaround and departure
Minor malfunction (no further impact on flight after QRH procedure
completed)
STAR arrival and ILS approach and flap 35 landing.
Airwork in-flight malfunctions.
Revision as required.
3.2.6 DHC-8-400 Simulator Proficiency Exercise 604
Line Flight 1
Cockpit preparation, drills & checklists
Departure via SID, climb to cruise altitude
Descent / STAR, ILS approach
Line Flight 2
Normal turn around and departure with SID
STAR arrival with track shortening
ILS approach & landing
Base exercises
Rejected Takeoff
Engine Failure @ V
One engine inoperative landing
One engine inoperative missed approach
1 Line Flight shall be conducted as PF and one as PNF. All base exercises
shall be conducted as PF and PNF.

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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-10 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
COCKPIT PROCEDURES TRAINING REPORT DHC 8-400



















Captain/First Officer .................................................................has satisfactorily completed
Cockpit Procedures Differences training of the DHC-8-400 series aircraft. He/She is ready to
commence Full Flight Simulator training.



Simulator Instructor/Check
Captain Signature

Simulator Instructor/Check
Captain Name

ARN

Date

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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-11
DHC-8-400 SIMULATOR TRAINING RECORD


COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT

Date



SIMEX 601 602 603
PRE- FLIGHT - Cockpit set up
- Before Start Check
- 24 Hour Checks
- APU start

ENGINE START - Before Start Procedures
- Limitations
- External Power or APU
- Battery Start
- Start Malfunction and Rejected Start Procedures
- After Start Procedures

TAXI - Taxi Procedures
- Taxi Checks

TAKE-OFF - Flap 5
- Flap 10or 15
- Rejected
- Engine Failure After V1
- Night (where possible)
- Instrument
- Crosswind

CLIMB - Type I, Type II, Type III

STEEP TURNS - 45 Angle of Bank (max)

STALLS - Clean
- Approach Configuration
- Landing Configuration
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-12 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
DHC-8-400 SIMULATOR TRAINING RECORD


COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT

Date



SIMEX 601 602 603
DESCENTS - Normal
- Turbulence Penetration

CIRCUITS - Normal
- Asymmetric
- Bad Weather/Reduced Visibility Circling

LANDINGS - Normal - 15Flap
- 35Flap
- Engine Inop - 15Flap
- 35Flap
- Flapless (requirement)
- Crosswind
- Pitch Awareness
- Sink recovery technique
- Night (where possible) - Lit
- Unlit
- Flapless

AVIONICS & AUTO FLIGHT
- Before Start set up
- Selection of NAV sources
- Use of MFD
- AFCS Mode Selection
- Instrument Approach ILS
- RNAV
- FMS (FPL, SID APPR, VNAV, X-FILL) PF and PNF
- FMS Holding (discussion)



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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-13
DHC-8-400 SIMULATOR TRAINING RECORD


COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT

Date



SIMEX 601 602 603
EMERGENCY and ABNORMAL PROCEDURES
- FADEC Caution
- Propeller Malfunctions
- Hydraulic Failure
- Engine Fire/Failure
- EFIS Display Failure
- AHRS and ADC Source Reversion
- TCAS display

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
- Normal Management of:
- Electrical
- Ice Protection
- Pressurisation/Air Conditioning
- Hydraulic
- Fuel
- Engine
- Propeller
- Flight Instruments
- Avionics
- Flight Controls

QRH - General and use of
- Management in relation to normal checklists







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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-14 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
SIMULATOR TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400
























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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-15
SIMULATOR TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400


















Captain/First Officer .................................................................has completed Full Flight
Simulator differences training and satisfactorily completed a proficiency check in the DHC-8-
400 series aircraft and has demonstrated his/her competence in all required procedures.
He/She is cleared to commence aircraft line training.



Simulator Instructor/Check
Captain Signature

Simulator Instructor/Check
Captain Name

ARN

Date


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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-16 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
LINE TRAINING COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT INSTRUCTIONS

The line training section of this training file is presented as in a sequential line flight,
commencing from flight planning through to post flight actions and concluding with a
GENERAL section, which includes items relevance to the DHC-8-400.

The training file is divided into two columns for recording standard progress:

a) Column D GROUND ASSESSED TO STANDARD
These are essential items which require correct interpretation and/or application.
Whilst these items may or may not eventuate during the course of line training, their
knowledge and application must be tested in a simulation/discussion on the ground or
in-flight.

When an area has been assessed as D GROUND ASSESSED TO STANDARD, the
LINE TRAINING RECORD must be ticked as D. Any item ticked as D must be also
ticked as F.

b) Column F TO FINAL CHECK STANDARD
For an area to be ticked off as F TO FINAL CHECK STANDARD, a
candidate must demonstrate an ability to manage and perform all duties
associated with the flight without supervision.

Final check must not be recommended unless each relevant item is at the final
check standard.

Every relevant item in the LINE TRAINING RECORD must be ticked as F, prior to the
final check.


Note: A tick may be used in any sections adjacent to a line item to record the number of
attempts made prior to monitor progress.
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-17
DHC-8-400 LINE TRAINING RECORD DIFFERENCES CURRENT &
QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW

COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
PRE-FLIGHT

G
R
O
U
N
D

A
S
S
E
S
S
E
D

T
O

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

T
O

F
I
N
A
L

C
H
E
C
K

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

D F
FLIGHT PLANNING
Flight log preparation and accuracy
Correct use of fuel spreadsheet
Fuel policy understood/Ops advised
Critical point & PNR - Discussion
Normal planning (graphs, etc)
Single engine allowances
Un-pressurised flight
Manual Trim Sheet

AIRCRAFT PREPARATION
Daily/Turn-around inspection competence
Installation/Removal overnight equipment
Undercarriage lock pins
Aircraft maintenance/trip record checked
Emergency Equipment

REFUELLING
Normal
Overwing: view -Discussion
Fuel tank dips and drains
Dips - engine oil

DEFUELLING -
Discussion



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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-18 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
DHC-8-400 LINE TRAINING RECORD DIFFERENCES CURRENT &
QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
PRE-FLIGHT (cont.)

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I
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A
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D
A
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D F
COCKPIT PREPARATION
Take-off power/weight charts and tables understood
TOLD card accurate and complete
FMS/NAV procedures correct
Airways clearance recording/readback
Departure briefing normal/emergency appropriate
Instrument read-out fluent and accurate
Drills and checklist fluent
Load sheet/special load documentation
Changes re-briefed
SOPs

TAKE-OFF DATA CALCULATION
Use of Take off tables
Allowances ice protection, wet runway etc. (Discussion)
Intersection departure, rolling start, etc

BEFORE START
Drills and checklist fluent
Communication with ground staff headset/pushback
Airmanship
SOPs

START
Limitations
Internal power
External power
A.P.U - For start support
- For air conditioning only
Engine parameters checked
SOPs
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-19
DHC-8-400 LINE TRAINING RECORD DIFFERENCES CURRENT &
QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
FLIGHT

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T
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I
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A
L

C
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A
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D F
TAXI
Awareness Aircraft size, and turning radius
Use of power/brakes
Taxi speed
Drills and checklist timing/fluency
SOPs
Narrow taxiway operation

TAKE-OFF
Pre-selection anti-icing/Wx radar
Power set accurately by 50 kts
Standard calls made
Engine instruments monitored
Tracking on the centreline
Crosswind technique correct
Rotation rate/pitch attitude
Attitude and speed accurate
Reconfiguration height and speed correct
Flight director use appropriate
Drills and checklist fluent
SOPs
Airport Runway
Runway special departure procedures for









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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-20 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
DHC-8-400 LINE TRAINING RECORD DIFFERENCES CURRENT &
QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
FLIGHT (cont)

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T
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F
I
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A
L

C
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K

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A
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D
A
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D F
DEPARTURE
Profile climb speeds
- Take-off climb
- Departure climb to LSALT/TRK
- Enroute climb
- SID/SRD/ATC clearances complied with
Use of AFCS Mode selection
Engine limits observed and climb power setting
NAV Aids/FMS use appropriately

CRUISE
Power set in accordance with company policy
Flight Log maintained
NAV Aids/FMS use appropriately

DESCENT
Descent Planning/Profile use of VNAV
TOLD Card accurate and complete
Aircraft Profile and rate of descent monitoring
Cabin Profile monitored
Airspeed and Power management

TERMINAL AND APPROACH PROCEDURES
Configuration, airspeed and power management
Appropriate - use of FMS
- selection of NAV sources
- display of information
- RNAV (GNSS) approach
- FMS VOR approach (if practicable)



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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-21
DHC-8-400 LINE TRAINING RECORD DIFFERENCES CURRENT &
QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
FLIGHT (cont)

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D
A
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T
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F
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A
L

C
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K

S
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A
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D
A
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D F
Holding (discussion)
- Speeds (including icing)
- Configuration
- Level
- Fuel Flow

APPROACH
Visual
- Airspeed
- Power Management
- Configuration
- Circuit size/altitude

Instrument
- Airspeed
- Power Management
- Configuration
- Circuit size/altitude
- Nav Aid source selection and display

LANDING
Flap 15
Flap 35
Reduced Np
Technique
Pitch awareness
Touch down point achieved

TAXI, PARKING and SHUTDOWN
Awareness Taxi speed, turning radius, parking clearance
After Landing Drills and Checklist
Shutdown Drills and Checklist
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-22 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
DHC-8-400 LINE TRAINING RECORD DIFFERENCES CURRENT &
QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
FLIGHT (cont)

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T
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A
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D F
GENERAL
Nuisance faults and resets
CDS Maintenance page access and reset procedures
MEL maintenance procedures for: 25-60-6
27-30-3
32-40-1
52-10-3
General use

INSTRUMENT APPROACHES CONDUCTED IN LINE TRAINING FLIGHT

DATE PLACE DATE PLACE DATE PLACE DATE PLACE
ILS - Raw Data
- Flight Director
- Coupled

VOR - Aligned
- Circling
- FMS

NDB - Aligned
- Circling

DME/GPS Arrival

RNAV(GNSS)-Aligned
- Aligned
- Circling
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-23
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW

FLIGHT

G
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D

A
S
S
E
S
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D

T
O

S
T
A
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D
A
R
D

T
O

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

D P
Taxi
Clearance complied with
Traffic awareness/marshalling signals
Use of power/brakes
Taxi speed
Nosewheel steering; with/without
Drills and checklist timing/fluency
SOPs
Take-Off
Wake turbulence considered
Pre-selection anti-icing/Wx radar
Power set accurately by 70 kts
Appropriate calls made: autofeather armed, power set
Engine instruments monitored
Technique (guarding levers and pedals)
Tracking on the centreline
Crosswind technique correct
V1 calls - Dry runway
- Wet runway
Rotation rate/pitch attitude
Attitude and speed accurate
Runway special departure procedures for: A/D R/W
Reconfiguration height and speed correct
Flight director use appropriate
Drills and checklist fluent
SOPs
Departure
SOPs observed
Profile climb speeds - Take-off climb
- Departure climb to LSALT/TRK
- Enroute climb to FL 150
- Enroute climb above FL150
SID/SRD/ATC clearances complied with
OCTA procedure VMC
OCTA procedure IMC
MSA/LSALT recognition

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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-24 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


FLIGHT (CONT)

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S
S
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S
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S
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A
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D
A
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D

T
O

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
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D
A
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D

D P
Use of AFCS SOPs
Departure track confirmation

Weather radar management
T.C.A.S. management
Traffic OCTA monitoring and separation
Engine limits observed and reduced power climbs
Nav aids/GPS used appropriately
Cold climate recognition/operation
Situational awareness
Sterile cockpit management
SOPs
Cruise
Power limits observed - Reduced power policy
Trend monitoring cards and procedure
Cabin management
Pressurisation/air conditioning management
PAX announcement
Flight log maintained
Nav aids/GPS/T.C.A.S. used appropriately
ATC clearance obtained/observed
Airspace/PRD areas managed
Radio procedure correct
Cold climate recognition/operation
TOLD card accurate and complete
Descent planning and briefing
Descent profile
Rough air descent
SOPs
Descent
Cold climate recognition/operation
Aircraft profile/rate of descent correct
Cabin profile/rate of descent monitoring
Traffic obtained/monitored
ATC clearances obtained/observed
MSA/MVA/LSALT recognition
Turbulence consideration/technique
Nav aids/GPS/T.C.A.S. correctly used

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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-25
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


FLIGHT (CONT)

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O
U
N
D

A
S
S
E
S
S
E
D

T
O

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

T
O

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

D P
Radio procedure correct
Cabin management
PAX announcement
Sterile cockpit procedures
SOPs
Arrival
Radar environment/STARS
Non-radar environment
OCTA procedures
Configuration/speed
Holding patterns: Nav aids/GPS
Situational awareness
Traffic management/T.C.A.S.
SOPs
Instrument Approach
IMC day
IMC night
Monitored approach
Runway aligned approach
Circling approach
Configuration
Speed control
Stability
Situational awareness
Tracking accuracy
Missed approach
SOPs
Visual Approach
Day with/without slope guidance
Night with/without slope guidance
Speed control and stability
Glideslope and final tracking accuracy
Circuit spacing/accuracy
Circuit timing
Straight in approach intercept and profile


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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-26 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


FLIGHT (CONT)
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D

T
O

P
R
O
G
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E
S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
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D
A
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D

D P
Landing
Day
Night
On centreline
X-wind
Wet runway
Flap 15
Flap 35
Touch down point
Use of propeller aerodynamic/wheel braking
Ground Handling/Parking
Safety and airmanship
Traffic awareness
After landing drills
Ground handling/marshalling signals
Single engine turn-around
Parking precision and safety considerations
Post Flight
Trip record and maintenance log accurate and complete
Aircraft unserviceablities recorded
Operations/Engineering debriefed on aircraft status
Next crew handover brief, where feasible
Aircraft turn around/overnight security

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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-27
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
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S
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S
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T
O

P
R
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S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
N
D
A
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D

D P
Electrical
Warning panel/Electrical panel indications
Recall drills
DC power system/circuit breakers
DC power system faults/failures/drills
AC power system/circuit breakers
AC power system faults/failures/drills
Power conservation
De-Icing/Anti-Icing
De-icing/Anti icing panel selection and indications
Airframe/Engines/Propellers system knowledge/operation
Icing awareness - dangers/use of auto pilot and flap
Airframe de-icing failures
Propeller and Engine anti-icing failures
Pitot/Static/Windshield heater failures
Hydraulics
Systems operation/selections
Warning panel/Hydraulic panel indications
Landing gear emergency extension drill
Nose wheel steering/failures/limitations
Flap failures/warning/limitations/drills
Main wheel brake malfunction/drills
Emergency brake operation/limitations/drills
Engine and propellers
Engine limitations
Propeller limitations
Engine malfunction recall drills
Propeller malfunction recall drills
Engine fire protection
Engine start malfunctions
Warning panel indications
Fuel
Fuel system
Normal fuel operation
Transfer fuel operation
Fuel pressure warning indications
Low fuel warning indications

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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-28 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (CONT)

G
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U
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A
S
S
E
S
S
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D

T
O

S
T
A
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D
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D

T
O

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

D P
Flight Controls
Elevator/Aileron/Rudder system
Flap operations
Flap malfunctions
Primary control malfunctions
Aircraft Fire Protection System
Fuselage smoke and fire indication/protection system
Cabin fire drill
Baggage locker smoke indications and drill
Cockpit electrical smoke/fire drill
Recall drills
Smoke dispersal
Pressurisation/Air Conditioning System
System operations usage and limitations
System failures and malfunctions
Normal auto control of pressurisation
Manual control of pressurisation
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-29
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


DISCUSSION ITEMS
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S
S
E
S
S
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T
O

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

T
O

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

D P
Flight Planning
NAIPS/Manual flight planning
Main base flight planning
Flight planning facilities at outer ports
Company fuel policy
Fuel burn rates normal/holding
Reserve allowances
PNR and CP
Alternate requirements due weather/runway lighting/nav aids/GPS
Airports without standby runway lighting
Aircraft Operations
Hot/Abort/Ventilation starts
Parking in strong wind
Wet runway operations
Take-off meteorological minima
Normal diversions
MELs application
Diversions due weather/runway closures
Maximum range
Wake turbulence considerations
Wind shear during take-off and landing recognition technique
Manual load and trim sheet completion
Single engine turn-around considerations and SOPs
GPWS alerts/actions in VMC and IMC
CFIT awareness
Intersection departures
Landing weight limited sectors
Flap 15/35 landings
Go-around procedure
Circling approach requirements day/night
Carriage of dangerous goods: Company regulations on type
Sterile cockpit policy and procedure
Over wing refuelling and tank dips
De-fuelling


U
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-30 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW


DISCUSSION ITEMS (CONT)



G
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S
S
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S
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T
O

S
T
A
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D
A
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D

T
O

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

D P
Oil dips requirements
Aircraft overnight security
Aircraft limitations
Aircraft Operations
Engine ground operation limits
Auto pilot operation and limitations
Flight manual supplements
TCAS operation
GPS knowledge and operation
Emergency Procedures
Emergency equipment
Emergency oxygen
Radio failure procedure
Emergency transponder codes
Controlled/uncontrolled cabin and cockpit fires
Engine fire during start
Engine fire on the ground
Controlled/Uncontrolled engine fire in flight
Emergency descent normal/asymmetric
Engine failure drill and configuration
Use of QRH
Drift down procedure
Asymmetric diversion (CAO 20.6)
Emergency off field landing/ditching
Rejected take-off
CAO 20.7.1B requirements
Asymmetric missed approach procedure
Asymmetric landing technique
Flapless landing
Cabin and cockpit fires
Standard emergency PA phraseologies (QRH, Sect 6)




U
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-31
DHC8-400 ADDITIONAL LINE TRAINING - INITIAL QUALIFIED DHC8 FLIGHT CREW



DISCUSSION ITEMS (CONT)

G
R
O
U
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D

A
S
S
E
S
S
E
D

T
O

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

T
O

P
R
O
G
R
E
S
S

A
S
S
E
S
S
M
E
N
T

S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D

D P
Management and Support Skills
Planning/Prioritising
Cockpit
CRM techniques
Communication/Listening skills
Crew co-ordination and communication
Pilot flying roles
Pilot Not Flying Roles
Approach monitoring/deviation calls
Fault identification, communication, acceptance & correction
Traffic
Airspace
Time
Cabin safety planning
Engines
Schedule disruptions
Diversions

Miscellaneous
Co-operation with ATC
Co-operation with crew/engineers/support staff
Knowledge/application of ATC procedures
Liaison with crew/engineers/support staff
PA professional/courteous/informative/brief
Knowledge of Policy manual
Application of SOPs
Problem solving










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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-32 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400
























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D
DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-33
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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D
DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-34 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-35
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-36 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-37
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-38 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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D
DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-39
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-40 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-41
LINE TRAINING REPORTS DHC-8-400

























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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-42 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
PROGRESS ASSESSMENT DASH 8

FO/Captain ................................................... recommended for progress assessment flight.
(Candidate)




Training Captain Signature Date


PROGRESS ASSESSMENT FLIGHT REPORT

























Check Captain Signature Date

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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-43
ASSESSMENT FLIGHT DHC-8-400

Captain/First Officer ........................................................... recommended for final
check flight.


Training Captain Signature Date

ASSESSMENT FLIGHT











Captain/First Officer ............................................................................. cleared to Command/First Officer
(delete as required) line operations DHC-8-400.



Simulator Instructor/Check
Captain Signature

Simulator Instructor/Check
Captain Name

ARN

Date


FOR OFFICE USE ONLY FOLLOWING COMPLETION OF TRAINING, FILE PERUSED BY:





Manager Training & Development date
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DHC8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
3-44 Conversion & Training Manual 01 July 09
3.3 APPENDIX 1 - COMMAND FORM SCHEMATIC
For command upgrade or initial endorsement












UNSUCCESSFUL



SUCCESSFUL































COMPLETE FT11 FORM
LICENCING ADVICE FORM
ALL COMPLETED DOCUMENTATION
FORWARDED TO THE TRAINING MANAGER FOR
ON PILOT TRAINING FILE
COMPLETE LOG BOOK ENDORSEMENT
FORM
COMPLETE CASA FORM 214
CERTIFY ENDORSEMENT LABEL
COMPLETE FT9 FORM
FLIGHT TRAINING CHECK REPORT
COMPLETE FT1 FORM
FLIGHT TRAINING ADMINISTRATION FORM

Blue copy to QF Administration
Other copies to Training Manager

Review of candidates
performance by
standards review group
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-45
3.4 APPENDIX 2 - PROFICIENCY CHECK FROM
SCHEMATIC (CYCLIC)






















































COMPLETE FT1 FORM
FLIGHT TRAINING ADMINISTRATION
FORM
1. Blue copy to QF Administration
2. Pink and white copies to Training
Manager




All company documentation
forwarded to the Training
Manager for processing
COMPLETE FT 9
FLIGHT TRAINING CHECK
FORM
Must be signed by candidate
Immediately advise Training
Manager or/and Crewing to
remove pilot from line operations
for a minimum of 3 days
ON COMPLETION OF CHECK SESSION
UNSUCCESSFUL
SUCCESSFUL
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3.5 APPENDIX 3 - ROUTE CHECK FORM SCHEMATIC































COMPLETE FT1 FOR M
FLIGHT TRAINING AD MINISTRATI ON
FORM

All copies to Tr aining Coordinat or
COMPLETE FT9 FOR M
FLI GHT TR AININ G C HECK REPORT
FORM

Must be si gned by Pil ot
A ll compl eted doc ument ation t o
t he Manager Training &
Development
N.B. Che ck me dical a t
commence ment of
sess ion
I mmediately advise Tr aining
Coordi nator and /or Crewing t o remove
Pil ot from li ne oper ations

UNS UCCE SSFUL
SUCCESSFUL
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01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 3-47
3.6 APPENDIX 4 - UNSATISFACTORY PROGRAMS
FORM SCHEMATIC



ON COMPLETION OF CHECK FLIGHT
UNSATISFACTORY

COMPLETE FT9 FORM
FLIGHT CHECK REPORT


Candidate must sign the FT9 form
COMPLETE FT1 FORM
FLIGHT TRAINING ADMINISTRATION FORM

1. Write No in the Exercise Completed column
2. Under remarks (right hand side) describe recommended
remedial training


Forward all documentation to the
Manager Training & Development for
review of performance.
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DH8 Q400 Conversion & Training Manual Section 2
01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 4-1
4. OPERATIONAL REFERENCE MATERIAL
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4.1 SIMULATOR/AIRCRAFT DIFFERENCES
Q400 Simulator Differences

QantasLink Aircraft Spec Simulator (Sydney) Simulator (Seattle)
Under Floor document
storage fitted
No Document Storage No Document Storage
King HF Radio installed No HF Radio installed No HF Radio installed
Cabin Prepared light installed Cabin Prepared light installed No Cabin Prepared light
installed
Mod Not installed Mod not installed. MTOP for take-off with uptrim
disabled mod installed.
Mod not installed. Mod not installed. Flight Dynamics Heads-Up
Guidance System (HGS)
installed (Seattle only).
FMS 802.2 installed. (2) FMS 802.2 installed. (2) FMS SCN 801.x installed.
Notes:
1. Reduced Np landing is addressed during line training.
2. The noteworthy differences embodied in 802.2 are:
a. Map display of missed approach legs can be suppressed.
b. Map display of altitude constraints on End of Approach and missed approach
legs is suppressed.
c. When a waypoint with an altitude constraint occurs more than once in the
flight plan, the map will display the altitude only once.
d. Floating waypoints followed by a *NO LINK* will no longer remove the flight
plan from the map display.
e. Options to calculate ETP and PNR are added to the Performance Menu.
f. VNAV is modified to remain engaged when VTO is executed with the aircraft
up to 200 ft below the waypoint altitude constraint.


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01 July 09 Conversion & Training Manual 4-3
4.2 CYCLIC PREPARATION GUIDE
The following information is provided to assist flight crews in preparing for cyclic proficiency
checks.
The Training and Check department provides all crew with a Cyclic Overview Sheet at least
one month prior to the conduct of first current cyclic check. The sheet is normally distributed
in FOIS but may be supplied directly to pilots pigeon holes. This sheet should be used as a
tool to identify required information and procedures for the check, and may be read in
conjunction with the exercise overview published on the QantasLink intranet site. This
information may be segmented into a number of areas not limited to the following.
Line Flight Routes: A review of planned routes, specifically standard flight plans; reviewing
tracks, distances, cruise altitudes and LSALT. A review of Jeppesen En-route and Terminal
Charts for the route noting the airspace structure and available ATC and navigational
facilities. A review of the exercise overview sheet provided on the intranet will enable a
summary appreciation of the weather and the likelihood of icing or any significant factors that
will affect the flight, including NOTAMs.
Instrument Flight/Manipulative Skills: Instrument Scan can deteriorate if not commonly
practiced. In todays environment of automation it is possible to spend significant periods
without actually hand flying and/or pilot navigating. This may result in a deterioration of these
skills. Flight Crew must be aware of this effect and ensure that their own personal
proficiency is maintained by periodically practicing these core skills while in flight.
Power settings: Review all required power settings and attitudes for all flight phases.
Particular attention should be paid to the power settings for asymmetric configurations.
Approaches: A review of the nominated approaches and any likely alternate approaches
that may be required. The review should pay particular attention to the descent profile,
timing/distance of legs, descent limitations, MAPT, missed approach procedure, SOPs, and
whether ice protection is likely to be required for the approach (and landing?) based on the
conditions provided in the exercise overview.
Seldom practiced procedures: It is important to recognise that a number of the procedures
conducted during the cyclic check, are not regularly conducted in normal line operations.
Examples may include NDB approaches (manual flight or autopilot on), DME arc, TCAS,
windshear and terrain avoidance procedure, low visibility operations, missed approach, and
steep. These procedures may be required as part of the Line Flight or specifically detailed in
the base exercises. The FCOM, FAM and Training Manual contain specific guidance material
on these procedures. A thorough review of the necessary areas prior to the cyclic check will
be necessary.
Abnormal ops: The potential abnormalities are provided in the briefing sheet. A review of
crew co-ordination, recalls, QRH checklists, management plans (ARCC), PAN/Mayday call
structure, the correct use of the Emergency call button, Cabin Crew (TESTO) brief, and Pax
brief.
Discussion items: Discussion items are detailed in the overview sheet with specific details
published on the intranet. One method of preparation is to create a self quiz on the topic(s)
concerned. The Pilot Engineering Manual contains detailed information on Controls and
Indicators, Limitations and System Operations. The FCOM also contains Limitations data
and information on procedures such as Low Vis Take Offs. All of the appropriate areas
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should be reviewed ensuring you understand the function/effect of controls and indicators
together with the ability to demonstrate a functional understanding of each system.