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MOLLIER Diagrams

P-h CHART
PRESSURE ENTHALPY CHART
WHY IN REFRIGERATION?
• To determine accurately what is going
on inside a refrigeration system
• Visualize the refrigerant behavior
• Calculating capacities of refrigeration
system
• Representing the condition of
equipment at any thermodynamic state.
• TROUBLESHOOTING…
Classic Refrigeration system
Refrigerant regions
Constant pressure line
Constant temperature line
Enthalpy line
Constant specific volume line
Entropy line
How to plot a P-h chart?
Data From the Unit
• Low pressure P1=3 bar
• High pressure P2=14 bar
• Suction temperature T1=0°C
• Discharge temperature T2=70 °C
• Condensing temperature T3=40 °C
• Temperature at TXV T4=10 °C
• Evaporating temperature T5=-6 °C
P1
P2
T1
T2
T3
T4
T4
Enthalpy
Superheat
Sub cooled
High head

• Recycle cooling
medium
• High cooling
medium
• Poor cooling
medium flow
• Fouled condenser
• Non-condensable
Over charge
Low charge
• System leak
• System incorrectly
charged
Liquid line restriction
• Filter dryer chocked
• Blocked particle
inside the system
Poor Compressor
• Under sized
compressor
• Unloaded compressor
• Wrong compressor
pulley sizes
• Bad compressor
valves, ring or pistons
MOLLIER Calculation
• Compression ratio=High pressure/Low pressure
• Flash gas=(h4-h4’)/(h1-h4’)
• Refrigerating effect=h1-h4
• Circulation rate of refrigerant=Refrigerating
capacity/refrigerating effect
• Power at compressor=circulation rate x (h2-h1)
• COP=Refrigerating capacity/power at compressor
MOTOR
SINGLE PHASE
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
testing
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
testing
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
testing
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
testing
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
testing
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor
• Run (operating) - large dimension, low
capacitance ± 30µ F
• Starting - small dimension, large
capacitance (can
exceed 100 µ F)
- 5 seconds, 20 start-
ups/hour
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor

• 240V, 2A
• Xc =240/2, = 120Ω
• C =1/(2*π *Hz*Xc) = 1/(6.28*50*120)
= 0.00002652 F
= 26.52 µ F
SINGLE PHASE MOTOR-
capacitor
• Normally 14 times of Amperage
• 2*14 = 28 µ F, if ± 10% 30.8 µ F or 25.2
µ F
• If out of range; change capacitor
THREE PHASE MOTOR- general
point
THREE PHASE MOTOR- general
point
• P =√3*V*I*ϕ
=1.732*220*1.7*0.8 = 520W

=1.732*380*1*0.8 = 520W
THREE PHASE MOTOR- general
point
THREE PHASE MOTOR- general
point
• 145W loss as heat
• 375W/520W= 0.72

• 72% useful
• 28% loss
THREE PHASE MOTOR- general
point
THREE PHASE MOTOR- general
point
THREE PHASE MOTOR- delta

THREE PHASE MOTOR- delta

THREE PHASE MOTOR- star
Y
THREE PHASE MOTOR- star
Y
THREE PHASE MOTOR- ?
THREE PHASE MOTOR-
connections
Protection
Protection Devices
Devices

FUSE FOR FUSE FOR


DISTRIBUTION MOTORS

THERMAL
OVERLOAD RELAYS
Thermal
Thermal Relay
Relay

Combination of a thermal overload


relay with a contactor
Electromagnetic
ElectromagneticOvercurrent
Overcurrent
Relay
Relay
Contactor
Contactor -- Breaker
Breaker
Isolator
Isolator -- Breaker
Breaker
COMBINATIONS
COMBINATIONS OF
OFPROTECTION
PROTECTION
DEVICES
DEVICES
COMBINATIONS
COMBINATIONS OF
OFPROTECTION
PROTECTION
DEVICES
DEVICES
COMBINATIONS
COMBINATIONS OF
OFPROTECTION
PROTECTION
DEVICES
DEVICES
SWITCHES
SWITCHES
• Manual switch-on pushbutton S1

• Manual switch-off pushbutton S2

• Manual on-off pushbutton S3


SWITCHES
SWITCHES
• Emergency stop pushbutton
• Color: Red – large mushroom head
pushbutton
Limit
Limit switches
switches
• Normally open contact
• Operated by mechanical sensor (cam roller) S1 S1
1 1

• Normally open contact


• Operated by level
S1
1
• Normally open contact
• Operated by temperature
S1 θ
• Normally closed contact 1

• Operated by pressure

• S1 P
1
Other
Other switches
switches

• Normally open contact


• Operated by electromagnetic
• Operating equipment designation: KM (contactor); KA
(relay)

A1
11

KM1
KM1

14
A2
ELECTRICAL
ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS
DIAGRAMS &
&
WIRING
WIRING
DIRECT
DIRECT ON
ON LINE
LINE (D.O.L.)
(D.O.L.)

• -The stator connected directly to the main


supply
• -The motor starts with a high peak
• -Current peak 4 to 8 times of rated current
• -1 to 5 hp
D.O.L.
D.O.L.
• Main circuit
D.O.L.
D.O.L.
• Control circuit
D.O.L…
D.O.L… forward
forward reverse
reverse
X1
• Main circuit wiring diagram L1
1

2
L2
3
L3

F1

A1 A1
KM 1 KM 2
A2 A2

F2

U1 V1 W 1
X2

M
D.O.L…
D.O.L… forward
forward reverse
reverse

• Control circuit wiring diagram


F1
L1
S1

S2 KM1 S3 KM2
1 1 1

KM2 KM1

KM1 KM2
N
D.O.L..
D.O.L..block
block diagram
diagram
STAR
STAR DELTA
DELTA (YΔ)
(YΔ)
• -Motor having both ends of the three
stator brought out-6 terminal
• -First step with Star- (main voltage/√3)
• -Second step with delta-normal voltage
STAR
STAR DELTA
DELTA (YΔ)..power
(YΔ)..power
circuit
circuit
STAR
STAR DELTA (YΔ).. Reverse
DELTA (YΔ).. Reverse
rotation
rotation
STAR DELTA (YΔ)..control
circuit
STAR
STAR DELTA (YΔ)..TNB control
DELTA (YΔ)..TNB control circuit
circuit
STAR DELTA (YΔ)..TNB power
circuit
AUTO
AUTO TRANSFORMER..control
TRANSFORMER..control
circuit
circuit
AUTO TRANSFORMER..Power circuit
AUTO TRANSFORMER..Power circuit
SPECIFICATION
POWER SUPPLY
POWER SUPPLY
Connection - fan
Connection - condensing
Connection - condensing
Connection - condensing
That had been…

AC Technology
ZULKARNAINI ABDULLAH
zulkarnaini@mfi.unikl.edu.my
zulkarnaini_a@hotmail.com
012 913 8059