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Misrak TVET College

Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development


MISRAK TVET COLLEGE
under
Ethiopian TVET-System
INFOM!TION TEC"NOLO#$
%&''OT %EVICE
Level I
LEARNING GUIDE # 1
&nit o( Competence) Connect "ard*are 'eripherals
Module Title ) Connecting "ard*are 'eripherals
L# Code ) ICT IT%+ L,+ ,+
TTLM Code ) ICT IT%+ TTLM ,-++
LO +) Con(irm e.uirements o( Clients
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 1 o( 20
+
st
evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
INTRODUCTION Learning Guide # 1
This learning guide is developed to provide 4ou the necessar4 in(ormation regarding the (ollo*ing content
coverage and topics 3
Introduction to Computer and Connecting 'eripherals
Identi(4 Client e.uirements
This guide *ill also assist 4ou to attain the learning outcome stated in the cover page5
%peci(icall4, upon completion o( this Learning #uide, 4ou *ill 6e a6le to 3
Identi(4 and con(irm client peripherals re.uirements in accordance *ith organi7ational standards
Document client re.uirements and peripherals needed in line *ith organi7ational standards and
report (indings to the appropriate person
Veri(4 client re.uirements *ith appropriate person in line *ith organi7ational standards and
reporting procedures
Take action to ensure client support e8pectations are covered 64 vendor *arrant4 and support
services
Learning Activities
+5 ead the speci(ic o69ectives o( this Learning #uide5
05 ead the in(ormation *ritten in the :In(ormation %heets +; in pages 2/+-5
25 !ccomplish the :%el(/check; in page +<5
15 I( 4ou earned a satis(actor4 evaluation proceed to :In(ormation %heet 0;5 "o*ever, i( 4our rating is
unsatis(actor4, see 4our teacher (or (urther instructions or go 6ack to Learning !ctivit4 = +5
-5 %u6mit 4our accomplished %el(/check5 This *ill (orm part o( 4our training port(olio5
<5 ead the in(ormation *ritten in the :In(ormation %heet 0; in pages +>/0?5
>5 !ccomplish the :%el(/check; in page 0@5
?5 I( 4ou earned a satis(actor4 evaluation proceed to :Operation %heet; in pages 2,/205 "o*ever, i( 4our
rating is unsatis(actor4, see 4our teacher (or (urther instructions or go 6ack to Learning !ctivit4 = 05
@5 ead the :Operation %heet; and tr4 to understand the procedures discussed5
+,5 Do the :L!' test; in page 12 Ai( 4ou are read4B and sho* 4our output to 4our teacher5 $our teacher *ill
evaluate 4our output either satis(actor4 or unsatis(actor45 I( unsatis(actor4, 4our teacher shall advice
4ou on additional *ork5 Cut i( satis(actor4 4ou can proceed to Learning #uide 05
$our teacher *ill evaluate 4our output either satis(actor4 or unsatis(actor45 I( unsatis(actor4, 4our
teacher shall advice 4ou on additional *ork5 Cut i( satis(actor4 4ou can proceed to the ne8t topic5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age o( 20
+
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
In!"r#ati"n S$eet 1
Intr"ducti"n t" C"#%uter and C"nnecting
&eri%$era's
De!initi"ns "! c"#%uter %eri%$era's
E8ternal or tangi6le devices *hich are attached to the e8ternal part o( the computer
!n4 device connected internall4 or e8ternall4 to a computer and used in the trans(er o(
data5 ! personal computer or *orkstation processes in(ormation and, strictl4 speaking,
that is all the computer does5 Data Aunprocessed in(ormationB must get into the computer,
and the processed in(ormation must get out5 Entering and displa4ing in(ormation is carried
out on a *ide variet4 o( accessor4 devices called peripherals, also kno*n as inputDoutput
AIDOB devices
!n4 input, output or storage device connected e8ternall4 or internall4 to the computerEs
C'&, such as a monitor, ke46oard, printer, disk, tape, graphics ta6let, scanner, 9o4 stick,
paddle or mouse5
Device driver
It is a small program that tells the computer ho* to communicate *ith inputDoutput
AperipheralB devices5 Ever4 peripheral device needs device driver to communicate *ith the
computer s4stem5
C"#%uter %eri%$era's (ere gr"u%ed int" severa' categ"ries) The Input Devices,
The Output Devices, the 'rocessors, The %torage Devices5

T$e In%ut device / is a device thatFs 6een used as a means o( input5 It is an4
peripheral Apiece o( computer hard*are e.uipmentB used to provide data and control
signals to an in(ormation processing s4stem such as a computer or other in(ormation
appliance5 The common input devices are ke46oard, mouse, scanner5
Ke*+"ard , The computer ke4 6oard is used to input, or enter, letters, num6ers,
s4m6ols, punctuations and commands into the computer5 The standard ke46oard
la4out is sometimes called GHET$ la4out and it is the most common la4out5
-"( .e*+"ard ("r.s , The ke4s are arranged in ro*s and
columns5 Hhen a ke4 is pressed, a uni.ue ro*/and/column signal
is generated and sent to the ke46oard inter(ace IC on the
ke46oard5 The ke46oard inter(ace then converts the ro*/and/
column signal into single 64te code called a Ie4 code or scan
code5 Hhen the ke4 is released, a second signal is sent to the
ke46oard inter(ace IC, *hich generates a 6reak code5 The ke46oard inter(ace IC then sends the
scan codes 64 means o( serial connection through the ke46oard inter(ace to the computer5 The
ke46oard controller, located on the mother6oard, converts the signals to parallel data and
generates an interrupt so that the input can 6e serviced 64 the microprocessor5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age / o( 20
+
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
M"use 3 or a %"inting device is an4 human inter(ace device that allo*s a user to
input spatial data to a computer5 In the case o( mice and touch screens, this is usuall4
achieved 64 detecting movement across a ph4sical sur(ace5 !nalog devices, such as 2D
mice, 9o4sticks, or pointing sticks, (unction 64 reporting their angle o( de(lection5
Movements o( the pointing device are echoed on the screen 64 movements o(
the cursor, creating a simple, intuitive *a4 to navigate a computerEs #&I5
T*%es "! #"use
O%t #ec$anica' #"use / The "%tica',#ec$anica' "r O%t",#ec$anica' #"use
consists o( a 6all that rolls one o( t*o *heels inside the mouse5 This *heel contains a
circle o( holes or notches that allo* a LED light to 6e shined through and detected 64 a
sensor, as each *heel spins the4 represent the J or $ a8is (or the mouse pointer5 This
mouse is much more accurate than the traditional mechanical mouse that used onl4
*heels and rollers, ho*ever is not as good as an optical mouse5
O%tica' #"use , Computer mouse that utili7es light/emitting diodes ALEDB or laser
as a method o( tracking movement5 These mice are more pro(icient than other computer
mice5 These mice are easil4 identi(ied 64 e8amining the 6ottom o( the mouse5 I( the
mouse has no 6all or has a light emitting (rom the 6ottom itEs most likel4 an optical
mouse5 This mouse is much more accurate than the ordinar4 optical mechanical mouse
that relies on the traction 6et*een the mouse 6all and the rollers5 One dra*6ack to an
optical mouse is the4 can have pro6lems in 6right lights5
Ne* Optical Mice no longer have the disadvantages o( earlier mice and are capa6le
o( 6eing utili7ed on an4 sur(ace5 In comparison to the traditional Optical/Mechanical
mouse, the Optical is a much 6etter solution (or a computer mouse5
Scanner is a device that can scan or digiti7e images on paper and convert them to
data that the computer can use5 The4 can then 6e stored in a (ile, displa4ed on the
screen, added to documents, or manipulated5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 0 o( 20
+
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
Ot$er in%ut devices
C"#%"site devices
1ii Re#"te (it$ attac$ed stra%
Input devices, such as 6uttons and 9o4sticks, can 6e com6ined on a single ph4sical device that
could 6e thought o( as a composite device5 Man4 gaming devices have controllers like this5
Technicall4 mice are composite devices, as the4 6oth track movement and provide 6uttons (or
clicking, 6ut composite devices are generall4 considered to have more than t*o di((erent (orms
o( input5
#ame controller
#amepad Aor 9o4padB
'addle Agame controllerB
Hii emote
I#aging and Vide" in%ut devices
Video input devices are used to digiti7e images or video (rom the outside *orld into the
computer5 The in(ormation can 6e stored in a multitude o( (ormats depending on the userEs
re.uirement5
digital camera
He6cam
Image scanner
Fingerprint scanner
Carcode reader
2D scanner
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 2 o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
Laser range(inder
Medica' I#aging
Computed tomograph4
Magnetic resonance imaging
'ositron emission tomograph4
Medical ultrasonograph4
Audi" in%ut devices
In the (ashion o( video devices, audio devices are used to either capture or create sound5 In
some cases, an audio output device can 6e used as an input device, in order to capture
produced sound5
Microphone
MIDI ke46oard or other digital musical instrument
Out%ut Device
!n "ut%ut device is an4 piece o( computer hard*are e.uipment used to communicate
the results o( data processing carried out 64 an in(ormation processing s4stem Asuch as
a computerB to the outside *orld5
In computing, inputDoutput, or IDO, re(ers to the communication 6et*een an in(ormation
processing s4stem Asuch as a computerB, and the outside *orld5 Inputs are the signals or data
sent to the s4stem, and outputs are the signals or data sent 64 the s4stem to the outside5
E3a#%'es "! "ut%ut devices)
S%ea.ers
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 4 o( 20
+
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
Computer speakers range *idel4 in .ualit4 and in price5 The computer speakers t4picall4
packaged *ith computer s4stems are small, plastic, and have
mediocre sound .ualit45 %ome computer speakers have
e.uali7ation (eatures such as 6ass and tre6le controls5
-ead%$"nes
-ead%$"nes are a pair o( small loudspeakers, or less
commonl4 a single speaker, held close to a userEs ears and
connected to a signal source such as an audio
ampli(ier, radio, CD pla4er or porta6le media pla4er5 The4 are
also kno*n as stere" %$"nes, $eadsets or, collo.uiall4 cans5
The in/ear versions are kno*n as ear %$"nes or ear +uds5 In
the conte8t o( telecommunication, the term headset is used to
descri6e a com6ination o( headphone and microphone used (or t*o/*a4 communication, (or
e8ample *ith a telephone5
Screen 5M"nit"r6
! #"nit"r or dis%'a* Asometimes called
a visua' dis%'a* unitB is an electronic visual
displa4 (or computers5 The monitor comprises the
displa4 device, circuitr4, and an enclosure5 The
displa4 device in modern monitors is t4picall4 a thin
(ilm transistor li.uid cr4stal displa4 ATFT/LCDB thin
panel, *hile older monitors use a cathode ra4 tu6e
a6out as deep as the screen si7e5
The (irst computer monitors used Cathode
ra4 tu6es ACTsB, *hich *as the dominant technolog4
until the4 *ere replaced 64 LCD monitors in the 0+st Centur45
Originall4 computer monitors *ere used (or data processing *hile television
receivers *ere used (or entertainment5 From the ?,s on*ards, computers have 6een used
(or 6oth data processing and entertainment, *hile televisions have implemented some
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 7 o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
computer (unctionalit45 The common aspect ratio o( televisions, and then computer
monitors, has also changed (rom 1)2 to +<)@5
&rinter
In computing, a printer is a peripheral *hich produces a te8t andDor graphics o( documents
stored in electronic (orm, usuall4 on ph4sical print media such as paper or transparencies5
Man4 printers are primaril4 used as local peripherals, and are attached 64 a printer ca6le or,
in most ne*er printers, a &%C ca6le to a computer *hich serves as a document source5 %ome
printers, commonl4 kno*n as network printers, have 6uilt/in net*ork inter(aces,
t4picall4 *ireless andDor Ethernet 6ased, and can serve as a hard cop4 device (or an4 user on
the net*ork5 Individual printers are o(ten designed to support 6oth local and net*ork
connected users at the same time5 In addition, a (e* modern printers can directl4 inter(ace
to electronic media such as memor4 cards, or to image capture devices such as digital
cameras, scannersK some printers are com6ined *ith a scanners andDor (a8 machines in a
single unit, and can (unction as photocopiers5 'rinters that include non/printing (eatures are
sometimes called multi(unction printers AMF'B, multi/(unction devices AMFDB, or all/in/one
A!IOB printers5 Most MF's include printing, scanning, and cop4ing among their man4
(eatures5
T$e &r"cess"r
The &r"cess"r "r t$e centra' %r"cessing unit AC&UB is the portion o(
a computer s4stem that carries out the instructions o( a computer program, to per(orm the 6asic
arithmetical, logical, and inputDoutput operations o( the s4stem5 The C'& pla4s a role some*hat
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 8 o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
analogous to the 6rain in the computer5 The term has 6een in use in the computer industr4 at
least since the earl4 +@<,s5 The (orm, design and implementation o( C'&s have changed
dramaticall4 since the earliest e8amples, 6ut their (undamental operation remains much the
same5
On large machines, C'&s re.uire one or more printed circuit 6oards5 On personal
computers and small *orkstations, the C'& is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor5
%ince the +@>,s the microprocessor class o( C'&s has almost completel4 overtaken all other C'&
implementations5 Modern C'&s are large scale integrated circuits in small, rectangular packages,
*ith multiple connecting pins5
T*o t4pical components o( a C'& are the arithmetic logic unit A!L&B, *hich per(orms
arithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit AC&B, *hich e8tracts instructions (rom
memor4 and decodes and e8ecutes them, calling on the !L& *hen necessar45
E8ample o( 'rocessors are) 'entium 1, Core Duo, Dual Core, Core i2, Core i-, Corei>
T$e St"rage devices
C"#%uter data st"rage, o(ten called st"rage or #e#"r*, re(ers to computer
components and recording media that retain digital data5 Data storage is one o( the core
(unctions and (undamental components o( computers5
There are 2 t4pes o( storage devices)
+5 &ri#ar* St"rage 3 is also kno*n as the #ain #e#"r* or a temporar4 storage
device5 It is (ast in nature 6ut can accommodate onl4 (e* data5 Data that has
6een stored in memor4 (lushes o(( *hen 4ou restart 4our computer, thus called
temporar4 storage device5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 9 o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
It is the onl4 one directl4 accessi6le to the C'&5 The C'& continuousl4 reads
instructions stored there and e8ecutes them as re.uired5 !n4 data activel4 operated
on is also stored there in uni(orm manner5
05 Sec"ndar* St"rage 3 Sec"ndar* st"rage Aalso kno*n as e8ternal memor4 or
au8iliar4 storageB, di((ers (rom primar4 storage in that it is not directl4 accessi6le
64 the C'&5 The computer usuall4 uses its inputDoutput channels to access
secondar4 storage and trans(ers the desired data using intermediate area in
primar4 storage5 %econdar4 storage does not lose the data *hen the device is
po*ered do*nLit is non/volatile5 Examples of a secondary storage device are
Internal Hard drive, external Hard Drive, Flash Disk, CD/DVD, Floppy disk, emory
card!
25 Tertiar* St"rage / Tertiar* st"rage or tertiar* #e#"r*,

provides a third level
o( storage5 T4picall4 it involves a ro6otic mechanism *hich *ill mount AinsertB
and dismount remova6le mass storage media into a storage device according to the
s4stemEs demandsK this data is o(ten copied to secondar4 storage 6e(ore use5 It is
primaril4 used (or archiving rarel4 accessed in(ormation since it is much slo*er than
secondar4 storage Ae5g5 -3<, seconds vs5 +3+, millisecondsB5 This is primaril4
use(ul (or e8traordinaril4 large data stores, accessed *ithout human operators5
T4pical e8amples include tape li6raries and optical 9uke6o8es5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 1: o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
Hhen a computer needs to read in(ormation (rom the
tertiar4 storage, it *ill (irst consult a catalog data6ase to
determine *hich tape or disc contains the in(ormation5
Ne8t, the computer *ill instruct a ro6otic arm to (etch the
medium and place it in a drive5 Hhen the computer has
(inished reading the in(ormation, the ro6otic arm *ill
return the medium to its place in the li6rar45
C"nnectivit* devices
The ma9orit4 o( e8ternal peripheral devices connect to the 6ack o( the computerFs s4stem
unit *ith ca6les5 The computerFs s4stem unit has a variet4 o( %"rts availa6le (or use 64 di((erent
peripheral device ca6les5 ! port is a socket that is used to connect the ca6les (rom peripheral
devices to the computer5
Computer connectivit4 devices *ere grouped into several categories)
&"rts
'orts at the 6ack o( a computer 'o*er suppl4
There e8ist several t4pes o( ports like serial port, parallel port, &%C port, !#' port, po*er
suppl4 port5
!s the name suggests, the seria' %"rt trans(ers data seriall4 a 6it at a time5 !s a result,
the serial port needs onl4 *ire to transmit ? 6its5 The disadvantage is that it takes ? times
longer to transmit a 64te5 !lso, it is necessar4 to send a start 6it 6e(ore each 64te o( data, a
stop 6it a(ter the 64te to mark the end o( 64te and a parit4 6it to help check the integrit4 o(
data5 %erial ports come in the (orm o( @/pin or 0-/pin male connector5 %erial ports are o(ten
kno*n as communication ports or %020C ports5 The4 are t4picall4 used to connect devices like
"'d #"use and modem5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 11 o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
&ara''e' %"rts can send or receive a 64te A?/6itB at a time5 &nlike the serial port, these
?/6its are transmitted parallel to each other5 'arallel ports come in the (orm o( 0-/pin (emale
connector5 'arallel ports are popularl4 used to connect printer, scanner, CD *riter, 7ip drive,
e8ternal hard disk drive, tape 6ackup drive, etc5
To spare the user 6otheration o( ?/pin, 0-/pin, male, (emale connectors, the US; has
6een designed5 It gives 4ou a single, standardi7ed, eas4/to/use *a4 to connect up to +0>
devices to a computer5 These devices include printers, scanners, mice, 9o4stick, digital camera,
*e6 cameras, speakers, telephones, 7ip drives, net*ork connections, scienti(ic data ac.uisition
devices, etc5
The AG& 5Acce'erated Gra%$ics &"rt6 %"rt is used to connect to graphic card that
provides high/speed video per(ormance t4picall4 re.uired in games and other multimedia
applications5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 1 o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
!lternativel4 re(erred to as an Et$ernet %"rt, the LAN %"rt is a port connection that
allo*s a computer to connect to a net*ork using a *ired connection5 In the picture to the right,
is a close up e8ample o( *hat a L!N port looks like (or a net*ork ca6le using an M/1-
connector5 In the case o( this e8ample, the t*o led lights *ill 6link *hen that port is active and
receiving activit45
The &S< c"nnect"r is a </pin Mini/DIN connector used (or connecting some ke46oards
and mice to a 'C compati6le computer s4stem5 Its name comes (rom the ICM 'ersonal
%4stemD0 series o( personal computers, *ith *hich it *as introduced in +@?>5 The '%D0 mouse
connector generall4 replaced the older DE/@ %/020 Nserial mouseN connector, *hile the '%D0
ke46oard connector replaced the larger -/pinD+?,O DIN connector used in the ICM 'CD!T design5
The '%D0 designs on ke46oard and mouse inter(aces are electricall4 similar and emplo4 the same
communication protocol5 "o*ever, a given s4stemEs ke46oard and mouse port ma4 not 6e
interchangea6le since the t*o devices use a di((erent set o( commands5 Toda4 this connector has
all 6ut 6een replaced 64 &%C
! %"(er su%%'* is a device that supplies electrical energ4 to one or more electric loads5
The term is most commonl4 applied to devices that convert one (orm o( electrical energ4 to
another, though it ma4 also re(er to devices that convert another (orm o( energ4 Ae5g5,
mechanical, chemical, solarB to electrical energ45 ! regulated po*er suppl4 is one that controls
the output voltage or current to a speci(ic valueK the controlled value is held nearl4 constant
despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied 64 the po*er suppl4Es energ4
source5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 1/ o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
Ever4 po*er suppl4 must o6tain the energ4 it supplies to its load, as *ell as an4 energ4 it
consumes *hile per(orming that task, (rom an energ4 source5

! Vide" Gra%$ics Arra* 5VGA6 c"nnect"r is a three/ro* +-/pin DE/+- connector5 The
+-/pin V#! connector is (ound on man4 video cards, computer monitors, and some high
de(inition televisionsets5 On laptop computers or other small devices, a mini/V#! port is
sometimes used in place o( the (ull/si7ed V#! connector5
Ter#ina's
! c"#%uter ter#ina' is an electronic or electromechanical hard*are device that is used
(or entering data into, and displa4ing data (rom, a computer or a computing s4stem5
The (unction o( a terminal is con(ined to displa4 and input o( dataK a device *ith
signi(icant local programma6le data processing capa6ilit4 ma4 6e called a Nsmart terminalN or (at
client5 ! terminal that depends on the host computer (or its processing po*er is called a dum6
terminal or thin client5 ! personal computer can run so(t*are that emulates the (unction o( a
terminal, sometimes allo*ing concurrent use o( local programs and access to a distant terminal
host s4stem5
T*%es "! te3t ter#ina's
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Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
The S*ste# c"ns"'e is a te8t terminal used to operate a computer5 Modern computers
have a 6uilt/in ke46oard and displa4 (or the console5 %ome &ni8/like operating s4stems such
as Linu8, FreeC%D and Mac O% J have virtual consoles to provide several te8t terminals on a
single computer5
! ter#ina' e#u'at"r is a computer program in a graphical *indo*ing s4stem that lets
the user operate a te8t terminal in a *indo*5 This lets applications (or te8t terminals run under a
modern graphical user inter(ace5 'opular terminal emulators include xterm and rxvt5
C"nnect"rs
CAT2 NET1ORK CA;LE / This ca6le allo*s the computer to
communicate to other computers over a net*ork5 It also
provides net*orked computers access to the Internet
MONITOR CA;LE / This ca6le is usuall4 permanentl4
connected to a monitor5 %mall scre*s hold the ca6le in place

Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 12 o( 20
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Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
US; CA;LE / Most 'CEs no* have these (ast and versatile
ports on the (ront and 6ack5 The4 can 6e used (or porta6le
storage devices, digital cameras, scanners, video cameras,
printers, ke46oards and mice / 9ust a6out ever4thingP
&O1ER CORD / This is a standard Nkettle cordN that
connects the computer to the !C outlet on the *all and
the po*er suppl4 o( the computer5 This M&%T 6e
unplugged i( 4ou are ever doing an4 maintenance *ork
inside the computer5
&RINTER CA;LE / This is a 0-/pin NDN shaped connector
that connect printers to the parallel port on a computer5
ANe*er printers ma4 connect *ith a &%C plug5B
&S CA;LE / On most computers these da4s, this connection is
used (or 6oth the Mouse and the ke46oard5 This plug has < pins/
VGA CA;LE 3 This is use to connect the monitor to
the V#! port5
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age 14 o( 20
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evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
AUDIO CA;LE 3 This is use to connect the speaker to
the !udio port5
Se'!,C$ec. 1 1ritten Test
Name:____________________ Date:_________________
Instruction: Answer all the questions listed below, if you have some clarifications- feel free to ask your teacher.
+5 Hhat do 4ou call the e8ternal or tangi6le devices *hich are attached to the e8ternal part o( the
computerQ (1 point)
05 Hhat is the small program that tells the computer ho* to communicate *ith inputDoutput
AperipheralB devices5 (1 point)
25 #iven the di((erent computer peripherals, group them 64 *riting each o( it *here categories the4
6elong on the ta6le 6elo*) (1 point each)
a5 Mouse e5 %erial ca6le i5 LCD Monitor
65 Monitor (5 'rinter 95 '%0 ca6le
c5 Core i2 chip g5 %canner k5 Dual Core chip
d5 'rinter Ca6le h5 %peaker l5 Ie46oard
Input
Devices
Output
Devices
'rocessors
Connectivit4
Devices
15 Match the connectivit4 devices *ith its corresponding ports 64 dra*ing a line (rom the connectivit4
devices to the matching ports) (2 points each)
C"nnectivit* Devices &"rts
C!T- Net*ork Ca6le
Monitor Ca6le
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&%C Ca6le
'rinter Ca6le
'%0 Ca6le
Note: Satis!act"r* rating = : %"ints a+"ve < Unsatis!act"r* , +e'"( : %"ints
$ou can ask 4ou teacher (or the cop4 o( the correct ans*ers
In!"r#ati"n S$eet C"n!ir# C'ient Re>uire#ents
S*ste# deve'"%#ent 'i!e c*c'e
To determine appropriate hard*are peripheral devices needed *ithin an organi7ation, it is
important to clearl4 understand *hat 4our client needs5 O(ten clients donFt have a clear idea o(
*hat the4 *ant until the4 have 6een presented *ith a series o( options5 Horking out clientsF
needs re.uires care(ul planning and organisation5
The s*ste# deve'"%#ent 'i!e c*c'e is a methodolog4 that computer consultants o(ten
(ollo* to help them properl4 investigate the clientFs in(ormation technolog4 needs5 The (irst three
stages o( the s4stem development li(e c4cle are)
+5 planning
05 anal4sing
25 designing5
&'anning
This stage involves identi(4ing the clientFs current technolog4 and taking into account an4
limitations5 During the planning phase it is necessar4 to (ind out in(ormation including)
s4stem speci(ications
connections availa6le
6udget constraints
availa6le time(rame
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availa6ilit4 o( ph4sical space5
! !easi+i'it* stud* can 6e per(ormed to provide a preliminar4 report to the client a6out
6ene(its, costs and impact to the organisation5 !dditionall4, a %r"?ect re>uest !"r# allo*s a
client to document their initial re.uest5
S*ste# s%eci!icati"ns
It is important to (ind out the speci(ications o( the computer s4stem 4ou are planning to
connect the peripheral device to5 Man4 ne*er t4pes o( peripheral devices re.uire a speci(ic
amount o( memor4, C'& speed, hard disk space, and ma4 onl4 6e compati6le *ith certain
operating s4stems5
@"u a's" need t" +e a(are "! t$e %eri%$era'As s*ste# re>uire#entsB T$e #anua'
!"r t$e %eri%$era' device as (e'' as t$e #anu!acturerAs (e+site (i'' $e'% *"u
deter#ine t$e #ini#u# s*ste# s%eci!icati"nsB
C"#%uter %eri%$era's re>uire#ent c"nsiderati"ns
Desktop hard*are, such as a desktop computer itsel(, is the most common t4pe o( IT
hard*are purchased 64 a small 6usiness5 The cost o( hard*are depends on its speci(ication,
*hich in turn is determined 64 some ke4 components5 Hhen 4ou 6u4 desktop hard*are, 4ou *ill
need to decide *hat the speci(ication o( these ke4 components should 6e5
T$e %r"cess"r is the driver o( the computer5 'rocessors are usuall4 di((erentiated 64
speed, measured in gigahert7 A#"7B5 The higher the #"7, the (aster the computer *ill run5 $ou
should 6u4 the (astest processor 4ou can a((ord, 6ut a " #H$ processor will normally %e eno&gh
for most %&siness f&nctions, e!g! word processing and spreadsheets, together with some
m&ltimedia!
Me#"r* is used 64 the processor to run programs5 #enerall4, the more random access
memor4 A!MB 4ou have, the 6etter 4our computer *ill run *hen using several programs at
once5 $our computer should have enough memor4 to make the most o( the processor speed5 For
a " #H$ processor, for example, yo& sho&ld have aro&nd '(" giga%ytes )#*+ of ,-!
T$e $ard dis. is used to store the data 4ou create in 4our 6usiness, as *ell as the
programs 4ou use5 Its capacit4 is much greater than the !M5 !n o((ice computer *ith a 2 #"7
processor should have at least 0,, #C o( hard disk space, 6ut i( 4ou intend to use a single
desktop 'C as the main storage location (or all 4our 6usiness data, 4ou *ill need at least -,,
#C5
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E8ternal plug/ins, such as re(rita+'e DVDC DVD,Read On'* Me#"r* 5ROM6C "r CD,
R1 5re(rita+'e6 drives can 6e used to supplement 4our computerEs memor45
T$e #"nit"r is the computerEs displa4 screen5 Li.uid Cr4stal Displa4 ALCDB or (lat screen
monitors o((er reduced 6ulk and lo*er po*er consumption, relative to cathode ra4 tu6e ACTB
monitors5 Monitors are normall4 measured diagonall4 in inches / t4picall4 +@, 00 or 015 Larger or
*ide/screen monitors allo* 4ou to compare t*o documents on/screen5 Man4 monitors have an
aspect ratio / the proportion o( image *idth to height / o( +<)+,, although screens *ith a +<)@
ratio are 6ecoming more *idel4 availa6le and o((er higher resolution5
Dis%'a* ada%ter
%o(t*are re.uiring a 6etter than average computer graphics displa4, like graphics
editors and high/end games, o(ten de(ine high/end displa4 adapters in the s4stem re.uirements5
S"!t(are re>uire#ents
%o(t*are e.uirements deal *ith de(ining so(t*are resource re.uirements and pre/
re.uisites that need to 6e installed on a computer to provide optimal (unctioning o( an
application5 These re.uirements or pre/re.uisites are generall4 not included in the so(t*are
installation package and need to 6e installed separatel4 6e(ore the so(t*are is installed5
1B &'at!"r#
In computing, a %'at!"r# descri6es some sort o( (rame*ork, either in hard*are or
so(t*are, *hich allo*s so(t*are to run5 T4pical plat(orms include a computerEs
architecture, operating s4stem, or programming languages and their run time li6raries5
Operating s4stem is one o( the (irst re.uirements mentioned *hen de(ining s4stem
re.uirements Aso(t*areB5 %o(t*are ma4 not 6e compati6le *ith di((erent versions o( same line o(
operating s4stems, although some measure o( 6ack*ard compati6ilit4 is o(ten maintained5 For
e8ample, most so(t*are designed (or Microso(t Hindo*s J' does not run on Microso(t Hindo*s
@?, although the converse is not al*a4s true5 %imilarl4, so(t*are designed using ne*er (eatures
o( Linu8 Iernel v05< generall4 does not run or compile properl4 Aor at allB on Linu8 distri6utions
using Iernel v050 or v0515
B A&Is and drivers
%o(t*are making e8tensive use o( special hard*are devices, like high/end displa4
adapters, needs special !'I or ne*er device drivers5 ! good e8ample is DirectJ, *hich is a
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collection o( !'Is (or handling tasks related to multimedia, especiall4 game programming,
on Microso(t plat(orms5
/B 1e+ +r"(ser
Most *e6 applications and so(t*are depending heavil4 on Internet technologies make use
o( the de(ault 6ro*ser installed on s4stem5 Microso(t Internet E8plorer is a (re.uent choice o(
so(t*are running on Microso(t Hindo*s, *hich makes use o( !ctiveJ controls, despite their
vulnera6ilities5
Ot$er re>uire#ents
%ome so(t*are also has other re.uirements (or proper per(ormance5 Internet
connection At4pe and speedB and resolution o( the displa4 screen are nota6le e8amples5
E8amples
Follo*ing are a (e* e8amples o( s4stem re.uirement de(initions (or popular 'C games and
trend o( ever increasing resource needs)
For instance, *hile %tarCra(t A+@@?B needed)
Hindo*s @- or NT or superior
'entium processor at @, M"7 or higher
+< MC !M
?, MC availa6le in the hard disk
CD/OM, 08 or higher
DirectJ 25, or higher
%pider/Man A0,,0B needed)
2D "ard*are !ccelerator
Hindo*s @?D0,,,DNTDJ'
'entium III processor at -,, M"7 or higher
+0? MC !M
+5- #C availa6le in the hard disk
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DirectJ ?5+ Doom 2 A0,,1B needed)
2D "ard*are !ccelerator / <1MC o( memor4 minimum
Hindo*s 0,,,DJ'
'entium 1 +5- #"7 or !thlon J' +-,,R processor or higher
2?1 MC !M
?8 %peed CD/OM
050 #C (ree hard disk space
DirectJ @5,6 compati6le +</6it sound card
DirectJ @5,6
%tar Hars) The Force &nleashed A0,,@B needed)
2D "ard*are !ccelerator / 0-<MC o( memor4 minimum
Hindo*s Hindo*s J' %'2, Hindo*s Vista %'0, Hindo*s >
Core 0 Duo or !thlon J0 at 051 #"7
0 #C !M !M
?8 %peed DVD/OM
025? #C R + #C %*ap File hard disk space
DirectJ @5,c compati6le sound card
DirectJ @5,c compati6le video card5
!s a cost/saving consideration, (or a small enterprise, getting the e8act client
speci(ications *ould 6e a good consideration 6ut (or a 6ig enterprise, getting the high end
hard*are *ould 6e o( great choice5
Considering the (uture hard*are trend *ould also 6e a deciding (actor5 I( the price o( a
speci(ic peripheral remains the same (or a long period o( time, 4ou could consider 6u4ing a high
end one since over time the price remains the same *hile 4ou get a higher hard*are
per(ormance5 Other*ise, choose a medium range peripherals or 9ust e8actl4 *hat 4our
organi7ation need since (or a short period o( time the price lo*ers so 4ou could have an
opportunit4 o( upgrading it to a high end one in the (uture at a lo* cost5
!nother (actor is *hat operating s4stem are 4ou going to useQ Celo* are the hard*are
re.uirements (or installing Hindo*s J' and Hindo*s >)
-ard(are Re>uire#ents !"r 1ind"(s 7 s*ste#
I( 4ou *ant to run Hindo*s > on 4our 'C, hereEs *hat it takes)
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+ gigahert7 A#"7B or (aster 20/6it A8?<B or <1/6it A8<1B processor
+ giga64te A#CB !M A20/6itB or 0 #C !M A<1/6itB
+< #C availa6le hard disk space A20/6itB or 0, #C A<1/6itB
DirectJ @ graphics device *ith HDDM +5, or higher driver
-ard(are Re>uire#ents !"r 1ind"(s D& -"#e Editi"n and 1ind"(s D& &r"!essi"na'B
These are the minimum re.uirements (or 6asic (unctionalit45 !ctual re.uirements var4,
depending on the s4stem con(iguration and the programs and (eatures that 4ou choose to install5
I( 4ou are installing Hindo*s J' over a net*ork, 4ou ma4 need additional availa6le hard/disk
space5

T$e #ini#u# $ard(are re>uire#ents !"r 1ind"(s D& -"#e Editi"n are)
'entium 022/megahert7 AM"7B processor or (aster A2,, M"7 is recommendedB
!t least <1 mega64tes AMCB o( !M A+0? MC is recommendedB
!t least +5- giga64tes A#CB o( availa6le space on the hard disk
CD/OM or DVD/OM drive
Ie46oard and a Microso(t Mouse or some other compati6le pointing device
Video adapter and monitor *ith %uper V#! A?,, 8 <,,Bor higher resolution
%ound card
%peakers or headphones
!(ter 4ou have determine 4our organi7ation needs, 4ou can no* start documenting 4our
hard*are needs, to help 4ou decide on the speci(ications, canvassing *ould 6e a great idea5
There *ere several sites in the net *here 4ou can 6ro*se and compare the price o( the di((erent
medium range to high end computer peripherals5 One 64 one 4ou can list do*n the hard*are
specs (or 4our client5 The list 6elo* *ill help 4ou in documenting 4our chosen hard*are)
'rocessor )
!M or Memor4 )
"ard Disk si7e )
Video Card )
Lan Card )
DVD drive )
%ound Card )
Mouse )
Ie46oard )
Monitor )
One deciding (actor to consider in 6u4ing computer peripherals is the *arrant4 and a(ter sales
support service5 ! cheaper price *ould var4 greatl4 on the per(ormance, dura6ilit4 and
*arrant45 Mostl4, the cheaper it gets, the less dura6le and less *arrant4 4ou could e8pect5
O(tentimes, the good *arrant4 and a(ter sales service the4 provide, the 6etter the .ualit4 o( the
products the4 have5 Do not risk 6u4ing the cheaper one i( 4ouFre not sure o( the .ualit45
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!(ter 4ou have (inali7ed 4our hard*are speci(ications, 4ou can no* (or*ard it to the right
person (or 6udget considerations and (inall4 (or procurement5

;udget c"nstraints
Hhile planning the connection o( hard*are peripheral devices, it is important to 6e a*are
o( the clientFs availa6le 6udget5 ! client needs to determine *hether the 6ene(its that *ill 6e
gained (rom the peripheral device 9usti(4 the (inancial outla45 Factors including the organisationFs
si7e, the necessit4 o( the peripheral device to the organisation, num6er o( people re.uiring the
device, *ill all contri6ute to the organisationFs allocation o( a 6udget5 Costs *ill sometimes
prohi6it an organisation (rom proceeding *ith the purchase o( e.uipment5
!nother cost to consider is ongoing maintenance5 ! laser printer, (or e8ample, ma4
initiall4 6e more e8pensive to purchase than an ink9et printer5 "o*ever *hen 4ou consider that
some ink9et cartridges can cost nearl4 as much as an ink9et printer, it ma4 6e more practical to
choose a laser printer, *here toner costs are more reasona6le5
Avai'a+'e ti#e!ra#e
The time availa6le to complete a task also needs to 6e considered *hen identi(4ing client
re.uirements5 I(, (or e8ample, a peripheral device is needed urgentl4, it *ill 6e necessar4 to
.uickl4 (ind out *hich suppliers can immediatel4 provide the peripheral e.uipment5
&$*sica' s%ace restricti"ns
Ce(ore considering ac.uiring an4 peripheral device, planning needs to 6e done to *ork out
*here and ho* the peripheral *ill reside5 The (ollo*ing .uestions need to 6e considered)
Hhat ph4sical space is availa6le to accommodate the deviceQ
!re po*er points in a near pro8imit4 i( the device needs themQ
I( a peripheral does not have access to a suita6le po*er source, pro6lems ma4 occur
including the overloading o( po*er 6oards and po*er leads causing dangerous o6structions
to users o( the e.uipment5
Hill the installation o( the device mean other e.uipment needs to 6e relocatedQ
Could the device cause disruption or impact on the sa(et4 o( usersQ
Eeasi+i'it* stud*
! (easi6ilit4 stud4 can 6e carried out to sho* the client 6ene(its, appro8imate costs o( the
ne* e.uipment and the impact on the organisation5 %everal hard*are devices can also 6e
recommended to the client5 The aim o( the (easi6ilit4 stud4 is to recognise the 6est solution
under the circumstances 64 identi(4ing the e((ects o( this solution on the organisation5
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!(ter undertaking a (easi6ilit4 stud4, it ma4 6e discovered that a simple solution is
possi6le5 Take the e8ample o( an organisation that *ould like to update their monitors so that
the4 can have 6etter screen resolution5 Changing the monitorsF internal settings could 6e a ver4
simple solution to o6tain an improved resolution5
! (easi6ilit4 stud4 can also reveal that a clientFs peripheral re.uirements are not
achieva6le5 The re.uirements ma4 e8ceed 6udget, or the re.uested peripheral devices ma4 not
6e compati6le *ith the current computer s4stem5 The results o( a (easi6ilit4 stud4 can determine
*hether or not an organisation proceeds *ith the purchase and installation o( the peripheral
devices5
&r"?ect re>uest !"r#
!n initial re.uest (or hard*are peripheral devices can 6e documented using a pro9ect
re.uest (orm5 This (orm documents in(ormation (rom 6oth the client and the computer
consultant in order to document preliminar4 re.uirements5
T4pical in(ormation re.uested on a pro9ect re.uest (orm includes)
pro9ect title
date received
completion date
pro9ect num6er
description o( pro6lem
o69ectives
anticipated 6ene(its
person re.uesting
constraints5
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Sa#%'e %r"?ect re>uest !"r#
e.uest date) e.uired completion date)

Re>uest in!"r#ati"n)
Eirst na#e) Last na#e)

De%art#ent "r divisi"n) Te'e%$"ne)

E#ai')
&r"?ect tit'e)
&r"?ect in!"r#ati"n)
Hhat is the purpose o( the proposed pro9ectQ
Hhat are the 6ene(its o( the pro9ectQ
Other in(ormation or comments)
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Ana'*Fing
In the anal4sis phase, the clientFs re.uirements are investigated in more depth5 It is
important to tr4 to gain as much in(ormation (rom the client as possi6le, in order to o6tain an
accurate understanding o( the situation5 Detailed client re.uirements, such as)
speci(ic (eatures o( the device re.uired
the num6er o( people *ho *ill need to use device
support e8pectations
training re.uirements
can all 6e o6tained during this phase5
Intervie*s, .uestionnaires, checklists and o6servations are some methods that
consultants use to gather in(ormation5 I( a device is to 6e used 64 a large group o( users, a
.uestionnaire or checklist could 6e constructed to (ind out *hat (eatures are re.uired 64 the
ma9orit4 o( users5 Intervie*ing users can provide a 6etter *a4 o( (inding out speci(ic in(ormation5
Intervie(s
! *ell/prepared intervie* can help provide 4ou *ith valua6le in(ormation a6out 4our client
re.uirements5 In(ormation that has 6een collected during the planning stage can also give 4ou
some use(ul 6ackground in(ormation *hen preparing .uestions5
Guestions asked o( a client ma4 6e speci(ic or open ended5 %peci(ic .uestions generall4
mean that the client *ill give either a 4esDno response or a speci(ic ans*er5 Open/ended
.uestions, ho*ever, generall4 commence *ith Sho*F or S*h4F5 These t4pes o( .uestions help to
discuss and clari(4 issues and esta6lish a (irmer understanding o( client re.uirements5
For e8ample, some .uestions 4ou ma4 *ant to ask during an intervie* to replace an
e8isting printer could include)
"o* *ill a ne* printer solve e8isting printer issuesQ
Hho *ill 6e using the ne* printer the ma9orit4 o( the timeQ
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Hhat *ill 6e the ne* printer ke4 purposesQ Eg)
3 letters
3 advertising 6rochures
3 in(ormation (rom the Internet5
Hh4 do 4ou need colour printingQ
Hhat is the appro8imate num6er o( pages that *ould 6e printed each da4Q
Guesti"nnaires
Guestionnaires are help(ul *hen 4ou need to gather in(ormation (rom a num6er o( clients5
! num6er o( .uestions incorporating short ans*ers, multiple choice and trueD(alse choices can
help 4ou .uickl4 determine *hat kinds o( (eatures the ma9orit4 o( clients are re.uiring5
-ere is a sa#%'e >uesti"nnaire t" $e'% esta+'is$ a suita+'e #"use)
+5 Track6all (eature L Hould a track6all device 6e help(ul (or 4ou to manipulate imagesQ
@es<N"
05 Hould 4ou pre(er a *ireless mouseQ @es<N"
25 List an4 other (eatures 4ou *ould like to 6e a6le to have availa6le *ith 4our mouse)
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
C$ec.'ists
In a similar manner to .uestionnaires, checklists that ask clients to choose *hat (eatures
the4 *ould like (rom a speci(ic peripheral device can also provide an e((icient *a4 to determine a
set o( popular re.uirements5
O+servati"ns
Even in(ormal o6servations o( current 6usiness procedures can provide another *a4 o(
determining client needs5 O6serving users as the4 go a6out their da4/to/da4 tasks, can con(irm
i( current peripheral devices are not *orking properl4 or assessing the need (or a ne* peripheral
device5
Designing
The design phase ena6les 4ou to (igure out an e((ective solution5 !ll the in(ormation 4ou
have gathered via .uestionnaires, intervie*s, o6servations and during planning can 6e assessed
to determine the 6est *a4 o( satis(4ing client re.uirements5
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There *ill o(ten 6e several peripheral devices that are capa6le o( per(orming the 9o6
satis(actoril45 !n evaluation grid can 6e created to sho* the client each deviceFs (unctionalit45
The e8ample 6elo* illustrates an evaluation grid that could 6e used (or appraising
scanners5
S%eci!icati"ns Scanner 1 Scanner Scanner /
'rice
Optical resolution AdpiB
Dimensions
Operating s4stem
%o(t*are included
Comments
Once client re.uirements have 6een clari(ied, all re.uests (or hard*are peripherals need
to 6e documented clearl4 in a concise (orm5 !n organisation *ill o(ten have its o*n
organi7ational standards A(or e8ample, report templates, guidelinesB to *hich 4ou *ill need to
adhere5 The documentation *ill also need to 6e checked and con(irmed 64 the client 6e(ore a
re.uest (or purchase in sent to the pre(erred supplier5
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Se'!,C$ec. 1ritten Test
Name: ____________________ Date:_________________
Instruction: Answer all the questions listed below, if you have some clarifications- feel free to ask your
teacher.

+5 Hhat are the three A2B stages o( the s4stem development li(e c4cleQ (3 points)
05 In planning phase, *hat (ive A-B in(ormation is necessar4 to (ind outQ (5 points)
25 The processorFs speed has 6een measured in *hatQ (1 point)
15 "o* man4 processors speed in #"7 is needed (or most 6usiness (unctions, e5g5
*ord processing and spreadsheets, together *ith some multimedia. (1 point)
-5 I( 4ou have 2 #"7 processorFs speed, ho* much ideal memor4 A!MB si7e 4ou must
haveQ (1 point)
<5 !n o((ice computer *ith a 2 #"7 processor should have at least ho* man4 #C o(
hard disk spaceQ (1 point)
>5 Hhat can *e use to supplement 4our computerEs memor4Q (1 point)
?5 Hhich monitor is 6etter in terms o( electric consumptionQ (1 point)
@5 Hhat are the 2 Software requirements needed in 6e(ore 6u4ing a 'CQ (3 points)
+,5 Hhat are the "ard*are e.uirements (or Hindo*s > operating s4stem in terms o()
(4 point)
'rocessor )
!M or Memor4 )
"ard Disk si7e )
Video Card )
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Note: Satisfactory rating 18 points above / Unsatisfactory - below 18 points
ou can ask you teacher for the co!y of the correct answers
La% Test &ractica' De#"nstrati"n
Name) TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Date) TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
Time started) TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT Time (inished) TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
Instructi"ns) $ou are re.uired to per(orm the (ollo*ing individuall4 *ith the presence o( 4our
teacher5
1B s$"(ing t$e %"rts +e'"(C de#"nstrate ($at %eri%$era' (as needed !"r eac$ %"rt
B Na#e / %"rts ($ere #"use can %"ssi+'* +e c"nnected t"B
/B Give at 'east 0 %eri%$era's t$at can +e c"nnected via US; %"rtsB
0B 1$at is t$e di!!erence +et(een Seria' and &ara''e' %"rtsH
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age /1 o( 20
+
st
evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College
Misrak TVET College
Training, Teaching and Learning Materials Development
/o&r teacher will eval&ate yo&r o&tp&t either satisfactory or &nsatisfactory! If
0nsatisfactory, yo&r teacher shall advice yo& on additional work! *&t if satisfactory, yo&
can proceed to the next topic!
Learning #uide Date) ,-/0,+1 'age / o( 20
+
st
evision !uthor) ICT, IT 3 Misrak TVET College