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DHM - 2


Food & Beverage Management | Om Singh

Food Control Cycle
Unit – 3 Class – DHM- 2nd

Contents :

• Purchasing
• Purchasing Procedure
• Methods
• Level of Techniques
• Perpetual Inventory
• Monthly Inventory
• Pricing of Commodities
• Comparison of Physical Inventory

Educational Objective Addressed:-

• Purchasing Control – To make them understand about Purchasing, What is

Purchasing control? Why a Purchasing control to be done?

• What are the main points to be considered while purchasing? Aim of

Purchasing and a brief overview of duties and responsibilities of Purchasing

• Different types of food purchase? What is Quality Purchase? Points to be

considered during purchase.

• Food quality factor for different commodities.

• What is yield? and test to arrive at standard yield.

• What is standard purchase specification? Advantage of standard yield and

Standard purchase specification.

• Purchasing procedure and Different method of food purchasing

• What is the source of supply / Purchasing by contract, Periodic Purchasing,

open Market Purchasing Standard Order Purchasing,Centralised Purchasing,

• What are the Methods of purchasing in Hotels , Different Purchase order


• Ordering Cost, Carrying Cost, Economic order quantity, Practical problems..


Pre – Requisite :
• Knowledge of F&B Operations

• Knowledge of Food and Beverage Costs.

• Calculation of Food Cost.

Purchasing can be defined as a function concerned with the search ,selection

,purchase receipt. Storage and final use of a commodity in accordance with the
catering policy of the establishment . This suggest that the person employed to
purchase food and beverages for an establishment will be responsible for not only
purchasing but also for the receiving , storage and issuing of all commodities as
well as being involved with the purpose for which items are purchase and the final
use of them.

Policies - Determining which market segment is aimed at.

Determine price to be paid for purchase and price that
items are to be sold at
Determines the quality to be purchased

Menu - Determine the choice of items available to


Volume Forecasting - Determine thw quantity to be purchased

Requisition - Indicate the particular requirement of each


Purchasing - select suppliers ,contracts quantities to be

purchased,specification for in individual
items ,Ensure continuity of supply.

Receiving - Inspects for quantity and quality

Storing - Current storage for each item,maintain of stock

record,Security of items, t
Current stock levels, Correct issuing.

Production - Preparation of itms purchased

Selling - Provision of satisfactory products at the correct

selling cost

Control - The measurement of performance of all

oulets involved
Feedback of information to mangaement
Purchasing Control:--

The primary objective in the purchasing of food is to obtain the best quality of
merchandise based on specification established for each hotel at the lowest
possible price. Below are some requisites for effective purchasing:

• A qualified and honest purchase agent

• A sound set of standard purchase specification

• Effective buying method and procedure

• Centralized purchasing – only one person buys all the food ,beverage and
supplies of any kind

• The executive chef should be consulted in all purchase pertaining to his


• All major purchase – such as direct importations – have to be authorized by

the management
• A perpetual record of purchase unit price will be instituted.

• The purchasing agent will develop and establish a record of standard

purchase specification

• The purchasing agent should use a “ daily price quotation ‘sheet in order to
maintain competitive buying.

Aims of the Purchasing policy:

Purchasing policies for any establishment plays a vital role to ensure the proper
purchase of the required commodity.

Aims of the purchasing policies are as follows:

• It helps in selection of right supplier/purveyor from the market (By inviting

tender notices/quotations for the supply of required items in the daily
newspapers to select the best supplier from the markets.)
• To ensure the purchase of right kind of commodity that is demanded by the
user department. For this Purchase specification is made in which all the
relevant details of that particular commodity are mentioned.
• To ensure the delivery of required stuff on time. For this user departments
need to send the requisition to the purchase department well on time. Also
the purchase department should inform in advance about the time required
for the delivery of individual stuff to the user department well in advance so
that they can send their requisition at right time\
• It also helps in formulating the parameters for the proper receiving, storage
and issuing of items.
• It ensures a proper control over theft, spoilage etc. in the purchase

Job Desription of the Purchasing Manager

• Resposibility for the management of the purchasing office,the receiving

,storage and cellar area

• The Purchasing of all commodities.

• Conducting Market surveys.

• Purchase specification, Requisition and purchase order.

• Inviting quotation

• Sample testing

• Knowledge of lead time for supply of goods.

• Ensure continuity of supply of all items to user departments.

• Efficient items.

• Purchase of imported goods.

• Finding Cheaperand more efficient source of supply .( but for the same
quality )

• Keeping up to date with all the markets being dealt with and evaluating new

• Research in to products, markets, price, trends, etc.

• Co- - ordinating with productive departments to santardize commodities and

themselves reduce stock levels.

• Co-ordinate with kitchen.

• Liaison with production, control, account and marketing departments.

• Petty Cash for spot purchase

• Reporting to senior management.

Yield Testing
Yield testing is very essential before buying any food stuff .Yield testing is an
indispensable preliminary for purchasing of food stuff and for choosing the most
appropriate cooking methods.These lists are carried out to establish actual yields.It
help in identifying the gastronomical properties of foods.A restaurant may obtain
several different kind of soups base , a panel will create each soup base with regard
to taste ,flavor,texture and other properties finally test are undertaken to establish
the moist economical method of preparation.

Method of calculating yield

Calculatie the total cost of the item and divide the same by yield percentage to find
out the cost of the items. The next step is to cost the recipe fully and to continue to
do so at regular interval to see how cost are changing.Usually additional cost @ 5
percent of preparation cost is added to cover the cost of following items in order to
find out the dish cost :-

• Normal waste in kitchen

• The provision of rolls and butter and other free items, such as amuse queule.

• The cost of staff meals.

Standard Yield

The term yield mean the net weight or values of a food items after it has been
processed from raw or as purchased weight or value and made.

It is the usable part of a particular food product after its initial preparation and
cooking. In large food and beverage outlets as large quantities of food per weeks
are purchased, therefore standard yield may be available for items such as meat,
fish, vegetables etc.

The main objectives of standard yields are to establish:-

• A standard for the quantity and number of portions obtainable from specific
items of food.

• A standard for comparison with operating result and measuring the efficiency
of the production departments.

• An objective method of evaluating standard purchase specification.

• A standard cost factor for the items of food.

It also assists in :-

• Menu, Costing and pricing.

• In converting forecast requirements in to raw material requirements.

The various tests to arrive at standard yields are:-

- Raw food test: to determine the best cost and weight for fruits and
vegetables for specific use.

- Caused food Test: to determine the yield on actual cost after considering
weight, quality, uniformity.

- Butchering test: to determine actual portion costs of meat, poultry, fish and
sea food after waste, trim and by products have been considered.

- Cooking test: to determine the final portion cost after cooking, slicing and
service less have been considered.

Developing Standards and standard procedures for purchasing

The primary purpose for establishing control over purchasing is to ensure a

continuing supply of sufficient quantities of the necessary foods, each of the quality
appropriate to its intended use, purchase at the most favorable price.
Standards must be developed for the: - quantity, Quality and price at which food is

Establishing Quality Standards

Before any intelligent purchasing can be done someone in management must

determine which foods, both perishable and nonperishable will be required for day-
to-day operations. The basis for creating a list of these foods is the menu

It is important that the food controller in cooperation with the other members of the
management team, draw up the list of all food items to be purchased, including
those specific and distinctive characterstics that best describe the desired quality of
each, these carefull written descriptions are known as standard purchase

Standard Purchase specification

For proper and effective control, purchase specification should be used in all
purchasing. It will bring uniformity and consistency in buying, which ultimately
keep maintaining the required cost of the product. Each qualification would be
determined by the purchase officer,executive chef and food and beverage
manager as per the catering policy ,the menu requirement and its price range.The
copies of the specification should be kept by the purchase department.Food
production department and food and beverage department ,receiving
department,the storeman ,the receiving clerk , all senior catering staff and send to
all the approve suppliers.

A purchase specification may be within in a standard form. It must


• Definition of each item.

• Grade on brand name of the items.

• Weight ,size or count

• Unit against which price

• Special note for the commodity.

Objectives of Purchase Specification:

• To force owners or manager to determine exact requirements in advance for

any products.
• To establish a suitable buying standard for a particular commodity for the

• To furnish to the suppliers in writing in specific terms the requirement of the


• To help in settling the price of a commodity.

• To obtain a standard product//material for the food and beverage


• To obtain a standard product so that measurement of performance of

departments can be more accurate.

• To eliminate the need for detailed verbal description of a product each time it
is ordered.

Preparation of standard specification has following advantages:

• Establishing a buying standard of a commodity so that a standard product is

available for the customer

• Inform the supplier in writing by drawing or photograph or description

precisely what is required.

• Provide detailed information to receiving department and store as to the

standard of food to accept.

• Makes staff, chef, food and beverage manager, and other staff, aware of the
differences that can occur on the size ,weight ,quality and quantity of the

• The specification act as an aide memoire to all concerned of what was agreed

Purchasing Procedure

The purchase procedure will depend upon the nature ,size ,standard ,location of
the establishment,the forecast of the future requirements indicates the purchase
procedure .However the full purchase procedure could be broken down in to the
following steps :-

• Purchase requisition form

• Selection of the source of supply

• Entering into a contract with the supplier.

• Acceptance of food and beverage raw material.

• Transfer of commodities to ordering department or to stores or cellar.

Selection of a Supplier:

In case a new supplier is to be selected a great deal of exercise and detailed

enquiries be made as regards to –

• Details about the firm reputation.

• Information of other customers of their products.

• Recent price list.

• Trade term and conditions such as cash discount, trade discount, group or
company discount.

• Details about other customers.

• Sample of products for living purpose /quality of the product.

• A visit to n new firm

• Minimum order level

• Delivery procedure.

• Order procedures.

• Part deliveries or standing orders.

On selection the suppliers are put on an approved (Suppliers List”

Periodically the evaluation of their performance could be done using a rating system
based on :-

• Price performance

• Quality performance

• Delivery performance

Purchasing method

There are variations in purchasing methods. Basically because of location and

availability of merchandise ,however some of the methods practice in most of the
food and beverage establishments are describe below :-
Contract Purchasing

A contract is entered with a supplier for the commodities to be supplied at regular

intervals usually at advantageous price.A contract is a legal document and the
condition of the contract should be carefully prepared preferably by the solicitors of
the firms. There are two common types of contracts:-

• The Specific period contract: It aims at determining the source of supply and
the prices of goods for a slated period say three or six months. This type of
contract is suitable for items which have fairly stable price such as bread,
butter, milk, cream etc.

• The quantity contract : It aims is to secure continuity of supply of a given

quantity of an essential item at an agreed price over a particular trading
period .This type of contract is most suitable for fruits, vegetables etc.

Clauses of a purchse contract

• The period

• Estimated quantities

• Reservation of the establishment to decide a contract between suppliers.

• Purchase specification.

• Removal of rejected food by supplier

• Containers chargeable.

• Power to purchase to default

• In case of dispute – an agreed party.

• Indemnity against damage

• Prevention of corruption

• the place of delivery

• invoices

• payment of invoice

• Service of notice to break a contract.

- Periodical Purchasing
The requirements of the establishment are periodically estimated and regular
orders are placed on a weekly/fortnightly basis to ensure that this met /monthly
basis. This method ensure that stocks are being kept at regular level.A master
quotation list is prepared and on the basis of periodical requirements the price
quoted and the storage space available, the orders are placed .This form of buying
is mostly used in grocery type commodities.

- Daily market List ?daily market quotation by requirement

Thia method is usually used for purchasing perishable goods on a daily basis. A
list of approved supplier is prepared ,A daily market list is prepared by the
executive chef on the basis of quick stock taking of the food.On receipt of Daily
Market List the purchase office contracts on telephone ,each approved suppliers
and ask to quote price for each of the items required. The quoted prices are
entered on the daily market list and a decision is takenby the purchase officer as
to where o place order of each item.

Market Purchasing - The requirements of the establishment are

estimated.Quotation are aasked from the various suppliers of commodities.The
quantity and prices are compared and orders are placed to the firm keeping in
mind the price and quantity of provisions.

- Cash and Carry Nethod

This is the most suitable method for small and medium sized establishments.
There is a complex freedom for purchasing from the market at competitive price
and the buyer can personally check the quantity and taste of the items. However
the caterer has to pay cash for all items purchased and has to provide his own
staff and transport to collect the items from the place of purchase.

- Paid Reserve Method

This method is used when it is necessary to ensure the quantiy of supply pf an

item for the menu which is of particular importance for a specialty
restaurant/establishment, such as jumbo size prawns,frozen fillet of beef etc

- Cost plus method

This method is more suitable for welfare catering institution such as hospital,
boarding houses etc. The approved supplier is paid exactly the same price that
he paid for the commodities plus an agreed percentage to include the cost of
handling, delivery charges and margin of profit.

- Totally Supply method

There are some suppliers who are able to offer a full supply service of all
commodities. A food and beverage establishment may agree for such supplier
.This system has the advantage of only having to negotiate with one supplier as
reduced volume of paper work and fewer deliveries.

Centralized purchasing System

This system is very popular in chain operation. In this system the requirements
of each individual unit are relayed to a central office. The central office
determines total requirements of all units and then makes total purchase either
for delivery to the individuals unit by the dealer or for centralized delivery. The
decision as to centralize purchasing is taken by the top management. The main
advantage of central purchasing are –

• Volume purchasing which lead to lower price.

• Opportunity to obtain desired quality because of greater choice of markets.

• Purchase as per specifications.

• Maintaining a large inventory which ensures constant supply to individual


• Check and control over individual unit’s food purchaser.

There are some disadvantages of the system which are:-

• Each unit must accept the standard items in stock

• Units have little freedom to purchase for its own particular needs.

• Unit cannot take advantages of local” special “st reduced prices.

• Since menu arestandardised there is a limited freedom to individuals unit to

change the menu.

Once a supplier is choosen the following points must also be considered before
order are placed : -

• Classification of products

• Purchase order must be confirmed in writng.

• Responsibility of purchasing

• Stock life of products.

• Money available to market purchasers – cash flow

The quantity regarde will depend upon :-

• Existing stock level

• Expected volume of business

• Current market price and trends

• Ta riffs

• Storage space available

Periodic order Method

Non perishable items have longer shelf life than perishables. These items require in
–frequent ordering and leave the steward free to attend to perishables. The steward
establishes with the advice of management periods for ordering purpose – once
every week , or every two weeks or once in each month.The steward review the
entire stock of non – perishables items and determines how much of each to order :-

Items required for the upcoming period --- items presently on hand +items wanted
on hand at the end of the period to last until the next delivery = items to be

The items to be ordered as calculated may be round up to the next highest in view
of the standard purchase unit.

Economic order quantity is the level of inventory that minimizes the total
inventory holding costs and ordering costs. The framework used to determine this
order quantity is also known as Wilson EOQ Model. The model was developed by
F. W. Harris in 1913. But still R. H. Wilson is given credit for his early in-depth
analysis of the model

Underlying assumptions

1. The ordering cost is constant.

2. The rate of demand is constant
3. The lead time is fixed
4. The purchase price of the item is constant i.e no discount is available
5. The replenishment is made instantaneously; the whole batch is delivered at

EOQ is the quantity to order, so that ordering cost + carrying cost finds its
minimum. (A common misunderstanding is that formula tries to find when these are

• Q = order quantity
• Q * = optimal order quantity
• D = annual demand quantity of the product
• P = purchase cost per unit
• C = fixed cost per order (not per unit, in addition to unit cost)
• H = annual holding cost per unit (also known as carrying cost) (warehouse
space, refrigeration, insurance, etc. usually not related to the unit cost)

The Total Cost function

The single-item EOQ formula finds the minimum point of the following cost function:

Total Cost = purchase cost + ordering cost + holding cost

- Purchase cost: This is the variable cost of goods: purchase unit price × annual
demand quantity. This is P×D

- Ordering cost: This is the cost of placing orders: each order has a fixed cost C, and
we need to order D/Q times per year. This is C × D/Q

- Holding cost: the average quantity in stock (between fully replenished and empty)
is Q/2, so this cost is H × Q/2

To determine the minimum point of the total cost curve, set its derivative equal to

The result of this derivation is:

Solving for Q gives Q* (the optimal order quantity):

Therefore: .

Note that interestingly, Q* is independent of P, it is a function of only C, D, H.

Carrying cost

In marketing, carrying cost refers to the total cost of holding inventory. This
includes warehousing costs such as rent, utilities and salaries, financial costs such
as opportunity cost, and inventory costs related to permissibility, shrinkage and

When there are no transaction costs for shipment, carrying costs are minimized
when no excess inventory is held at all, as in a Just In Time production system.[1]

Excess inventory can be held for one of three reasons. Cycle stock is held based on
the re-order point, and defines the inventory that must be held for production, sale
or consumption during the time between re-order and delivery. Safety stock is held
to account for variability, either upstream in supplier lead time, or downstream in
customer demand. Psychic stock is held by consumer retailers to provide
consumers with a perception of plenty.

Frequently asked Questions :

Q.1 : Define Purchasing ?

Q.2 :Explain Purchasing Controls ?

Q.3. What are the basic aims and objectives of purchasing Controls?

Q.4 What is Yield Testing ?

Q.5 What is Standard Yield ? Explain Standard Purchase Specifications


• Management & Cost Control –by- Jagmohan Negi ( Page no : 54 – 101)

• Supported Notes – Self made notes and material collected from the industry