Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

THE PLANT KINGDOM

I THE NON VASCULAR PLANTS (BRYOPHYTES)


II THE VASCULAR PLANTS (TRACHEOPHYTA)
A. The Seedless Plants -THE FERN FAMILY (Phylum Felicinophyta of the Pteridophyta)
1. General Characteristics: Primitive. They thrive in shaded and moist habitats. many grow on
ground and on trees, few in water. some grow up to twelve meters. Spores are the
reproductive structures of ferns which could be found on the lower surface or at the
margins of leaf.
2. Economic importance of the fern plants
for ornamental purposes
source of food
for binding and decorative purposes as edges and handle of native anahaw fan.
rims of the headwear known as salakot and ladies hand bag.
3. Examples of Philippine Ferns:
a. Giant ferns,(angiopteris) e. nito
b. salvinia(water fern) f. ornamental ferns
c. cyathea (tree fern) g. bird's nest
d. edible fern (pako)
B. Seed plants: GYMNOSPERMAE - dominant Vascular plants
Gymnosperms -plant with exposed seeds
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:
1. gymnosperms consists of about 700 species of woody plants with seeds not enclosed by
fruits. these are plants with "naked sees"
2. seed Bearing plants includes:
phylum conifenophyta (conifers or pine trees) phylum cycodophyta (cycads)
phylum Ginkgophyta ( Ginkgobiloba ) phylum Gnetophyta (Gnetophytes)
3.Most of them prefer low temperature. Thus, they are abundant in temperature regions and
in warmer countries, higher elevations
4.Gymnosperms are significant as timber trees, food and medicinal plant , ornamental, and as
source of essential oils and other productive in forests
5. Gymnosperms are important erosion control, protection of water sheds and enhancement
of aesthetic value of natural communities.
6.Sourse of resin (for perfume/varnishes)
7.Christmas decorations.
C. The Flowering Plants: ANGIOSPERMAE -dominant vascular plants
General Characteristics
1.they are plants with seeds enclosed in a fruit
2. They developed vascular tissues making then adapted to terrestrial habitats.
3. Their reproductive organs are usually protective with is a whole highly modified /or
attractively colored leaves in an intricate structure of "flower".
4. They can be classified according to their life span.
a. annuals-a year growing seasons (ex.; rice, corn )
b. Biennial- a year of two life span
c. perennials- many years, with woody stems (ex.; bamboo, trees)
5. They can be classified according to leaf arrangement or Phyllotaxy
a. alternate b. radially or whorl c. opposite



6. They can also be classified according to number of cotyledons as to monocot or dicot (Page
246 of the module)
7. They can also be classified according to their Habit - the size and nature of stem
a. tree - large woody plant with a single main stem or trunk.
b. shrub- a woody plant relatively small than a tree, with two or more stems arising from
the ground.
c. herbs - soft-stemmed plant relatively short and short-lived.
d. Vine- a plant witch either creeps along the ground of climb upright objects.
e. weeds- grasses
8. Plants can also be classified on how leaves are attached to the stem.
a. simple leaf b. palmately compound leaf



c. pinnately compound leaf d. bipinnately compound leaf



9. The types of leaf margins:
a. toothed b. smooth c. lobed




10. Some of The Harmful plants.
a. sorghum - can cause cyanide poisoning
b. Jatropha curcas (tuba-tuba) - its seeds are poisonous. Fruits can cause burning sensation in
throat and can cause vomiting.
c. Manihot esculenta (cassava) the bark contain hydrocyanic acid.
d. Echinochloa crus-galli (dawa-dawa) \ host weeds that are alternative to abaca and
e. Digitaria saguinidis (Saka-saka) / corn mosaic virus.

SCIENCE 8 Quarter 4 Module 1 - THE PLANT KINGDOM
Name:__________________________________________ Score:____________
Year & Section: _____________________ Date: ________________
MULTIPLE CHOICES: Encircle the letter of the correct answer then, write it on the space provided.
1. Multicellular organisms that make their food, have roots, stems, leaves belong to
a. Kingdom Animalia b. Kingdom Fungi c. Kingdom Protista d. Kingdom Plantae
2. Why are plants considered to be the producers?
a. They depend on other organisms for food c. They do not have chlorophyll
b. They can produce their own food by photosynthesis d. Both b and c
3. Mosses, hornwort, and liverwort are bryophytes. which of the following
characteristics describes the bryophytes?
I. They are vascular plants II. They are non-vascular plants
III. They are seed bearing plants IV. They are moisture loving plants
a. I and II b. II and III c. I and III d. II and IV
4. Which of these statements is TRUE about for both moss and fern plants?
a. they have dominant gametophytes and small sporophytes
b. they are both highly vascular plants.
c. they can live in dry habitat
d. they need water for sperm cells to reach the eggs
5. Which of these statements about the flowers is TRUE?
a. it is the organ for sexual reproduction
b. some of its parts may not be developed into fruits with seeds
c. its structures do not need aids to bring the sperm cells in the pollen to the egg
cell in the ovule
d. only the female parts can be found in the flower
6. The green scum or patches that you may find in canals or attached to cement walls or
stones and shady areas would most likely consist of
a. conifers b. ferns c. flowering plants d. mosses
7. Which of the these organisms has a conducting vessels for food and water?
a. moss b. azolla c. liverwort d. hornwort
8. In which way/s the liverwort is similar to the cactus?
I. It can live in dry habitat II. it has roots, stem, and leaves III. it can make its own food
a. I only b. II only c. III only d. I, II, and III
9. Ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms are vascular plants because they
a. bear seeds c. have specialized stems for storing food
b. develop from embryo d. have a water and nutrient transport system
10. To which group the winged bean (sigarilyas) belong?
a. herb b. shrub c. vine d. tree
11. Which of the following is a perennial plant?
a. Acacia b. banana c. papaya d. kalamansi
12. What is the main function of the xylem and the phloem?
a. storage b. absorption c. transport d. photosynthesis
13. The cone with seeds on the surface is a distinguishing characteristics of
a. ferns b. flowering plants c. gymnosperms d. mosses
14. Atis, Guava, tomato, lanzones, ampalaya, and cucucmber have seeds inside their
fruits. this characteristics classifies them under
a. ferns b. flowering plants c. gymnosperms d. mosses
15. Which one is a conifer?
a. Mango Tree b. Pine Tree c. Narra Tree d. Coconut tree
16. Which plant has seeds enclosed in a fruit?
a. cycads b. ginkgobiloba c. coconut d. ferns
17. How will you describe majority of the flowering plants.
a. terrestrials b. aerial c. aquatic d. hydrophytes
18. Plants' length of life that last for more or less one year is said to be
a. annual b. biennial c. perennial d. seasonal
19. Plants are classify according to habit or the size and nature of the stem. Which has
main trunk and definitely consists of hardwood?
a. weeds b. shrubs c. tree d. herbs
20. What do you mean by phyllotaxy?
a length of life of plants. c. arrangement of leaves to the stem
b. shape of leaves d. harmful or beneficial effects to animals
II ANALYSIS:
A. Classify the following plants according to heading. Fill up the table below.
PLANTS LIFESPAN SIZE OF STEM
LEAF
ARRANGEMENT
NUMBER OF
COTYLEDON
1. Mango
2. Makahiya
3. Corn
4. Guava
5. Cassava
6. Gumamela
7. Camote
8. oregano
9. talahib
10. Bamboo
B. Classify the leaves of the given plants as required.

Attachment to leaf Type of leaf margin
Santol
Rose
Ampalaya


Key: SCIENCE 8 Quarter 4 Module 1 - THE PLANT KINGDOM
____1. D 11. A
____2. B 12. c
____3. D 13. C
____4. A 14. b
____5. A 15. B
____6. D 16. C
____7. B 17. A
____8. C 18. a
____9. D 19. c
____10. C 20. C

II ANALYSIS:
A. Classify the following plants according to heading. Fill up the table below.
PLANTS LIFESPAN SIZE OF STEM
LEAF
ARRANGEMENT
NUMBER OF
COTYLEDON
1. Mango Perennial Tree Alternate dicot
2. Makahiya Annual Herb alternate dicot
3. Corn Annual Herb Radial/whorl monocot
4. Guava Perennial Tree Opposite dicot
5. cassava annual shrub Alternate dicot
6. Gumamela Biennial Herb alternate dicot
7. Camote Annual Herb alternate dicot
8. oregano Annual Herb Opposite dicot
9. talahib Annual Weed Radial/whorl monocot
10. Bamboo perennial weed alternate monocot
B. Classify the leaves of the given plants as required.

Attachment to leaf Type of leaf margin
Santol simple Smooth
Rose Pinnately compound Toothed
Ampalaya Palmately compound lobed








Key: SCIENCE 8 Quarter 4 Module 1 - THE PLANT KINGDOM
____1. D 11. A
____2. B 12. c
____3. D 13. C
____4. A 14. b
____5. A 15. B
____6. D 16. C
____7. B 17. A
____8. C 18. a
____9. D 19. c
____10. C 20. C

II ANALYSIS:
A. Classify the following plants according to heading. Fill up the table below.
PLANTS LIFESPAN SIZE OF STEM
LEAF
ARRANGEMENT
NUMBER OF
COTYLEDON
1. Mango Perennial Tree Alternate dicot
2. Makahiya Annual Herb alternate dicot
3. Corn Annual Herb Radial/whorl monocot
4. Guava Perennial Tree Opposite dicot
5. cassava annual shrub Alternate dicot
6. Gumamela Biennial Herb alternate dicot
7. Camote Annual Herb alternate dicot
8. oregano Annual Herb Opposite dicot
9. talahib Annual Weed Radial/whorl monocot
10. Bamboo perennial weed alternate monocot
B. Classify the leaves of the given plants as required.

Attachment to leaf Type of leaf margin
Santol simple Smooth
Rose Pinnately compound Toothed
Ampalaya Palmately compound lobed










THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
General Characteristics of Animals:
1) Animals are eukaryotic, multicellular heterotrophs. They differ in size or shape.
2) All animals ingest their food. Some animals can live inside other animals.
3) Some animals eat plant; others eat animals or other kinds of heterotrophs.
4) Most animals are motile, moving in place to place to capture their food.
5) Other animals are found in fresh or marine water, some in every habitat on land
6) They reproduce either sexually or asexually.
Two Major Groups of Animals:
I. The Invertebrates animals that lack backbone which is present in vertebrates.
PHYLUM GROUP NAME GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS REPRESENTATIVE
ORGANISMS
1 Phylum Porifera The Pore-
Bearing Animals
Live in shallow and deep
ocean. Young are motile;
adults are attached to solid
materials. The body has
spicules. Waste water and
materials go out of the
body through the osculum.
Sponges: Venus
flower basket;
Neptunes goblets;
bath sponge; scypha;
microciona; bread
crumb sponge;
encrusting sponge.
2. Phylum
Cnidaria
The Stinging
Animals
Animals with barbed-
threads and tentacles with
Nematocysts- specialized
stinging cells with poison
filled threads
Hydra; common jelly
fish; Portuguese
man-of-war; sea fan;
periphylla; sea pen;
sea anemone;
gonionemus;
burrowing anemone;
tubularia; plumularia;
brain corals; stony
corals, haliclystus
3.Phylum
Platyhelminthes
The Flatworms Most are flat, ribbon like
bodies. Many are parasitic,
some are free living. Some
are crawling on the moist
ground, some are
swimming in fresh water.
One end is the head. Behind
the head are segments
called prolottids.
Planaria; flukes;
tapeworm;
4. Phylum
Nematoda
The
Roundworms
Long slender, and smooth-
bodied. They inhabit the soil,
fresh, and salt water. Some are
parasites in plants and animals,
some are free living.
Hookworms;
pinworms; trichina
worms; ascaris,

5. Phylum
Annelida
The Segmented
Worms
Characterize by segments
or repeated body parts for
easy movements. Most are
crawling or burrowing in
moist soil, or swimming in
sea or fresh water.
Earthworms;
polychaetes
(sandworms):
leeches; sabellid
worms; marine
annelids
6. Phylum
Mollusca
Mollusks- The
Soft-Bodied
Their body is soft and
shapeless. Some have two
shells protecting their
bodies, some have one,
some no shells, and some
have shell inside their body.
Body parts consist of
Muscular foot for
locomotion, mantle that
produces shell and visceral
mass that contains internal
organs.
Gastropods- the
univalves, has only
one shell: sea and
land slugs, snail,
nudibranchs,
abalone, slipper
chiton
Bivalves have two
shells: mussels,
oyster, clams, scallop
Cephalopods- shell-less
and with internal
skeleton; squid,
cuttlefish, octopus
7. Phylum
Echinodermata
The
Echinoderms
(spinny-skinned
animals)
Have hard bodies covered
with spines, have no head
nor tail end, no left nor
right side, and has a body
design known as radial
symmetry.
Sea cucumber, sea
urchin, notched sand
dollar, starfish, sea
lilies, brittle stars, sun
star,
8. Phylum
Arthropoda
Arthropods
Animals with
Jointed Legs
All have exoskeleton which
they can get rid and replace
with a new one by the
process of molting. They have
segmented bodies: head,
thorax and abdomen
Crustaceans- water flea,
Cyclops, shrimp, spiny
rock lobster, barnacles,
crab, sand hopper,
fiddler crab, hermit crab
Arachnids- black widow
spider, wolf spider, orb
weaving spider, tick,
tarantula, whip
scorpion, scorpion,
harvest man
Millipedes- have two
pairs of legs for each
body segment
Centipedes- have one pair
of legs for each body
segment
Insects - mosquitoes, fly,
grasshopper, aphids


The Animal Kingdom
II. PHYLUM CHORDATA
General Characteristics:
1. Mostly high developed animals, associated with vertebrates or backbone.
2. Generally share certain characteristics that are present in any stage of life. These
are the presence of notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, gill slit, and the post-
anal tail.

A. LOWER CHORDATES :
1. Acorn worm - wormlike animals with the notochord found only in the head
2. Tunicates these are attached, saclike animals. The notochord appears only in
the larva
3. Lancelets these fishlike animals contain a notochord running the whole length
of the body.

B. THE VERTEBRATES- these have notochord in the embryo which is replaced by a
backbone in the adult stage.

CLASSES OF VERTEBRATES
CLASSES GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS REPRESENTATIVE
ORGANISMS
1. Fishes



a. Jawless fishes

b. Cartilaginous
fishes
c. Bony fishes
Can be found in salty, fresh,
cold or hot water, most
have scales, lay eggs, cold
blooded.
-Have no jaws and paired
fins, have many gill slits
-have skeleton made up of
cartilage and grainy scales
- have skeleton made up of
both cartilage and bone, or
maybe completely bony




-hag fish, lampreys

Rays, skates, sharks

-milkfish, tilapia,
mackerel, trunkfish,
sea horse, globe fish,
flying fish, catfish,
lungfish, marine sun
fish
2. Amphibians Animals that are adapted to
life on land and in water.
They have gills during larval
stage and lungs during adult
stage.
Mud puppy, land
salamander, frog,
limbless caecilian

3. Reptiles These animals have lungs
throughout their lives and
are well adapted to life on
land. They are covered with
scales. Females lay eggs
with shells
Gecko (tuko), snake
(Boa), glass snake,
water monitor
(bayawak).
Chameleon,
crocodile, horned
toad, turtle
4. Birds These are warm-blooded
animals with bodies covered
with feathers. Feet are
covered with scales. They
have beaks and wings but
have no teeth. Females lay
hard shelled eggs.
Birds that cannot fly: kiwi,
ostrich, penguins,
Short distance flyers;
chicken, ducks
Flyers: maya, eagle,
long tailed nightjar,
marsh snipe,
5. Mammals





a. Monotremes


b. Marsupials




c. Eutherians

These warm-blooded
animals have fur or hair.
Their youngs are fed with
milk secreted by the
mammary glands. Most
have four limbs.
- the egg laying mammals


the pouched mammals




- the placental mammals






-duck-billed
platypus, spiny
anteater
-flying phalanger,
Tasmanian wolf,
kangaroo, koala
bears, wombats,
opossums
-man, shrews, bats,
dugong, whales,
dogs, cows, horses









SCIENCE 8 Quarter 4 Module 1 - THE ANIMAL KINGDOM

Name:__________________________________________ Score:________________
Year & Section: _____________________ Date: ________________

I. MULTIPLE CHOICES: Encircle the letter of the correct answer then, write it on the
space provided.
1. All chordates have this structure
a. Mammary glands c. Scales
b. Notochord, gill slits, dorsal nerve cord d. Wings
2. Animals without backbone
a. Starfishes b. Jelly fishes c. Sharks d. insects
3. Arthropods: a. Houseflies b. flatworms c. Spiders d. Centipede
4. Can be found in cnidarians
a. Body cavity b. Stinging cells c. Jointed legs d. tentacles
5. Worms: a. ascaris b. liver fluke c. Leech d. millipede
6. Can be found in Echinoderms:
a. Tube feet b. Spines c. Notochord d. bilateral symmetry
7. Mollusks: a. clams b. Snails c. squid d. sea squirt
8. They form pearls
a. Sponges b. Oysters c. Corals c. Jelly fishes
9. Which one is the jawless fish?
a. Bangus b. sting ray c. lamprey d. tuna
10. Backbone: a. earthworm b. Insects c. Frog d. sponges
11. Fish: a. shark b. Milkfish c. Sea horse d. starfish
12. Egg-laying animals coated with shell
a. Birds b. Fishes c. Sharks d. Insects
13. Placental mammals
a. Kangaroos b. Monkeys c. Rats d. whales
14. Which of the animals below has the same symmetry as the butterfly?
a. Jellyfish b. Snail c. Squid d. Crab
15. Which pair of animals has the same kind of skeleton?
a. Spider and jellyfish c. crab and bird
b. Fish and bird d. starfish and shrimp
16. These are all marine organisms
a. Stinging animals c. segmented worms
b. flatworms d. soft-bodied animals
17. They are animals with mantle that secretes substance to form shell
a. Stinging animals c. flatworms
b. segmented worms d. soft-bodied animals
18. Cartilaginous fish has skeleton made of soft, flexible protein. Which one is a
cartilaginous?
a. Hag fish b. Sharks c. globe fish d. sea horse
19. They live partly in water and partly on land and lays eggs without shell. Which
group are them?
a. Fishes b. amphibians c. reptiles d. birds
20. They are reptiles that are enclosed and protected by shell and the females
come to shore to lay eggs,
a. Ducks and penguins c. turtles and tortoise
b. gold fish and tilapia d. frogs and toads
21. This class of vertebrates has hollow and light bones, have beaks, and are warm
blooded organisms
a. mammals b. reptiles c. amphibians d. birds
22. Dugong is what kind of mammal?
a. Aquatic b. flying c. rodent d. trunk nosed
23. What is the reason for placing frog in a class different from that of dog and person?
a. The main respiratory organ of the frog is the lung
b. In, frog, the tongue is attached anteriorly while in dog and people, it is
attached posteriorly
c. Frog has a three-chambered heart while dog and man have four-
chambered hearts
d. The frog spends part of its development in water
24. What is the main reason for placing shrimp in a phylum different from that of
bird and people?
a. Shrimp has many appendages while person and bird only have two
b. Shrimp is aquatic while birds and people are not
c. People and birds have bilateral symmetry
d. The nerve chord is ventrally located in shrimp but dorsally located in
people and birds
25. Which pair of animals is most related?
a. Eagle and bat b. bat and dog c. whale and shark d. shark and eagle
II. SYNTHESIS: Essay Writing: 5points
In fifty words or more, express your concept on the difference/s
between egg-laying mammals, pouched mammal and placental mammal.







SCIENCE 8 Quarter 4 Module 1 - THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
key to correction
1) B
2) C
3) B
4) B
5) D
6) A
7) D
8) B
9) C
10) C
11) A
12) A
13) A
14) A
15) D
16) A
17) D
18) B
19) B
20) C
21) D
22) A
23) D
24) A
25) B













SCIENCE 8 Quarter 4 Module 1 - THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
key to correction
1) B
2) C
3) B
4) B
5) D
6) A
7) D
8) B
9) C
10) C
11) A
12) A
13) A
14) A
15) D
16) A
17) D
18) B
19) B
20) C
21) D
22) A
23) D
24) A














key to correction
1) B
2) C
3) B
4) B
5) D
6) A
7) D
8) B
9) C
10) C
11) A
12) A
13) A
14) A
15) D
16) A
17) D
18) B
19) B
20) C
21) D
22) A
23) D
24) A
25) B