Sei sulla pagina 1di 92

Canopy Connections 2014

Students as Scientists

Developed by:
Justin Arios, Brandon Aye,
Jennifer Beard, Cassandra Hahn,
Megan Hanson, Tanner Laiche,
Hannah Mitchel, Christine Potter,
Meghan Quinn, and Christina Stumbo





Table of Contents

Acknowledgements.....1
Introduction2
Finding Our Place...3
A Scientist is Born...15
Riddle Me This...19
To Affinity with Nature and Beyond........22
Discovering the Old Growth: Plant I.D. and Biodiversity .........25
Riparian Zones and River Reflections............51
Stewardship in Action ....72
The Perfection of Reflection......80
HJ Andrews Stations Map..87
McKenzie River Hikes...88
Canopy Connections Sticker.90


Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Gray Fund of the Oregon Community Foundation, Steve Ellis,
and Debbie Jenson for their generous contributions to the 2014 Canopy Connections
Program. We would also like to thank the Pacific Tree Climbing Institute, in particular Rob
and Jason, for their dedication in creating a safe, challenging, and positive learning
environment in the tree. Thank you to HJ Andrews for hosting the field trip. Thank you Mark
Schultz and Kathy Keable (Queen of the Newts) for warm cups of coffee on cold mornings.
Katie Lynch and Jenny Crayne, thank you for your support, guidance, and constructive
feedback.

1
!"#$%&'(#)%"
Canopy ConnecLlons, led by a Leam of 10 undergraduaLe sLudenLs, ls a program Lhrough Lhe
unlverslLy of Cregon's LnvlronmenLal Leadershlp rogram ln parLnershlp wlLh 1he aclflc
1ree Cllmblng lnsLlLuLe (1Cl) and P! Andrews LxperlmenLal loresL. Worklng wlLh sclence
sLudenLs from 6 mlddle schools ln and around Lhe greaLer Lugene area, Lhe Leam developed
and faclllLaLed 7 pre-Lrlp classroom lessons and 8 mlddle school fleld Lrlps Lo P! Andrews.
Cn Lhese Lrlps, sLudenLs parLlclpaLed ln 4 sLaLlons cenLered around Lhe concepL of sLudenLs
as sclenLlsLs, Lhe Long 1erm Lcologlcal 8esearch (L1L8) program aL P! Andrews, an
lnLegraLlon of sclence, wrlLlng, and arLs, and connecLlng sLudenLs wlLh local naLural areas.
1he goal of Lhls program was Lo address naLure deflclL dlsorder, Lhe lncreaslng dlsconnecL of
people, especlally youLh, from Lhe naLural world, as sLaLed by 8lchard Louv.

SLudenLs as SclenLlsLs was Lhe overarchlng Lheme behlnd Lhe enLlreLy of Lhls year's Canopy
ConnecLlons currlculum. Lessons lncorporaLe currenL research aL P! Andrews, lncludlng an
acLlvlLy comparlng Lhe LemperaLures aL dlfferenL layers of Lhe foresL canopy. SLudenLs also
learned how Lo use a dlchoLomous key for planL ldenLlflcaLlon, [usL llke professlonal
boLanlsLs.

1he L1L8 program ls funded by Lhe naLlonal Sclence loundaLlon and lncludes research
pro[ecLs LhaL ofLen lasL up Lo 200 years. 1hls research pro[ecL ls parLnered wlLh Lhe Long
1erm Lcologlcal 8eflecLlons program, a humanlLles-based pro[ecL LhaL complemenLs Lhe
sclenLlflc vlewpolnL of Lhe 8esearch program. 1he undergraduaLe Leam lncorporaLed boLh of
Lhese programs lnLo Lhelr currlculum.

SLudenLs connecLed Lo place ln Lhe classroom lesson and fleld Lrlp Lhrough varlous mapplng
acLlvlLles showlng Lhe sLudenLs Lhelr locaLlon ln relaLlon Lo Lhe Mckenzle 8lver WaLershed,
Lhe drlnklng waLer for Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe schools. Lach sLudenL had Lhe opporLunlLy Lo
cllmb 90-feeL up lnLo Lhe canopy of an old growLh uouglas-flr, Cregon's sLaLe Lree, as
anoLher way Lo connecL Lo Lhe naLural world wlLh a blrd's eye vlew of Lhe foresL.

Canopy ConnecLlons uses a currlculum based on engaged pedagogy. 1hls lncludes lessons
LaughL uslng varlous learnlng Lheorles such as mulLlple lnLelllgences and lnqulry and an
lnLerdlsclpllnary approach. 1he Leam worked wlLh Lhe envlronmenLal educaLlon framework
lald ouL ln Lhe 1blllsl ueclaraLlon of Awareness, knowledge, Skllls, and ALLlLudes Lo spur
Soclal AcLlon. ln dolng so, Lhe Leam ls glvlng Lhe sLudenLs Lhe 4 key Lhlngs Lhey need ln order
full parLlclpaLe ln Lhe naLural world. 1he currlculum also complles wlLh Lhe framework lald
ouL by Lhe norLh Amerlcan AssoclaLlon for LnvlronmenLal LducaLlon. Whlle Lhese lessons
may be geared Loward Lhe Mckenzle 8lver WaLershed, Lhey have Lhe poLenLlal Lo be
adapLed Lo any oLher place.

2
Age Level:
6th-8th grade

Group Size:
16-36 students
2-5 facilitators
1 teacher

Time:
50 min

Themes:
Preparation
Introduction
Sense of place

Subjects:
Geography
Science

Concept:
This Lesson helps
connect many of the
students to the
source of their
drinking water, the
McKenzie River. It
also prepares and
excites them for their
upcoming fieldtrip.

Location:
Classroom

Objectives
By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
1. Describe the natural places they have been.
2. Define at least 2 terms relating to their field trip
3. Locate on a map of Oregon the location of HJ Andrews and
their school
4. List the materials they will need for their field trip.

Overview
This lesson introduces important concepts covered during the field
trip and uses activities to excite students about their upcoming field
trip to the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest. It involves an icebreaker
for introducing the students and the facilitators, a mapping activity to
instill a sense of place, a term matching activity to introduce content,
and a brief introduction to their field trip at HJ Andrews.
Rationale
These activities will give students an idea of where they are going on
their field trip and what they will be doing when they get there, giving
them the information they need to feel prepared to arrive at HJ
Andrews on their allotted day.

Materials
Finding Our Place
White butcher paper with an outline of Oregon or a printed
blank map to use with a document camera (if available)
Markers
Tape
Blank Oregon map handouts (attached at end of lesson)
Complete Oregon map for reference (attached at end of
lesson)
Fold up map of Oregon

Mingle Matching
Term/definition cards (attached at end of lesson)
Term/definition worksheets (print on back of blank Oregon
map)
Term/definition worksheet answer key
Finding Our Place
Developed by Hannah Mitchel & Meghan Quinn
3
Getting Ready
Before the pre-trip, draw an outline of Oregon on the white butcher paper, print out all materials,
and fill in one term/definition worksheet to use as an answer key.

Background
Finding Our Place
Before the lesson, facilitators should be familiar with different areas in the McKenzie watershed in
order to map them for the students: rivers (McKenzie, Willamette, Columbia), mountain ranges
(Coast, Cascade), major cities (Portland, Salem, Eugene), the location of the school being taught at,
and the location of HJ Andrews. They should also be able to locate the features in relation to each
other.
*Map attached for facilitators education and use.*

Activity Instructions

Part A. Popcorn: 8 minutes
1. Introductions (2 minutes)
a. Introduce yourself to the class, explaining your position as a student at the
University of Oregon and a member of the Canopy Connections team of the
Environmental Leadership Program. Let them know you will be present for their
upcoming field trip to HJ Andrews. Also mention one topic or course you have found
most interesting in college and your favorite activity in nature.

2. Popcorn (5 minutes)
a. Introduce the activity: This is a game called Popcorn. We also want to get to know
you all a little bit. We will ask some yes or no questions. If your answer is yes, youre
going to pop up out of your chair! Then, well randomly point to one person to tell
us about their experience with whatever that question is. Ask the students to
elaborate on their experience using their senses (how it smelled, felt, looked,
sounded).
b. Possible questions for the students:
i. Have you ever been camping?
1. Elaborations: Where did you go camping? What was the most
exciting thing you saw there?
ii. Have you visited a river?
1. Elaborations: Which rivers have you been to? Were they different
from each other? How?
iii. Have you climbed a tree?
1. Elaborations: Do you know what kind of tree it was? What was that
experience like? What did you see or hear or feel high up in the tree?
iv. Have you ever built a fort or tree house?
1. Elaborations: What did you make it out of? Where did you find those
materials?
v. Can you name a species of tree found in forests?
4
1. Elaborations: Which tree can you name? Can anyone else name any
more?
vi. Have you swum in the McKenzie?
1. Elaborations: How was your swim? What did the water feel like
[cold!]? Would you do it again?
vii. Have you kept a nature journal?
1. Elaborations: Where was your favorite place youve ever journaled
and why?
viii. Have you been to HJ Andrews Experimental Forest?
1. Elaborations: What was the coolest thing you saw there?

3. Wrap (1 minute)
a. Let the students know that these things are similar to what they might be doing on
their HJ Andrews field trip, but explain in more detail in Part D.

Part B- Finding Our Place: 20 minutes
1. Explain the activity and hand out materials (2 minutes)
a. One facilitator will tell students they will be figuring out where their field trip
destination is located in relation to other major features of Oregon. Each student
will receive a blank map to fill out as the class fills in the large map. The personal
maps are a tool for students to help them process the information because they
may need this information for the field trip. (A similar mapping activity is done at HJ
Andrews during the Stewardship in Action station.)
b. At the same time, another facilitator will pass out blank maps of Oregon to all of the
students.

2. Brainstorm (3 minutes)
a. Have the students brainstorm what types of things go on a map. Ideas include:
i. Title, compass, mountains, rivers, cities, lakes, etc
b. Then ask what to put on the map first (title or compass)

3. Fill out the maps (15 minutes)
a. Starting with a title and the compass, have student volunteers come up and place
each feature on the map. You should have a reference map at the front of the class
to assist students in placing features on the map and to make sure the map is as
accurate as possible. Keep going until you have at least these features on the map:
i. Mountain Ranges (Coast and Cascade)
ii. Rivers (McKenzie, Willamette, Columbia, Siuslaw)
iii. Major Cities (Portland, Salem, Eugene, plus the city the school is located)
iv. Continue to add any other features the students want until there is only time
to put HJ Andrews. Finish by introducing HJ Andrews as the location of the
field trip, noting the distance from their school and the proximity to the
McKenzie River, especially if the class is in the Eugene/Springfield area and
drinks water from the McKenzie.
v. One facilitator should walk around the room as volunteers fill in the large
map to make sure students are filling in their personal map.
5

Part C- Mingle Matching: 15 minutes
1. Explanation (2 minutes)
a. Explain to students that there are some terms that would be useful for them to
know in preparation for their field trip. Each student should receive a slip with either
a term (in all caps) or a definition (in lowercase). When you give the signal, students
will stand up and mingle around the classroom to find the correct term/definition to
go along with their definition/term. Make sure to let them know they can use their
worksheets to help them narrow down their options. Once their slips are matched,
they will sit down in pairs to go over the answers.
b. One facilitator passes out definition and term slips. Be sure to pass out complete
pairs (every term has a definition and visa-versa). If there are an odd number of
students, a facilitator can join in on the activity.

2. Mingle (7 minutes)
a. Give the signal for the students to mill about the room, trying to find the match to
their term/definition. Roam around, answer questions, guide students in the right
direction through inquiry, and help them use the terms/definitions and their
worksheet to figure out the correct match.

3. Review (5 minutes)
a. Once all the students find the partner for their term/definition, and the pairs are
sitting down together, go down the worksheet and have the students read out the
matches they found. Then ask the class using thumbs up/down/sideways if they
agree, disagree, or are unsure whether the term and the definition match correctly.
Verify whether or not the definition and term were matched correctly and have the
students fill out their worksheet as the class gives the correct answers verified by
the facilitators.
i. Optional: if the classroom has a document camera, a facilitator can fill out a
worksheet with the students and display it.
b. After going over all of the terms and definitions, tell the students these terms will be
used on their field trip as they learn about old growth, riparian, and canopy
ecosystems.
i. Optional: collect the maps/term sheets for evaluation.
ii.
Part D- Being Prepared: 7 minutes
1. Introduce HJ Andrews (1 minute)
a. Ask the students if they are familiar with HJ Andrews Experimental Forest.
i. If yes, what do they know about it (what kind of things happen there,
research-what kinds, LTER).
ii. If they do not know say, HJ Andrews Experimental Forest is just that, a
forest where scientists perform experiments. These experiments can even
be long-term, lasting up to 200 years! [More depth will be covered during
the field trip.]
6

2. Introduce the field trip activities (1.5 minutes)
a. Have the students guess what they will be doing in the forest based on the popcorn
game and matching activity
b. Tell the class the 4 station concepts (riparian ecology, study of canopy layers,
stewardship and survival skills, biodiversity and plant identification)

3. Introduce theme of Students As Scientists (1.5 minutes)
a. Using inquiry, ask:
i. Q: What is a scientist?
1. A: a scientist is someone who is studying or has expert knowledge in
the natural or physical sciences.
ii. Q: What is the scientific method?
1. The scientific method is a method of research where a problem is
identified and research is conducted, data is found to create a
hypothesis and then test it.
b. Reveal they will be working as scientists when they go out into the field for their
upcoming trip and they will be working in the same area as major scientists in the
United States.
c. Segue by telling the students just as scientists always prepare for a day out in the
field, so should they.

4. Physical preparation (2 minutes)
a. Ask the students what sorts of things theyll need to be ready for their day in the
field.
i. Physical things: rain coat, close toed shoes, camera, lunch, snacks, water
ii. Mental state: open mind, thirst for adventure, willingness to try something
new

5. Wrap (1 minute)
a. Tell the students how excited you are to see them on the day of their field trip
[include the specific date] to learn about old growth forests!
i. Ridgeline Montessori Public Charter School: Thursday, May 1st.
ii. Roosevelt Middle School: Friday May 2nd.
iii. McKenzie Middle School: Thursday May 8th.
iv. Siuslaw Middle School: Friday May 9th.
v. Prairie Mountain School: Thursday May 15th, Friday May 16th, or Friday
May 23
rd

vi. Fern Ridge Middle School: Thursday May 22nd.


7
SPECIES COMPOSITION





SPECIES ABUNDANCE




EVERGREEN





TEMPERATE




CONIFER





BIODIVERSITY
the different species in a biological community





the number of members of a species existing in a
specific location




a plant that retains green leaves throughout the year





a region or climate characterized by mild temperatures




a tree where seeds are produced inside of cones




variation in life; can be genetic or within species or
ecosystems.
8
GEOMORPHOLOGY





MICROCLIMATE





ECOSYSTEM





DISTURBANCE




PIONEER SPECIES




OLD GROWTH
the study of landforms and processes that change
landscapes




the climate of a very small or restricted area, especially
when it is different from the surrounding areas





a biological community of interacting organisms and
their physical environment



an event that occurs quickly and creates a significant
change in an ecosystem




the first type of species that established itself in an area
where nothing was growing




the final, most stable stage of a forest ecosystem
9
FOREST FLOOR




UNDERSTORY




CANOPY





SUCCESSION





RIPARIAN ZONE






the lowest layer in a mature forest; consists of decaying
plant matter and a variety of decomposers



the middle layer in a mature forest; consists of the
plant life that does not breach the canopy




the top layer of mature forests; consists of tree crowns
and the organisms that live there




predictable and orderly changes in the composition or
structure of an ecological community




habitat along a river where the soil and water interact






10
KEY FOR REVIEWING MATCHING GAME

1. Species Composition: the different species represented in a biological community
2. Species Abundance: the number of members of a species existing in a specific location
3. Evergreen: a plant that retains green leaves throughout the year
4. Temperate: a region or climate characterized by mild temperatures
5. Pioneer Species: the first type of species that established itself in an area where nothing was
growing
6. Geomorphology: the study of landforms and the processes that change landscapes
7. Microclimate: the climate of a very small or restricted area, especially when it different from the
surrounding areas
8. Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
9. Succession: predictable and orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological
community
10. Biodiversity: variation in life; can be genetic or within species or ecosystems
11. Conifer: a tree where seeds are produced inside of cones
12. Disturbance: an event that occurs quickly and creates a significant change in an ecosystem
13. Old Growth: the final, most stable stage of a forest ecosystem
14. Forest Floor: the lowest layer in a mature forest; consists of decaying plant matter and
decomposers
15. Understory: the middle layer in a mature forest; consists of plant life that does not breach the
canopy
16. Canopy: the top layer of mature forests; consists of tree crowns and the organisms that live
there
17. Riparian Zone: habitat along a river where the soil and water interact

11


12
Term Matching Worksheet
Directions: Match the letter of the definition with the term in the left column

___1. Species Richness
___2. Species Abundance
___3. Evergreen
___4. Temperate
___5. Pioneer Species
___6. Geomorphology
___7. Microclimate
___8. Ecosystem
___9. Succession
___10. Biodiversity
___11. Conifer
___12. Disturbance
___13. Old Growth
___14. Forest Floor
___15. Understory
___16. Canopy
___17. Riparian Zone

A. Habitat along a river where soil and water interact
B. A biological community of interacting organisms and
their physical environment
C. a plant that retains green leaves throughout the year
D. Predictable and orderly changes in the composition or
structure of an ecological community
E. The different species represented in a biological
community
F. The study of landforms and the processes that make
landscapes
G. an event that occurs quickly and creates a significant
change in an ecosystem
H. The middle layer in a mature forest; consists of plant life
that does not breach the canopy
I. The climate of a very small or restricted area, especially
when it differs from the surrounding areas
J. A region or climate characterized by mild temperatures
K. Variation in life; can be genetic or within species or
ecosystems
L. The top layer in a mature forest; consists of tree crowns
and the organisms that live there
M. a tree where seeds are produced inside of cones
N. How rare a species is relative to other species in a
specific location
O. The first type of species that established itself in an area
where nothing was growing
P. The lowest layer in a mature forest; consists of decaying
plant matter and decomposers
Q. the final, most stable stage of a forest ecosystem


13




14
Age Level:
6th-8th grade

Group Size:
16-36 students
4 facilitators

Time:
20-30 minutes

Themes:
Safety
Observation

Subjects:
Performing Arts
Safety

Concept:
This lesson introduces
the students to the
field trip and reviews
the concepts of
science in preparation
for the days events.

Location:
HJ Andrews
Experimental Forest

Objectives
Before leaving for the first station, students will be able to:
1. List the safety guidelines that they will follow through the
field trip.
2. Articulate what science is and why it is important.

Overview
A Scientist is Born is an introduction to H.J Andrews Experimental
Forest, the student facilitators, our community partners, and the
safety guidelines for the field trip. It also makes the students aware of
the importance of natural science, and familiarizes them with the
scientific observation that they will be doing throughout the day.
Lastly, the one handed tag game helps the students practice their
observational skills.

Rationale
Introducing the students to the team leaders and community
partners will help them connect to the people that are facilitating
their learning experience. As well, keeping the students safe during
the field trip is the most important part of an informative and
productive experience. Lastly, by discussing the importance of science
and practicing scientific observation, the students will be more
knowledgeable about the role they will be playing in the field trip,
and more excited to participate.

Materials
40 hardhats
1 roll of duct tape
4 sharpies

Getting Ready
Prior to the arrival of students, the facilitators will write each student
and chaperones name on a piece of tape and place it on the hard
hats, which are color coded to the 4 different field groups. Arrange
the hard hats in a large circle in the staging area. Group each color
together so it comprises of the total circle size. The teacher is
responsible for dividing the class into field groups and giving this list
to the facilitators before his field trip date. Choose one facilitator to
lead the introductions and safety guidelines in the large group. Lastly,
A Scientist is Born
Developed by Justin Arios and Tanner Laiche
15
review compass use and how to take a compass bearing. This is covered in the background for
Riddle Me This.

Background
HJ Andrews Experimental Forest is an old growth forest managed by the USDA Forest Services
Pacific Northwest Research Station, Oregon State University, and the Willamette National Forest. It
is used both for scientific research and environmental education. Current research includes
hydrology, stream ecology, climate science, forest disturbance, decomposition, biodiversity,
creative writing, and much more. The scientists that are currently conducting research at HJ
Andrews that will be referenced throughout this field trip are Charlie Halpern and his research on
the biodiversity of plants, Judy Li and her research on insect diversity, Stan Gregory and his research
on woody debris in streams and aquatic food webs, and Nicole Czarnosmski and her research on
riparian ecology. HJ Andrews is one of the 26 major ecosystem research sites funded through NSFs
Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program and is 1 of the 81 USDA Experimental Forests.
Established in 1948, HJ Andrews covers a wide variety of mixed old growth conifers and mature
forests. This area gives students a great opportunity to experience all that an old growth forest has
to offer.

Activity Instructions
1. Arrival: (5 minutes)
a. When the school bus arrives have 3 facilitators meet the students as they are exiting
the bus and direct them towards the staging area. Ask the students to find their
hard hat and stand behind it.
b. One facilitator will greet the teacher and ask for the student roster and the student
permission slips. Make note of who cannot climb the tree and who cannot be
photographed.
c. The member who is not facilitating that week will greet the chaperones exiting the
bus and direct them away from the staging area. They will inform the chaperones of
their role and responsibilities for the field trip and discuss the expected guidelines
for their interactions with the students throughout the field trip. The dialogue
should include the following:
i. Thank the chaperones for the participation with the field trip.
ii. Explain that they are expected to follow all safety guidelines assigned to the
students.
iii. They should remain at the back of the group at all times to make sure
students don't wander off or get left behind.
iv. If a student is injured or has to use the restroom they will be expected to
chaperone that student back to the staging area so the student facilitator
can stay with the group.
v. If is student cannot climb the tree then it is their responsibility to facilitate
that student on a guided nature walk
vi. During the discussions and inquiry they should help guide the students in
their critical thinking instead of providing answers to the questions.
vii. They need to realize that the facilitators focus is always on the students so
they should try to avoid unnecessary distractions.
16
viii. Chaperones may not be able to climb the tree, since there is limited space
for ropes and they may be needed to facilitate for those who cannot climb.
d. Once all students are at the staging area, a facilitator loudly says if anyone needs to
go to the bathroom, now is the time to do so and you can follow me to the
restrooms!

2. Introduction (5 minutes)
a. Once all students are back at the staging area, the 4 facilitators introduce
themselves including their name, what they are studying, reason they joined the
ELP, why they love nature, and what their looking forward too on the field trip.
b. Next, the head facilitator introduces the program partners or gives them the
opportunity to introduce themselves.
c. Then the head facilitator asks the students what their schools safety and behavioral
guidelines are. Once they have had the chance to list these guidelines, the head
facilitator will tell them that these are the same guidelines that apply to this field
trip, in addition to any important safety rules not listed. They are expected to follow
forest-ethic guidelines the following forest ethic guidelines:
i. Minimize any damage to plants by not picking leaves or flowers.
ii. Pack out all trash from the forest.
iii. Stay on the trail.
d. Be sure to ask students why they think hard hats must be worn. (fallen debris could
fall on your head)

3. Discussion (10 minutes)
a. Following the introduction to the safety guidelines, the large group will break up
into the four separate field groups. The facilitators will do an ice-breaker activity by
asking the students to introduce themselves to the group and to provide a short
story of their favorite experience in nature.
b. After student introductions, the facilitator will briefly explain compass navigation. To
evaluate their knowledge, the leader will state a compass bearing and have the
students point in that direction.
i. Every compass works in a unique way. So, ensure that you understand how
the compass you have works.
c. The facilitators will cover their groups specific agenda for the day.
d. Each facilitator will once again briefly explain the purpose of HJ Andrews
Experimental Forest and the research that is occurring here.
e. Then the facilitator will open up the environment for discussion by asking:
i. Q: Does anyone know what science is?
1. A: science is the study of the structure and behavior of the natural
world through observation and experimentation.
ii. Q: That being said, what do you all think scientists do?
1. A: Scientists are the people that try to understand the natural world
through observation and experimentation.
iii. Q: Why do you all think science important?
17
1. A: Science is important because it relates to our everyday lives;
without it we would not have any understanding of the world around
us.

4. Observation Game (If time permits) (5-10 minutes)
a. If there is time, the facilitator will tell the students that we are going to do an
activity to help us practice our scientific observation skills.
b. Tell the students that we will be playing one handed tag. To play this game the
students must place one hand behind their back, with an open palm. In order to
successfully tag another player, they must use their free hand to tag the open hand
behind another players back. If you get your hand tagged you must stop, kneel
down, and raise your hand. A player is only back in the game when another player
that is still alive slaps their hand.
i. This game practices observation because you must be aware of the other
students around you, both to tag their hands and also to prevent your hand
from being tagged.
c. If it is raining, you may skip this game and spend more time under the pavilion
discussing the importance of science.


18
Age Level:
6th-8th grade

Group Size:
6-8 students
1 facilitator

Time:
5 minutes at the end
of each station

Themes:
Observation
Compass Skills
Critical Thinking

Subjects:
Language Arts
Outdoor Education

Concept:
This lesson helps
connect many of the
students to the
source of their
drinking water, the
McKenzie River. It
also prepares and
excites them for their
upcoming fieldtrip.

Location:
HJ Andrews
Experimental Forest

Objectives
After reading each riddle, the students will be able to:
1. Discuss what they learned at the previous station.
2. Be able to take a compass bearing.

Overview
This activity encourages observational skills while transitioning
between stations. The students are encouraged to search for hidden
riddles that reflect on the skills or knowledge learned at the previous
station. As well, this activity allows the students to practice taking
compass bearings, which is an important skill to have when exploring
nature.

Rationale
Within the forest, there are many things that will go unnoticed. Being
able to notice these subtle variations within the forest is a skill that is
acquired by practice. In addition, questing for hidden objects is a
great way to keep the students engaged during a long day of learning.
It builds a collaborative team atmosphere and makes the students
practice their observational skills, a key component to being a
scientist. Lastly, the clues also demonstrate that each lesson is linked
to the station before and after.

Materials
Colored paper (blue, purple, yellow, and green)
String
6 or more compasses
Riddles written on laminated and colored pieces of paper
(attached at end of lesson)
6 small cups

Getting Ready
Before students arrive, place hide riddles just off the trail after each
station. Stewardship in Action and To Affinity and Beyond should
have 2 riddles hidden, one on the way to the next station and the
other on the way to the pavilion. Once hidden, walk 50-100 feet
down the trail and take a compass bearing on the riddle. Write the
bearing on the colored paper corresponding to the station and hang it
in a tree next to where you took the bearing.
Riddle Me This
Developed by Justin Arios and Tanner Laiche
19

Green: Tree Climb: To Affinity With Nature and Beyond
Yellow: Discovering the Old Growth: Plant I.D. and Biodiversity
Blue: Riparian Zones and River Reflections
Purple: Stewardship in Action

Background
Compass directions are given in degrees based on the degrees of a circle. North is 0 or 360, east is
90, south is 180, and west is 270. These angles can be used as bearings to navigate with a
compass in the direction you want to travel. A bearing is the angle measured clockwise from north
to your destination.

To take a bearing, hold the compass flat in your hand with the direction of travel arrow point
away from your body. Rotate the compass dial until the orienteering arrow lines up with north on
the magnetic needle. This is also known as putting red in the shed. The bearing is the degree on
the compass dial that lines up with the direction of travel arrow. To find the direction of a bearing
when given one, rotate the compass dial until the given bearing degree lines up with the direction
of travel arrow. Holding the compass flat with the direction of travel arrow point away from your
body, rotate your body until the magnetic north arrow lines up with the orienteering arrow.

Activity Instructions
1. Explain to the students that between each of the stations, they will find a compass bearing
written on a brightly colored piece of paper. The papers are partially hidden so the students
must actively observe the landscape in order to locate them.

2. Once the students locate the paper, they will take the compass bearing written upon it. The
bearing points them towards a hidden cup with a riddle inside, related to the previous
station. The group will work together to decode the riddle and answer the evaluation
question being asked.

3. The leader will facilitate this group discussion in route to the next station.

4. At the end of the day ask them to expand on how the riddles related to each other, and to
the overall theme of the day.








20
.8;8/+: >/@@'# !:4=#*
SLewardshlp
ln AcLlon
(purple)

8%,92" -.230'"' /0 .7" :%%'- 30' ;,-. -&"0'
.7" 0/<7.=
8%, 0""' 3 -3>" &$36" .% $3* -% *%, 630 -$""&
./<7.=
1 -7"$."2 :/$$ &2%#/'" 6%;>%2. >2%; 673$$"0<"-
*%, >36"=
?%: 630 *%, ),/$' /. :/.7%,. $"3#/0< 3 .236"@


Leave whaL you flnd: redlsLrlbuLe
Lhe debrls among Lhe foresL Lo
resemble Lhe way you found lL as
close as posslble and do noL cuL
down any llvlng planLs

1o AfflnlLy
WlLh
naLure and
8eyond
(green)
1- *%, ;%#" ,& .7" .2"" *%,2 &"2-&"6./#" :/$$
6730<"=
47/0<- :/$$ $%%A '/>>"2"0.= .7/0<- :/$$ $%%A
-.230<"=
B367 $3*"2 %> .7" >%2"-. 73- -%;".7/0< ,0/C,"=
D30 *%, 03;" .:% %> .7" 6730<"- /0 :7/67 E
-&"3A@

1emperaLure geLs colder as you
go up lnLo Lhe canopy, E+*#48
E'++* ls woody debrls, small ferns
and shrubs (llke sword fern, salal
and Cregon grape), ,:@#*48+*A ls
seedllngs and sapllngs of canopy
Lrees LogeLher wlLh speclallsL
undersLory shrubs and herbs (llke
paclflc yew), leaf slze of Lhe Lrees
ln Lhe undersLory Lend Lo be large
so Lhey can maxlmlze Lhe amounL
of sunllghL Lhey can Lake ln and
use as energy Lo grow, and Lhe
7;:+-A ls adulL Lrees such as
uouglas-flr, wesLern red-cedar
and wesLern hemlock, leaf slze up
ln Lhe canopy Lends Lo be smaller
because Lhey are able Lo recelve
more dlrecL sunllghL so Lhey don'L
need Lo wasLe Lhe energy on
creaLlng large leave

ulscoverlng
Lhe Cld
CrowLh
(yellow)
F" $/#" %>> %> .7" :3."2= -,0= 30' $30'=
F" &2%#/'" -7"$."2 30' >%%' >%2 )%.7 30/;3$-
30' 7,G;30H=
8%, 630 %0$* >/0' ,- .72%,<7%,. .7" I6J"0K/"=
D30 *%, 03;" L %> ;"@

Moss, llchen, sword fern, Cregon
grape, salal, vlne maple, aclflc
yew, blg leaf maple, wesLern
hemlock, wesLern red-cedar,
uouglas-flr

8lparlan
Zones and
8lver
8eflecLlons
(blue)
F73. "6%$%</63$ -"2#/6"- '% E &2%#/'"@
F"$$ >/2-. *%, ;,-. A0%: :7% 3; E
E 3; .7" K%0" )".:""0 :3."2 30' $30'
F7"2" .7" .2""- 30' &$30.- .73. &2%."6. .7" 2/#"2
-.30'M

PablLaLs, mlcrocllmaLes, nuLrlenLs
for aquaLlc organlsms,
soll/nuLrlenL reLenLlon, sLable
waLer LemperaLure (provldes
shade)


21
!"# %#&#'(
6
Lh
-8
Lh
grade
)*+,- ./0#(
6-8 sLudenLs
1 faclllLaLor
1/2#(
73 mlnuLes
13#2#4(
loresL canopy ecology
SclenLlflc observaLlon
.,56#784(
Sclence
9+:7#-84(
CbservaLlon skllls Lo
beLLer undersLand Lhe
dlverslLy of organlsms
wlLhln Lhe foresL, as
well as undersLand
Lhe ecologlcal
changes ln Lhe
dlfferenL layers of Lhe
foresL canopy.
ueveloplng a closer
relaLlonshlp Lo naLure
Lhrough subllme
experlence, sllenL
observaLlon, and
physlcal
connecLedness.
%+7;8/+:(
P! Andrews
LxperlmenLal loresL


<56#78/&#4
8y Lhe end of Lhe Lree cllmb, sLudenLs wlll be able Lo:
1. Lxplaln why sllenL observaLlon ls lmporLanL when
experlenclng naLural places.
2. uescrlbe Lhe changes ln LemperaLure and foresL sLrucLure
Lhey observed whlle ascendlng and descendlng Lhe Lree.

<&#*&/#=
1o AfflnlLy wlLh naLure and 8eyond" glves sLudenLs Lhe opporLunlLy
Lo experlence Lhe subllme whlle ascendlng a 90-fooL Lall uouglas-flr
Lree. 1he lesson ls deslgned Lo bulld an afflnlLy for naLure Lhrough
hands on experlenLlal learnlng. LasLly, Lhe sLudenLs wlll geL Lo dlscuss
and reflecL on Lhelr experlence Lhrough a group dlscusslon of Lhelr
lndlvldual emoLlonal and physlcal observaLlons.

8;8/+:;'#
1he subllme experlence LhaL cllmblng a 90-fooL Lall uouglas-flr Lree
provldes ls a greaL way Lo bulld a connecLlon beLween Lhe sLudenLs
and naLure. ln relaLlon Lo Lhls, Lhelr lndlvldual experlences can
moLlvaLe Lhe sLudenLs Lo Lake soclal acLlon for Lhe preservaLlon of old
growLh foresLs. LasLly, Lhe canopy of an old growLh foresL ls a greaL
seLLlng ln whlch Lo do a sllenL slL-spoL acLlvlLy and Lo learn abouL
foresL sLrucLure.

>;8#*/;'4
3 LhermomeLers
SLrlng
Cllmblng gear (provlded by Lhe aclflc 1ree Cllmblng lnsLlLuLe)
lanLs of Lhe aclflc norLhwesL CoasL: WashlngLon, Cregon,
8rlLlsh Columbla, and Alaska by !lm o[ar and Andrew
Macklnnon

)#88/:" ?#;@A
Ask 1Cl Lo hang 2 LhermomeLers ln Lhe Lree aL approxlmaLely 33-40
feeL up Lhe Lree and aL Lhe Lop. 1he lasL LhermomeLer wlll be on Lhe
foresL floor near Lhe sLarL of Lhe Lree cllmb.

1+ !BB/:/8A =/83 C;8,*# ;:@ D#A+:@
!"#"$%&"' )* +,-./0 12/%- 3 4500"2 65/78"
22
D;7E"*+,:@
1he 3 varylng levels of Lhe foresL have mulLlple characLerlsLlcs LhaL make Lhem unlque from each
oLher. 1he besL way Lo explore Lhe dlfferenL layers of Lhe foresL ls Lo experlence Lhe varlances flrsL-
hand. 1he 3 layers of Lhe foresL LhaL Lhe sLudenLs wlll encounLer durlng Lhe cllmb lnclude Lhe foresL
floor, Lhe undersLory, and Lhe canopy. A fourLh layer ls Lhe emergenL layer, whlch ls above Lhe
canopy. CharacLerlsLlcs of Lhe 3 levels of foresL canopy sLrucLure lnclude:

F+*#48 B'++*( WarmesL ln LemperaLure, conslsLs of malnly woody debrls, small ferns and shrubs (llke
sword fern, salal and Cregon grape).

G:@#*48+*A( Mlddle LemperaLure, conslsLs of seedllngs and sapllngs of canopy Lrees LogeLher wlLh
speclallsL undersLory shrubs and herbs (llke paclflc yew), leaf slze of Lhe Lrees ln Lhe undersLory Lend
Lo be large so Lhey can maxlmlze Lhe amounL of sunllghL Lhey can Lake ln and use as energy Lo grow.

9;:+-A( ColdesL LemperaLure, conslsLs of adulL Lrees such as uouglas flr, wesLern red cedar and
wesLern hemlock, leaf slze up ln Lhe canopy Lends Lo be smaller because Lhey are able Lo recelve
more dlrecL sunllghL so Lhey don'L need Lo wasLe Lhe energy on creaLlng large leave.

!78/&/8A H:48*,78/+:4
1. <*/#:8;8/+: (3 mlnuLes)
a. CaLher Lhe sLudenLs around Lhe flre plL.
b. laclllLaLe a dlscusslon wlLh Lhe sLudenLs abouL Lhe beneflLs of observlng Lhe canopy
of Lhe foresL ln sllence. Culde Lhe dlscusslon Lowards Lhe polnL LhaL belng quleL wlll
help Lhe sLudenLs fully experlence Lhe acLlvlLy wlLhouL Lhe dlsLracLlons of soclal
lnLeracLlon.
c. uescrlbe LhaL aL dlfferenL levels of Lhe foresL Lhere are LhermomeLers hanglng. AL
each of Lhese locaLlons Lhe sLudenLs need Lo sLop and Lake menLal noLes on Lhe
LemperaLure, planL dlverslLy, slze of planLs, and Lhe slze and sLrucLure of leaves. 1he
leader should also sLaLe LhaL once aL Lhe Lop of Lhe Lree, everyone wlll quleLly
observe Lhe landscape for abouL 3 mlnuLes.
d. Pave 1Cl lnLroduce Lhemselves. 1Cl wlll faclllLaLe Lhe cllmblng porLlon of Lhe
sLaLlon and Lhey wlll go over Lhe safeLy procedures for Lhe Lree cllmb. uurlng Lhls
Llme Lhe faclllLaLors need Lo check all sLudenL release forms Lo make sure each
sLudenL ls allowed Lo cllmb.
l. lf Lhe sLudenL lsn'L allowed Lo cllmb Lhe Lree, Lhe chaperone wlll faclllLaLe
Lhe sLudenL on a naLure hlke Lhrough Lhe foresL. 1he sLudenL leader wlll glve
Lhe chaperone Lhe planL ldenLlflcaLlon book LhaL Lhey are carrylng and wlll
ask Lhem Lo lead Lhe sLudenLs Lhrough Lhe foresL, (maklng sure Lo sLay on
Lhe Lralls and noL geL losL) and help Lhe sLudenLs ldenLlfy planLs and observe
naLure.

2. )#8 "#;*#@ ,- (10 mlnuLes)
a. 1Cl wlll go over Lhe equlpmenL and how lL ls used.
b. 8efore Lhe sLudenLs geL on Lhe scaffoldlng, Lhey should observe Lhe LemperaLure
and Lhe characLerlsLlcs of Lhe foresL floor. When groups of 2 are geLLlng harnessed
Lo Lhe ropes, Lhe nexL groups can Lake Lhls down Llme Lo make Lhelr observaLlons.
23
c. 1Cl wlll walL unLll everyone has Lhelr gear on and Lhen begln Lo harness Lhe
sLudenLs Lo Lhe Lree ln groups of 2. 1he leader should be Lhe flrsL person Lo cllmb
Lhe Lree Lo encourage Lhe sLudenLs Lo cllmb. Powever, lf a sLudenL cannoL make lL Lo
Lhe Lop Lell Lhem LhaL lL ls ok. Lncourage Lhe sLudenL Lo go aL Lhelr own pace. Make
you way Lo Lhe Lop Lo conducL Lhe slL spoL acLlvlLy.
l. 1Cl wlll make Lhe sLudenLs feel comforLable ln Lhls challenglng
envlronmenL.

3. !47#:4/+: ;:@ +54#*&;8/+: (30-33 mlnuLes)
a. Cnce Lhe sLudenLs sLarL cllmblng, Lhe leader needs Lo observe Lhe sLudenLs Lo make
sure LhaL Lhey are followlng Lhe safeLy guldellnes. 1hey also need Lo make sure Lhe
sLudenLs sLop aL each LhermomeLer Lo observe Lhe changes.
b. Cnce everyone ls aL Lhe Lop of Lhe Lree, sLop Lo do a slL-spoL acLlvlLy, allowlng Lhe
sLudenLs Lo observe Lhe landscape ln sllence for a 3 mlnuLes. 1ell Lhem Lo pay
aLLenLlon Lo all Lhelr senses:
l. WhaL do you see? WhaL do you smell? WhaL do Lhey you? LLc.
c. SeL a Llmer LhaL wlll go off afLer 3 mlnuLes of sllenL observaLlon. 1he sLudenLs should
noL speak unLll Lhe Llmer goes off.
d. 1ake plcLures aL Lhe Lop of Lhe Lree Lo commemoraLe Lhe sLudenLs experlence and
for Lhe flnal reporL.
e. AfLer 3 mlnuLes of sllence, have a dlscusslon abouL Lhelr observaLlons cllmblng up
Lhe Lree. Ask quesLlons such as:
l. WhaL dld you all observe?
ll. WhaL are your hypoLhesls for you observaLlons?
f. Ask Lhe sLudenLs whaL Lhe mosL en[oyable parL of Lhe Lree cllmb ls and faclllLaLe a
group dlscusslon and reflecLlon unLll lL ls Llme Lo descend Lhe Lree.
g. Make sure Lo observe any changes ln behavlor LhaL can be lndlcaLlve of CoyoLes
Culde 'lndlcaLors for Awareness".

4. I#47#:4/+: ;:@ "#88/:" +,8 +B "#;* (13 mlnuLes)
a. LeL 1Cl know when lL ls Llme Lo descend Lhe Lree.
b. Pave Lhe sLudenLs descend Lhe Lree safely followlng 1Cl lnsLrucLlons.
c. Cnce on Lhe ground, have 1Cl help sLudenLs geL ouL of Lhe gear.
d. ConLlnue Lo faclllLaLe a group dlscusslon abouL Lhelr experlence on Lhelr way Lo Lhe
nexL sLaLlon, up unLll Lhe group flnds Lhe rlddle hldden ln Lhe woods.

24
!"# %#&#'(
6
Lh
-8
Lh
grade
)*+,- ./0#(
6-8 sLudenLs
1 faclllLaLor
1/2#(
73 mlnuLes
13#2#4(
8lodlverslLy
.,56#784(
Sclence
Soclal SLudles
Language ArLs
vlsual ArLs
9+:7#-8(
1he dlverslLy of
organlsms ls parL of
Lhe naLural processes
essenLlal Lo Lhe
survlval of all llvlng
Lhlngs. Specles
dlverslLy, Lhe number
and varleLy of specles
ln an area, ls one
lndlcaLor of ecologlcal
healLh and changes ln
relaLlonshlp Lo foresL
sLrucLure and
complexlLy.

%+7;8/+:(
P! Andrews
LxperlmenLal loresL


<56#78/&#4
8y Lhe end of Lhls lesson, sLudenLs wlll be able Lo
1. use a dlchoLomous key
2. ldenLlfy aL leasL 6 planLs wlLhln Lhe Mckenzle 8lver waLershed
3. uescrlbe ln deLall 1 planL found ln Lhe old growLh
4. LlsL Lhe characLerlsLlcs of Lhe old growLh uslng Lhe acronym
CWLS
3. ulscuss aL leasL 1 reason why blodlverslLy ls lmporLanL ln Lhe
Mckenzle waLershed

<&#*&/#=
SLudenLs wlll explore Lhe composlLlon and sLrucLure of Lhe old
growLh, observlng how blodlverslLy changes ln dlfferenL areas of Lhe
foresL. SLudenLs use a dlchoLomous key as a sclenLlflc Lool Lo ldenLlfy
a planL specles, whlch Lhey wlll skeLch, use Lhelr senses Lo descrlbe,
and glve a brlef presenLaLlon Lo Lhe group. 1helr skllls ln observaLlon
are supplemenLed by lnformaLlonal cards, ouLllnlng Lhe range,
hablLaL, and culLural uses of Lhe planL Lhey presenL. 1he
characLerlsLlcs of Lhe old growLh foresL are ouLllned uslng Lhe
acronym CWLS: Cld, Woody, Layers, and Snags. SLudenLs use CWLS
Lo answer clues on a quesL Lhrough Lhe old growLh, leadlng Lo a flnal
dlscusslon on Lhe Lheme, blodlverslLy. SLudenLs are asked Lo crlLlcally
Lhlnk abouL how we can llve ln Lhe world ln a way Lo promoLe naLural
blodlverslLy.
>;8/+:;'#
Cregonlans have Lhe specLacular opporLunlLy Lo explore old growLh
foresLs. unforLunaLely, desplLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhere are old growLh
foresLs accesslble, many famllles mlss Lhe opporLunlLy Lo show Lhelr
chlldren Lhese magnlflcenL slLes. Mlddle school sLudenLs are aL Lhe
age where Lhey are beglnnlng Lo flnd Lhelr place ln Lhe world.
resenLlng new and Langlble concepLs ln an experlenLlal learnlng
space allows sLudenLs Lo explore Lhelr relaLlonshlp Lo Lhe naLural
world. lnLroduclng Lhe 4 characLerlsLlcs whlch deflne Lhe old growLh
(CWLS: Cld Lrees, Woody debrls, Layers, Snags) lnvlLes sLudenLs Lo
open Lhelr 'owl' eyes and engage Lhelr senses on a quesL Lo dlscover
each of Lhe componenLs of CWLS.
?/47+&#*/:" 83# <'@ )*+=83( A';:8 BC?C ;:@ D/+@/&#*4/8E
!"#"$%&"' )* +",,-."/ 0"1/' 1,' 2"31, 41,5%,
8lodlverslLy ls a leadlng Lheme ln Lhe long Lerm research aL P! Andrews. undersLandlng blodlverslLy
ls an lmporLanL aspecL ln recognlzlng ecologlcal healLh. Lngaglng sLudenLs ln experlenLlal learnlng as
sclenLlsLs bullds upon P.!. Andrews Long 1erm Lcologlcal 8esearch 1hemes whlle sLlmulaLlng
aLLlLudes of empaLhy, exclLemenL, and concern for Lhe envlronmenL and currenL envlronmenLal
lssues. Lxposure Lo kalapuya and Mollala planL names and uses llnks Lhe lesson Lo people and place.
F;8#*/;'4
lloot l.u. ooJ 8loJlvetslty
9 dlchoLomous keys (aLLached aL end of lesson)
8 sheeLs of paper (8lLe-n-8aln paper for weL days)
8 penclls
lanL cards (aLLached aL end of lesson)
llagglng

1be Ooest
4 quesL clues (aLLached aL end of lesson)
4 dlscusslon quesLlons
Wlcker baskeL (3 more wlcker baskeLs opLlonal)

)#88/:" >#;@E
lloot l.u. ooJ 8loJlvetslty
lamlllarlze yourself wlLh Lhe dlchoLomous key and Lhe specles lL ldenLlfles. WlLh flagglng, mark Lhe
planLs sLudenLs wlll key ouL.

1be Ooest
Plde all clues, excepL for clue 1 (woody debrls) along Lhe Lrall. Wlcker baskeLs provlde proLecLlon ln
Lhe raln.
Clue 2: Cld Lrees ls hldden ln woody debrls/nurse log
Clue 3: Snags ls hldden nexL Lo a snag
Clue 4: Layers ls hldden nexL Lo old Lrees
lace dlscusslon quesLlons ln Lhe baskeL and hang lL ln Lhe Lree. 1hey wlll lead lnLo a dlscusslon by
answerlng Lhe clue: layers.

D;7G"*+,:@
1he Mckenzle 8lver WaLershed has been lnhablLed for over 8,000 years. 1he kalapuya and Molalla
are 2 Lrlbes LhaL prospered ln Lhe Mckenzle 8lver waLershed, yeL Loday relaLlvely few naLlve people
remaln ln Lhe area due Lo wesLward expanslon along Lhe Cregon 1rall. 1he llfesLyle of Lhe kalapuya
and Molalla ls supporLed by Lhe ecologlcal envlronmenL: bulldlng shelLer ouL of mud, hemlock and
cedar, maklng baskeLs, and gaLherlng medlclnes and food - huckleberry, valerlan, fern and Cregon
grape (!ones, 2014 and Wllllams, 2014). 1oday many people, boLh naLlves and non-naLlves, carry on
Lhese LradlLlons.

26
A @/73+8+2+,4 G#E ls a Lool used for specles ldenLlflcaLlon. lL ls meLhod of caLegorlzaLlon LhaL
works by sLarLlng aL Lhe mosL broad caLegory (such as declduous or conlferous) and evenLually
narrowlng down Lo a speclflc genus or specles. 1he specles can flL only 1 of Lhe 2 characLer
descrlpLlons such as: 1a. A Lree or shrub, 1b. noL a Lree or shrub. ulchoLomous keys are ublqulLous
Lo Lhe fleld of blology and are used Lo ldenLlfy planLs, anlmals, and fungl.

1he +'@ "*+=83 H+*#48 provldes a unlque hablLaL for a dlverse communlLy of planLs and anlmals, and
less Lhan 10 of Lhe unlLed SLaLes foresLs are consldered old growLh. An easy way Lo remember Lhe
maln characLerlsLlcs of a aclflc norLhwesL old growLh foresL ls Lhe acronym <I%..

<ld Lrees refers Lo Lhe amounL of Lrees over a cenLury old, whlch can be deLermlned by measurlng
Lree glrLh or Laklng a core sample. Cld Lrees, along wlLh new Lrees, provlde dlverslLy among Lree
ages and slzes, creaLlng unlque hablLaLs for many planLs and anlmals. lor example, moss llvlng on
old Lree branches are assoclaLed wlLh cyanobacLerla. CyanobacLerla are cruclal Lo foresL healLh
because Lhey Lurn aLmospherlc nlLrogen lnLo a form usable Lo planLs and anlmals. Moss and
cyanobacLerla are abundanL ln Lhe hlgh canoples of old, llvlng Lrees.

Ioody debrls refers Lo Lhe fallen Lrees found on Lhe foresL floor. Cnce a Lree falls, lL provldes
essenLlal nuLrlenLs Lo Lhe soll and homes for new Lrees and planLs. A :,*4# '+" ls a fallen Lree LhaL
seedllngs grow upon. lor example, wesLern hemlock seedllngs, a shade-lovlng Lree, are ofLen found
growlng on Lop of nurse logs. LvenLually mlcroorganlsms and fungl wlll break Lhe fallen Lrees down,
recycllng Lhe nuLrlenLs back lnLo Lhe soll for new Lrees and shrubs Lo grow upon.

%ayers symbollze Lhe canopy layers, from Lhe sLep moss LhaL carpeLs Lhe foresL floor Lo Lall uouglas-
flr. 1he helghL dlfference among dlfferenL planL specles provldes unlque hablLaLs for numerous
specles. lor example, osprey prefer Lhe hlghesL Lree closesL Lo Lhe body of waLer Lhey are
lnhablLlng, (ln our case, Lhe Mckenzle 8lver), whlle a woodpecker prefers Lhe lower parL of a Lree.
1he osprey prefer Lhe Lops of Lrees closesL Lo Lhe rlver, because Lhey are flshlng blrds, and Lhls
provldes Lhem an advanLage ln geLLlng Lhe resources Lhey need Lo sLay allve. Cn Lhe oLher hand,
woodpeckers snack on decomposers ln Lhe lower parL of Lhe Lree and Lree sap. Layers also allow
dlfferenL amounLs of llghL Lo seep Lhrough Lhe canopy, provldlng a varleLy of hablLaL and lncreaslng
Lhe blodlverslLy of Lhe foresL.

.nags are sLandlng dead Lrees LhaL provlde a dlsLlncL hablLaL for several Lypes of anlmals and
provlde more llfe Lhan a llvlng Lree. Snags are home Lo many decomposers, and wlll evenLually Lurn
lnLo soll. 1hey are also home Lo spoLLed owls, whlch are an lndlcaLor specles for Lhe aclflc
norLhwesL.

Cld growLh foresLs face many naLural LhreaLs, lncludlng flre and floods. 1hese LhreaLs may seem
desLrucLlve, buL Lhey are essenLlal and parL of Lhe naLural cycle of a foresL. When foresLs burn or
flood, Lhe canopy floor ls lefL wlLh mlneral soll. ln Lhe old growLh surroundlng Lhe Mckenzle 8lver,
mlneral soll ls essenLlal for Lhe reproducLlon of uouglas-flr Lrees, along wlLh many oLher specles.
uouglas-flr Lrees can grow fasL and provlde shade for many oLher specles LhaL requlre shade Lo
grow, such as Lhe wesLern hemlock. WlLh Llme, uouglas-flr Lrees wlll begln Lo fall, and ln Lhe llghL,
Lhe wesLern hemlock Lrees begln Lo grow fasLer. 1he fallen Lrees become nurse logs and Lhe varylng
27
layers provlde hablLaL for many dlfferenL specles of planLs, anlmals, fungl, and bacLerla. AfLer abouL
800 years, a foresL may become a cllmax foresL when, ln Lhls example, Lhe uouglas-flr upper canopy
ls replaced wlLh a wesLern hemlock upper canopy. 1hls evoluLlon of sLeps wlLhln a foresL ls called
4,77#44/+:. Successlon comes ln cycles, and ls Lhe long Lerm process leadlng Lo Lhe formaLlon of an
old growLh foresL.

P! Andrews LxperlmenLal loresL ls used for long Lerm research ln blodlverslLy, successlon and
canopy sLrucLure. D/+@/&#*4/8E refers Lo Lhe varleLy of llfe ln a parLlcular hablLaL, ecosysLem, or Lhe
enLlre world. .-#7/#4 @/&#*4/8E Lakes lnLo accounL boLh specles evenness and rlchness. .-#7/#4
#&#::#44 quanLlfles Lhe relaLlve abundance of specles ln a deflned area, whereas 4-#7/#4 */73:#44 ls
Lhe LoLal number of dlfferenL specles represenLed ln Lhe area.

P! Andrews ls a blodlverse ecosysLem and deflned as a LemperaLe conlferous old growLh ralnforesL.
1hls unlque ecosysLem ls home Lo Lhousands of specles of lnsecLs, 83 blrd specles, 19 gymnosperm
specles, and 9 specles of flsh" (P! Andrews, 2008). An #7+4E48#2 ls a blologlcal communlLy of
lnLeracLlng organlsms ln Lhelr envlronmenL, l.e. everyLhlng LhaL exlsLs ln a parLlcular envlronmenL.
1#2-#*;8# ls an area wlLh a mlld cllmaLe. 9+:/H#* ls a Lype of Lree LhaL produces seed bearlng cones
and ln mosL cases, ls evergreen. J&#*"*##: denoLes a planL LhaL reLalns lLs leaves or needles
LhroughouL Lhe year, unllke a @#7/@,+,4 planL LhaL loses lLs leaves ln Lhe wlnLer. <'@ "*+=83 refers
Lo Lhe cllmax sLage, or lasL sLable" sLage of a foresL.

!78/&/8E B:48*,78/+:4
A;*8 !C A';:8 BC?C ;:@ D/+@/&#*4/8E KLM 2/:,8#4N
1. O*;2# 83# '#44+: (1 mlnuLe)
a. Lxplaln Lo Lhe sLudenLs LhaL Lhls sLaLlon covers Lhe composlLlon and sLrucLure of Lhe
LemperaLe conlferous old growLh raln foresL. 1hrough uslng a dlchoLomous key and
golng on a quesL, we wlll dlscover Lhe hldden Lreasures of Lhe foresL and unvell Lhe
magnlflcenL blodlverslLy of Lhe old growLh.

2. P;2# E+,* H;&+*/8# -';:8 4-#7/#4 ;:@ 48;8# =3E (2 mlnuLes)
a. LvaluaLe Lhe level of knowledge of specles. Ask each person ln Lhe group Lo name
and descrlbe Lhelr favorlLe planL specles.
l. Clve asslsLance by deflnlng 4-#7/#4: a group of organlsms slmllarly relaLed
and capable of lnLerbreedlng and produclng vlable offsprlng.

3. ?/73+8+2+,4 Q#E ;:@ A';:8 BC?C (27 mlnuLes)
a. lnLroduce Lhe concepL of a dlchoLomous key.
l. R: Pas anybody heard of a dlchoLomous key?
1. !: 8reak Lhe word aparL: dl means 2, dlchoLomy means Lo spllL lnLo 2
parLs, and a key ls a Lool Lo enLer a place or allow a means of access.
ln Lhls case, a key ls Lo flnd Lhe name of a specles. (hold up key)
ll. Lxplaln Lo Lhe sLudenLs LhaL a dlchoLomous key ls a reference Lool, whlch,
Lhrough a serles of cholces, leads Lo Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon of a specles. Lach
cholce ls represenLed by a coupleL, 2 descrlpLlons whlch are muLually
excluslve lead Lo Lhe nexL coupleL, a and b, unLll a concluslon (specles name)
28
ls reached. lf you are noL sure abouL Lhe descrlpLlon, you can look ahead, or
Lurn around and go back.
b. Pand ouL Lhe keys. As a Leam, use Lhe key Lo ldenLlfy 1 specles (l.e. uouglas-flr,
lseoJotsoqo meozlesll). Make sure everyone follows along wlLh each sLep.
c. Clve lnsLrucLlons for Lhe keylng acLlvlLy: Lach sLudenL wlll be glven a planL Lo
ldenLlfy. lf you have a quesLlon or when you Lhlnk you have correcLly ldenLlfled Lhe
planL, ralse your hand. When you have correcLly ldenLlfled Lhe planL, you wlll be
handed a planL card, whlch glves more lnformaLlon abouL your planL's
characLerlsLlcs and how lL ls used boLh Loday and ln hlsLorlcal Llmes. 1hen, Lake
some Llme wlLh Lhe planL Lo geL Lo know lL. WrlLe a descrlpLlon ln as much deLall as
lmaglnable uslng your senses. Pow does lL feel? Pow does lL smell? uo nC1 Lry
LasLlng lL Loday, we do noL know lf lL ls safe or Loxlc. WhaL does lL look llke up close?
SkeLch lLs unlque feaLures ln deLall, llke a naLurallsL. 1here ls a llsL of quesLlons on
Lhe back of Lhe key Lo help gulde your descrlpLlons and skeLches as well as
ldenLlfylng Lerms and plcLures Lo asslsL ln keylng."
d. Lxplaln LhaL each sLudenL wlll be share whaL Lhey learn abouL Lhelr specles wlLh Lhe
group, so be sure Lo observe closely, complle lnformaLlon, and skeLch your very
besL.
e. Asslgn each sLudenL a dlfferenL specles from Lhe key LhaL also has a planL card.
(uouglas-flr, wesLern hemlock, wesLern red-cedar, vlne maple, paclflc yew, salal,
sword fern, Cregon grape, sLalr sLep moss)
f. When a sLudenL ldenLlfles Lhe correcL specles, hand Lhem Lhe assoclaLed planL card.
Clve sLudenLs abouL 10 mlnuLes Lo skeLch and descrlbe Lhe planL.
g. CaLher sLudenLs LogeLher Lo presenL specles. llnd a space where everyone can hear
each oLher easlly. CollecL dlchoLomous keys and planL cards. Ask sLudenLs Lo polnL
ouL Lhe planL Lo Lhe group, share Lhelr skeLch and hlghllghL key feaLures.

A;*8 DC <I%. /: 83# <'@ )*+=83 KST 2/:,8#4N
1. B:8*+@,7# 83# 7+:7#-8 +H <I%. (11 mlnuLes)
a. Pas anyone heard of Lhe acronym CWLS Lo represenL Lhe characLerlsLlcs of Lhe old
growLh?" Co Lhrough each leLLer and elaboraLe vla lnqulry.
b. UC sLands for Cld 1rees! Lveryone polnL Lo an old Lree."
l. Ask: Pow old are Lhe oldesL Lrees ln Lhls foresL? Pow old ls old?
ll. LxLra lnfo: Cld Lrees refers Lo Lhe amounL of Lrees over a cenLury old, whlch
can be dlscovered ln Lhe mere glrLh of a Lree. Commonly uouglas-flr reach
200 fL Lall and llve 300-1000 years. lL Lakes a uouglas-flr 200 years before
developlng old growLh characLerlsLlcs. Cld Lrees, along wlLh new Lrees,
provlde a dlverslLy among Lree ages and slzes, whlch hosLs a pleLhora of
unlque symbloLlc relaLlonshlps. 1he blggesL Lrees ln Lhe foresL welgh more
Lhan Lhe largesL anlmal on earLh, Lhe 8lue Whale, are Lhe helghL of Lhe
SLaLue of LlberLy and sprouLed aL Lhe Llme ChrlsLopher Columbus arrlved Lo
Lhe Amerlcas."
c. W sLands for Woody uebrls. Lveryone polnL Lo some woody debrls."
l. Ask: WhaL funcLlons or servlces does woody debrls supply Lhe foresL
ecosysLem? nurse logs hosL an abundance of specles. Can you polnL ouL a
nurse" log?
29
ll. LxLra lnfo: Woody debrls references Lhe fallen Lrees and nurse logs LhaL are
found on Lhe foresL floor. Cnce Lrees fall, Lhelr remalns provlde essenLlal
nuLrlenLs Lo Lhe soll and provlde homes for new Lrees and planLs, evenLually
mlcroorganlsms wlll break Lhem down lnLo mlneral soll for new Lrees and
shrubs Lo grow upon.
d. L sLands for Layers. olnL Lo Lhe canopy. olnL Lo Lhe undersLory. olnL Lo Lhe foresL
floor."
l. Ask: WhaL funcLlon does havlng mulLlple layers serve?
ll. LxLra lnfo: Layers lnclude everyLhlng from Lhe foresL floor Lo Lhe upper
canopy everyLhlng ln beLween. Large branches and Lhe helghL dlfference of
varlous Lrees creaLe a mulLllayered canopy wlLh a varleLy of hablLaLs for
dlfferenL specles. lor example, Csprey prefer Lhe hlghesL Lree closesL Lo Lhe
body of waLer Lhey are lnhablLlng (ln our case, Lhe Mckenzle 8lver), whlle a
woodpecker prefers Lhe lower parL of a Lree. lurLhermore, wlLh layers,
dlfferenL amounLs of llghL seep Lhrough ln separaLe areas LhroughouL Lhe
foresL, whlch provldes opporLunlLy for more varlaLlon, Lhus hlgher
blodlverslLy. 1he mlcrocllmaLe dlffers beLween Lhe LreeLop and foresL floor.
e. S sLands for Snags. olnL ouL a snag."
l. Ask: Why mlghL snags be lmporLanL? Pow dld a snag come Lo be a snag?
ll. LxLra lnfo: Snags are slmllar Lo nurse logs, however Lhey are sLlll sLandlng
and provlde a dlsLlncL hablLaL for several Lypes of anlmals (l.e. LermlLes,
beeLles, woodpeckers, squlrrels, eLc). 1hey are a sLorehouse of nuLrlenLs for
Lhe foresL ecosysLem. LlghLnlng, flre, dlsease (l.e. hearL roL fungus) and
lnsecL pesLs (l.e. bark beeLles) can form snags.

2. >#&/#= <I%. 83*+,"3 ; G/:#483#8/7 #V-#*/#:7# (4 mlnuLes)
a. Co Lhrough each leLLer, asklng Lhe sLudenLs Lo show wlLh Lhelr body whaL each
leLLer sLands for. 1ell sLudenLs Lo geL Lhelr owl eyes ready because Lhey are golng on
a quesL.

A;*8 9( 13# R,#48 KLM 2/:,8#4N
1. B:8*+@,7# 83# R,#48 (1 mlnuLe)
a. 1ell Lhe sLudenLs LhaL Lhere are 4 clues represenLlng each leLLer ln CWLS (Cld,
Woody, Layers, & Snag)

2. R,#48 (19 mlnuLes)
a. Clve Lhe sLudenLs Lhe clue 1. Pave a sLudenL read Lhe clue Lo Lhe group.
l. Answer( nurse log or woody debrls
ll. Pave Lhe sLudenLs:
1. llnd Lhe nurse log (where clue 2 ls hldden).
2. Ask Lhe sLudenLs Lo ldenLlfy 6 specles growlng on Lhe log. lf Lhey do
noL know Lhe name, use descrlpLlons.
3. Ask whaL servlces Lhe nurse log ls provldlng (l.e. hablLaL, food for
decomposers).
b. Pave a dlfferenL sLudenL read clue 2.
l. Answer: old Lrees
30
ll. Pave Lhe sLudenLs:
1. llnd Lhe largesL uouglas-flr (where clue 3 ls hldden).
2. When Lhey are aL Lhe Lree, have sLudenLs sLand around lL for 30
seconds ln sllence, llsLenlng and uslng Lhelr senses.
3. Ask Lhe sLudenLs Lo share Lhelr observaLlons (lf Llme permlLs).
c. Pave anoLher sLudenL read clue 3.
l. Answer: snag
ll. Pave Lhe sLudenLs:
1. llnd Lhe snag where clue 4 ls hldden.
2. Lxplaln 1 funcLlon of a snag.
3. LlsL 3 planLs or anlmals LhaL use snags for hablLaL.
d. Pave anoLher sLudenL read clue 4.
l. Answer: layers
ll. Pave Lhe sLudenLs:
1. Look up and down and all around. 1hen proceed over Lhe log brldge.
2. LlsL layers of Lhe foresL.
3. LlsL 2 funcLlons of Lhe canopy.

3. D/+@/&#*4/8E @/47,44/+: (8 mlnuLes)
a. 1here are 4 dlscusslon quesLlons. Pave sLudenLs palr up and choose a quesLlon ouL
of Lhe baskeL. lf Lhere are only 6 sLudenLs, palr quesLlon 3 and 4 LogeLher. Clve
sLudenLs a few mlnuLes Lo dlscuss and Lhlnk abouL answers.
b. Lxplaln LhaL afLer dlscusslng ln palrs, each palr wlll read Lhelr quesLlon and share
Lhelr response. Cpen up Lhe dlscusslon Lo Lhe enLlre group, lf Llme permlLs.
c. Co around Lo each group and help Lhem Lhlnk Lhrough Lhe quesLlons wlLh Lhese
prompLs
l. R,#48/+: S( 1hlnk abouL how blodlverslLy ls measured and Lhe dlfferenL
componenLs of blodlverslLy. 1hlnk abouL CWLS.
1. osslble answers lnclude:
a. Measured aL geneLlc, specles, and ecosysLem levels.
b. ComponenLs: specles composlLlon, specles rlchness, and
specles abundance
ll. R,#48/+: W( 1hlnk abouL naLural process, food and medlclnes, and quallLy of
llfe.
1. osslble answers lnclude
a. naLural processes: A dlverslLy of organlsms Lake parL ln
naLural processes lmporLanL for Lhe survlval of llfe (l.e. food
webs).
b. lood and medlclnes: Mushrooms and rhlzomes are food.
Conk mushrooms and yew conLaln cancer-flghLlng agenLs.
c. CuallLy of llfe: Puman's quallLy of llfe and necessary
resources are affecLed by dlfferenL specles and ecosysLems.
lll. R,#48/+: L( 1hlnk abouL how humans lmpacL Lhe foresL
1. osslble answers lnclude:
a. lnvaslve specles, deforesLaLlon, logglng, agrlculLure and
grazlng, cllmaLe change
31
lv. R,#48/+: X( 1hlnk abouL how humans can proLecL Lhe foresL.
1. osslble answers lnclude:
a. 8esearch, educaLlon, proLecLed areas (parks and reserves),
resLoraLlon

4. !44#442#:8 (2 mlnuLes)
a. uslng a clrcular whlp, ask sLudenLs Lo name 1 specles and descrlbe aL leasL 1
characLerlsLlc of LhaL specles C8
b. uslng a clrcular whlp, ask sLudenLs Lo use CWLS Lo name one of Lhe characLerlsLlcs
of an old growLh foresL or descrlbe LhaL characLerlsLlc.

32
9/8;8/+:4
Clue one of Lhe CuesL ls from 2012 Canopy ConnecLlons. Canopy ConnecLlons, LnvlronmenLal
Leadershlp rogram, unlverslLy of Cregon.
8onady, uevon. Nottbwest tboobotooy llelJ ColJe. unlverslLy of Cregon. 2011.
Canopy ConnecLlons 2011. nome ls wbete tbe lotest ls. LnvlronmenLal Leadershlp rogram,
unlverslLy of Cregon.
Palpern, C.8., and !.A. LuLz. Canopy closure exerLs weak conLrols on undersLory dynamlcs: A 30-year
sLudy of oversLory-undersLory lnLeracLlons. Lcologlcal Monographs 83:221-237. 2013.
P! Andrews LxperlmenLal loresL.Ovetvlew of AoJtews lotest bloJlvetslty teseotcb, Long 1erm
Lcologlcal 8esearch. March 2008.
hLLp://andrewsforesL.oregonsLaLe.edu/lLer/research/componenL/blodv/summary.cfm?sum=blo-
rch08&Lopnav=38
!ohnson, Cscar. 1be Molollo leople of clockomos coooty. Smoke Slgnals Sprlng 1999. uaLe Accessed
2 !une 2014. hLLp://www.usgenneL.org/usa/or/counLy/clackamas/molallas.hLml
!ones, Lrlc, 1. A Cteot ulvetslty to notvest. 1he orLland LLhnoboLany ro[ecL. 2104. uaLe Accessed:
2 !une 2014. hLLp://www.globalglvlng.org/pro[ecLs/porLland-eLhnoboLany-pro[ecL/updaLes/
Ll, !udlLh L. llles loq, xplotloq tbe lotest wbete tbe Cteot 1tee lell. CSu ress, Corvallls. 2013.
yers, Creg. 8loJlvetslty of 1empetote lotests. Marshall Cavendlsh 8enchmark, new ?ork. 2012.
ScherLow, !ohn, Ahnl. coooectloo to o lloce. lC Magazlne. 29 uec. 2010. uaLe Accessed 2 !une 2014.
hLLp://lnLerconLlnenLalcry.org/connecLlon-Lo-a-place/
Wllllams, Cerald, W. 1be Oteqoo ocyclopeJlo.Mckeozle klvet. Su 2008-2014. uaLe Accessed 2
!une 2014. hLLp://www.oregonencyclopedla.org/enLry/vlew/mckenzle_rlver/




33
1a. A tree ......................................................................................................................................................2
2a. Leaves needle-like or scale-like, evergreen; seeds usually in cones ..............................................3
3a. Leaves scale-like, concealing (completely covering) the twig; bark is reddish brown, deeply
creased; seed cones about 1 cm long; >200ft tall in maturity .......................................Thuja plicata
3b. Leaves needle-like, not concealing the twig ..............................................................................4
4a. Needles long and at, spiral around twig; seed cones with prominent 3-pronged bracts;
bark is dark brown, furrowed, thick and re resistant; >200ft tall in maturity ...............................
................................................................................................................Pseudotsuga menziesii
4b. Needles shorter in length and wider, do not spiral round the twig but lay in a similar
direction .....................................................................................................................................5
5a. Needles two-sided, whitish on the underside, at and blunt; bark is rough, gray to
reddish brown in color .............................................................................Tsuga heterophylla
5b. Needles of equal lengths, sharp and pointed; bark is reddish-brown, papery, scaly, or
shreddy; reaches middle canopy ..................................................................Taxus brevifolia
2b. Leaves broad and annually deciduous (not present in the winter), seeds enclosed in a fruit (not
cone) ......................................................................................................................................................6
6a. Leaves are large and broad (at least 5 across) with 5 lobes; Bark in older trees is gray-
brown, ridged, and often covered with mosses, lichens, and ferns; >100ft tall in maturity ................
.............................................................................................................................Acer macrophyllum
6b. Leaves are broad (less than 5 across) with usually 7 lobes, fanlike and circular, jagged edges;
20-40ft tall in maturity ................................................................................................Acer circinatum
1b. Not a tree; shrubs, understory and ground cover plants.........................................................................7
7a. Woody stem present, (a shrub) ........................................................................................................8
8a. Leaves deciduous, alternate, about 1 long; entire shrub is 26 ft tall; pinkish owers, bluish-
black to purple fruits .......................................................................................Vaccinium ovalifolium
8b. Leaves evergreen, dark green, thick and leathery ..................................................................9
9a. Leaves alternate and nely serrated; stems thick and hairy; small white and pink owers
(in the summer); fruits are dark blue (present in the fall); abundant ground cover ...................
......................................................................................................................Gaultheria shallon
9b. Leaves opposite, waxy, pointed at the ends, resembles holly; 1/42 ft tall; yellow owers
(in the summer); fruits dark blue to purple .................................................Berberis aquifolium
7b. No woody stem (not a shrub) .........................................................................................................10
10a. Herbaceous plant, contains identiable leaves; fronds or stalks have multiple leaves coming
out the sides in pairs ........................................................................................Polystichum munitum
10b. Leaves or leaves are atypical, not like other plants ...............................................................11
11a. Soft, green, 2-4 mm long, branched; dominant ground cover, found throughout the
canopy; resembles tiny ferns ................................................................Hylocomium splendens
11b. Pale yellowish-green, with a stretchy central cord like a bungee cord; small and
branched or long and hanging from limbs of trees; (a relationship between a fungus and
algae) ..........................................................................................Usnea wirthii or U. longissima
Dichotomous Key to Plants in the Old Growth McKenzie Watershed
34
Descriptive Pictures
Needle-like Scale-like

Broad leaf with lobes Fronds Seed cone 3-pronged bracts
Terms:
evergreen: persistent all year round, leaves do not fall off in the fall/winter
deciduous: leaves fall off when plant approached its dormant season (fall/winter)
Descriptive Characteristics
What is the relative size of the plant to other species in the forest? Is it in the sun or shade?
Where is the plant; on the forest oor, middle of the canopy or reach to the top of the canopy?
What textures do you see or feel in the leaves, bark or stem. Use your sense of touch to
explore texture and up close vision to see patterns. Sketch the patterns and describe the
textures.
Is any part of the plant fragrant; bark or leaves? Softly squish a leaf in your ngers and smell. If
there is an odor, does it remind you of anything?
How are the stems or branches arranged? What direction do they point? Are they covered in
leaves or bare? Are the stems in bud?
Describe the shades of color of the bark or leaves using colorful descriptive language,
metaphors or comparisons.
Dichotomous Key to Plants in the Old Growth McKenzie Watershed
35
Jennifer Beard & Megan Hansen
Cards
Plant ID and Biodiversity
36
Image citations
!
Douglas-r: http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazadero/DouglasFir.htm (Feb. 2004)
!
western hemlock: http://www.forester-artist.com/nastrees.html, Bruce Cunningham
!
western red-cedar: http://www.bathingunderthesky.com/buy-a-wooden-hot-tub/what-is-western-red-cedar (2014)
!
sword fern: http://don-tbugme.blogspot.com/2010/05/macro-monday-green.html Dont bug me photography, May 2010.
!
Oregon grape: http://www.arthurleej.com/a-OregonGrape.html. 2001.
!
salal: http://www.nwcmagazine.com/2008/11/salal-gaultheria-shallon/ Northwest Coast Magazine, 2008.
!
Pacic yew: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/montph9.htm
!
vine maple: http://www.wnps.org/blog/tag/vine-maple/ Botanical Rambles, November 2012.
!
bigleaf maple: http://trees.stanford.edu/ENCYC/ACERmac.htm
!
37
western hemlock
Tsuga heterophylla
!
Range: The west side of northern California up to
southern Alaska.
!
Habitat: Climax species in Pacic Northwest
temperate forests, very shade tolerant. Oftentimes
lives alongside Douglas-r, Pacic yew, and Sitka
spruce.
!
Uses: Paper production in northwest Europe and
southern New Zealand. Used for ornamentation.
New growth needles, rich in vitamin C, can be eaten
raw or made into a bitter tea.
38
salal
Gaultheria shallon
!
Range: western North America, from
California up to British Colombia, Canada.
!
Habitat: Salal grows in low to medium
elevations, everywhere from Douglas-r
forests to rocky bluffs on the coast. Very
common understory shrub.
!
Uses: Historically, Pacic Northwest tribes
have used salal berries in feasts and their
leaves as hunger suppressants. Currently
harvested and sent globally for oral
arrangements, resulting in critical economic
contribution.
39
Oregon grape
Berberis aquifolium
!
Also called: mountain Oregon grape, low Oregon
grape, and long-leaved Oregon grape.
!
Range: Throughout the Pacic Northwest,
common on the Coast range and the Cascades.
Found through out all elevations of the Columbia
Gorge.
!
Habitat: Oregon grape loves the shade and rain. It
grows in coniferous woods at all elevations.
!
Uses: A bitter plant, used by Native Americans for
digestive track issues. The plant is used today to
help treat skin conditions, tuberculosis, hepatitis,
kidney disease, and urinary track disorder.
Oregon grape also kills some bacteria, including
E. coli!
!
Oregon state ower
40
Pacific yew
Taxus brevifolia
!
Some Native American tribes gave the Pacic yew
names which translate to bow plant and and wedge
plant.
!
Range: USA: Alaska, California, Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, Oregon, Washington.
!
Habitat: Moist mature forest, commonly found with
Douglas-r and western hemlock in old growth forests
as an understory tree.
!
Uses: Tools: bows, paddles, digging sticks, harpoon
shafts, spears, mat-sewing needles, knives, dishes,
combs, snowshoe frames, re tongs, drum frames and
many more! Medicine: Extracted for cancer.
!
Watch out! The berries are poisonous to humans!
41
vine maple
Acer circinatum
!
Range: West Coast, west of the
Cascades, from northern California to
southern British Colombia.
!
Habitat: The vine maple loves moist soil
and shade, so they generally live in
Douglas-r forests and riparian areas,
like the McKenzie!
!
Uses: Native Americans have and still
use vine maple stems to weave baskets
for food and baby carriers. Some people
use the sap as syrup.
42
Douglas-fir
Psuedotsuga menziesii
!
Range: western North America,
from California to Canada. Pacic
Coast to the Rocky Mountains
!
Habitat: Douglas-rs are found
among dry, low elevations and
moist, mountainous environments.
Seeds germinate in areas after a
disturbance (such as a re or a
ood).
!
Uses: Pacic Northwest Native
Americans used Douglas-r as a
fuel source, and as material for
tools (such as spear handles,
harpoons, dip-net poles, spoons,
and re tongs). They used the
sticky resin (pitch) as glue. Along
with people today, Native
Americans would use the young
needles in tea for a good source of
vitamin C.
43
bigleaf maple
Acer macrophyllum
!
Native American name: paddle tree
!
Range: Low to mid elevations from British
Columbia to California.
!
Habitat: Dry to moist areas generally near Douglas-
r trees.
!
Uses: Used for maple syrup, the owers are edible
and often used in salads. Bigleaf maples wood is
used to make paddles, instruments, furniture, and
dishes.
44
western red-cedar
Thuja plicata
!
Native American tribes gave western red-cedar names
which meant tree of life, or life-giver.
!
Range: Native to two places: 1. The Coast-Cascade range
from Alaska to northwestern California. 2. The Rocky
Mountain range (British Colombia and Alberta, Canada to
Montana and Idaho)
!
Habitat: western red-cedar enjoys living in moist areas with
a mixture of other conifers, poorly-drained lowlands,
forested swamps, and by rivers. However, they can be
found in dry, rocky areas as well!
!
Uses: western red-cedar was extremely useful for coastal
Native Americans. They used ber from its bark for nearly
everything including houses, clothes, and tools! The inner
bark was used as a slow-burning match which would give
Native Americans light between campsites. Trunks were
used to make canoes, which was an important form of
transportation for the Pacic Northwest tribes. Today,
western red-cedar is used for outdoor furniture and fences.
45
sword fern
polystichum munitum
!
Other names: giant holly fern
!
Range: From British Colombia, Canada down to California,
from the West Coast all the way to South Dakota. Sword
fern is also found on the Guadalupe Islands.
!
Habitat: This species thrives in moist areas, usually in
coniferous forests under Douglas-r trees. Normally found
on the base of trees near salal. Sword ferns also love the
sun.
!
Uses: Sword ferns spores on the underside of the leaves are
traditionally used to relieve the sting of stinging nettles.
The fronds can be used to line baskets, boxes and fruit
dying racks. An infusion of the fronds can treat boils and
sores, and young shoots can be chewed to help treat cancer
in the womb and sore throats. Native Americans used the
roots of sword fern as a famine food, when there was
hardly anything else available.
46
stairstep moss
Hylocomium splendens
!
Other names: glittering wood-moss and
mountain Fern Moss
!
Range: Stairstep moss is a wide-ranging
moss that is commonly found in Northern
Hemisphere boreal forests and the Arctic
Tundra.
!
Habitat: High elevations and on forest oors
!
Uses: Native peoples used stairstep moss as
ground cover over dirt. It is also used as an
anti-tumor agent with its anti-bacterial
qualities
47
9',#4 H+* 83# R,#48
9',# S
1be oext step ls o smoll test,
Aoswet to move fottbet oo tbe poest,

Coess wbot pott of tbe olJ qtowtb fotest l om?

l ooce wos mlqbty ooJ toll
Now l om JlmlolsbeJ ooJ smoll
l qlve my oottleots to tbe qtoooJ
lot oll tbe cteototes tbot moke llttle soooJ
lots of tbloqs qtow oot of me
Ofteo tlmes, oootbet ttee
My bobltot ls ooe oll oo lts owo
Ampblbloos, fooql ooJ ploots coll me bome.

Now tbot yoove flqoteJ me oot, look fot me, ooJ floJ tbe oext cloe.


9',# W
Now tbot yoove foooJ my slstet Jowo oo tbe qtoooJ,
lmoqloe wbot tbe Notlve Ametlcoos mlqbt bove foooJ.
l om toll ooJ sttooq, ooJ ooe of tbe olJest otoooJ.
oo coo tell bow olJ l om boseJ oo my qlttb,
8ot l ptomlse yoo tbot lsot oll tbot lm wottb.
l om o bome to mooy specles, some sloce blttb,
AoJ l ptovlJe btoocbes wbete mooy-o bltJs coo petcb.
look fot me ooJ ootlce my tooqb, fottoweJ botk,
1oocb lt ooJ smell lt, bot pleose Joot leove o motk.
Oo yoot oext jootoey, yoo most embotk.


48
9',# L
l mlqbt oot look llke mocb to yoo - oftet l JleJ -
moybe ftom o wloJstotm, llqbtoloq sttlke, ot o looJsllJe
bot l ploy my pott lo tbe fotest ecosystem os o setvlce ooJ o sttoctote,
l om bobltot to splJets, oots, beetles, bltJs ooJ fooqos mlxtotes
l cootolo covltles, bome to oestloq oolmols socb os tbe spotteJ owl
so oltbooqb l moy be olJ ooJ totteo, oll tbe bettet fot fotote Jecomposltloo
wbeo l foll l wlll be o blessloq opoo cteototes toll ooJ smoll
wbot pott of tbe olJ qtowtb om l?


9',# X

Ooe stoty, two stoty, oppet stoty, ooJet stoty
cyclloq seosoos wltblo my owo vlclolty,
1tees ooJ leoves sboJe bemlock ptoJoctlvlty
Opeoloqs botlzootolly ollow oew membets to jolo tbe commoolty
closote vettlcolly keeps tbloqs cool wblle tbe soo blts coolfetoos ctowos
AoJ toqetbet we cteote o complex system tbot scleoce stoJles soccesslooolly oll otoooJ
wbot pott of tbe olJ qtowtb om l?

1o floJ yoot flool cloe. wolk op ooJ ovet tbe loq, floJ o pottoet, ooJ ptepote fot some
coocloJloq Jloloqoe.






49
?/47,44/+: R,#48/+:4

1. WhaL ls blodlverslLy? Pow does
blodlverslLy vary ln Lhe old
growLh and how does Lhe old
growLh encourage blodlverslLy?





2. Why ls blodlverslLy ln Lhe foresL
lmporLanL?

3. WhaL are LhreaLs Lo foresL
blodlverslLy?

4. WhaL are some conservaLlon
measures LhaL can be Laken Lo
ensure Lhe proLecLlon and
conLlnuaLlon of foresLs?








50
!"# %#&#'(
6Lh-8Lh grade
)*+,- ./0#(
6-8 sLudenLs
1 faclllLaLor
1 chaperone
1/2#(
73 mlnuLes
13#2#4(
8lparlan Zones
SLream Lcology
PumanlLles
.,56#784(
Sclence
Lngllsh
9+:7#-8(
loresL and sLream
sysLems creaLe
dlverse rlparlan zones
ln whlch
mlcrocllmaLes can
vary dramaLlcally
wlLhln close
proxlmlLy. naLural
sclences and
humanlLles offer Lwo
valuable meLhods for
connecLlng our place
Lo naLure.

%+7;8/+:(
P! Andrews
LxperlmenLal loresL


<56#78/&#4
8y Lhe end of Lhls sLaLlon, sLudenLs wlll be able Lo:
1. Lxplaln 3 reasons ln whlch Lhe foresL and sLream creaLe
lmporLanL ecosysLem lnLeracLlons.
2. ArLlculaLe Lhe conLrlbuLlons from Lhe naLural sclences and
humanlLles ln undersLandlng old-growLh rlparlan ecosysLems.

<&#*&/#=
1hls sLaLlon comblnes sclenLlflc analysls and wrlLLen observaLlons of
Lhe foresL ecosysLem, speclflcally focuslng on rlparlan areas. 1he
sLudenLs wlll use boLh a sclenLlflc and humanlLles perspecLlve for
undersLandlng Lhe relaLlonshlps wlLhln Lhls ecosysLem. 1hey wlll do
Lhls by Laklng sclenLlflc daLa and [ournallng observaLlons. 1hls acLlvlLy
ls dlrecLly llnked Lo P! Andrews LxperlmenLal loresL by lncorporaLlng
Lhe Lwo meLhods LhaL are used ln Lhe long-Lerm ecologlcal research
and reflecLlons. lL ls also focused on sclenLlsLs and wrlLers aL P!
Andrews ln order for Lhe sLudenLs Lo learn abouL Lhe opporLunlLles
for pursulng envlronmenLally focused careers.
>;8/+:;'#
ueveloplng an undersLandlng of Lhe complex relaLlonshlp beLween
foresL and rlver ecosysLems ls an lmporLanL parL of galnlng lnslghL
wlLh sclence and arL. 8lparlan zones offer a relaLlvely small, dlverse
and complex hablLaL LhaL ls lmporLanL for undersLandlng specles
rlchness and dlverslLy. uLlllzlng a sclenLlflc meLhod for connecLlng
daLa can offer lnslghL lnLo dlfferenL relaLlonshlps beLween organlsms
and Lhelr respecLlve envlronmenLs. Cbservlng deLalls Lhrough
[ournallng ls anoLher meLhod for lnLerpreLlng Lhe lnLerconnecLedness
of Lhe foresL and rlver ecosysLems. uslng dlfferenL medlums Lo sLudy
and observe Lhe foresL creaLes a dlverse and lnLerdlsclpllnary
knowledge abouL Lhe foresL, allowlng Lhe sLudenLs Lo galn a greaLer
lnslghL lnLo foresL relaLlonshlps.
?;8#*/;'4
!"#$%"$ #% '"(#)%
2 daLasheeLs
8 enclls
2 cllpboards
WhlLeboard
>/-;*/;: @+:#4 ;:A >/&#* >#B'#78/+:4
*$+$,)-$. /0 123%.)% '0$ 4 5366#$ 738%

51
2 hygromeLers
2 LhermomeLers
1 whlLeboard wlLh whlLeboard markers
LamlnaLed P! Andrews sclenLlsL blos
9#+$2 9$:,$"(#)%6
9 penclls
9 8lLe-n-8aln [ournals
LamlnaLed L1L8eflecLlons [ournal enLrles and poems

)#88/:" >#;AC
1. SeL up 2 dlfferenL 1x1 meLer ploLs. Lach ploL should be noLlceably dlfferenL ln specles
composlLlon, Lopography, and canopy denslLy ln comparlson Lo Lhe oLher. loL A ls by Lhe
rlver and loL 8 ls up Lhe Lrall on Lhe hlll. lace a hygromeLer/LhermomeLer ln each ploL
where sLudenLs can see lL wlLhouL Lrampllng lnslde Lhe ploL.
2. CreaLe a Lable of loL A vs. loL 8" across Lhe Lop of Lhe whlLeboard wlLh caLegorles from
Lhe worksheeL wrlLLen down Lhe slde. 1hls wlll be a Lool for sLudenLs Lo compare daLa and
draw concluslons from Lhe 2 ploLs.
D;7E"*+,:A
!"#$%"$ #% '"(#)%
lnLeracLlons beLween a foresL and a sLream creaLes a AC:;2/7 #7+4C48#2 LhaL varles spaLlally and
Lemporally ln complexlLy. >/-;*/;: 0+:#4 are Lhe producL of Lhese lnLeracLlons, represenLlng Lhe
assoclaLlons beLween Lhe land and waLer lnLerface. 8oundarles of rlparlan zones exLend ouLward
from Lhe waLer source Lo Lhe llmlLs of Lhe B'++A 0+:#, whlch ls characLerlzed by zones of low lylng
elevaLlon or Lhe 8+-+"*;-3C of Lhe area. llood zones are Lyplcally dlsLlngulshed by hlgh sedlmenL
deposlLlon and Lhe reshaplng of local geomorphlc feaLures LhaL may lnfluence vegeLaLlon
composlLlon. 1he B'++A *#8,*: /:8#*&;' ls Lhe amounL of Llme beLween flood occurrences ln a
speclflc area. 1hey are assoclaLed wlLh Lhe severlLy and Llme beLween floods. Changes from Lhese
flood evenLs can be shorL Lerm (days Lo monLhs) or long Lerm (monLhs Lo years). lloodlng also
deflnes Lhe ;78/&# 73;::#', whlch dlsLlngulshes a rlver's maxlmum flow. lloodlng as well as oLher
A/48,*5;:7#4 are drlvlng facLors ln shaplng Lhe 5/+8/7 7+2-+4/8/+: of Lhe rlparlan zone. 8loLlc
composlLlon ls Lhe amounL of llvlng organlsms and sLrucLures produced by llvlng organlsms. lanLs,
fungl and anlmals all consLlLuLe bloLlc facLors. 1he dlsLurbances ln an area drlve lLs bloLlc
composlLlon and conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe hlgh degree of 48*,78,*;' ;:A 7+2-+4/8/+:;' A/&#*4/8C assoclaLed
wlLh rlparlan zones. lor example, vegeLaLlon on surfaces closer Lo Lhe acLlve channel Lend Lo be
younger sLands of declduous shrubs and Lrees. 8especLlvely, flood plalns farLher from acLlve sLream
channel may conLaln older planL communlLles and long sLandlng conlfers. 1he paLchy naLure of
frequenLly dlsLurbed rlparlan zones may accounL for Lhe hlgh number of specles ln Lhese areas.
loresLed rlparlan zones conLaln much more blomass Lhan do zones of non-foresLed vegeLaLlon. 1he
Mckenzle rlver dralnage of Cregon's old growLh sLands supporL flve Llmes more blomass, mosLly ln
Lhe form of wood, Lhan declduous sLands (Cregory eL al. 1991). 1hls dlfference ln quanLlLy and
7+2-+4/8/+: of vegeLaLlon greaLly lnfluences Lhe LerresLrlal and aquaLlc ecology of rlparlan zones.
1hese areas also serve as movemenL corrldors for planL and anlmal communlLles, addlng Lo an
52
already dynamlc landscape. 8lch vegeLaLlve composlLlon lnfluences reslsLance Lo eroslon and
*#8#:8/+: of "#+2+*-3/7 surfaces (l.e. Lhe overall geology and composlLlon of Lhe surroundlng area)
Lhrough complex rooL neLworks. vegeLaLlon also conLrlbuLes Lo large debrls ln sLream channels,
provldlng hablLaL and alLerlng sLream flow. ComplexlLy of sLreams, lnfluenced by Lhe surroundlng
vegeLaLlon, slows LransporL of waLer and dlssolved soluLes lncreaslng Lhe poLenLlal for blologlcal or
physlcal absorpLlon of dlssolved maLerlals. Lnhanclng reLenLlon of organlc maLLer offers hablLaL and
resources for a varleLy of aquaLlc organlsms. vegeLaLlon on surfaces ad[acenL Lo Lhe sLream also
modlfles dlssolved nuLrlenLs leachlng lnLo Lhe sLream, creaLlng a buffer for nlLraLes and oLher
dlssolved soluLes LhaL may become deLrlmenLal ln hlgh concenLraLlons.
vegeLaLlon and Lopography of rlparlan zones dlcLaLe a varleLy of 2/7*+7'/2;8#4 LhaL enhance Lhe
complexlLy of Lhese ecosysLems. MlcrocllmaLes are cllmaLes of a small area LhaL may dlffer from Lhe
overall surroundlng cllmaLe, alLered by bloLlc or abloLlc facLors. .+';* *;A/;8/+: ls Lhe energy
emlLLed by Lhe sun ln elecLromagneLlc energy. Solar radlaLlon ls selecLlvely absorbed and reflecLed
as lL passes Lhrough Lhe rlparlan canopy alLerlng Lhe quanLlLy and quallLy of llghL LhaL may be
uLlllzed by aquaLlc -*/2;*C -*+A,7#*4. rlmary producers are organlsms LhaL creaLe Lhelr own food
by phoLosynLhesls or from reduced lnorganlc compounds. 1hese aquaLlc prlmary producers lnclude
specles llke algae. rlmary producers are Lhe basls for esLabllshlng a food web, Lhus alLerlng specles
composlLlon. Canopy denslLy ls Lherefore lnversely proporLlonal Lo Lhe llghL reachlng Lhe sLream
and modlfles Lhe composlLlon of specles ln Lhe surroundlng area. 8ecause llghL reachlng Lhe area ls
alLered, heaL ls also affecLed by canopy denslLy, enhanclng dynamlc mlcrocllmaLes Lhrough
LemperaLure dlfferences over shorL spaLlal areas.

13";<2)=%. :)2 9#+$2 9$:,$"(#)%6
AssoclaLlng sclenLlflc observaLlons wlLh sLoryLelllng, poeLry and myLh ls essenLlal Lo developlng a
deeper undersLandlng of place. CbservaLlons accumulaLed from dlfferenL perspecLlves over long
perlods of Llme reveal broader LruLhs abouL an envlronmenL and helps draw concluslons Lhrough
dlfferenL medlums of expresslon. %1F>#B'#78/+:4 ls a P! Andrews program LhaL develops a
connecLlon beLween sclence and arL ln an efforL Lo esLabllsh a communlLy LhaL seeks lnslghL from
many dlfferenL backgrounds and dlsclpllnes.


!78/&/8C G:48*,78/+:4

H;*8 !I .7/#:7# /: !78/+: JKL 2/:,8#4M
1. N#B/:/:" */-;*/;: 0+:# ;:A ,:A#*48;:A/:" /84 /2-+*8;:7# (2 mlnuLes)
a. Ask sLudenLs whaL Lhey Lhlnk a rlparlan zone ls
b. 1hen deflne rlparlan zone:
l. 8lparlan zone: Lhe area of land LhaL has ln lnLlmaLe relaLlonshlp wlLh
waLer, Lhe soll/waLer lnLerface
c. Make connecLlons Lo dlsLurbance and how a rlparlan zone ls deflned. lnclude Lhe
lmporLance of floodlng ln shaplng a dynamlc ecosysLem.


53

2. N#B/:/:" +83#* E#C 8#*24 (3 mlnuLes)
a. Lxplaln LhaL Lhere are 3 maln facLors LhaL make a rlparlan zone dlsLlngulshable from
oLher hablLaLs: mlcrocllmaLe, geomorphology, and specles composlLlon. SLarLlng
wlLh mlcrocllmaLe and endlng wlLh specles composlLlon, ask sLudenLs lf anyone
knows whaL Lhese Lerms mean.
b. ueflne each of Lhese Lerms, breaklng Lhem lnLo pleces so sLudenLs beLLer
undersLand whaL Lhey mean.
l. ?/7*+7'/2;8#: MlcrocllmaLes are cllmaLes of a small area LhaL may dlffer
from Lhe overall surroundlng cllmaLe, alLered by bloLlc or abloLlc facLors.
1. Mlcro: small
2. CllmaLe: an area's overall average LemperaLure, humldlLy, and
preclplLaLlon
ll. )#+2+*-3/7: Lhe overall geology and composlLlon of Lhe surroundlng area.
1. Ceo: rock
2. Morph: change
lll. .-#7/#4 */73:#44:1he number of dlfferenL specles ln an ecologlcal
communlLy.

3. H3C4/7;' #O;2-'#4 ;:A 7+::#78/:" 8+ /2-+*8;:7# (3 mlnuLes)
a. olnL Lo Lhe gravel bar across Lhe sLream and ask Lhe sLudenLs: WhaL mlghL have
caused all LhaL gravel Lo plle up across Lhe sLream?"
l. Answer: llood dlsLurbance. 1he Lree specles are relaLlvely young on Lhe
gravel bar and so Lhe assumpLlon could be made LhaL a more recenL flood
evenL pushed Lhe gravel lnLo Lhe meander, allowlng for early successlonal
Lrees and shrubs Lo esLabllsh Lhemselves ln a newly creaLed mlcrocllmaLe.
Lxplaln how Lhls ls an example of how low severlLy, hlgh frequency floods
shape Lhe sLream, movlng soll and rocks from one place Lo anoLher. 1hese
dlsLurbances ulLlmaLely change Lhe geomorphology of Lhe rlparlan zone
over Llme, conLrlbuLlng Lo a dynamlc ecosysLem.
b. Make a connecLlon Lo how dlsLurbances creaLe new mlcrocllmaLes over shorL spaLlal
areas, changlng Lhe canopy denslLy, glvlng opporLunlLles for new specles Lo move ln.
c. Colng ln a clrcle, have sLudenLs explaln why Lhey Lhlnk rlparlan zones are lmporLanL
ln a foresL ecosysLem and ln Lhelr llves. Addlng onLo Lhelr ldeas, brlng ln some more
lnformaLlon abouL lLs lmporLance.
l. Lxamples:
1. MalnLalnlng specles dlverslLy ln a rlparlan zone can be accompllshed
Lhrough lncreaslng naLural vegeLaLlon along Lhe banks Lo sLablllze
Lhe soll and provlde shade for aquaLlc specles.
2. Specles llke Lhe rough-sklnned newL rely on Lhe land-waLer lnLerface,
hldlng under decomposlng logs or leaves near rlvers, lakes and
sLreams.
3. lloodplalns have characLerlzed Lhe specles ln Lhe area Lhrough
dlsLurbance, frequency and severlLy. Longer flood lnLervals are more
severe and have conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe rlch soll here ln Lhe WlllameLLe
54
valley by deposlLlng nuLrlenL rlch sedlmenLs. More frequenL, less
severe floods offer a dynamlc ecosysLem, lncreaslng dlverslLy and
sLrucLural composlLlon of Lhe rlparlan zone.
4. Plgher specles dlverslLy and rlchness along Lhe bank offers complex
rooL neLworks, prevenLlng soll eroslon and offers a greaLer ablllLy Lo
reLaln nuLrlenLs.

4. FO-';/:/:" 83# 47/#:8/B/7 2#83+A (3 mlnuLes)
a. Ask Lhe sLudenLs why Lhey Lhlnk sclence and sclenLlsLs are lmporLanL.
l. Lxample: Sclence ls lmporLanL because lL allows us Lo lncrease our
knowledge of Lhe world around us and our envlronmenL.
b. 1hen ask Lhem why Lhey Lhlnk lL ls lmporLanL for sclenLlsLs Lo sLudy foresL and
rlparlan ecology.
l. Lxample: loresL and rlparlan ecosysLems are cruclal hablLaLs for wlldllfe.
undersLandlng rlparlan zones and foresLs can help us make lnformed
declslons abouL Lhese resources llke logglng and lndusLry pracLlces.
c. Ask Lhe sLudenLs: Pave you heard abouL Lhe sclenLlflc meLhod?" (SLeps are llsLed
below) Ask/Lxplaln how Lhese sLeps are lmporLanL ln dolng sclence!
l. Ask a quesLlon
ll. lorm a hypoLhesls
lll. 1esL your hypoLhesls or collecL daLa
lv. Analyze and compare daLa
v. Make concluslons
vl. CommunlcaLe resulLs
d. Make a connecLlon Lo why sclence ls lmporLanL Lo undersLandlng Lhe world by
asklng Why ls sclence lmporLanL?"

3. FO-';/:/:" 83# ;78/&/8C ;:A 7*#;8/:" ; 3C-+83#4/4 (3 mlnuLes)
a. 1ell Lhe sLudenLs Lhey are golng Lo be uslng Lhe sclenLlflc meLhod. 1he acLlvlLy
lnvolves recordlng sclenLlflc daLa ln ploLs wlLhln Lhe rlparlan zone.
b. CounL-off sLudenLs by 1's and 2's and puL Lhem lnLo separaLe groups.
c. Pave each group of sLudenLs formulaLe a hypoLhesls abouL how canopy denslLy
cover could affecL Lhe mlcrocllmaLe and specles composlLlon of an area. Pave Lhem
wrlLe Lhls on Lhelr daLa sheeLs.
l. l.e. lf Lhe canopy ls dense, Lhe LemperaLure wlll be cooler and lL wlll be
more humld.
d. ulscuss how Lhe hypoLhesls could be relaLed Lo Lypes of specles Lhere.
l. l.e. lf Lhe canopy ls dense, we wlll see more shade LoleranL specles, such as
wesLern hemlock or Cregon grape. lf Lhe canopy ls noL dense, we wlll see
more shade lnLoleranL Lrees llke uouglas-flr. (May be ad[usLed Lo conlfer or
declduous Lrees for younger age groups)
e. Lxplaln Lo Lhe sLudenLs LhaL Lhelr role ls Lo observe and record sclenLlflc daLa for
Lhelr speclflc ploL of land. 1hey wlll be observlng Lhe mlcrocllmaLe, geomorphology,
and specles composlLlon ln Lhelr ploL. 1hey wlll be answerlng Lhe quesLlons on Lhe
daLasheeL (lncluded ln Lhe maLerlals secLlon).
55
f. Lncourage Lhe sLudenLs Lo use all of Lhelr senses (waLch ouL for LasLe) ln fllllng ouL
Lhelr daLasheeLs. Also, encourage Lhem Lo work LogeLher Lo answer Lhe daLasheeL ln
order Lo be more accuraLe sclenLlsLs.
l. l.e. SLronger concluslons can be drawn from observaLlons LhaL more
sLudenLs agree upon.

6. 13#*2+2#8#* ;:A 3C"*+2#8#* /:48*,78/+:4 (1 mlnuLe)
a. 1hese are dlglLal dlsplays. Lxplaln Lo Lhe sLudenLs LhaL Lhey are sclenLlflc lnsLrumenLs
and should be handled as such (carefully and respecLfully).
b. 1ell Lhe groups Lo choose a group recorder Lo wrlLe down Lhe answers on Lhe
daLasheeLs.

7. ?;8#*/;'4 ;:A -'+84 (1 mlnuLe)
a. Clve each group a pencll, worksheeL, and cllpboard. Lxplaln LhaL Lhe sLudenLs wlll be
sharlng Lhelr daLa wlLh Lhe group ln order Lo compare and conLrasL Lhe dlfferenL
ploLs of land.
b. 1ell Lhe sLudenLs when Lhey are collecLlng Lhe daLa noL Lo sLep ln Lhe ploLs or on any
of Lhe vegeLaLlon.
c. 1ake one group Lo ploL A and Lhe oLher group Lo ploL 8.
l. lf posslble, follow sLudenLs Lo Lhe farLher ploL 8 and have Lhe chaperone
sLay and help Lhe sLudenLs wlLh ploL A.

8. N;8;43##84 (10 mlnuLes)
a. uurlng Lhe Llme Lhe groups are fllllng ln Lhelr worksheeLs, make sure Lo walk back
and forLh beLween groups Lo check up on Lhem. ?our role as a faclllLaLor ls Lo help
Lhe sLudenLs answer Lhe quesLlons on Lhe daLasheeLs.

9. N/47,44/+: (3 mlnuLes)
a. AfLer 10 mlnuLes (or unLll sLudenLs are flnlshed) fllllng ln Lhe daLasheeL, brlng Lhe
Lwo groups back LogeLher Lo dlscuss flndlngs and compare daLa.
b. SLudenLs ln each group should deslgnaLe someone Lo wrlLe down Lhe speclflc daLa
Lhey found ln Lhe uaLasheeL Concluslons, whlch wlll be pre-wrlLLen on Lhe
whlLeboard (see seLLlng up). AfLer each group has shared Lhelr flndlngs and wrlLLen
daLa on Lhe whlLeboard, ask Lhe sLudenLs Lo address whaL was dlfferenL and slmllar
beLween Lhe Lwo ploLs. Ask Lhe sLudenLs why Lhey Lhlnk Lhe ploLs are slmllar and/or
dlfferenL.
c. 1hen conLlnue Lhe dlscusslon wlLh Lhese dlscusslon quesLlons:
l. P( Pow does Lhe rlparlan zone alLer mlcrocllmaLes? (1emperaLure,
humldlLy, sunllghL)
1. !( 8lparlan zones affecL mlcrocllmaLes Lhrough alLerlng local
geomorphlc feaLures as well as Lhe bloLlc composlLlon and sLrucLure
of an area. lncreaslng Lhe amounL of vegeLaLlon near a rlver sysLem
alLers Lhe amounL of solar radlaLlon LhaL ls recelved ln an area. 1hls
dlrecLly affecLs Lhe vegeLaLlon LhaL ls able Lo grow, ulLlmaLely
affecLlng Lhe specles LhaL may lnhablL LhaL area.
ll. P( WhaL are some of Lhe key characLerlsLlcs of a rlparlan zone?
56
1. !( 8lparlan zones are dynamlc sysLems LhaL are deflned by Lhe
presence of waLer sysLems, such as rlvers. ulsLurbances ln Lhe area
drlve lLs bloLlc composlLlon and conLrlbuLe a hlgh degree of
sLrucLural and composlLlonal dlverslLyI 8lch vegeLaLlve composlLlon
creaLes reslsLance Lo eroslon and reLenLlon of geomorphlc surfaces
(l.e. Lhe overall geology and composlLlon of Lhe surroundlng area)
Lhrough complex rooL neLworks. 1herefore, enhanclng reLenLlon of
organlc maLLer (l.e. more vegeLaLlon) offers hablLaL and resources for
a varleLy of aquaLlc organlsms.
lll. P( Pow does floodlng change Lhe geomorphlc feaLures ln an area?
1. !( 1he acLlon of rushlng waLer agalnsL meanders and rlverbanks
causes eroslon and deposlLlon of sedlmenLs. 8oulders, large rocks
and logs have Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be LransporLed durlng Lhese evenLs
and deposlLed creaLlng dlfferenL geomorphlc feaLures. SedlmenLs are
also deposlLed ln Lhe ad[acenL floodplaln, conLrlbuLlng nuLrlenLs Lo
solls. lloodlng evenLs ls one of Lhe reasons why we have such rlch
solls here ln Lhe WlllameLLe valley.

10. G:8*+A,7# QR !:A*#=4 .7/#:8/484 ;:A 83# %1F> -*+"*;2 (3 mlnuLes)
a. AfLer Lhe sLudenLs geL an undersLandlng of rlparlan zones, lnLroduce Lhe key
quesLlon belng asked aL P! Andrews by Lhe sclenLlsLs Lhere.
l. Pow do land use, naLural dlsLurbances, and cllmaLe affecL Lhree key
ecosysLem properLles: nuLrlenL dynamlcs, blodlverslLy, and hydrology?"
b. uo noL expecL sLudenLs Lo know Lhe answer Lo Lhls quesLlon. Lxplaln LhaL Lhls ls Lhe
very quesLlon LhaL ls belng asked aL P! Andrews and lL ls okay noL Lo know Lhe
answer.
c. Make Lhe connecLlon LhaL Lhese Lhree processes occur over long perlods of Llme and
so lL ls necessary Lo dedlcaLe long Lerm sLudles ln order Lo observe and explaln
Lhem.
d. lnLroduce Lhe L1L8 program (Long-1erm Lcologlcal 8esearch) connecLlng Lo Lhe
Lhree key processes dlscussed above.
e. 1hen, lnLroduce SLan Cregory and nlcole Czarnomskl and Lhelr work Lhey are dolng
aL P! Andrews as parL of Lhe L1L8 program. Show and pass around Lhe lamlnaLed
blos of Lhese sclenLlsLs.
l. .8;: )*#"+*C
1. rofessor aL Cregon SLaLe unlverslLy ln Lhe ueparLmenL of llsherles
and Wlldllfe.
2. Leader ln sLream ecology research and a key person wlLh landscape
dynamlcs and dlsLurbance research aL P!A.
3. SLudles: foresL-sLream lnLeracLlons, decomposlLlon, sLream ecology,
dlsLurbance ecology, and rlparlan ecology.
4. CurrenL research: aquaLlc research aL P! Andrews L1L8 slLe and
resLorlng WlllameLLe 8lver.
ll. S/7+'# 90;*:+24E/
1. hu ln WaLer 8esources Lnglneerlng.
2. 8lver 8esLoraLlon norLhwesL SLudenL 8epresenLaLlve.
57
3. SLudles: rlparlan ecology, resLoraLlon ecology, geomorphology, and
foresL ecology and managemenL.
4. CurrenL research: role of vegeLaLlon as reslsLance ln bank eroslon.
f. Lxplaln whaL Lhe L1L8 caLegorles lnclude and provlde some examples of why Lhey
are lmporLanL. 1hls wlll segue lnLo lnLroduclng Lhe humanlLles as parL of Lhe L1L8
program. (CpLlonal Lo go Lhrough each caLegory dependlng on Llme, make sure Lo aL
leasL address ulsLurbance and SLream Lcology Lo segue lnLo Lhe nexL acLlvlLy.)
l. N/48,*5;:7#( We sLudy Lhe pasL and presenL frequency, severlLy, duraLlon,
and spaLlal paLLern of naLural and managemenL dlsLurbance processes LhaL
domlnaLe Lhe dlsLurbance reglmes of Lhe Andrews loresL and oLher parLs
of Lhe aclflc norLhwesL.
ll. .8*#;2 F7+'+"C( 1he research has been deslgned Lo explore long-Lerm
processes LhaL shape aquaLlc ecosysLems, ldenLlfy crlLlcal llnks beLween
foresLs and sLreams, and examlne Lhe lnfluences of naLural and
anLhropogenlc dlsLurbances on sLream communlLles and processes
lll. G:B+*2;8/+: ?;:;"#2#:8( lnLenslve foresL ecosysLem research,
conducLed on Lhe Andrews loresL slnce Lhe 1930's, has resulLed ln many
dlverse, long-Lerm ecologlcal daLabases and a sLrong commlLmenL Lo
lnformaLlon managemenL.
lv. Q,2;:/8/#4( brlng LogeLher Lhe pracLlcal wlsdom of Lhe envlronmenLal
sclences, Lhe clarlLy of phllosophlcal analysls, and Lhe creaLlve, expresslve
power of Lhe wrlLLen word, Lo flnd new ways Lo undersLand and re-
lmaglne our relaLlon Lo Lhe naLural world.

H;*8 D( >/&#* >#B'#78/+:4 JTU 2/:,8#4M
1. >#;A H+#24 ;:A R+,*:;' F:8*/#4 (10 mlnuLes)
a. 1ranslLlon from showlng Lhe sLudenLs Lhe P! Andrews sclenLlsL's blos Lo asklng Lhe
group lf anybody ln Lhe group wrlLes poeLry or [ournals. lf someone does [ournal, ask
Lhem whaL Lhey [ournal abouL.
b. Ask why arL and wrlLlng mlghL be an lmporLanL parL of Lhe work Lhey do aL P!.
c. lnLroduce Lhe Long 1erm Lcologlcal 8eflecLlons program aL P! Andrews. Lxplaln Lo
Lhe sLudenLs LhaL we are golng Lo be readlng dlscusslng abouL some of Lhe wrlLers
LhaL are parL of Lhls L1L8eflecLlons program. lor each of Lhe 3 wrlLers, show Lhe
sLudenLs Lhe plcLure and blo for LhaL wrlLer. 1hen, read or have a sLudenL read LhaL
wrlLer's [ournal enLry or poem. lollow Lhls wlLh dlscusslon quesLlons provlded for
each wrlLer:
l. R;2#4 D#*8+'/:+
1. P: WhaL are Lhe LooLhplcks?
a. A: 1rees/logs
2. P: Why ls he wrlLlng abouL logs falllng lnLo Lhe waLer?
a. A: 1he presence of logs ln Lhe rlver ls lmporLanL for flsh
hablLaL.
ll. >+5/: V/22#*#*
1. P( WhaL was Lhls [ournal enLry abouL?
a. !( WaLer belng a non-dlsLanL enLlLy and lnsLead belng a parL
of Lhe whole landscape.
58
2. P( WhaL area of Lhe foresL do you Lhlnk she ls descrlblng?
a. !( A rlparlan zone.
3. P( ln her observaLlons, whaL Lools does she use Lo explaln her
experlence ln Lhe foresL?
a. !( She uses observaLlon Lools as well as llsLenlng. She uses
crlLlcal Lhlnklng and reflecLlon Lo compare Lhls place Lo oLher
places where Lhe waLer ls a dlscreLe enLlLy.
lll. >+5#*8 ?/73;#' HC'#
1. P( WhaL was Lhls [ournal enLry abouL?
a. !( lL was abouL all of Lhe dlsLlncL Lhlngs he observed on Lhe
Lrall.
2. P( WhaL Lools dld 8oberL use ln hls [ournallng?
a. !( Pe used shorL noLes and descrlpLlve phrases Lo descrlbe
Lhe foresL. Pe descrlbed Lhlngs he saw and heard ln every
dlrecLlon. Pe noLed Lhe dlfferenL specles. Pe reflecLed on hls
experlence aL P! Andrews.
3. P( WhaL was one Lhlng 8oberL dld dlfferenLly Lhan Lhe oLher
auLhors?
a. !( Pe ended wlLh a quesLlon Lo follow up on laLer.
d. Lxplaln Lo Lhe sLudenLs LhaL Lhese wrlLers and many oLhers LhaL are parL of Lhe
L1L8eflecLlons program have saL and [ournaled ln Lhls very spoL! Make sure Lo
emphaslze Lhls polnL Lo make Lhe connecLlon Lo Lhelr llves. (1hls ls a way Lo
LranslLlon Lo Lhe sLudenLs [ournallng)

2. >/&#* >#B'#78/+:4W R+,*:;'/:" +,* %1F> -*+"*;2 (10 mlnuLes)
a. Lxplaln LhaL Lhe sLudenLs are golng Lo flnd a good spoL ln Lhe foresL or near Lhe rlver
Lo slL and [ournal. SLudenLs can wrlLe poeLry, draw plcLures, observe or [usL wrlLe
LhoughLs down. 1he sLudenLs are noL allowed Lo Lalk amongsL one anoLher and
should noL slL nexL Lo each oLher.
b. Lxplaln Lo Lhe sLudenLs LhaL Lhese [ournals are golng Lo be parL of our collecLlon of
[ournal enLrles from all Lhe sLudenLs vlslLlng Lhls spoL and any enLrles as well as Lhe
[ournals should be LreaLed respecLfully.
c. 8efore Lhey spllL off from Lhe group, ask Lhem Lo relLeraLe and provlde new Lools
Lhey can use for [ournallng: uslng descrlpLlve words, llsLenlng/uslng senses, and
reflecLlng/quesLlonlng. Lncourage Lhem Lo use Lhese Lools whlle [ournallng.

3. N/47,44/+:XF&;',;8/+: (3 mlnuLes)
a. Pave Lhe sLudenLs come back LogeLher Lo dlscuss and evaluaLe Lhelr [ournallng.
Lncourage Lhe sLudenLs Lo share a few senLences ln Lhelr [ournal enLrles wlLh Lhe
group or Lo explaln some Lhlngs Lhey observed. use Lhese dlscusslon quesLlons:
l. P( WhaL Lools dld you use ln your [ournallng?
1. !( SLudenLs mlghL answer Lhlngs llke: descrlbed Lhe sound and flow
of Lhe waLer, descrlbed blrdcalls, descrlbed Lhe dlfferenL planLs
(colors, shape, LexLure), eLc.
ll. P( Pow does [ournallng deepen your undersLandlng of Lhe foresL?
59
1. !( !ournallng helps descrlbe Lhe foresL for humans Lo undersLand
and relaLe Lo lL.
lll. P( Why ls [ournallng a valuable Lool for humans Lo use?
1. !( 1aklng Lhe Llme Lo wrlLe abouL naLure and lmmerse yourself ln
naLure fosLers a bond/connecLlon wlLh lL. When we become
connecLed Lo naLure, we care more abouL lL. Also, [ournals and
poems are useful for humans Lo undersLand a sub[ecL when sclence
can geL Lechnlcal.
lv. P( Pow do Lhe sclenLlsL's and wrlLer's work dlffer?
1. !( SclenLlsLs record daLa, do experlmenLs, creaLe hypoLheses, and
formulaLe Lheorles. WrlLers use Lhelr senses, lmaglnaLlon, and
personal connecLlon Lo undersLand naLure.
v. P( Why are boLh of Lhese lmporLanL Lo undersLandlng Lhe foresL?
1. !( 1hey boLh geL people ouLslde Lo en[oy naLure. 1hey boLh sLrlve Lo
undersLand foresL relaLlonshlps. 1hey are boLh cruclal for humans Lo
undersLand and ulLlmaLely Lake care of naLure.
b. CollecL all Lhe [ournals from Lhe sLudenL, explalnlng LhaL all Lhe [ournals aL Lhe end of
sprlng wlll be collaboraLed lnLo Lhe Canopy ConnecLlons Long 1erm Lcologlcal
8eflecLlons (as a form of evaluaLlon).








60
Observation and data collection for HJ Andrews riparian zone near Lookout
Creek

Circle which 1 meter
2
plot is being analyzed: A or B

How does canopy density affect the microclimate and species composition of an
area? Write a hypothesis that addresses this question:



Answer the following questions:
1. Record the temperature: ____________ degrees F
2. Record the humidity reading: __________ %
3. Is the canopy dense or not above plot? Circle one: Yes or No (Is the
canopy affecting rainfall or sunlight?)
4. What types of trees are in the plot and/or are hanging above the plot? Are
they deciduous, conifers, or both? Name the species if you can.




5. Species richness: Count the number of different species in your plot.
Include all plant, animal, and fungi species. There are_____ species in our
plot. Name some if you can:



6. Is there dominant species? If so what is it, or what does it look like?




7. Is there decomposition present? Are there any decomposing organisms
(fungi or insects), if so describe some:

8. Does the ground feel wet or dry? Do the plants around the plot feel wet or
dry?






61
9. Are you on a hill/slope or a flat area?



10. Is there bedrock/rock exposed or is everything covered in soil? Is the soil
easily visible, or is it mostly covered in vegetation?











62
Stan Gregory





Professor at Oregon State University in the Department
of Fisheries and Wildlife.
Leader in stream ecology research and a key person
with landscape dynamics and disturbance research at
HJ Andrews.
Studies: forest-stream interactions, decomposition,
stream ecology, disturbance ecology, and riparian
ecology.
Current research: aquatic research at HJ Andrews
LTER site and restoring Willamette River.

63
Ni col e Czarnomski



PhD in Water Resources Engineering
River Restoration Northwest Student Representative
Studies: riparian ecology, restoration ecology,
geomorphology, and forest ecology and management
Current research: role of vegetation as resistance in
bank erosion.

64
James Bertolino
Andrews Forest Poems and Journal Notes
October 8 to October 15, 2012

Toothpicks
All along Lookout Creek
there are enormous
old growth Douglas fir
that have become uprooted
and fallen into and over
the water. I call them Toothpicks
of the Forest Gods.


65
James Bertolino





Writer-in-Residence at HJ Andrews.
His poetry has been appearing internationally in books,
magazines, and anthologies for over 40 years.
He has won many nationally recognized awards.
Master of Fine Arts from Cornell University.
He was a professor at Cornell, Washington State, University of
Cincinnati, and Western Washington University.
66
Listening to Water by Robin Kimmerer

When you have all the time in the world, you can spend it, not on
going somewhere, but on being where you are. And observing the
life of raindrops. In my bright yellow slicker, I walked through the
forest and down to the stream. Listening
Most other places I know, water is a discrete entity. It is hemmed in
by well defined boundaries, lake shores, stream banks or the great
rocky coastline. You can stand at its edge and say this is water
and this is land. Those fish and those tadpoles are of the water
realm; these trees, these mosses and these 4-leggeds are creatures
of the land. But here in these misty forests those edges seem to
blur, with rain so fine and constant so as to be indistinguishable from
air. Cedars wrapped with cloud so dense that only their outline forms
emerge. Water doesnt seem to make a clear distinction between
gaseous phase and liquid. The air merely touches a leaf or a tendril
of my hair and suddenly a drop appears.

67
Robin Kimmerer




Writer and Scientist.
Professor of Environmental Botany at SUNY College of
Environmental Science and Forestry where she teaches courses
on botany, ecology and ethnobotany.
Founding Director of the Center for Native Peoples and the
Environment.
Emphasizes both scientific and indigenous knowledge to
understand the environment.
68
The Long Haul by Robert Michael Pyle
Sept/Oct 2004

April 21, 2004. Wednesday afternoon. Forest Road 1506 near 330,
going toward the Old-growth Trail, lower section.
Underlie: water tumble through roadside rivulet, maple flowerfall.
Overhead: distant jet rumble, rain.
North side: winter wren blows bubbles on a pennywhistle.
South side: pileated takes time off from hammering to yammer shrill
runs.
In the ditch: red steel post, bent by snow, or?
On the moss-swaddled maple trunk: a geometrid moth that would be
cryptic a few inches down, against the bark.
Up high: Steller's jay calling.
Down low: Douglas squirrel calling.
All around: western red cedar, vine maple, bigleaf maple, western
hemlock, Douglas-fir, hazel, alder, willow.
6 p.m. Personal Plot # 2, where FR 1506 comes up against the bare
angle of repose: Looking across Lookout Creek Old-growth to the
horn of the west summit, hump of the east summit of Lookout
Mountain. Blue and silver skies mottle the gray above the mountain,
wisps of mist float up the steep valley.
What is the essential difference I perceive looking over the old-
growth/Andrews Forest/Mack Creek etc. watersheds, and the
forests I wake to every day?
Obvious: age, complexity, diversity, depth, variegation, individuality,
stability, wildness, grandeur, and all that.
Perhaps less obvious: Capacity to hold surprise, e.g., why does that
snowy avalanche field [on the high side of LO Mtn.] have one large
fir standing in the middle of it? Also soil, water, mystery, the
possibility of wolverines, Bigfoot, and DB Cooper

69
Robert Michael Pyle




Professional writer
Lepidopterist: studies butterflies and moths
He has a Ph.D. from the School of Forestry and Environmental
Studies at Yale University.

70
9/8;8/+:4
8erLollno, !ames. "1he loresL Log: 1ooLhplcks". Andrews loresL oems and !ournal noLes (2012): An
Cn-llne !ournal of oems, Lssays, ArLlcles and CLher CreaLlve 8eflecLlons on Lhe loresL.
Web. 16 leb. 2014.

Cregory, SLanley v., Swanson, lrederlck !., Mckee, W. ArLhur, Cummlns, kenneLh W. 1991. An
ecosysLem perspecLlve of rlparlan zones: focus on llnks beLween land and waLer. 8loSclence.
41(8): 340-331.

klmmerer, 8obln. LlsLenlng Lo WaLer." 2004. WrlLer's ln 8esldence: 1he loresL Log.

yle, 8oberL M. "WrlLlngs as a WrlLer ln 8esldence aL Lhe P. !. Andrews LxperlmenLal loresL."
LxLracLs from 8eflecLlons: lleld noLes, !ournal LnLrles, Lssay, oems, and CommenLs from a
WrlLlng 8esldency aL Lhe P. !. Andrews LxperlmenLal loresL Crlon Lssay. 1he Long Paul
(2004): 70-71. 1he loresL Log. Web. 16 leb. 2014.

L1L8 lnformaLlon found on P! Andrews webslLe: hLLp://andrewsforesL.oregonsLaLe.edu/


G2;"# 9/8;8/+:4
!ames 8erLollno: hLLp://[amesberLollno.com/
8oberL Mlchael yle: hLLp://chaLLermarks.ncascades.org/odds-and-ends/favorlLe-phoLos-of-2009/
8obln klmmerer: hLLps://mllkweed.org/auLhors/robln-wall-klmmerer/

SLan Cregory: hLLp://andrewsforesL.oregonsLaLe.edu/lLer/personnel/showpersonblo.cfm and
hLLp://andrewsforesL.oregonsLaLe.edu

nlcole Czarnomskl: hLLp://andrewsforesL.oregonsLaLe.edu and rlvers.bee.oregonsLaLe.edu


71
!"# %#&#'(
6
Lh
-8
Lh
grade

)*+,- ./0#(
6-8 sLudenLs
1 faclllLaLor

1/2#(
73 mlnuLes

13#2#4(
SLewardshlp
Leave no 1race
Map readlng

.,56#784(
Ceography

9+:7#-8(
Slnce we rely on
naLure for dally
provlslons and our
own en[oymenL, we
musL recognlze boLh
Lhe poslLlve and
negaLlve lmpacLs of
our lnLeracLlons wlLh
naLure and reallze
LhaL small acLs of
sLewardshlp make a
dlfference.

%+7;8/+:(
P! Andrews
LxperlmenLal loresL
ulscovery 1rall


<56#78/&#4
8y Lhe end of Lhls sLaLlon, sLudenLs wlll be able Lo:
1. ulscuss 1 reason we need Lo sLeward naLure
2. uescrlbe 3 Leave no 1race prlnclples
3. LlsL Lhe Leave no 1race prlnclples used ln bulldlng a debrls
shelLer
4. uescrlbe aL leasL 1 way Lhey can use Leave noL 1race
prlnclples ln Lhelr dally llves

<&#*&/#=
1hls sLaLlon beglns wlLh a mapplng acLlvlLy of ouLdoor areas ln
Cregon Lo lnLroduce sLudenLs Lo Lhe concepLs of envlronmenLal
sLewardshlp. 1he purpose ls Lo compare and conLrasL each sLudenLs
personal experlences ln Lhelr favorlLe ouLdoor area ln Cregon as well
as ouLdoor areas LhaL have noL been well cared for due Lo polluLlon,
garbage, lmproper flre rlngs, and Lrampled meadows, for example.
1hen Lhe sLudenLs wlll be lnLroduced Lo Lhe seven Leave no 1race
prlnclples and bulld upon Lhem by consLrucLlng and dlsassembllng a
debrls shelLer followed by a reflecLlve dlscusslon.

>;8/+:;'#
As resldenLs of Lhe aclflc norLhwesL, we vlslL and en[oy our foresLs
for many reasons such as ouLdoor recreaLlon, splrlLual encounLers,
and envlronmenLal educaLlon. ln addlLlon, we are dependenL on Lhe
foresL for dally resources such as waLer, food, wood, and paper. lor
Lhese reasons, lL ls our responslblllLy Lo learn how Lo Lake care of our
foresLs noL only for our own pleasure and resource needs, buL also
for Lhe en[oymenL and needs of fuLure generaLlons. undersLandlng
and applylng Lhe Leave no 1race prlnclples and Lhelr lmporLance ln
preservlng naLural places wlll enable sLudenLs Lo become beLLer
sLewards of Lhelr envlronmenL, wherever Lhey may venLure.

?;8#*/;'4
! #$%%&'()$% ($ *+,'&
Large foldouL map of Cregon
Map of Cregon creaLed ln Lhe pre-Lrlp lesson
20-23 feeL of yarn for Lhe ouLllne of Cregon
8lue yarn of 3 dlfferenL lengLhs Lo represenL Lhe Mckenzle,
WlllameLLe, and Columbla 8lvers
.8#=;*@43/- /: !78/+:
-&.&+$/&0 12 #34)5()%& *$((&4 ,%0 #34)5()%, 6(781$

72
8lank cardboard Lrlangles for mounLalns
6 cardboard Lrlangles wlLh ML. Pood, ML. 8achelor, ML. !efferson, ML. WashlngLon, 1he
1hree SlsLers, and ML. 1hlelsen wrlLLen on Lhem
4 cardboard clrcles wlLh Lugene, orLland, Salem, and llorence wrlLLen on Lhem
1wlg Lo represenL P! Andrews LxperlmenLal loresL
13 beads (1 for each sLudenL and exLras)

9&,.& :$ ;4,'& <,/
Leave no 1race prlnclple cards

!% =>/&0)()$% $? 6(&@,4053)/
SlLe wlLh ample debrls

)#88/:" >#;@A
8efore Lhe sLudenLs arrlve, place Lhe maLerlals aL Lhe sLaLlon locaLlon on Lhe Lrall. Check Lo make
sure Lhere ls ample debrls ln Lhe area Lo bulld a debrls shelLer. lf noL, gaLher debrls from Lhe
surroundlng area and dlsLrlbuLe lL LhroughouL Lhe slLe.

B;7C"*+,:@
9&,.& :$ ;4,'& <,/
Leave no 1race ls a phllosophy esLabllshed by Lhe CenLer lor CuLdoor LLhlcs Lo mlnlmlze and
prevenL lmpacLs whlle en[oylng any form of un-moLorlzed ouLdoor pursulL. 1he concepL of leave no
Lrace was esLabllshed by Lhe loresL Servlce ln Lhe 1960's and ln 1993, Lhe Leave no 1race, lnc (now
Lhe CenLer for CuLdoor LLhlcs) was esLabllshed. 1he 7 Leave no 1race prlnclples Leach people how
Lo responslbly use and en[oy Lhe ouLdoors:
1. D:+= 5#E+*# A+, "+. 8efore golng on a Lrlp, choose an area LhaL ls wlLhln all parLlclpanLs
ablllLy. 8esearch Lhe wllderness regulaLlons, weaLher, and Lerraln ln Lhe planned wllderness
area. repare for any weaLher condlLlons LhaL mlghL occur ln Lhe area, even lf Lhey are noL
predlcLed ln Lhe forecasL. lan meals, snacks, and brlng enough waLer Lo mlnlmlze Lrash.
2. 93++4# 83# */"38 -;83. 1ravelllng and camplng lmpacLs Lhe land more so on some surfaces
Lhan on oLhers. Chooslng durable surfaces, such as esLabllshed Lralls, rock, sand, gravel, and
snow Lo Lravel on raLher Lhan areas covered ln vegeLaLlon because Lhls decreases Lhe
lmpacLs of humans on fraglle hablLaLs. When seLLlng up camp, choose a durable surface,
keep Lhe campslLe small, and avold walklng on vegeLaLlon.
3. 1*;43 A+,* 8*;43F ack ouL any Lrash or lefLover food LhaL ls packed ln and lnspecL campslLes
for Lrash before leavlng, lncludlng blodegradable wasLe such as apples cores or banana
peels. 8lodegradable wasLe ls generally noL naLlve Lo mosL naLural envlronmenLs and poses
a LhreaL Lo wlldllfe as lL ls noL sulLable food. Puman wasLe and used LolleL paper should be
dlsposed ln 6-8 lnch deep caLholes LhaL are aL leasL 200 feeL from waLer or packed ouL lf
requlred by Lhe land managers. Wash dlshes uslng a mlnlmal amounL blodegradable soap aL
leasL 200 feeL from any waLer source. ScaLLer Lhe used dlshwaLer lnsLead of dlsposlng lL all
ln one concenLraLed area.
4. %#;&# =3;8 A+, E/:@. lnsLead of Laklng naLural ob[ecLs home, such as planLs, rocks, and
sLlcks or archeologlcal arLlfacLs, Lake a plcLure of lL or skeLch lL and leave lL behlnd. When
bulldlng campslLes, avold dlgglng Lrenches, Lylng ropes around Lrees, and cuLLlng down
73
Lrees. lf Lhe area was cleared of Lwlgs and rocks for a LenL, be sure Lo puL Lhem back before
leavlng. 1hese pracLlces allow all fuLure users of Lhe wllderness Lo en[oy all aspecLs of Lhls
area wlLh few lmpacLs and alLeraLlons.
3. B# 7;*#E,' =/83 E/*#. AlLhough bulldlng a flre ls a camplng LradlLlon, lmproper flres can
negaLlvely lmpacL Lhe envlronmenL. 8efore plannlng Lo bulld a campflre ln an area wlLhouL
an esLabllshed flre rlng and where Lhey are permlLLed, conslder Lhe opLlon of uslng a sLove,
whlch does noL leave lasLlng lmpacLs ln Lhe wllderness. lf a flre ls necessary, bulld A Leave
no 1race flre whlch ls small, uses sLlcks LhaL can be broken by hand, and lnsulaLes Lhe
ground from heaL wlLh a mound or flre pan.
6. >#4-#78 G/'@'/E#F When vlslLlng Lhe wllderness, we are also vlslLlng Lhe homes of Lhe
anlmals LhaL llve Lhere. 8especL Lhe anlmals and Lhelr homes by observlng Lhem from a
dlsLance and reslsLlng Lhe urge Lo follow, approach, or feed wlld anlmals. When a slck or
ln[ured anlmal ls found, leave lL alone and noLlfy Lhe land managers of Lhe area. Make sure
Lo sLore food and Lrash securely Lo proLecL food from wlldllfe and proLecL wlldllfe from food.
7. B# C/:@ 8+ +83#* &/4/8+*4. Many people come Lo Lhe wllderness for resL, relaxaLlon, and
re[uvenaLlon ln a quleL and sollLary place away from Lhe busy, loud llfe ln clLles and suburbs.
1o respecL Lhe experlence of oLher vlslLors, be courLeous by avoldlng loud sounds, muslc,
and oLher dlsLracLlng nolses.

!% =>/&0)()$% $? 6(&@,4053)/
unexpecLed slLuaLlons do arlse ln backcounLry seLLlngs LhaL could expose us Lo lnherenL rlsks.
Pavlng an lnLroducLlon Lo effecLlve survlval sLraLegles provldes slgnlflcanL advanLage for survlvors.
Adherlng Lo guldellnes from Lhe MounLaln 8escue AssoclaLlon, followlng Lhe prlnclple of .1<H (slL,
Lhlnk, observe, plan) wlll drasLlcally lncrease chances of survlval raLher Lhan negaLlvely perpeLuaLlng
Lhe lssue. When lL ls undersLood LhaL you are ln a survlval slLuaLlon, lL becomes lmporLanL Lo
prlorlLlze Lhe E/&# #'#2#:84 +E 4,*&/&;': aLLlLude, shelLer, waLer, flre, and food. A poslLlve aLLlLude ls
cruclal. 1he chance of survlval lncreases wlLh Lhe ablllLy Lo remaln calm and producLlve. A shelLer
provldes proLecLlon from Lhe weaLher and wlll mlnlmlze cllmaLe assoclaLed ln[urles. WaLer ls
essenLlal for Lhe human body, wlLh waLer and shelLer humans can survlve for weeks. llre provldes
heaL, llghL psychologlcal rellef, and slgnals rescuers. lood, lncludlng edlble planLs, can be a luxury ln
a survlval slLuaLlon, a physlcally flL person can lasL weeks wlLhouL food. A wllderness survlval
scenarlo poses a challenge for Lhe lndlvldual Lo creaLe a sulLable hablLaL. A @#5*/4 3,8 ls a common
and effecLlve survlval shelLer.

!78/&/8A I:48*,78/+:4

H;*8 !F 9+::#78/+: 8+ H';7#( JK 2/:,8#4
1. 9*#;8# ; 2;- +E <*#"+: (7 mlnuLes)
a. Ask Lhe sLudenLs Lo work LogeLher Lo make an ouLllne of Cregon on Lhe ground wlLh
Lhe yarn. lf needed, leL Lhem reference Lhe map Lhey creaLed ln Lhe pre-Lrlp lesson.
Pave Lhem:
l. CrlenL Lhe map Lo magneLlc norLh wlLh a compass.
ll. 8epresenL Lhe Columbla, WlllameLLe, and Mckenzle, and Sluslaw rlvers wlLh
blue yarn.
lll. 8epresenL Lugene, Salem, orLland, and llorence wlLh Lhe clLy clrcles.
74
lv. LocaLe P! Andrews wlLh a Lwlg.
v. 8epresenL Lhe CoasLal 8ange and Lhe Cascades, speclflcally marklng: ML.
Pood, ML. WashlngLon, ML. !efferson, ML. 8achelor, 1he SlsLers, and ML.
1hlelson.
b. Cnce Lhe map ls creaLed, ask sLudenLs Lo Lrace Lhe flow of waLer from Lhe Mckenzle
8lver Lo Lhe WlllameLLe, Columbla, and ouL Lo Lhe aclflc Ccean.

2. L/47,44/+: ;:@ 2;--/:" +E E;&+*/8# -';7#4 (13 mlnuLes)
a. Pave everyone sLand or slL ln a clrcle around Lhe ouLllned map. Clve each parLlclpanL
1 bead.
b. Ask each sLudenL Lo Lhlnk of hls favorlLe ouLdoor place ln Cregon. Clve hlm a mlnuLe
or so Lo Lhlnk abouL lL.
c. Pave each parLlclpanL locaLe her place and puL her bead ln Lhe ouLllne of Cregon. lf
needed, have her use Lhe map as a reference.
d. Whlle each parLlclpanL places hls sLone ln Lhe ouLllne, have hlm descrlbe hls
locaLlon, explaln why lL ls hls favorlLe place, and how he feels when he ls Lhere. 1he
faclllLaLor should share her experlence as well.
l. noLe: lf sLudenLs have Lrouble comlng up wlLh ldeas, prompL Lhem by asklng
Lhem lf Lhey have been hlklng, kayaklng, or Lo Lhe snow, for example, and
where Lhey wenL for Lhese acLlvlLles. lf sLudenLs have never been ouL of
Lugene, Lell Lhem LhaL LhaL ls ok because Lhere are greaL ouLdoor places ln
Lugene such as parks, Lhe rlver, and Spencer's 8uLLe
e. Cnce everyone has placed Lhelr bead down, ask:
l. Pow would you feel lf you came Lo your favorlLe place and saw Lrash
everywhere, polluLed waLer, or all Lhe flowers plcked?
1. noLe: make Lhe Lype of human dlsLurbance speclflc buL relevanL Lo
Lhe places Lhe sLudenLs menLlon

H;*8 BF %#;&# M+ 1*;7#( NO 2/:,8#4
1. I:8*+@,7# %#;&# M+ 1*;7# H*/:7/-'#4 (8 mlnuLes)
a. Ask:
l. Pow do you Lhlnk we can make a dlfference ln Lhe land we cherlsh, such as
our favorlLe places?
ll. Pave you heard of Leave no 1race? Can you descrlbe any of Lhe Leave no
1race prlnclples?
1. Allow Lhe sLudenLs a chance Lo llsL off any prlnclples lf Lhey know
Lhem.
b. Clve each sLudenL a Leave no 1race prlnclple card. lf Lhere are exLra cards, Lhe
faclllLaLor and/or chaperone can geL a card and parLlclpaLe as well.
c. Co around ln a clrcle and have each sLudenL read hls or her Leave no 1race prlnclple
and explaln whaL lL mlghL mean. AfLer each prlnclple, flll ln any key polnLs Lhe
sLudenL dld noL menLlon.
l. know before you go
1. 8esearch Lhe weaLher, Lerraln, and wllderness regulaLlons ln Lhe
naLure area you wanL Lo go Lo.
75
ll. Choose Lhe rlghL paLh
1. SLay on Lralls lnsLead of maklng anoLher Lrall Lo proLecL Lhe hablLaL of
Lhe crlLLers whose home you are vlslLlng.
2. lf golng off Lrall, be wary of where you are sLepplng (anlmal homes ln
Lhe ground, fraglle meadow hablLaLs).
lll. 1rash your Lrash
1. ack ouL all Lrash, even blodegradable Lrash, from any naLure area.
lv. Leave whaL you flnd
1. 1ake plcLures and drawlngs home lnsLead of rocks, Lwlgs, flowers,
and oLher naLural ob[ecLs from naLure. lL ls ok Lo Lake one or Lwo
leaves home, for example, buL flrsL Lhlnk abouL whaL wlll happen Lo
Lhe envlronmenL lf everyone Lakes one leaf home.
v. 8e careful wlLh flre
1. Cnly bulld a flre where lL ls allowed and Lend Lo lL aL all Llmes unLll lL
ls ouL.
vl. 8especL wlldllfe
1. Cbserve all wlldllfe from a dlsLance lnsLead of feedlng or followlng lL.
lnsLead, Lake a plcLure, skeLch lL, or [ournal abouL lLs acLlvlLy.
vll. 8e klnd Lo oLher vlslLors
1. 8e courLeous Lo oLher vlslLors of naLure by noL Lalklng loudly for
exLended perlods of Llme or playlng muslc. lf hlklng on a Lrall, be
courLeous Lo Lhe people you pass.

2. %#;&# M+ 1*;7# >;- (7 mlnuLes)
a. Pave each sLudenL come up wlLh a shorL rhyme, rap, sklL, dance, or song LhaL
descrlbes Lhelr prlnclple
b. Lxplaln LhaL each sLudenL wlll share Lhelr creaLlon wlLh Lhe group and Lhe group wlll
guess whlch prlnclple lL ls abouL
l. Lncourage sLudenLs Lo use moLlons, dance, or slng.
c. Ask: Are Lhese prlnclples necessary Lo follow aL all Llmes? WhaL are some slLuaLlons
when you mlghL need Lo alLer Lhem?
l. noLe: 8e sure Lo emphaslze LhaL Leave no 1race prlnclples are a guldellne for
sLewardlng naLure. SclenLlsLs do noL always follow Lhese prlnclples because
ln order Lo sLudy Lhe foresL, for example, sclenLlsLs need Lo Lake soll samples
or modlfy Lhe envlronmenL. Allow Lhe sLudenLs Lo come Lo Lhelr own
concluslons abouL when Lo follow Leave no 1race prlnclples and when lL ls
approprlaLe Lo break" Lhem.

H;*8 9F !: PQ-#@/8/+: +E .8#=;*@43/-( RK 2/:,8#4
1. I:8*+@,7# .7#:;*/+ (3 mlnuLes)
a. 1ell Lhe sLudenLs LhaL ln many of Lhe oLher sLaLlons we have (or wlll) vlslLed Loday,
you have been dolng many of Lhe same Lasks sclenLlsLs ofLen do ln Lhe fleld. now
lmaglne you are researchlng ln Lhe fleld and elLher dlscover you are losL or slmply
forgoL Lo pack a LenL. WhaL would you do?
76
l. use a clrcular whlp for dlscusslon abouL whaL Lhey Lhlnk ls a good reacLlon Lo
belng losL and/or wlLhouL shelLer ln Lhe woods
2. I:8*+@,7# .1<H (3 mlnuLes)
a. Ask sLudenLs lf Lhey have heard of Lhe acronym S1C for when you are losL.
l. Allow sLudenLs Lo share whaL Lhey know wlLh Lhe group
b. Lxplaln S1C:
l. .lL: SlLLlng down and noL wanderlng ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL rule of Lhem all! lf
you wander rescuers cannoL flnd you. Cne reason ls LhaL people looklng for
you move very slowly whlle searchlng for clues. lf you are ouL fronL runnlng
along, Lhey won'L be able Lo caLch up. AnoLher reason for noL wanderlng ls
Lhe posslblllLy of falllng and hurLlng yourself whlle Lravellng.
ll. 1hlnk: 1hlnklng your slLuaLlon Lhrough ls a menLal exerclse and keeps you
busy. lLemlze your resources, Lry Lo place LogeLher a rough Llmellne Lo
deLermlne how much dayllghL ls lefL, where was Lhe lasL place someone
acLually saw you, how can you make yourself noLlced, eLc.
lll. <bserve: Cbserve your surroundlngs and Lake noLe of resources, dlrecLlon,
and promlnenL land feaLures. 1hls can be an lndlcaLor of where you are or
Lhe dlrecLlon LhaL rescuers wlll be approachlng you.
lv. Look for resources Lo 5,/'@ ; 43#'8#*. SLars, sun, or dlsLlncL landmarks can
provlde clues as Lo where you are.
v. Hlan: lan for Lhe worsL, buL hope for Lhe besL. 1ake lnLo accounL sLraLegles
of seLLlng up LargeLs LhaL rescuers can flnd. LsLabllsh a base camp and
formulaLe a sysLem of geLLlng famlllar wlLh your surroundlngs wlLhouL
geLLlng losL furLher. lan for success.

3. L#5*/4 43#'8#* -';: (3 mlnuLes)
a. Lxplaln Lo Lhe sLudenLs LhaL Slnce know we are losL for Lhe nlghL, bulldlng a shelLer
Lo sleep ln would be a good flrsL sLep. Ask Lhe sLudenLs Lo come up wlLh a llsL of
lmporLanL elemenLs needed for bulldlng a shelLer and how Lhey mlghL consLrucL a
shelLer. A plcLure ls aLLached aL Lhe end of Lhe lesson. ulscusslon should lnclude:
l. S#"#8;8/+: 2;88*#44: lle sofL, dry vegeLaLlon and debrls on Lhe shelLer floor
unLll a Lhlck vegeLaLlon maLLress" has been fashloned. 1he maLLress ls Lhe
mosL lmporLanL elemenL as lL keeps you from soaklng up molsLure from Lhe
ground and provldes a layer of lnsulaLlon from Lhe cold ground. lf posslble,
place a garbage bag or space blankeL on Lop of Lhe maLLress Lo sLay dry.
ll. ! 7#:8*;' */@"#-+'#( wlLh one end elevaLed and Lhe oLher on Lhe ground. lL
should be long enough Lo allow Lhe survlvor Lo lle compleLely wlLhln Lhe
shelLer.
lll. >/54: Several branches can be placed across Lhe rldgepole from Lhe ground
on elLher slde for rlbs.
lv. B*,43A */5 7+&#*: lace brush-llke branches over Lhe rlbs Lo provlde a surface
for Lhe ouLer lnsulaLlon Lo resL.
77
v. <,8#* /:4,';8/+:: AccumulaLe and place llghL, alry vegeLaLlon LhaL wlll acL as
/nsulaLlon across Lhe rlbs sLarLlng from Lhe ground and worklng Lowards Lhe
Lop. 1hls wlll glve Lhe shelLer a shlngled effecL and repel waLer downward.
vl. B*;:73#4 8+ 3+'@ +,8#* /:4,';8/+: /: -';7#: Cover Lhe ouLer lnsulaLlon layer
wlLh more branches Lo hold vegeLaLlon ln place.
vll. L++*: A door can be lmprovlsed uslng a backpack, umbrella, or oLher foresL
resources.
b. Ask Lhe sLudenLs Lo carefully observe Lhelr surroundlngs and choose a debrls shelLer
slLe and explaln why Lhey chose LhaL slLe.
l. ShelLers should be consLrucLed ln proLecLed, well-dralned areas LhaL are
ralsed off Lhe general ground level and where maLerlals are close aL hand Lo
conserve energy.

4. %#;&# M+ 1*;7# >#&/#= (2 mlnuLes)
a. Ask sLudenLs whaL Leave no 1race prlnclples Lhey can use when bulldlng Lhelr
shelLer. ulscuss how Leave whaL you flnd" applles Lo Lhelr debrls shelLer. (2
mlnuLes)
l. Lxplaln LhaL ?ou cannoL leave Lhls slLe exacLly Lhe way you found lL. ?ou
cerLalnly don'L know exacLly where every leaf and sLlck came from. ?ou may
noL break or uprooL planLs and you can Lry Lo puL everyLhlng back as close Lo
Lhe same condlLlons as you found lL Lhough Lo mlnlmlze your ecologlcal
lmpacL."

3. B,/'@ N @#5*/4 43#'8#* (17 mlnuLes)
a. 8ulld 1 debrls shelLer uslng Lhe dlscussed plan.
l. Ask sLudenLs Lo be observanL of how Lhey found Lhe debrls whlle gaLherlng
maLerlal.
b. Pave all Lhe sLudenLs lay lnslde of lL when lL ls flnlshed

6. L#7+:48*,78 83# 43#'8#* (3 mlnuLes)
a. Cnce everyone has lald lnslde Lhe shelLer, deconsLrucL lL and spread Lhe debrls
across Lhe slLe slmllarly Lo how lL was before bulldlng Lhe shelLer.

7. L/47,44/+: (3 mlnuLes)
a. CaLher sLudenLs lnLo a clrcle and ask each sLudenL Lo come up wlLh one example of
how Lhey can personally use Ln1 prlnclples Lo be good sLewards of Lhe envlronmenL.
78


9/8;8/+:4

ConnecLlon 1o lace" adapLed from, ls Leave no 1race 8elevanL Lo lreland?" from:
hLLp://www.leavenoLracelreland.org/Webage.aspx?lu=22

1ommy 8oyer, uo as Lhe Anlmals uo," Canopy ConnecLlons 2008

"1he Leave no 1race Seven rlnclples." 9&,.& :$ ;4,'& #&%(&4 ?$4 A7(0$$4 =(3)'5. n.p., n.d. Web. 18
Mar. 2014. <hLLps://lnL.org/learn/7-prlnclples>.

ShelLer lmage from:
hLLp://medla.Lumblr.com/eea442b1f01338c4de09e6c9d4ec27b3/Lumblr_lnllne_ml0zzenZo41r[e9af
.[pg

79
!"# %#&#'(
6
Lh
-8
Lh
grade

)*+,- ./0#(
6-8 sLudenLs
1 faclllLaLor

1/2#(
13 mlnuLes

13#2#4(
8eflecLlon
CrlLlcal 1hlnklng

.,56#784(
Language ArLs

9+:7#-8(
8eflecLlon ls an
lnLegral parL of
successful learnlng for
Lhe sLudenLs. 1he
evaluaLlon survey wlll
help us crlLlque our
lesson plans and our
Leachlng ablllLles.

%+7;8/+:(
P! Andrews
LxperlmenLal loresL


<56#78/&#4
8y Lhe end of Lhe fleld Lrlp, sLudenLs wlll be able Lo
1. Lxplaln 3 new facLs LhaL Lhey learned aL each sLaLlon
2. ArLlculaLe 1 sclenLlflc observaLlon Lhey were able Lo make aL
each sLaLlon

<&#*&/#=
1he erfecLlon of 8eflecLlon" ls Lhe concluslon Lo Lhe fleld Lrlp. lL
allows Lhe sLudenLs Lo flll ouL a survey so Lhe faclllLaLors can evaluaLe
whaL Lhe sLudenLs learned LhroughouL Lhe day. lL also ends Lhe day
on a hlgh noLe by brlng all Lhe groups back LogeLher so LhaL Lhey can
share Lhelr experlences, and by provldlng souvenlrs for Lhe sLudenLs
Lo remember Lhelr day.

>;8/+:;'#
Croup reflecLlon wlll help relnforce whaL Lhe sLudenLs learned
LhroughouL Lhe fleld Lrlp. As well, a group dlscusslon of Lhe fleld Lrlp
Lheme wlll help Lhe sLudenLs ldenLlfy Lhe lnLerconnecLedness of Lhe
sLaLlons and Lhe overarchlng Lheme of sLudenLs as sclenLlsLs. LasLly,
group dlscusslon wlll help creaLe an engaged envlronmenL for Lhe
sLudenLs Lo parLlclpaLe ln.

?;8#*/;'4
8 penclls
8 sLudenL surveys (aLLached aL end of lesson)
2 chaperone surveys (aLLached aL end of lesson)
8 Canopy ConnecLlons sLlckers (aLLached aL end of lesson)
8 Mckenzle 8lver hlke maps (aLLached aL end of lesson)

)#88/:" >#;@A
Make 30 coples of Lhe survey, hlke map, and sLlckers before Lhe fleld
Lrlp. Make a sLack of surveys, maps, and sLlckers for each group so
Lhey are ready Lo hand ouL upon reLurn Lo Lhe pavlllon.






13# B#*C#78/+: +C >#C'#78/+:
!"#"$%&"' )* +,-./0 12/%- 30' 4300"2 53/67"
80
!78/&/8A D:48*,78/+:4
EF .,*&#A (3-10 MlnuLes)
a. 1ell Lhe sLudenLs LhaL we are lnLeresLed ln hearlng Lhelr feedback from Lhe day and
whaL Lhey have learned. ln facL, we are so lnLeresLed ln hearlng abouL whaL Lhey
learned we are offerlng Lo glve Lhem a surprlse glfL lf Lhey compleLe a survey of Lhelr
experlence. 1he surveys are anonymous so Lhey can be compleLely honesL ln Lhelr
reflecLlons. 1ell Lhem LhaL once Lhey Lurn ln boLh Lhelr survey and Lhelr hard-haL
Lhey wlll recelve a surprlse souvenlr for Lhe day.
b. lf Lhere ls a chaperone ln your group, ask Lhem lf Lhey could flll ouL a chaperone
survey because we value Lhelr feedback.
c. As each sLudenL Lurns ln Lhelr hard-haL and survey, glve Lhem a souvenlr (a map of
places Lhe sLudenLs can go hlklng ln Lhelr area and a Canopy ConnecLlons sLlcker).

GF >#C'#78/+: ;:@ 48+*A8#''/:" (3-10 mlnuLes, lf Llme permlLs)
a. Cnce Lhe surveys and hard-haLs have been gaLhered, all Lhe groups wlll come back
LogeLher as one large group and gaLher ln a clrcle elLher under Lhe pavlllon or ln Lhe
fleld.
b. ass around a Lalklng sLlck and ask each sLudenL Lo share Lhelr favorlLe parL of each
sLaLlon and one Lhlng Lhey learned Loday.
c. Cnce lL ls Llme for Lhe sLudenLs Lo leave, Lhank Lhem and allow Lhem Lo geL back on
Lhe buses.



81
Name (optional): _______________________
School Name: ________________________
Facilitators Name: _____________________

Conclusion Survey
Directions: Answer the following questions to the best of your knowledge.

1. List the 3 layers of the forest that we experienced during the tree climb

_______________ _______________ _______________

2. Describe your personal experience in the tree: ________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

3. What did you like about the teaching methods of your group leader?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

4. What did you dislike about the teaching methods of your group leader?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

5. As a result of this field trip, did your perceptions of old growth forests change at all?
Please explain.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

6. What is one thing that you would be willing to do to protect special places in nature
(like HJA)?



7. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much did you enjoy this field trip? (1 = lowest and 5 = highest)

1 2 3 4 5


8. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much did you learn today?

1 2 3 4 5

*Please provide further comments on the back*

82
Name (optional): _______________________
School Name: ________________________
Facilitators Name: _____________________

Conclusion Survey
Directions: Answer the following questions to the best of your knowledge.

1. List the characteristics of an old growth forest. (Hint: use the acronym)

___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

2. Describe your personal experience in the tree: ________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

3. What did you like about the teaching methods of your group leader?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

4. What did you dislike about the teaching methods of your group leader?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

5. As a result of this field trip, did your perceptions of old growth forests change at all?
Please explain.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

6. What is one thing that you would be willing to do to protect special places in nature
(like HJA)?



7. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much did you enjoy this field trip? (1 = lowest and 5 = highest)

1 2 3 4 5


8. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much did you learn today?

1 2 3 4 5

*Please provide further comments on the back*
83
Name (optional): _______________________
School Name: ________________________
Facilitators Name: _____________________

Conclusion Survey
Directions: Answer the following questions to the best of your knowledge.

1. Name three physical features that contribute to microclimates in riparian zones.
_______________ _______________ _______________
2. Describe your personal experience in the tree: ________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

3. What did you like about the teaching methods of your group leader?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

4. What did you dislike about the teaching methods of your group leader?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

5. As a result of this field trip, did your perceptions of old growth forests change at all?
Please explain.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

6. What is one thing that you would be willing to do to protect special places in nature
(like HJA)?



7. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much did you enjoy this field trip? (1 = lowest and 5 = highest)

1 2 3 4 5

8. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much did you learn today?


1 2 3 4 5

*Please provide further comments on the back*
84

Name (optional): _______________________
School Name: ________________________
Facilitators Name: _____________________

Conclusion Survey
Directions: Answer the following questions to the best of your knowledge.

1. Name as many of the 7 Leave No Trace principles as you can.



2. Describe your personal experience in the tree: __________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

3. What did you like about the teaching methods of your group leader?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

4. What did you dislike about the teaching methods of your group leader?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

5. As a result of this field trip, did your perceptions of old growth forests change at all?
Please explain.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

6. What is one thing that you would be willing to do to protect special places in nature
(like HJA)?



7. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much did you enjoy this field trip? (1 = lowest and 5 = highest)
1 2 3 4 5


8. On a scale of 1 to 5, how much did you learn today?

1 2 3 4 5
*Please provide further comments on the back*
85

Facilitators Name: __________________

Chaperone Survey

What were your facilitators strengths? _______________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

What were your facilitators weaknesses?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

On a scale of 1-10 how much do you think the students benefited from this experience?
(1 being not at all and 10 being extremely beneficial)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

How confident and enthusiastic was your facilitator when addressing the students?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

How did the facilitator perform answering students questions?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Do you think the students enjoyed the field trip?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Suggestions/comments:
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

86
Station Map


87
-%".'( "# >? @4A%$B(
/.(0+C$%2 -%".'
/.&&.01'#23 Easy
*$45#63 u.7S miles
/1%"#.+43 1 houi
This shoit tiail is the location of the
Canopy Connections fielu tiip. It
staits at B} Anuiews heauquaiteis
anu meanueis thiough the olu
giowth foiest past the tiee
climbing station, two outciops that
oveilook Lookout Cieek.

*++;+1# :%$$; D'A E%+B#6 -%".'
/.&&.01'#23 moueiate to stienuous
*$45#63 S.S miles one way, 7 miles
iounu tiip
/1%"#.+43 S-S houis
The Lookout Cieek 0lu uiowth
Tiail tiaveises the noith siue of
Lookout Cieek thiough a stunning
olu-giowth foiest in the B}
Anuiews Expeiimental Foiest. The
tiail has many ups anu uowns anu
a few tiicky stieam ciossings, but it
is woith the views of the foiest.
The tiail is S.S miles one way so
you can hike foi an houi oi so foi a
shoitei hike oi uo the entiie 7
miles iounu tiip foi a longei hike.

/.%$0#.+4(3 Fiom Eugene, take
hwy 126 east foi about 44 miles.
Tuin left onto Roau 1S at the sign
foi Blue Rivei Reseivoii. To get to
the heauquaiteis anu the
Biscoveiy Tiail, follow the paveu
ioau foi S.8 miles past Foiest Roau
1Su6 anu cioss Lookout Cieek
Biiuge. }ust past the biiuge, tuin
left onto Foiest Roau 1Su at
"Anuiews Foiest Beauquaiteis"
sign. The lowei tiailheau of the
Lookout Cieek 0lu uiowth Tiail
can be accesseu fiom the enu of the
Biscoveiy Tiail. To get to the uppei
tiailheau, tuin iight on Foiest Roau
1Su6 anu continue foi 1u miles.

7+#$(3
Bathiooms at B} Anuiews
heauquaiteis (closeu on holiuays)
Watei at B} Anuiews heauquaiteis
Fiee paiking












Nap fiom: http:www.mckenziewc.oigimagesNNAP4.gif
McKenzie River
Hikes!
88
!"#$%&"''( *++, -%".'
/.&&.01'#23 Easy
*$45#6: 2.6 miles
/1%"#.+43 1-S houis
Family Fiienuly

Sahalie anu Koosah Falls aie
connecteu by this loop tiail,
offeiing spectaculai close up views
of both wateifalls. Sahalie is the
Chinook woiu foi "heaven" anu
Koosah is the Chinook woiu foi
"sky." The wateifalls foimeu aftei
two thick lava flows uammeu Cleai
Lake S,uuu yeais ago. This aiea
was useu as a tiauing giounu foi
the Kalapuya, Nolalla, Sahaptain,
anu Chinook peoples. The tiail can
be accesseu fiom eithei the Sahalie
Falls oi Koosah falls tiailheaus.

/.%$0#.+4(3 Fiom Eugene, tiavel
east on Bwy 126 foi about 7u
miles. To access the Koosah Falls
Bay 0se Aiea is 17.S miles, tuin left
at the Ice Cap CampgiounuKoosah
Falls sign that is 17.S miles fiom
NcKenzie Biiuge. Continue foi
anothei V mile to access the
Sahalie Falls Bay 0se Aiea. The
paiking aiea is on the left.

7+#$(
0pen in Nay
No paiking fee
Beavy usage
No watei
vault toilet only at Sahalie Falls




-"8+'.#06 9++'
/.&&.01'#2: Easy
*$45#6: 4 miles iounu tiip
/1%"#.+4: 1-S houis
Family Fiienuly

This segment of the 26 mile
NcKenzie Rivei tiail takes hikeis to
Tamolitch Pool (Blue Pool), known
foi its tuiquoise coloi. The
NcKenzie Rivei flows unueigiounu
upstieam of Tamolitch Pool. The
hike meanueis thiough a Bouglas-
fii foiest anu eventually leaus into
an olu lava flow befoie ieaching the
pool. Aftei heavy iains, the
NcKenzie iivei will floou ovei the
watei beu anu into Tamolitch Pool.

/.%$0#.+4(3 Fiom Eugene, tiavel
east on Bwy 126 foi about 6S
miles. Tuin left at the Tiailbiiuge
Campgiounu sign onto an
unmaikeu ioau that seives the
small EWEB powei station. This
ioau is 14 miles east of NcKenzie
Biiuge. Cioss the biiuge anu tuin
iight onto a giavel ioau. Aftei a half
mile on the giavel ioau, you will
see signs foi the tiailheau, which is
on the iight

7+#$(
0pen yeai iounu, weathei
peimitting
No paiking fee
No bathiooms oi watei
Bogs on leash alloweu
Nountain bikeis shaie the tiail



:'$"% *";$ -%".'
/.&&.01'#2: Easy
*$45#6: 4.6 miles
/1%"#.+4: 1-S houis
Family fiienuly

Cleai Lake, the heauwateis of the
NcKenzie Rivei, was foimeu Suuu
yeais ago when lava fiom Sanu
Nountain backeu up the iivei.
0nuei the colu wateis lies the
iemains of the oiiginal foiest that
lineu the iivei bank. This foiest can
still be seen fiom the tiail. Nany
animals call this lake home
incluuing ospiey, balu eagles,
cutthioat tiout, anu non-native
iainbow anu biook tiout.

The lake itself is populai foi
fishing, canoeing anu boating,
howevei no motois aie alloweu on
the lake

/.%$0#.+4(3 Fiom Eugene, follow
Bwy 126 east foi about 64 miles.
The lake is iight off of the highway.
Insteau of going to Cleai Lake
Resoit, tuin iight into the fiee
paiking lot. This is a gieat place to
eat lunch befoie hitting the
tiailheau, which is just past the
sheltei.

7+#$(
No paiking fee
Nountain bikeis shaie the tiail
Biing plenty of watei anu
sunscieen
Bogs on leash alloweu
Restiooms anu potable watei
available at Cleai Lake Resoit
9%+<2 ="''(
/.&&.01'#23 easy
*$45#63 1.S mile loop
/1%"#.+43 1 houi
Family fiienuly

Pioxy falls is a 226 ft towei of
cascauing watei. The fall is feu by
spiings fiom the Noith Sistei anu
uiains into the NcKenzie Rivei. The
tiail offeis 2 veiy uiffeient
viewpoints of the falls. Pioxy Falls
is one of the most photogiapheu
wateifalls in 0iegon.

/.%$0#.+4(3 Fiom Eugene, take
Bwy 226 east foi about S7 miles to
the junction of Bwy 242. Biive
about 1u miles up Bwy 242 to the
Pioxy Falls Tiailheau.

7+#$(:
$S pei vehicleuay oi Noithwest
Foiest Pass
vault toilet
No watei
Beavy usage
Check ioau conuitions. Bwy 242 is
closeu in wintei (geneially
Novembei-}une) uue to snow












89
Canopy Connections Sticker Template


90