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INTENTIONALLYLEFTBLANK

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Foreword:

ThisbookletdescribessystemspublishedinourFacebookpages:

About
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Description
Creator: FerdiColijn
Administrators: FerdiColijn(B737NGTypeRated)
MaartenvanKlaveren(B737900ERFirstOfficer)
BertdeJong(FlightEngineer)

B737Theory
March24

ThegoalofthisFBpageistoexpandB737theoreticalknowledgeamongusersandwetrytoachieve
thatbyexpandingtheamountofvisitorsaimingforinteraction.

ThererestnocopyrightonourstoriesbutweratherseeyourecommendingusonyourprivateFB
pagesisosharingtheposts.

Alsofeelfreeto"donate"yourexperiencesandstoriesonB737Theoryanddropusalinebysending
amessage.Wewillevaluateandpostthemintime.Beawarethatitmustnotbeacopyfromany
manualorelseweinterferewithacopyrightthatisalsothereasonwhywedonotpublish
schematicsonthepage.

Thankyou

Contents:

Foreword:................................................................................................................................................2
APU..........................................................................................................................................................6
AutoSlatSystem......................................................................................................................................7
EngineElectronicControl(EEC)...............................................................................................................8
Whenthingsgowrongandbeyondbasicsystemsknowledge...............................................................9
Enginefiredetection.............................................................................................................................11
FeelDifferential.....................................................................................................................................12
FuelScavengeJetPump........................................................................................................................13
Fuelvalves.............................................................................................................................................14
ACGenerator.........................................................................................................................................15
Isolationvalve........................................................................................................................................17
Manualgearextension..........................................................................................................................18
Mechanicalpressurereliefvalves.........................................................................................................19
NitrogenGeneratingSystem.................................................................................................................20
Outflowvalve........................................................................................................................................21
FlightControlBreakawayDevices......................................................................................................22
Pack&packcontrol...............................................................................................................................23
Recirculationfans..................................................................................................................................24
HydraulicReservoirs..............................................................................................................................25
TheAPUStarter/Generator...................................................................................................................26
LandingGearTransferValve.................................................................................................................27
PTU........................................................................................................................................................28
WingThermalAntiIce(WTAI)...............................................................................................................29
B737Yawdamping................................................................................................................................30
Zonetemperaturecontrol.....................................................................................................................31
Lavatoryfireprotection.....................................................................................................................32
Centertankboostpumps......................................................................................................................33
Antiskid..................................................................................................................................................34
LeadingEdgeFlaps................................................................................................................................35
ThrustReverser.....................................................................................................................................37
TailSkid..................................................................................................................................................39
Vortexgenerators..................................................................................................................................40
Windowheating....................................................................................................................................41
Wing&BodyOverheat...........................................................................................................................42
HorizontalStabilizerTrim......................................................................................................................43
4

DisplayElectronicUnits.........................................................................................................................44
ProximitySwitchElectronicUnit...........................................................................................................45
Nosewheelsteeringlockout.................................................................................................................46
Weatherradar.......................................................................................................................................47
Dissolvedair..........................................................................................................................................49
Frangiblefittings....................................................................................................................................50
Rudder(verticalstabilizer)loadreduction.............................................................................................51

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6

APU
The APU is a constant speed ( 49.000 RPM) gas turbine engine that can supply AC power and
pressurized air. The starter/generator is powered from either directly the main battery (28VDC) or
transferbus1(115VAC)whereeithersourceisconvertedinto270VDCforstarteroperation.At95%
starteroperationreversestoa90KVAgenerator,indicatedbytheblueAPU OFFBUSlight. (90KVA
until 32.000 ft. and 66 KVA until 41.000 ft.) Starter sequence is automatically determined by the
ElectronicControlUnit(ECU)thatneedsthebatteryswitchtobeintheONpositiontoenergize.

The APU can be used for air and AC power until 10.000 ft., just air to 17.000 ft. and just AC power
until 41.000 ft. That is also the maximum starting altitude although recommended at 25.000 ft. Air
takes the biggest performance from the APU as it takes air from the load compressor which is
mountedonacommonshaftwiththecombustioncompressor.Themoreairtakenin,thelowerthe
performance of the APU. That is why there is a restriction in altitude use, especially with air and
whenthedemandislarge(highEGT),airuseissqueezedbyIGVstowardtheloadcompressor.When
onsuctionfeedtheAPUdrawsfuelfromtank#1andwhenoperatingforanextendedtimeselecta
fuelpumptopressurefeedwhichextendsthelifetimeoftheAPU.

TheECUprotectstheAPUandshutsdownwithalowoilpressure,overspeedorwhenaFAULTlight
illuminates. The latter represents more than just the foregoing, including ECU failure, loss of DC
power,APUfire,overtemp(duringstart),highoiltempand manymore.Thestartlimitis2minutes
andaFAULTlightilluminateswhenthestartisabortedthroughaprotectionorwhenthegenerator
malfunctions. A blue MAINT light illuminates when oil quantity is low or a generator malfunction
occurred,theAPUisstillallowedtooperate.

APU compartment and oil cooling is accomplished by exhaust air used as an educator to draw
outsideairintothecompartmentfromaninletjustabovetheexhaust.
When the APU is stopped by placing the switch to OFF, the ECU determines a cooling cycle of 1
minutebeforetheAPUactuallystops.ThecoolingcycleclosestheAPUBAVandtripsthegenerator
OFFline.BydoingsoitreliefstheAPUfromloadanddecreasestheEGTpreventingsocalledcooking
ofthenozzles.(residualfuelformscarbononthehotnozzleswhichcanaffecttheflamepattern)
DelayswitchingtheBatterytoOFFto2minutesafterselectingtheAPUtoOFF,thisallowstheinlet
door to close. The door closes when the APU decelerates to 30% to prevent the inlet duct to
collapse.The1minuteisbypassedwhentheAPUshutsdownthroughamalfunction,theFireSwitch
isactivatedorwhentheBatterySwitchisselectedtoOFF.

AutoSlatSystem
The Auto Slat system operates the LE slats automatically in flight when youre approaching a stall
undercertainconditionsjustbeforethestickshakerbecomesactive.

Theseconditionsarewhentheflapsareatposition15andhydraulicpressureisavailablethrough:
HydraulicsystemB
PTU(extend&retract)
Standbyhydraulicsystem(extendonly)

*WithAlternateFlapuse,theAutoSlatfunctionisnotavailable.
*WithashortfieldperformanceconfigurationtheAutoSlatoperateswithflapselections125.

At the flap position 1 5 the LE slats are in the intermediate (extend) position and the LE flaps at
their only extended position . . . FULL. When the aircraft approaches the stall angle/speed region
determined bytheStall ManagementandYawDamper(SMYD)computer,theFlaps/SlatsElectronic
Unit (FSEU) command the LE slats to the FULL extend position to prevent entering a stall condition.
Another action by the FSEU is to delay the transit lights to operate for 12 seconds thereby
preventingtheLEdevicestransitlightstoilluminate.
Whenthrustisincreased/stickforcerelaxedandtheaircraftfliesoutofthiscondition(higherspeed,
lower AOA) the Auto Slat system drives the LE slats back to the intermediate extend position. Also
herethetransitlightswillnotilluminate.

When the Auto Slat systems fails to operate or is not available by any cause, the AUTOSLAT FAIL
indication illuminates on the flight control panel. When 1 SMYD computer fails the other will
automatically take over and would go unnoticed unless you press RECAL during an Auto Slat
condition.

8

EngineElectronicControl(EEC)
TheEECismountedontherighttopsideofthefanductandexistsoftwocomputers(channel1&2),
where one is active and the other standby although theyre both operating and cross linked during
normal operation. The EEC receives numerous environmental and engine input signals to calculate
fuel and control outputs to operate the engine and identifies the engines thrust rating by a pre
selectedidentificationplug.Doingsoitheatsupandneedstobecooledwhichisachievedbytapping
off,anddirectingfanairtotheEEC.

NormalpowersourceoftheEECisanalternatormountedonfrontoftheenginegearboxbutisonly
validwhenthegearbox(N2)reaches15%.Before15%N2,theEECispoweredbyTransferBus1or2
(Eng.1or2)ifavailable,andbecomesenergizedwhentheStartSwitchisplacedtoGRDorCONTor,
when the Start Lever is moved to IDLE. A deenergized EEC is indicated by blank engine indication
boxesontheupperandlowerDUsevenwhentheEECbuttonilluminatesawhiteON,justindicating
thattheEECisselectedtothenormalmode.Inthiscasetheonlyindicationvisibledirectlyfromthe
sensors are N1, N2, Oil quantity and the vibration indicator, all others are blank. So . . . during a
battery start (emergency power), indications of EGT, fuel flow, oil pressure and oil temperature
remainblankuntilthealternatorreaches15%.

OntheaftoverheadenginepaneltherearethetwoguardedEECcontrolbuttonstoselecttheEECto
the NORMAL mode of operation (white ON light), or the manual HARD ALTERNATE mode of
operation(amberALTlight).AnundispatchablefailingEECisindicatedalsoontheenginepanelbya
ENG CONTROL light and will only illuminate when on the ground and the engine N2 >50%.
Alittleteaser....thelastindicationontheenginepanelaretwoREVERSERlights...whenandhow
longdotheyilluminateamberduringnormaloperation?

9

Whenthingsgowrongandbeyondbasicsystems
knowledge
Thenextpostisanactualsituationthathappened,losingaTransferBusinflight.Ivetriedtosimplify
the explanation but in fact its just an indicator of what CAN happen. At this point Non Normal
Procedures,CRMandcommonsenseisneededtoflyoutofthesesituations.

It started with a MASTER CAUTION and a right SOURCE OFF, indicating that XFR bus 2 was not
powered by its last selected source but by Transfer Bus 1. QRH tells us to select the GEN switch
(affectedside)ONwhatthistimecausedaTRANSFERBUS2OFFtoilluminatewithadditionalrelated
indications. (DEU 2 and others, (check the power source booklet to find out) Next the APU was
startedandwhenattemptedtoconnectthegenerator,aBATTERYDISCHARGEilluminatedindicating
an excessive discharge of a battery, with multiple additional indications. The crew decided to stop
furtherproceduresandinvestigationandusedthesystemasis.Togiveyouanidea,theIndications
involved:batterydischarge,mastercaution,righthandsourceoff,righthandtransferbusoff,Mach
trimfail,autoslatfail,fuelpump2fwd.,fuelpump1aft,electricalhydraulicpump#2,probeheatB,
engineEECalternate,zonetemperature.

After this ordeal the crew managed to land safely with this reduced electrical power condition and
multiplecautionindications.

What actually has happened was that the Generator Control Unit (GCU) 2 had received an erratic
signalthroughtheLineCurrentTransformer(LCT)thatIDG2wasconnectedtothetransferbus.This
signal is then transferred to the Bus Power Control Unit (BPCU) who arranges switching in the
electricalACsystemtoprovideinthetwomajorrules:
NoparallelingofACsources
AnACsourceconnectingtoaTransferBusdisconnectstheprevioussource(lookatthefirst
rule)

ThiserroneoussignallockedoutthepossibilitytoconnecttheAPUorotherACsourceslikeTransfer
Bus1toTransferBus2.However,asIDG2infactwasnotconnected,transferbus2lostpower.The
erroneous indication must have originated at the GCB 2 (unit connecting IDG 2 to bus 2) itself,
indicatingtheswitchhadclosedalthoughithadnotmoved.


10

TheBATTERYDISCHARGEisprobablycausedbythea(excessive)mainbatterydischargebypowering
the Battery Bus as also the DC 2 system (TR 2 & TR 3) were not powered anymore and illuminates
whenabatteryoutputconditionsexistsof:
Currentdrawismorethan5ampsfor95seconds
Currentdrawismorethan15ampsfor25seconds
Currentdrawismorethan100ampsfor1.2seconds.
Mind you, normally when Transfer Bus 2 is deenergized the Transfer 3 Relay would switch TR 3 to
TransferBus1whichobviouslydidnthappen.

11

Enginefiredetection
Theenginefiredetectionsystemconsistofafire,andanoverheatdetectioninsidethenacellewhich
areonlyactivewhentheengineisoperating.Temperaturesareguardedby2(A&B)detectorloops
whichoperatebyexpandinggaspressureinsidetheloopelementstherebyactivatinganOVERHEAT,
aFIREora FAULT(leakinglooptube) contact. The engineareas coveredbytheloopsare inside the
nacellesaroundthefan,andthecorehotsectionso...atorch(seeimage)wouldgoundetected
asitoccursinsidetheengine.

OVERHEATdetectionisindicatedbyanOVHT/DET, 2MASTERCAUTIONand respectiveENG


OVERHEATindication.(170Caroundthefansectionand340Caroundthehotsection)
FIREdetectionwouldbeindicatedby2MASTERFIREWARNING,therespectiveFIRESWITCH,
anOVHT/DET,2MASTERCAUTIONandanaudioFIREBELLwarning.(300Caroundthefan
and450Caroundthehotsection)

Wheneitheroftheforegoingoccursthefireswitchunlockstoallowittobepulledup.

Afireoroverheatisdetectedwhenbothloopsexceedthementionedlimitsandwhenoneloopfails,
itll go unnoticed and the detection system automatically switches to a single loop operation. One
failingloopwillonlyilluminateaFAULTduringatest(alsonotonRECALL)andwhenbothloopsfail,
theFAULTlightilluminatesbutNOTtheMASTERCAUTION.

Thedetectiontestsonpreflightare:
The OVHT/FIRE test which checks the operation of the engine & APU fire detection control
modulelocatedintheE&Ebayandnottoforgettheindicationsontheflightdeck.
A FAULT/INOP test checks the FAULT detection circuits (loops and elements) and the flight
deckindicationsbysimulatingadualloopfailure.

NotethattheAPUfiredetectionalsooperatesduringtheFIREtestandisvisible/audibleintheright
mainwheelwellontheAPUGroundControlPanelduringpreflight.

12

FeelDifferential
TheFEELDIFFPRESSindicationontheflightcontrolpanelcanilluminateinthefollowingcases.

(The feel system simulates actual feel forces at the control column from the hydraulically
supportedelevatorpanels)

1. The first one is related to a differential of A & B hydraulic pressure to the elevator feel system.
When either hydraulic system pressure drops > 25% related to the higher pressure, the FEEL DIFF
PRESS light illuminates on the flight control panel with a 30 second delay. The 30 second delay
preventsthelightfromflickeringwhenpressuredropsineithersystembyahighdemandsuchas
gearselection.

2.ThesecondisrelatedtothedynamicairpressuresupplytotheElevatorFeelComputer.Itreceives
dynamic pressure from the two pitot tubes mounted on either side of the vertical stabilizer. When
the computer receives an erratic signal itd be the same as the pressure drop and the light
illuminates.(failedprobeheaterandicingconditions)

3. The third is related to the Stall Management and Yaw Damper (SMYD), and a so called Elevator
Feel Shift module (EFS), which creates a 4 times higher forward control column force when
approachingthestallregion.ThisforceusesareducedsystemApressureandwhenthisreducerfails,
openingprematurelyprovidingahigherthannormalAsystempressuretothefeelactuator,theFEEL
DIFFPRESSalsoilluminatesafter30seconds.

Note on the last system, its inhibited <100 ft. RA and AP selected, and when the EFS is not
operational.

13

FuelScavengeJetPump
Defuelscavengejetpumpscavengesresidualtrappedfuelfromthecentertanktotank#1.

Even at 0 Kgs indication there is still some residual fuel in the center tank. This fuel is trapped and
cannot be sucked up by the scavenge line of the center tank boost pumps because of its elevated
position.Tobeabletousethislastbitoffuel,acentertankscavengesystemisprovided.Toactivate
the system, next conditions need to be met; the LEFT FWD pump operating and tank #1 quantity
lower than half full. (< 1990 Kgs) When the float type shutoff valve opens, it allows LEFT FWD fuel
pump flow to create a negative pressure in the (nonrotating parts) eductor type scavenge pump
which in turn draws fuel from the center tank relieving it in tank #1. Of course this will create over
time (the pump capacity is 100200 Kgs/hr. (AMM)) a relatively small imbalance between the main
tanks.Thebooksaysthatthesystem continuestorunfortheremainderoftheflight (cant beshut
off)butwhenyoullremovethecontrolledcondition(LEFTFWDfuelpump)alsothejetpumpstops
operating. When the center tank is depleted, the scavenge pump draws air from the center tank to
tank#1whichobviouslydoesnoharmtoengine#1operation.

Note:thedissolvedairstoryoffuel.Whenonsuctionfeedwithahighfueltemperatureandarapid
decreasing pressureoverthefuel,airbubbles (aeration)appearinthefuelpossiblycausingengines
torunerraticorevenflameoutwhensuckedupthoughthebypassvalve.

Note: when both center tank fuel pumps are inoperative, fuel will be trapped in the center tank.
Thereisnobypassvalveprovisionforsuctionfeed,alsotheleftmaintankquantityhastobebelow
halffulltoevenstartthescavengejetpump.Evenso,thescavengerateisinsufficienttobeusedfor
emptyingthecentertank.Undertheseconditionsyoullusemaintankfuelbeforethecentertankis
at required safe levels and a possible overstress of the wing roots arises.
(>453,themaintankshavetobefulland>726,CONFIG)

14

Fuelvalves
Lets look at the most important valves in the fuel system, the Spar Fuel Valve and the Engine Fuel
Valve a bit further than needed but still at an acceptable level. It will clarify what actually happens
specificallywiththeEngineValve.ByallmeansjustremembertheeasywayastheFCOMexplains.

The #1 most important fuel valve is the Spar Fuel Valve. This 28 VDC valve is mounted in the front
wall spar of the main fuel tank supplying fuel to the fuel feed line of the engine. The DC power
comesfromtheHotBatteryBusandthevalveevenhasanownrechargingBatteryPowerPacktobe
able to positively close the valve in case of an emergency such as a separated engine. The valve
openswhentheStartLeverisplacedintheIDLEpositionandclosesbyCUTOFFofthatStartLever,or
bypullingitsFireSwitch.WhenthevalveiscloseditshowsadimbluelightevenwiththeStartLever
in CUTOFF as I always explain that any blue light is a not standard flight condition light, knowing
thatthebooksaysitsastatuslight.

The Engine Fuel Valve is actually the High Pressure Shut Off Valve (HPSOV) and is integral with the
Hydro Mechanical Unit (HMU) on the accessory gearbox. The valve opens and closes by the same
controls as the Spar Fuel Valve but its actual opening is a bit more complicated. It relies on the so
calledFuelMeteringValve(FMV)whichisundercontroloftheEEC.So..whenconditionsmeetthe
requirements to open the HPSOV, the EEC signals the FMV to open up the HPSOV by servo fuel
pressure.

On the other hand the closing of the HPSOV is achieved by the Start Lever or Fire Switch, the EEC
energizes the CLOSED SOLONOID of the HPSOV which uses 28VDC from the Battery Bus. During
engine start this FMV is controlled by the EEC and when conditions dictate the HPSOV (Engine Fuel
Valve) to close, the EEC commands the FMV and thereby the HPSOV to close in the following
conditions:
AHotStartoccurs(>725C)ontheground(exceedanceprotection)
Iftheenginedecaysafteridlespeedduringstartbelow50%N2speedandEGTexceedsthe
startlimit
TheEECsensesawetstartmeaning noEGTrisewithin15secondsaftertheStartLeveris
atIdle(YOUarethestartlimitfortheEGTrisewhichis10seconds!!!)

AlloftheseconditionswillbeindicatedbyabrightENGVALVECLOSEDlight.

Note that with an updated EEC software (7.B.Q and later) the EEC also provides a protection when
approachingaHotStartmeaningarapidincreaseinEGT.
The115/200VAC,400Hz,90KVAIntegratedDriveGenerator.

15

ACGenerator
I recently received a request from one of our followers to explain the operation of a brushless
generator.IvesendtheexplanationandthoughtonsharingthisgenericACpowergenerationinfoof
an aircraft AC brushless generator. Ive used the AC generator Im familiar with and adjusted the
imagetowardthatgenericexplanationandaddedthe737protectioncircuitsintheGCU.

TheACGeneratorisanassemblyofthreegenerators:
PermanentMagnetGenerator(PMG)
ExciterGenerator
MainGenerator

ThemostimportantRotorcomponentsoftheACGeneratorare:
PermanentMagnetGeneratorrotor
ExciterGeneratorRotor;whichincludesalsotheRotatingRectifiers(3)andresistors(3)
MainGeneratorRotor

ThemostimportantStatorcomponentsoftheACGeneratorare:
PMGStationaryArmature;output:39VAC,1,600Hz
ExciterGeneratorStationaryField;input:28VDCpulsating,1,200Hz
MainGeneratorStationaryField;output:115/200VAC,3,400Hz

Oncetheenginegearbox(N2)onwhichthegeneratorhasbeeninstalledhascomeonspeed,voltage
is excited in the PMG. This will be a 39 VAC, 600 Hz, 1 , at 100% revolutions of the IDG ( 12,000
RPM of the generator). This voltage is fed to the voltage regulator in the Generator Control Unit
(GCU) through a DC Power Supply where it is converted into a pulsating direct voltage of 28 VDC,
1.200Hz.

TheoutputofthevoltageregulatorislinkedthroughtheclosedGeneratorControlRelay(GCR)tothe
Stator of the Exciter Generator which excites a 3 AC voltage in the Rotor. This AC voltage is than
rectifiedbythreerotatingrectifiersandsubsequentlysuppliedtotheRotoroftheMainGenerator.

ThelaststepisthattheMainGeneratorrotorfieldexcitestherequired115/200VAC,400Hz,inthe
Main Generator Stator. The 115 VAC is the voltage taken from one phase and ground and the 200
VAC is the voltage between two phases (115 x 3) which explains the rang of what the generator
cangenerate(115/200VAC).

The above shows that there is no need an external voltage source to ensure the generator is in
operation,thatswhythesystemisalsoreferredtoasbeing"Selfsupported".

OK the easy way is that the Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) rotates by the IDG on the same
shaft as the exciter, and Main rotors. The generated (39 VAC) is rectified to a pulsating DC in the
controlunitandsendtotheexciterstator.ThisDCpowercreatesanalternatecurrentintheexciter
rotorandisrectifiedbytherotatingrectifierswhereafteritfinallycreatesanalternatecurrentinthe
threemaingeneratorstator.Thisisthe115VAC/400Hzoutputofthegeneratorandismonitoredby
thecurrenttransformersthatrelaxesorintensifiestheDCpowertowardtheexcitergeneratortothe
requestedloadoftheelectricalsystem.

16

The in the image shown protections in the CDU will deenergize the GCR thereby deenergizing the
exciter field, which deenergizes the generator. This deenergizing GCR also occurs when the
generatorswitchisselectedOFF.

17

Isolationvalve

Theisolationvalveseparatestheleft,fromtherightsideofthebleedmanifold.Itispoweredfrom
ACTransferBus1butalsocanbemanuallyopened/closedbyacontrollever,accessibleintheleftair
conditionbay.BecauseitsACpower*itwillfailintheselectedpositionwhenpowerisremoved.
WhentheIsolationswitchisintheAUTOpositionthevalveopeningreliesonthesocalledcorner
switchpositions.TheyarethePackandBleedswitches,whenalltheseswitchesareNOTintheOFF
positiontheisolationvalveisclosed.OntheotherhandifanycornerswitchisselectedtoOFFthe
IsolationvalveopensintheAUTOselection.
WhenaPackswitchisOFF,theIsolationvalveopenstocreateequalperformanceoftheengines.
WhenaBleedisselectedOFFtheIsolationvalveopenstoallowairfromeithersideofthemanifold
tobeusedfortheoffsideWTAI.
Notetheisolationvalvelogicisrelatedtoswitchpositionsoatrippedpackorbleedwillnotopenthe
IsolationValvewheninAUTO.AfterflighttheIsolationvalveshouldbeselectedOPENjustincase
youneedtobatterystartengineswhenthereisnoAPUorexternalelectricalpoweravailable.The
groundairconnectionislocatedontherightsideofthemanifoldclosetoengine#2.WhenN2>20%
thereisnopersonnelallowedinthevicinityoftheturningenginesowehavetostartengine#1first.
Whenthiswouldbeabatterystartyoullneedtheisolationvalvetobeopen,sowhenyouremoved
ACpowerwiththeisolationvalveswitchOPEN,thevalveisstillintheopenposition.

*Ageneralruleforelectricalpoweris;AClies,DCdies.
Thisisanicethingtoknowalsoforanaloginstruments,anACpoweredinstrumentstayswhereit
lostpowerandaDCpoweredinstrumentwilldropofftozero.


18

Manualgearextension.
LetshavealookatthisNonNormalprocedureanditscomponents.

WhenthegearisUPandtheLGleverintheOFFposition,hydraulicsystemApressureisremoved
fromtheuplinestotheactuatorswhichcausesthethreestrutstohangintheirrespectiveuplock.
ThisisalsothepreferredpositionoftheLGleverduringamanualextensionattemptbecauseofthe
depressurizedhydrauliclines.

Whenthegear(allorany)doesnotextendafteradownselection,followtheQRHprocedureinan
attempttolowerthegear.ManualextensionofthegearisaccomplishedbypullingthethreeT
handles,accessiblethroughtheManualGearExtensionAccessDoorjustbehindtheFOseatonthe
cockpitfloor.

TheneedforthisNonNormalprocedurecouldbecausedby:
DisruptedelectricalsignaltotheLGselectorvalve
NosystemAhydraulicpressureavailable
LGleverstuckintheUPorOFFposition

WhenopeningtheManualGearExtensionAccessDoor,adooropenmicroswitchcommandsthe
LGselectorvalveelectricallydownregardlessoftheLGhandleposition.ThisactionactivatestheLG
selectorbypassvalvewhichconnectsthehydrauliclinestoreturnsothemanualdownselectiondoes
nothydraulicallyrestricts(locks)theactuatorsdowncapability.

ThisalsopreventstheLGtoretractwhenthedoorisnotflushclosedaftertakeoffandselectedUP.
ThisprocedureiscoveredintheQRHbytheLGdisagreeprocedurewiththeLGhandleUPandallred
andgreenindicatorlightsilluminated,tellingyouthegearisdownandlockedbutnotintheselected
position.

Whenyoudpullany(orall)Thandleitsimplyreleasestheuplockbycableactionwhereafterthe
respectivegearfreefallsdown,supportedbygravity(weight)andairflowtotheextendposition.
Whenthegearisfullydown,thedownlockbungeespringswillholdthedownlockstrutsinanover
centeredlockedposition.Normallythisisaccomplishedbyadownlockactuatorbutwiththeabsence
ofsystemApressure,thespringsenforceamechanicaldownlockwhichisindicatedby(6)downand
lockedgreenlights.

Bytheway,thereare6greenlightsasaredundantindication.NeithergearisvisibleontheNGand
thedoublegreenlightsforeachstrutwillgiveabackupforthedownindication.

19

Mechanicalpressurereliefvalves.
Therearethreemechanicaladjustedpressurereliefvalvesonthe737.
Positivesafetypressurereliefisaccomplishedby2mechanicaladjustedpressurereliefvalves,
locatedoneachsideoftheoutflowvalve.Theyaretotallyindependentofthepressurizationsystem
andpreventtheinside/outsidepressuretoexceed+9.1PSIDintheeventofapressurization
system/outflowvalvemalfunction.(stuckclosedoutflowvalve)
Thefuselageairframestructurecannotwithstandlargenegativepressuresandisprotectedforthat
ataverylowvalue.Thenegativepressurereliefvalveislocatedattherightlowersideofthe
fuselagejustfwd.oftheoutflowvalve.Thisspringloadeddoorisalsonotdependingonthe
pressurizationsystemandadjustedatjusta1.0PSIDvalue.Thiswillpreventtheaircrafttocollapse
whentheinside/outsidepressurebecomesnegativeforexampleduringa(very)fastdescent.

20

NitrogenGeneratingSystem
FollowingtwoBoeing737CLexplosioninvestigationsinAsia(andothersincludingtheB747TWA800
midairexplosion),aprotectionwasdevelopedbyBoeingtominimizeexplosivevaporsinthecenter
tank.The737explosionswerecausedbytrappedfuelhightemperaturesduetoradiantheatfrom
thePacksunderthetankwhichformedhighlyexplosivevapors.Thefuelwasignitedbythecenter
tankfuelpumpswhichwerestillrunningwithanemptycentertank.Earlydayscentertankfuel
pumpsdidnothadanautomaticshutoffwithLOWPRESSUREasthenewermodifiedonesthatshut
downafter15secondsofLOWPRESSURE.Thisisalsothereasonthatsomeonehastobeonthe
flightdeckwhenacentertankpumpisrunningasbytheFCOM,thebookdoesnotcoverexplicit
modificationstoeachaircraft.

Thisprotectivedevice(NGS)dividesNitrogenfromOxygenbyaseparationmoduleandleaves
Nitrogenenrichedair(NEA)inthecentertanktoalevelwhichwillnotsupportcombustion.The
oxygenlevelisdecreasedbytheNGSto12%whichissufficienttopreventignition.

TheNGShasonlyanindicationavailableintherightmainwheelwellnexttotheAPUfirecontrol
panel,soithasnovisibleclewforcrewsofitsoperationduringflight.

Indicationsare:
OPERATIONAL(green)
DEGRADED(blue)
INOPERATIVE(amber)

Thenitrogengenerationsystemgetsbleedairfromtheleftsideofthepneumaticmanifoldwhere
afteritscooled,driventhroughtheseparationmoduleanddirectedtoaflowvalveintothecenter
tank.TheNGSoperatesautomaticallyonlyinflightandshutsdowninthenextconditions:
Eitherengineisshutdowninflight
Fireorsmokedetectioninanycompartment
LeftPackoverheat


21

Outflowvalve.
Tostayinlinewiththepreviouspost,letuslookatthispressurizationcomponentofthe73.

Theoutflowvalverestricts/regulatestheflowofconditionedairoverboard,therebycreatinga
pressurizedenvironmentintheaircraft.Thevalveislocatedattheaftlowersideofthefuselageand
hasrakededgesfornoisereductionpurposes.

Thevalveismovedbyacommonactuatorwhichcanbeoperatedbyeitherofthethreeoutflow
valveelectromotors.Twomotorsareoperatedbythepressuresystemcontrollersandoneisdirectly
operatedbyaswitchwheninManualoperation.

Automaticcontrolisaccomplishedbymeansof2CabinPressureControllers(CPCs)whichalter
controleachflightorwhenamalfunctionoccursontheoperatingcontroller.Athirdwayof
controllingtheoutflowvalveisbyamanualtoggleswitchonthepressurizationpanel.Theswitchis
springloadedtoneutralandhasthreepositions,CLOSENeutralOPEN.

Theoutflowvalveindicatorshowstheactualpositionoftheoutflowvalveinallmodesofoperation
providedtheBatteryBusispoweredthroughthePRESSCONTINDC/B.

Electricalpowertothethreeelectromotorsisprovidedby:

AUTOmode1electricalpowertotheautoelectromotor1issuppliedbythe28VDCBus1
throughCPC1.(PRESSCONTAUTO1C/B)
AUTOmode2electricalpowertotheautoelectromotor2issuppliedbythe28VDCBus2
throughCPC2.(PRESSCONTAUTO2C/B)
MANUALmodeelectricalpowertothemanualelectromotorissupplieddirectlybythe28
VDCBatteryBus.(PRESSCONTMANC/B)

Amodeselectorisusedtodeterminetheoperationoftheoutflowvalve,eitherAUTO,ALT(ernate)
orMAN(ual).

Theoutflowvalvereceivesaclosedsignalwhenthecabinaltitudereaches14.500feetintheAUTO
modeofoperationsoitisnotaffectedthroughtheMANUALmode.

Justforthemindsetwhenatahighaltitudeandapressureloss,youdhavetoclosetheoutflow
valvetoincreasepressureintheaircraftwhichresultsinloweringcabinaltitude.
Aircraftcontroloverridedevices.


22

FlightControlBreakawayDevices
Therearetwodevicesthatallowyoutocontroltheaircraftincaseofamalfunctioningorjammed
controlsystem.

Oneconcernsrollcontrol.Whenoneoftheyokecables(oraileronPCU/spoilers)becomesjammed
ormovesfreely,theoppositecontrolisstillavailabletorolltheaircraft.Thetwoyokesare
interconnectedatthebaseofthecopilotscontrolcolumnbytheAileronTransferMechanism
throughtorsionspringfrictionandalostmotiondevice.IftheFOcontroljams,thespringforcecan
beovercomebytheCaptaintherebycontrollingtheaileronPCUthroughcables.IftheCaptain
controljams,theFOcancontrolrollbyuseoftheflightspoilers.Notethatthisonlyhappenswhen
theyokehasbeenturned12whichengagesasocalledlostmotiondevicewhichinturn
operatestheflightspoilers.

Thesecondisrelatedtopitchcontrol.Whenoneofthecontrolcolumnsbecomesjammed,thecrew
canoverride(breakout)thefailingcontrol.Thecontrolcolumnsareinterconnectedbelowthe
cockpitfloorbyatorquetubewithadevicethatenablesthecontrolstobeseparatedfromeach
other.TheElevatorBreakoutMechanismconnectsbothcontrolcolumnsbytwospringswhichwill
separatethecolumnswhen30Lbf/13Kgfisusedtoovercomethem.Whenapplied,thecontrol
columnsaremechanicallyseparatedfromeachother.Notethatdeflectionoftheelevatorsis
significantlyreducedandahigherforceisneededtomovetheelevators.(evenhigherthanwith
manualreversion)

23

Pack&packcontrol
TherearetwoPacksactivatedbyanAUTO/HIGHselectionthatindividuallyhastwoairflow
directions,onethatgoesthroughathreestagecoolingcycle(2airtoairheatexchangersandan
expansionturbine)andonethatbypassesthecoolingmachineanditscomponents.Thetwoflow
directionsaremixedattheoutputoftheexpansionturbineofthecoolingmachine.Airthatenters
thePacksthroughthePackFlowControlandShutoffvalveisat212Candisconditionedand
cooledtoamixedminimumPackoutputof18Cassetthelowestonthezonetemperaturecontrol
selectors.(autozonetemperaturerangeis18C30C)WhentheseselectorsareallintheOFF
position,theleftPackputsoutafixed24CandtherightPack18C.

TherearetwocombinedZone/Packcontrollersthatcontroltherequiredoutputtemperatureofeach
Pack.ThesetwoPackControllershaveanautoonside,andastandbyoffsidecontrol,thelatter
takesoverifanautocontrollerfails.InthiscaseaPACKOFFlightilluminatesonrecalltogetherwith
aMasterCautionlight.WhenbothPackControllersfail,aPackOFFlightilluminateswithaMaster
Cautionlight,thepackswillstilloperateuntilatemperatureexceedanceoccur.

WhenaPackbecomesoverloadedbythedemandofcoolair,aPACKtripofflightilluminateswitha
MasterCautionlightandthePackFlowControlandShutoffvalveclosesshuttingdownthatPack.
WhenthePackcoolsdownandthelightextinguishes,thePackcanberesetbytheresetbuttonon
theBleedpanel.Topreventthisconditionfromreoccurringselectahighertemperaturetounload
thatPackbydemandinglesscoldairfromthecoolingmachinebypassingit.

APackautomaticallyprovidesahighairflowwhentheotherPackisselectedtoOFFprovidedthe
aircraftisintheairwithflapsup.Theotherconditionsrequireengineperformanceandinhibitsthe
automatichighflow.

Note:theimageisjustasimplifiedflowandpackcomponent,andcontrollerimagetoillustratethe
flowthroughthepackandthecomponentsinbothcontrollers.

24

Recirculationfans
Therecirculationfansarelocatedunderthecabinfloorontheforwardcargocompartmentsaft
bulkhead.Thepurposeofthesefansistoreuseairdrawnfromthecabinanddistribution
compartmentbackintothemixmanifold.DoingsothereisnoneedforairfromthePacks,thereby
relievingthePacksfromproducingconditioned(cool)airimprovingengineperformance.Theleft
recirculationfancirculatesairbackintothemixmanifoldfromthedistributioncompartment
underneaththecabinfloor(mixmanifold/fanarea),therightrecirculationfanfromthepassenger
compartment.
Whenahigheramountoffreshairisneededfromthepacks,therecirculationfansareautomatically
shutdownunderseveralconditionswiththerecirculationfansselectedtoAUTO,andtheisolation
valveselectedtoAUTOorOPEN:

Onthegroundusingenginebleedair:
LeftRECIRCFANshutsdownwhenbothPacksareselectedtohighflow

OnthegroundusingAPUbleedair:
LeftRECIRCFANshutsdownregardlessofPackselection

Inflightusingenginebleedair:
LeftRECIRCFANshutsdownwheneitherPackisselectedtohighflow
BothRECIRCFANSshutdownwhenbothPacksareselectedtohighflow

InflightusingAPUbleedair:
BothRECIRCFANSshutdownregardlessofPackselection

Readingthefirstpartitmakessensethattheleftfan(distributioncompartment)shutsdownfirstas
thisareaheatsupbytheseveraloperatingcomponents.(mypersonalpointofview)

25

HydraulicReservoirs
The3hydraulicfluidreservoirsarelocatedinthefrontofthemainwheelwell.Theyarepressurized
fromthebleedmanifoldtosupplypositivefluidtothepumps,preventingcavitationandfoaming.The
standbysystemreservoirispressurizedthroughtheBreservoir.Thesepressures(4550PSI)can
onlybecheckedon2gagesmountedontheforwardmainwheelwellbulkhead.QuantityoftheA&
Breservoirsisdisplayeddirectlythroughgagesonthereservoirbyafloattypetransmitterwhichalso
sendsasignaltotheDEUsfordisplayonthelowerDU.Thestandbysystemreservoironlyhasalow
quantityswitch,whichdisplaystheSTANDBYHYDLOWQUANTITYlightontheflightcontrolpanel
when<50%.

TheAreservoirhasa20%standpipetopreservefluidtotheEMDPwhenaleakoccursattheEDP.
TheEDPismorelikelytomalfunctionbecauseoftheenginegearboxmountedheavydesignand
highercapacityitputsout.(4x)

TheBreservoirhasacommonstandpipeforbothsystemBpumpssowhenaleakoccurs,fluidwill
draintheentireBreservoiruntila0%indication.InthiscasetheBsystemcannotbepressurized
anymorebuttheremaining1.3USGcanbeusedforthePTUtooperatetheLEliftdevices.Asecond
standpipeat72%preservesfluidtothislevelforbothBsystempumpoperation,incasealeakoccurs
whileusingthestandbyhydraulicsystem.
MinimumquantityfortheA&Breservoirsis76%whichtriggersawhiteRF(refill)indicationonthe
lowerDUwhenonthegroundandTEflapsareup,ornoenginesareoperating.

Besidesthat,whenequippedwithanupdatepinfunctiontothelowerDUonsystems,therecanalso
beareddialindicationwhenAorBquantitiesdecreaseto0%,orincreasesto106%.

Thepumpsheated(casedrain)coolingfluidreturntothereservoirs,isroutedthroughoiltofuel
heatexchangersmountedonthebottomofthemaintanks.Toachieveenoughcoolingforonthe
groundoperation,thereshouldbeatleast760Kgoffuelinthetankseach.


26

TheAPUStarter/Generator.
TheAPUisstartedthroughastarter/generatorandwhenonspeedtransferstoanACgenerator.
ThestartsequenceoftheAPUstarter/generatorisdeterminedbytheGeneratorControlUnit(GCU)
whichreceivespowerfromtheSwitchedHotBatteryBus.ThatisthereasonwhytheBatterySwitch
mustbeintheONposition(switchedhotbatterybusenergized)tooperatetheAPU.Whenswitched
OFF,theSwitchedHotBatteryBusandECUbecomedeenergizedwhichinturnshutsdowntheAPU
immediatelywithouttheregular1minutecoolingcycle.(tripsthegeneratorofflineandclosesthe
APUbleedvalvetounload/cooltheAPUpriorshutdown)
StrangelyenoughpowertothestarterisprovidedbyeithertheBattery(28VDC),orTransferBus1
(115VAC).Bothvoltagesarefirstchanged/boostedtoawhopping270VDCbytheStartPowerUnit
(SPU),whereafteraStartConverterUnit(SCU)createsthe270VACwhichisneededtodrivethe
starter/generatorinthestartmode.Thissignallastsuntil70%RPMwheretheSPUbecomesde
energizedandtheAPUbecomesselfsustainingandacceleratesfurthertoitsoperatingRPM.
WhentheAPURPMreaches95%theECUcommandstheblueAPUGENOFFBUSlighttoilluminate
asasignalthattheAPUgeneratorcanassumetheelectricalload.
TheACgeneratorconsistsofthesamepartsastheregularACgeneratorasdescribedinanearlier
postandcansupply90KVAbelow32,000feetand66KVAat41,000becauseofAPUloadcapabilities
withlowairdensities.


27

LandingGearTransferValve
TheLandingGearTransferValvehastwowaysofoperation.
ThesimplestistotransferthenosewheelsteeringoperationfromitsnormalhydraulicsystemA,to
thealternatehydraulicsystemBontheground(only),byaswitchontheleftfront(Capt)panel.
Thesecondwayofoperation(inflight)isabitmorecomplexasithas3conditionsthatneedstobe
metbeforetheLGtransfervalvemovesfromitsnormalhydraulicsystemAoperationforgear
retractiontothealternatehydraulicsystemB.

1. Engine#1,N2below50%
2. LandingGearHandleinUP
3. AnygearNOTintheUPandlockedposition
ThePSEUistriggeredbythoseconditionsandmovestheLGtransfervalvetosystemB.Notethatthe
PSEUlightisinhibitedfromT/Othrustuntil30secondsafterlandingbutDOESguardandoperatethe
737ssystems.Losingengine#1stopstheEDP(hydraulicsystemA)outputsotheonlywayto
pressurizetheAsystemisbymeansoftheElectricHydraulicPumpwhichputsout4timesless
volumethantheEDP.Thiswouldresultin4timesslowermovementofitscomponentsincludinga
gearretractionwhichisanunwantedsituationjustaftertakeofforonagoaroundwithN1
conditionswhenyouneedtocleanthatconfigurationasfastaspossibletodecreasethemassive
dragbyanyextendedgear.InthatcasetheretractionistransferredfromtheA,totheBsystemsoa
normalfastretractionofthegearisachieved.
ThePowerTransferUnit(PTU)isabackuptotheLEliftdevicesifthehydraulicsystemBEDPfailsor
haslowoutput.ItsupportstheBsystemelectrichydraulicpumptooperatetheliftdevicesina
higherspeedasitwouldbe4timesslowerwithjusttheEMDP.ThePTUcanalsooperatethelift
deviceswhensystemBfluidislosttoa0%indication,stillholding1.3USGresidualfluidinthe
reservoirtobeusedbythePTU.

28

PTU
ThePTUoperateswhenthenextconditionsaremet:
1. Airborneand,
2. SystemBEDPpressurelow(<2350PSI)and,
3. TEflapslessthan15butnotUP.

IfthisoccursthePTUcontrolvalveopens,allowingsystemApressuretooperatethePTUhydraulic
motor.Themotordrivesahydraulicpumpthroughacommonshaftandusesthe1.3USGfrom
belowthestandpipeonthebottomoftheBreservoirtooperatetheselectedliftdevices.Ofcourse
therearereturnlinesbacktotheBreservoirfromthePTUhydromotoranduseddeviceswhichare
notvisibleoncommonsimplified(FCOM)schematics.

NotethatthePTUdoesNOTtransferfluidfromAtoB,andthattheselecteddevicescanbeextended
ANDretractedbyuseofthePTUbutwilloperateaccordingtheusedpumps.(EMDP+PTUorPTU
only)

Teaser....howCANyoutransferhydraulicfluidfromABorBA??

AB
1. EMDP'sOFF.
2. Releaseparkingbrakes,depleteaccumulator(<1800PSI)
3. EMDPA,ONandapplyparkingbrakes.
4. EMDPA,OFFanddepressurizebycontrolcolumnmovement.
5. EMDPB,ONandreleaseparkingbrakes.(SendsthefluidbacktosystemB)

AB
1. EMDP'sON.
2. EMDPB,OFFanddepressurizebycontrolcolumnmovement.
3. EMDPA,ONandapplyparkingbrakes.(UsesfluidfromsystemA)
4. EMDPB,ONandreleaseparkingbrakes.(SendsthefluidbacktosystemB)

BA
1. EMDP'sOFF
2. EitherFLTCONTROLtoSTBYRUD.
3. No1thrustreverserOUT(usesstandbyhydsys)
4. FLTCONTROLtoON.
5. EMDPA,ON.
6. StowNo1thrustreverser(usingsysA)

29

WingThermalAntiIce(WTAI)
WingantiiceisprovidedfortheinnerthreeLEslatsonlyandispreferablyusedasaDEicer.ANTI
icewouldconstantlyheatuptheLEtherebymeltingtheicecrystalsimmediately,creatingwater
runbackoverthewingandpossiblyfreezinguponflightcontrols.Besidesthatitwouldhavea
negativeeffectonengineperformanceandfuelconsumption.
NotethatuseaboveFL350maycauseadualbleedtripoffbytherequestoftheamountofairalso
notethat(ENG)antiiceisnotrequiredwhen<40CSAT.

Theouterslatsarenotdeicedbecausethenarrowouterslatcannotholdthehardwareneededsuch
as,ableedmanifold,telescopictubeandspraytubes.Thewingisactuallynotproducingmuchliftin
thatareaanywayandtheyrealizedthatsomeiceaccretiononthatpartofthewingwouldnothurt
toomuch.Eventuallysomedragandincreaseinstallspeedoccurs,nottoforgetthatincaseyouuse
WTAIthestallwarningcomputerremainssetwithincreasedspeedlogic.

WherethereislittlecoolingairflowovertheLEontheground,theyareprotectedagainst
overheating.Firsttheenginebleedairisextracooledthroughtheprecoolerwhichallowstappedoff
fanairtoextracooltheenginebleedairformaximumLEcoolingontheground.Secondthereisan
overheatsensor(125C)whichclosesbothWTAIvalveswhenexceededandopeningupagainata
predeterminedvalue.

Duringthedesign/testphaseitturnedoutthaticedoesnotaccumulateontheempennage,mainly
duetoitspositioninrelationtotheenginescausinghotairfromtheenginesstrikingtheempennage.
Althoughsomeicecanbuildupinthatarea,itdoesnthaveanyadverseconsequences(thestabilizer
regularlychangestheAOAandeventuallysheddingiceunderthenewconditions).

ThemilitaryversionoftheBoeing737,theP8Poseidon,doeshaveasocalledelectromechanical
expulsiondeicingsystems(EMEDS)installedontheleadingedgesoftherakedwingtips,horizontal
andverticalstabilizers.Thesystemisspeciallydesignedfortheaggressiveslowandlowlevelcold
weathermissionassignmentsofthisaircraftanddoesbasicallythesameasadeicingbootbut
deformstheLEselfbyusinglowelectricalcurrent(28VDCand25Amps).


30

B737Yawdamping
AirplaneswithcontinuedDutchRolltendenciesusuallyareequippedwithgyrostabilizedyaw
dampers.TheBoeing737hastwoyawdampers,aprimaryandastandbyyawdamperthatkeeps
theairplanestablearoundtheverticalaxiswhenselectedONandwiththerespectivehydraulic
systempressurizedthroughminimumSMYDgeneratedrudderinputs.

WhenengagedinNORMALOPERATION,theprimaryyawdamperprovidesinputtothemainRudder
PowerControlUnit(PCU)solenoidvalveandiscontrolledbytheStallManagementandYawDamper
Computer1(SMYD1).TheinputsolenoidvalveuseshydraulicsystemBtomovetheyawdamper
actuatorwhichadsinthemechanicalrudderinput.Theyawdamperitselfdoesnotfeedbackmotion
backtotherudderpedals.Theyawdamperinputtoruddermovementislimitedto2withflapsup,
and3withflapsdown.

Toengagetheprimaryyawdamperselect:
HydraulicsystemBON,
FLTCONTROLBswitchONand
YAWDAMPERswitchON
o Engagelightextinguishes

WhenengagedduringMANUALREVERSION,thestandbyyawdamperusesthestandbyRudderPCU
andiscontrolledbySMYD2whichoperateswithstandbyhydraulicsystempressure.

DuringmanualreversionthesocalledWheelToRudderInterconnectSystem(WTRIS)supports
standbyrudderoperationthroughSMYD2whichreceivesaninputsignalfromtheCaptainscontrol
wheelforcoordinatedturnsduringmanualreversion.

ToengageWTRISandstandbyyawdampingselect:
BothFLTCONTROLswitchesOFF
AtleastoneFLTCONTROLswitchtoSTBYRUD
YAWDAMPERswitchON
o Engagelightextinguishes

BothFLTCONTROLAandBswitchesmustbeOFFtoenableSMYD2,andoneorbothswitchesmust
thenbeintheSTBYRUDpositiontoprovidestandbyhydraulicpressure.WTRISonlyoperatesat<M
0.4andyawdamperinputtothestandbyrudderPCUmovementsarelimitedto2withflapsup,and
2.5withflapsdown.

BothyawdampersystemsareselectedbyacommonengageswitchontheFlightControlpanel.
WhenselectedONandtheYAWDAMPERlightextinguished,itonlytellsyoutherespectiveyaw
damperisengagedregardlessofoperatingbyhydraulicpressure.Duringpreflighttheswitchholds
andthelightextinguishesevenwithouthydraulicsystemBpressure.Theotherway,ifyoudlose
systemBpressure,theswitchstillholdswithnolightilluminatedbutprimaryyawdampingislost.
TheswitchonlykicksOFFwhentheFLTCONTROLBswitchisdeselectedfromtheONposition.To
regainyawdampingyouwouldhavetotransfertomanualreversiontooperatethestandbyyaw
damperwiththestandbyhydraulicsystemwhichyou(ofcourse)willnotdo.

31

Zonetemperaturecontrol
TemperaturecontrolisachievedbymixingcoolPackairwithhotPackbypassair.Thenormal
temperaturerangeselectionisfrom18C30CthroughmixingcoldairfromthePackswithtrimair
foreachindividualcompartment.TheleftPackprovides20%totheControlCabinand80%tothemix
manifoldwheretherightPackprovides100%tothemixmanifold.TheZone/Packcontrollershold
thevariouscontrolelectronicsfortheContCabinandPassengerzones.TheContCabinhastwo
controllers,aprimaryandabackupwherethePassengerCabinhasonlyonecontrollerforeacharea
fromeitherZone/Packcontroller.(seepreviousimage)IfbothContCabincontrollersfailyoudgeta
ContCabinZONEtemplightwithaMasterCaution,ifonefailstheyilluminateonrecall.Ifa
PassengerCabinControllerfailstheZONEtemperaturelightandMasterCautionilluminatesonrecall
andthetwocabinrequirementwillbeaveraged.AZONEtemperaturelightalsoilluminatewhen
thereisanexceedanceofducttemperature,therespectivetrimvalvewillclosewhichcanbereset
bytheresetbuttonwhencooleddown.(selectcolderonthatarea)

InthenormalmodethePacksproduceatemperatureaccordingtheselectionofthelowest
temperature,theremainingzonesusetrim(hot)airrequiredfortheirselectedtemperature.

Unbalancedmode(ControlCabintrimairmalfunction)
TheleftPackproducestheselectedControlCabintemperatureandtherightPackputsoutthe
lowestPassengerCabinselectedtemperature,thePassengerzonetrimvalvesstilloperate.

Unbalancedaveragemode(anyPassengerCabintrimairmalfunction)
TheleftPackproducestheselectedtemperaturebutthetrimairvalvestilloperatesandtheright
PackputsoutanaverageofbothPassengerCabinselectedtemperatures.

SinglePackoperationandTrimONresultsinnormaltempcontrol,withTrimswitchOFFalltrim
valvescloseandthePackaveragesthethreecompartmentrequirements.

TrimswitchOFF,alltrimmodulatingvalvesarecloseandtheleftpackproducestheselectedControl
CabintemperaturewheretherightpackproducesanaverageofthePassengerCabinselected
temperatures.

TempselectorsOFFwillcreateafixed24Coutputfromtheleftand18CfromtherightPack.


32

Lavatoryfireprotection.
InotedalsoB737cabincrewLikestoourFBpage,soIlltrytoaimacoupleofsubjectsinthat
direction,ofcoursealsoneedtoknowsforflightcrews.

LetsstartwithBoeingsapproachoffireprotection,ofcoursewerediscussingfiredetection&
extinguishingNOTprotection;)

Thelavatorysmokedetectionsystemneeds28VDCfromDCBus#1tooperate.

Thelavatoryisequippedwithasmokedetectionsystemandafireextinguishingsystem.Insome73s
youstillfindaSMOKEannunciatorlightattheP5forwardoverheadpanelbutmostlythereisno
indicationontheflightdeck.

Inthecabinwefindsmokedetectionindicationsthroughthenextcomponents:

1. SmokeDetectorUnit
Asthenamesays,itsasmokedetectionandtheunitismountedagainsttheceilingofthelavatory.It
hasagreen(power)lightandared(smokedetected)light,alsoanalarmhornwillsoundwhen
smokeisevidentfor>8seconds.

2. LavatoryCallLight
LocatedabovethelavatoryandisaCall/ResetLightthatflashesamberwhensmokeisdetected.

3. MasterLavatoryCallLight
AteachEXITlocatorlighttherearethreeindicatorlightswhereaflashingamberMasterCallLight
indicatesthereissmokedetectedinthelavatoryinthatrespectivearea(fwd.oraft).

4. AttendantControlPanels(fwd.&aft)
Onthesepanelstherearemoreoptionsthanjustsmokedetectionasyoucantestthesystemhere
anddetectFAULTS.Whensmokeisdetectedaredlightflashestogetherwithaflashinglocaterlight
thatidentifiestheareawherethesmokeisdetectedandanintermittenthornissoundthroughthe
panel.Theswitchesandlightsonthepanelareselfexplanatory,whenaFAULTisdetectedduringa
testthefailingdetectorisindicatedthroughthelocationindicator.

5. PassengerAddress(PA)system
ThePAsoundsarepetitivehighchimewhensmokeisdetected.

33

Centertankboostpumps
Therearetwoboostpumpslocatedinthecentertankthatfeedfuelintotheenginesupplyfuel
manifoldatarateof10.000Kgsperhour.Thevalvesaremountedoneithersideofthecrossfeed
valvesowithaclosedcrossfeedvalvethepumpsprovidepressurizedfueltotheirrespectiveside,
theleftcenterboostpumpisthanneededtosupplypositivefuelfeedtotheAPU.Electricalpowerto
operatethepumpsareleft,ACtransferBus1andright,ACTransferBus2.

Thedesignissuchthatthereisnobackflowpossiblethroughthepumps,meaningacheckvalve
preventsfueltransferthroughtheenginefeedmanifold.Thesepumpsalsodonothaveabypass
valvewhichisneededforsuctionfeedaswiththemaintankfuelpumpsso,fuelinthecentertankis
trappedwhenbothcentertankpumpsareOFForproducingnopressure.(thefuelscavengejet
pump(100200Kgs/hr.)isnotconsideredatransferflow)

Thecentertankboostpumpsareofahigherpressurethenthemaintankpumpstherebycausingthe
centertanktoemptyfirsttopreventwingrootstresswhenthiswouldnotbethecase.TheFCOM
limitstatesthatthewingtankshavetobefullwhenthereismorethan453Kgsoffuelinthecenter
tank.Thesecondlimitisrelatedtothat,i.e.whenthereismorethan453Kgsinthecentertankthe
boostpumpsmustbeON.

IpostedtheC130videowherewingrootstresscausedthewingstoshearoff,thewingtankswere
notfullandtheaircraftuploadedwaterandchemicalsinahugetankinsidetheaircrafteverytimeto
fightforestfires.Aboutthesamehappenswhenthe453limitisnothonoredwithapossible
exceedanceoftheMZFW.

ThereareupdatedcentertankboostpumpsthatautomaticallyswitchOFFwhenLOWPRESSURE
(<22PSI)isdetectedfor>15seconds.Asthesenewertypepumpsmodificationsarenotcoveredby
theFCOMtheNOTEstillexiststobeontheflightdeckwhenacentertankpumpisoperating.

The2LOWPRESSlightsonthefuelpanelareextinguishedwhenthepumpsareOFFwherethemain
tankpumpsshowLOWPRESSwiththeirswitchOFF.IcallthatRecallLogicasthiswouldbea
normalconditionwhenthecentertankisemptyandthepumpsOFF,preventingtheMCSto
illuminateFUELattheCaptainsideAnnunciatorPanel(Recall)whenpushedwiththecentertank
emptyandtheswitchesselectedOFF.TheLOWPRESScircuitischeckedwhenthepumpsare
selectedONforashortmomentuntilthe22PSIisreached.

34

Antiskid
The73isequippedwithasystemthatpreventwheelsfromskidding(decelerating),thereby
optimizingbrakingcapabilitiesonanyrunwaysurfacecondition.

Anantiskidconditionreleasesbrakepressuretotheaffectedwheel(s)whichstopstheskidcondition
when:
Uncommanddeceleration.(Antiskidprotection)
Wheel(s)stopsinstantaneously.(Lockedwheelprotection)
Landingwith(parking)brakesON.(Touchdownprotection)
Hydroplaning

Todetectawheeluncommandeddeceleration,anelectricalsocalledtransducerismounted
underneaththehubcapofeachwheelandismonitoredbytheAntiskid/AutobrakeControlUnit
(AACU).ThissignaliscomparedtoinformationfrombothAir Data Inertial Reference Units (ADIRUs)
andisalsousedforautobrakesystemwheelspeedfunctions.

TheAACUcontrolstheantiskidsystemandmonitorsformalfunctionswhichareindicatedonthe
flightdeckbyanAntiskidInoperativeLight.AnadditionalsignaltotheAACUcomesfromtheparking
brakesystembecausethenormalantiskidsystemreturns(releases)hydraulicfluidthroughthe
parkingbrakevalve.Whentheparkingbrakevalvehasadisagreewiththelever(switch)theantiskid
inoperativelightalsoilluminates.

Antiskidisprovidedduringoperatingnormal(systemB),alternate(systemA),andoperationofthe
brakeswithresidualaccumulatorpressure.Wheninnormaloperation,antiskidisprovidedthrough4
antiskidvalvesforeachwheelseparatelyandduringalternateoremergency(accumulator)operation
through2antiskidvalveswherebythewheelsareprotectedinpairs.

Toallowretractbrakestooperate(Alternatebrakepressure,systemA)theantiskidsystemisde
energizedwhenthegearretracts.

Beawarethattheantiskidsystemreleasesbrakepressure,alsoduringemergency(accumulator)
operationwhichwouldreduceemergencybrakeapplicationswhensteppingonthebrakestoohard.

35

LeadingEdgeFlaps
Highliftdevicesoneachwingare2LEKruegerTypeFlapPanelsand4LESlats.TheLEflapshave1
extendposition,FullExtendwheretheLESlatshave2positions,ExtendandFullExtend,indicatedon
theaftoverheadpanel.Onthecenterinstrumentpaneljustbelowthe(TE)FlapsIndicatorthereis
alsoanamberLEFLAPSTRANSIT,andagreenLEFLAPEXTENDlight.

InNORMALoperation,theLEFlapsmovebysystemBpressuretoextendwhentheTEFlapstravel
awayfromtheUPposition.TheymoveinsequenceaftertheTEFlapstraveltotheirselectedposition
ascommandedmechanicallybyafollowupcablesystemoftheTEFlapssystem.Theextendtime
fromUPtoEXTENDtakes7secondsandfromEXTENDtoUP7.5seconds.WhentheBsystem
pressureislow,asocalledpriorityvalvegivesoperationprioritytotheLEFlapsovertheTEFlaps.It
reducestheflowratetotheTEFlaps,sotheLEFlapsmoverelativelyfastertotheirextendposition.

WhentheBsystemEDPpressureislow,thePTUsupportsLEFlapextend&retractmovement.Refer
forPTUoperationelsewhereonthisB737TheoryFBpage.

InALTERNATEoperation,theLEFlapsusesstandbyhydraulicpressureandcanonlyextendtheLE
Flaps.(Redguardedswitchindicatesanirreversibleaction)Inthiscasethecommandiselectrically
throughtheAlternateFlapswitchesontheFlightControlPanelandtheextendtimefromUPto
EXTENDis32seconds.

Duringcruise,pressureisremovedfromtheLEFlaphydraulicsystemwhichcreatesahydrauliclock
oftheLEFlaps.ThispreventsLEFlapextensionathighspeeds/altitudeswhichisaccomplishedby
commandoftheFlapsandSlatsElectronicUnit(FSEU).
Thisconditionexistswhenthenextconditionismetfor>5seconds:
Airborn,
FlapLeverUP,
LEFlaps(andSlats)UP

TheLEuncommandedmotion(UCM)detectionfunctionstopstheLEnormaloperationiftwoor
moreLEflaps(orslats)moveawayfromtheircommandedposition.

DifferentthantheLESlats,theLEFlapsdonothaveaninternalactuatorlockingdevicesowhen
residualsystemBpressurehasleakedawayduringextendedparking,thepanelscandroopoffby
theirweightandgravityforces.ThiswilldeactivatetheStallWarningTestcapability.
Rudder(verticalstabilizer)loadreduction
Asonmostlargeaircrafttheverticalstabilizerisoneofthemostfragilestructuralparts.Itcannot
withstandlargeloadscausedbyfullrudderdeflectionathigherspeedsandthereforeisprotected
againstthosehighforces.The737ruddermainPCUreceivesinputfromthepedalsthroughinput
leversandafeelandcenteringunitwhichmovestherudderpanelbyhydraulicsystemA&B
pressure.Pressureswillbeatnormalvalues(3000PSI)whenflying<137Kts,above137Ktsaload
limiterreducessystemApressureto1450PSIresultingina25%reductionofthetotalloadonthe
rudder.Theresultofthisreductionprotectstheverticalstabilizeragainsthighforcesatahigher
speed,leavingfullpressureanddeflectionavailablewhenneeded,attakeoffsandlandingsfor
directionalcontrol.

Anexampleoftheverticalstabilizerweakpointisanattemptin2001torecoveranA300after
beingstruckbywaketurbulenceandaggressivemaximumrudderinputswhichshearedofthe
verticalstabilizer.AlsonotethattheverticalstabilizerwastheonlyintactpartoftheAirFrance447
incidentovertheAtlantic.
36

InthepastofmyfieldofexperienceIsawaverticalstabilizerofaP3Oriontotallybeingsheared
offlikeitwasremovedwithachainsawwhenitstruckawashrackwhentheaircrafthasbeen
swappedaroundbyatwisteratNASJacksonvilleandwhenaP3hitsapowercableatPagoPago
Hawaii.

Beawareofthestructuraldesignofyouraircraft!!


37

ThrustReverser
Eachengineisequippedwithathrustreversersystemthatreducesstoppingdistanceandbrakedisc
wear.TheT/Rsreversethefanairflowforwardthroughblockerdoors,cascadesandtranslating
sleeves

TheleftT/RuseshydraulicsystemAandtheright,systemBwheretheybothareabletoreceive
standbyhydraulicpressurewhentheirrespectivehydraulicsystemisunserviceable.NotethatT/R
usewithstandbypressureisofalesserrateso,losingonemainhydraulicsystemwilloperatethat
sideslowerthanwithmainsystempressurecreatingapossibleswerveduringreverseraction.

TheT/RsarecontrolledbytheT/Rleversonthethrustleversandoperatewhen<10ft.RAoronthe
ground.TheT/RoperateswhenthethrustleverisattheIdlepositionandtheT/Rhandleisliftedto
theinterlockpositionwhentheisolationvalvepositionstodeploythetranslatingsleeves.The
EECsdeterminethroughaLinearvariabledifferentialtransformer(LVDT)a60%openingofthetwo
sleevesoneachT/R,whereafterthemechanicalinterlockreleasesandtheleverscanbelifted
furthertotheDetent1,2orMAXposition.

Whenthesleevesmove,theCDSshowsthenextmessageontheUpperDU.
AmberREVwhendeployingorstowing
GreenREVwhenfullydeployed

WhenstowingtheT/Rs,thestowcommandisinitiatedbypassingthe1Detentpositionwhich
commandstheT/Rsleevestostow.WhentheT/Rleverisfulldownandthesleevesatthe0%
(closed)position,theisolationvalveclosesandthelocksengage.

DuringnormaloperationtheamberREVERSERlightontheenginecontrolpanelilluminatesfor10
secondswithoutaMASTERCAUTIONduringaT/Rstowoperationandextinguisheswhenthelocks
areengaged.ThelightwillstayilluminatediftheT/Rdoesnotstowin10seconds,indicatinga
malfunction.

Whenthelightilluminatesformorethan12secondsamalfunctionisdetectedandtheENG
annunciatorandMASTERCAUTIONlightilluminates.

WhenthedownmotionoftheT/Rleversisdelayedformorethan18seconds,theENGannunciator
andMASTERCAUTIONlightilluminateandthelockswillengage,preventingfurthermovementofthe
sleeves.Toclearthissituationyoucancycletheleverstotheinterlockpositionandbackdown.

WhenaseriousmalfunctionordisagreeexistsbetweentheLVDTs,theENGINECONTROLlight
illuminatesontheenginecontrolpaneltogetherwithaMASTERCAUTION.Whenilluminated,it
couldmeanaseriousengine(EEC)malfunctionoranLVDTmalfunction/disagree,whenilluminated
donotdispatchtheaircraft.


38

Each T/R translating sleeve has two deactivation points, installing two pins at these points prevents
T/R deployment. Follow the thrust reverser deactivation for flight dispatch procedure from the current
(AMM) manual to operate the aircraft with deactivated T/Rs.

Anautorestowcircuitcomparesactualreversersleevepositiontothecommandedposition.When
itdeterminesanincompletestowageoruncommandmovementofthesleevestothedeployed
position,thecircuitcommandstostowtheT/R.Whenactivated,theisolationvalveremainsopen
andthecontrolvalveisheldinthestowedpositionuntilthethrustreverseriscommandedtodeploy.


39

TailSkid
Toprotecttheaftlowerfuselagefromoverrotationdamagethe737NGisequippedwithaTailSkid.
Itconsistsofasortofshockabsorbercartridge,askidfairingandaskidshoe,wherethelasttwo
partsareoutsidethefuselagewhereallotherpartsareinside.

Alighttouchtotherunwaycausestheshoetowearoff,indicatedby4dimplesontheshoe
indicatingtheamountofwearandisanindicationwhentheshoeneedstobereplaced.

Whentheshoehitsanobjectoranunevenpartoftherunwayduringtheskid,thelowerpartofthe
shoeshearsoffasontheleftimagetoindicateataildragbutdoesnotdamagetheskidfairing.

Afirmtouchcrushesthecartridgepushingtheskidfairinginsidetheaftfuselage.Thehigherthe
forcethefurthertheskiddisappearsindicatedbycoloreddecals.Ifthegreendecalisstillvisiblethe
skidisstillserviceablebutifthegreendecaldisappearsinsidethefuselage,thereddecalindicates
thattheskidmustbereplaced.

Whenthekisstotherunwayismorethanfirm,theskiddisappearstotallyinsidetheaftfuselage
andasafetypin(fusepin)allowsthecartridgetopivotinside(otherthancrushing)thereby
protectingtheaircraftstructureagainstmassiveloads.

Thereisalsoanoptionforaretractabletailskidthatextendsontakeoffsandlandingswhichisunder
controloftheSupplementalProximitySensingElectronicUnit(SPSEU)andoperateswithhydraulic
systemApressure.

TheSPSEUcommandsthetailskidtoextendif:
Intheairfor2minutesand,
LandinggearleverisDNand,
Eitherengineisrunning

TheSPSEUcommandsthetailskidtoretractif:
Ontheground5secondsor,
LandinggearleverisnotDNor,
Noenginesoperating


40

Vortexgenerators.
The737isequippedwithseveralboundarylayercontroldevicesor,vortexgenerators(VGs).
Theyaremountedonthenextlocations:
thewings
thetailcone
theinnerenginenacelle
thenose
theAPUinletdoor

ThevortexcreatedbytheVGaffectstheboundarylayerontherespectivesurfacebehindthedevice
bypullingairfromoutside,intotheboundarylayer.Itcreatesanairswirlthatdrawsairfrom
abovetheboundarylayerintothislayerintensifyingitandmakingitmorecompact.VGsare
mountedtoslow,controlorevenpreventboundarylayerseparation.

VGsareusedonthe737wingstoimprovehighMachpitchcharacteristicsbeyondinitialbuffetand
tolowerstallspeedsinthelandingconfiguration.The(backswept)wingdesigncreatesarelative
weakboundarylayerwheretheoutboardwingsaremoresensitivetoinitialflowseparation.The
purposeofthewingVGsistostrengthentheboundarylayer(especiallywithhighAOAs)anddirect
theairflowonthesurfacecontrols.

Onthetailcone,VGsaremountedtoseparatetheflowfieldfromthehorizontaltailthereby
reducingdrag,improvingperformanceandreducingelevatorvibrations.

AVortexControlDevice(ornacellechine)isinstalledontheinboardsideofthenacelles.Theengines
aremountedrelativelyclosetothewingwhichresultsinairdisturbanceathighanglesofattack.To
controltheairflowathighAOAsandslowspeed,aBoeinginventedVCDismountedontheinner
sideoftheenginenacelle.ThecreatednacellevortexisdelayedwithhighAOAstosupportthe
airflowoverthewing,increasingliftinthoseconditions.

ThereareanumberofVGsmountedonthenoseoftheaircraftjustbeforethewindows.The
generalpurposeistoreduceairflownoiseby34Dbs.ontheflightdeck,directingtheairflow
awayfromsharpedgesandcornersofthewindows.

OntheAPUinletdoor,thereisaVGinstalledtoimprovehighaltitudestartingoftheAPU.Whenthe
inletdoorisopenedduringflight,theVGimprovesinletramrecoveryandtherebythepressure
differenceacrosstheAPUeventoassist(electrical)starting.

41

Windowheating
Windowheatisprovidedtoimproveimpactresistance(birdhit),icebuildupanddefoggingand
shouldbeselectedONatleast10minutesbeforetakeoff.Eachfrontalwindow(L&RSIDE&FWD)
haveanownWindowHeatControlUnit(WHCU)whichreceivepowerfromtheirrespective115VAC
TransferBus.

Thisheatingisaccomplishedbylaminatedglassandvinylwindowlayerswithinbetweena
conductivelayerthatallowselectricalcurrenttoflowthroughitwhenheatingisselected.This
gradualincreasingcurrentflowcreatesheatbyresistanceinthelayertowardsatarget
temperatureof43C.TheWHCUadjustsheatingcurrentinitsoperatingrangetopreventathermal
shockandreducesthecurrentflowathigherrangestopreventanovertemperature.Windowheat
becomesactivewhenselectedtoONandthewindowtemperatureis<37C,indicatedbyagreenON
light(orextinguishedOFFlight)meaningthereiscurrentflowthroughtheconductivelayer.When
thewindowreachesthetargettemperaturetheWHCUinterruptselectricalpowerandextinguishes
theONlight(orilluminatestheOFFlight)whichcouldalreadybethecasewhenparkedintothesun
onahotday.

Tomakesurethesystemoperateswhenneeded,thereisaPOWERTESTswitchthatbypassesthe
thermistorandsendselectricalcurrentthroughthewindows.Beawarethisactionwillbypassthe
controlunittemperatureregulationsowhenactivatedtoolongitcouldcauseanovertempcondition
inthatwindow.

AnothertestfunctionistheOVHTTESTswitchthatsimulatesanoverheatconditionwiththewindow
heatswitchesinON,indicatedbyamberOVHTlightsonthecontrolpanelandextinguishedONlights
(orilluminatedOFFlights).Thesimulatedoverheatmustberesetbyselectingthewindowheat
switchestoOFFthanbacktoON.

Whenawindowovertempsatvalueshigherthan62C,theWHCUinterruptspowertotheaffected
windshieldandilluminatesanOVERHEATindicationtogetherwithanextinguishedONlight(or
IlluminatedOFFlight).ThisconditioncanberesetbyselectingtheaffectedwindowtoOFFandback
toONwhenallowedsufficientcoolingfirst(25minutesaccordingtheQRH).

Whenwindowheatisinoperativepreventspeedsabove250Ktsataltitudesbelow10.000ft.to
minimizetheeffectwhenabirdstrikeoccursonthewindow.


42

Wing&BodyOverheat
OntheP5overheadbleedpanel,thereare3cautionlightsmountedthatwarnsyouforanoverheat
conditioninthebleedsystem.TwoofthemareINSIDEthemanifoldandconsideredsafeasthey
havearesetfunctionaftertheoverheatconditioniscorrected,theBLEEDTRIPOFFandPACKlight.
ThethirdlightistheWINGBODYOVERHEATlightthatindicatesanovertemperatureOUTSIDEthe
manifoldandisconsiderednotsafe.Thisindicationdeterminesanoverheatintheareawherethe
ductislocatedindicatingaductleakorworse,aductrupture.

Theareascoveredbytheleftindicationare:
Leftenginestrut(154C)
Leftinnerleadingedge(154C)
Leftairconditioncompartment(124C)
Keelbeamarea(124C)
APUbleedductarea(124C)

Therightindicationcoverstheenginestrut,leadingedgeandairconditionontherightside.

Whenawing&bodyoverheatcondition(leak)exists,usethecurrentQRHtodeterminethelocation
andisolatetheleakbyselectingacombinationofpneumaticsystemrelatedswitchestoOFF.When
locatedandisolated,thetemperaturedropsandextinguishestheindicationknowingthatthe
overheathasdisappearedbutnotthecauseoftheindication.

WhenthecorrectQRHprocedurewasfollowedtheoverheadconditionshouldclearasthesource
hasbeenremovedsomewhereduringtheprocedure.Ifnot...theQRHdoesntsuggestssteps
beyondtheproceduresousecommonsensetoflyoutofthiscondition.

ThesystemhasatestswitchlocatedontheP5bleedpaneltotestthecontinuityofthesensing
loops.Theteststartswhenthebuttonispushed>5secondsandindicatesthesameasinan
overheatconditionbythenextamberindications:
WINGBODYOVERHEAT
AIRCONDannunciator
MASTERCAUTION


43

HorizontalStabilizerTrim.
Oneoftheimportantfeaturesrelatedtopitchandloadbalancingisthemovablehorizontalstabilizer
trimcontrol(stabtrim).Acontroljackscrewmovestheleadingedgeofthehorizontalstabilizerasa
triminordertoachievethisgoalandcanbeoperated:
Manuallybytwotrimwheelswhichoperatethestabilizersgearboxandjackscrewthrough
cablesandcabledrums.
ElectricallyeitherthroughyoketrimswitchesorAutoPilotcommandtothestabilizer
electricaltrimactuator.
o ACpowerACTransferBus2
o DCcontrolDCBus2

ElectricalmovementofthetrimactuatorbyeithertheyokeswitchortheAutoPilotwillbackdrive
thetrimwheelsonthecontrolstand.Whenthehandleonthewheelsareextendedduringelectrical
operation,thiscaninjuretheoperatorsleg/knee.

ExtremeUPoftheleadingedgeisrestrictedat4.2,andDOWNat12.9.IndicationinUnitsis
mechanicallyprovidedonthecontrolstandthroughaflexiblecablethatisdrivenoffthetrimcontrol
mechanismunderneaththeflightdeckfloor.Asreference,the0neutralpositionequals4unitson
thetrimpositionscale.

StabilizerTrimCutoutswitchesarelocatedonthecontrolstandinordertointerrupteithercontrol
columnswitch,orAPelectricalpowertowardthetrimmotorwhenanuncommandedmovementor
runawaytrimoccurs.

AStabilizerTrimOverrideswitchislocatedontheaftelectronicpanelincaseacountermovementof
thetrimisrequiredoppositeofthecontrolcolumnmovement.WhennotinOVERRIDE,amechanical
controlcolumnactuatedstabilizertrimcutoutswitchwillinterruptelectricpowertothetrimmotor
whenattemptingtotrimoppositeofcontrolcolumnorAPcommandedforce.(columnnoseDOWN
vs.trimUPorvv)

Theoverrideswitchcanalsobeusedtobypassthecontrolcolumnactuatedstabilizertrimcutout
switchesintheeventboth(yokeswitchorAP)failintheopenposition,tobeabletooperatethe
stabtrim.

Electricalmovementbytheyokeswitchescanvarybetweenhighspeed(0.4unit/sec)whentheflaps
areNOTUPandlowspeed(0.2unit/sec)whentheflapsarefullyUP.WhenthetrimisunderAP
controlhighspeedis0.27unit/secwhilelowspeedwiththeflapsUPis0.09unit/sec.

44

DisplayElectronicUnits.
TherearetwoDEUsintheCommonDisplaySystem(CDS)whicharelocatedintheE&Ebaythat
receivedatafromtheB737saircraftsystemsandavionics.Thisdataisconvertedintoavideosignal
thatissendtothesixDisplayUnits(DUs)ontheflightdeck.BothDEUsprovidedatatowardallsix
DUsbutaredifferentlypowered.DEU1ispoweredthroughthe28VDCStandbyBusandDEU2
throughthe28VDCBus2.TheybothhaveaholduppowerfromtheHotBatteryBuswhichisused
tosupplypowertotheDEUsduringpowersurgesofmaximum2secondsorelsetheDEUpowers
down.BothDEUscrosstalktocomparecriticaldataandwhenthereisadifference,thiscould
createanamberCDSFAULTindicationasdescribedbelow.

ThesamesplitismadeforpoweringthecomponentsthatdistinguishDUoperationwhenpowering
uptheaircraft.ImeanwhentheBatterySwitchisselectedON,DEU1ispoweredthroughtheDC
StandbyBusbutalsobothCaptains,andUpperDUs,aswellastheCaptainsEFIScontrolpanel.
Notethatittakes90secondstogetdisplaybecausetheDEUhastobecomeoperational.Whenthe
DCBus2becomespoweredthesameappliesfortheFirstOfficersside.

An(undispatchable)amberCDSFAULTdisplaysonbothPFDswhenthereisaDEUoperationalfailure
onthegroundandoneengineoperating.Whenbothenginesareoperatingorwhenintheairthe
CDSFAULTmessageisreplacedbyaDISPLAYSOURCEmessage.TheDISPLAYSOURCEalsoshows
whenoneDEUisselected(ALLON1or2)toprovideallsixDUswithdata.

Note:SwitchingtoofastbetweenSOURCEselectionscancreateapossibleincorrectdatadisplay,use
a12secondintervalwhenswitchingbetweentheSOURCES.

A(dispatchable)whiteCDSMAINTindicationtellsusthatthereisapartialdatainputmalfunctionon
aDEUwhenonthegroundandoneenginesisnotoperating.

45

ProximitySwitchElectronicUnit
ThePSEUislocatedontherightsideintheE&Ebayandreceivesinputfromthesixstrut
compressionsensors(2oneachstrut).Theseground/airsignalsareusedbythePSEUforseveral
aircraftsystemsand/orindicationssuchas:

Landinggeartransfervalve
Landinggearpositionindicatingandwarning
Speedbrakedeployedindication
Takeoffwarning
Doorwarning
Air/groundrelays
Seeimage...

ThePSEUalsoservesasaFAULTdetectionregardingseveralaircraftsystemswhenontheground
andthethrustlevers<53,orafterlandingwhenonthegroundfor>30secondsandthethrustlevers
<53.

Generallyspeaking,thePSEUlightisinhibitedinflightbutitdoesmonitorsystemsandrecordsany
FAULTtobeannunciated30secondsafterlanding.

WhenasystemstatusFAULTisdetectedoranoverwingexitflightlockfailsbeforetakeoff,thePSEU
lightilluminatestogetherwiththeOVERHEADannunciatorandaMASTERCAUTIONlight.

AnundispatchableFAULTisevidentwhenthePSEUlightilluminatesafterlandingwhenonthe
ground>30secondsandthethrustlevers<53,inthiscasethelightcanonlyberesetbyaBITEcheck
ofthePSEUorwhentheFAULTiscorrectedbymaintenance.

AdispatchableFAULTexistswhenthePSEUlightilluminatesafterlandingwhenonthegroundfor
longerthan30secondsandthethrustlevers<53andthelightextinguisheswhentheparkingbrake
issetortheenginesareshutdown.AdispatchfaultwillnotcausearecalloftheMasterCaution
annunciatorlightbutjustilluminatesthePSEUindication.

Adispatchable(simple)FAULToccursifthePSEUlightilluminateswhenpressingRECALLandresets
bypressingMASTERCAUTION.

TheSPSEUlightorSupplementalProximitySensorElectronicUnitisprovidedthatusestheLanding
GearDOWNsignaltoextendthetwopositiontailskidand/ortodetermineafailureoftheflight
locksontheadditional2midexits.(900s)

Notethatsomeindicationsareonlyvalidforcertainmodels/serials.

46

Nosewheelsteeringlockout
YesterdayIansweredaquestiontooneofourfollowersandwanttosharethis(obvious)info.

Whentowingorpushingtheaircraftwithatugandtowbar,systemApressurehastoberemoved
fromthenosewheelsteeringsystem.Itpreventsunwanteddangerousmovementsofthetowbar
injuringpeopleordamagingthenosewheelsteeringsystem.
ItisdoneeitherbyswitchingbothApumpstoOFForbyuseofthetowingleverandlockoutpinto
depressurizethenosewheelsteeringsystem.
Movingthelevertothetowing(fwd.)positionmovesthetowingshutoffvalvetosuchapositionthat
itshutsoffAhydraulicpressuretothesteeringvalveandconnectsbothsidesofthesteeringvalveto
eachother,andreturn.Thisallowsthenosegeartorotatefreelytoamaximumof78indicatedby
redstripesonthelowersideofthefuselage.Movingthenosewheelbeyondthestripesrequires
disconnectingthetorsionlinksoreventhetaxilightwiring.

MostcompanieswantsyoutoalwaysswitchtheApumpsOFFevenifthelockoutpinisinstalledasa
safetymeasure.Thisisdonetopreventmiscommunicationwiththemulticulturalgroundobservers
relatedtopininstallation.

Justthinkingaboutthesystemasanengineer.....remembertheNOSEWHEELSTEERINGswitch.
WhenitisselectedinAlternateontheground,itmovestheLandingGearTransfervalvetoselectB
systempressuretonosewheelsteering!!!


47

Weatherradar
Theonboardweatherradarcanprovidethefollowinginformation:
Weather
Windshear
Terrain

TheWXRswitchoneitherEFISpanelactivatestheweatherradaranddisplaystheweatherradardata
ontheNDintheMAP,MAPCTR,VOR&APPmodes.(notintheplanmode)Theradarcovers180in
frontoftheaircraftbyreceivingtransmittedradiofrequencyechopulsesontheNDs.Whenselected
ontheEFIScontrolpanelinacorrectdisplaymode,theDEUssendananalogdiscretetotheweather
radarcontrolpanelwhichsendsittotheweatherradartransceiverandswitchesitON.

Whentheaircraftisequippedwithapredictivewindshearsystem(PWS),itllbeavailablebelow
2300ft.TheweatherradardoesnotneedtobeswitchedONforthePWStowork,itswitchesON
automaticallywhentakeoffthrust(PL>53)isset.PWSinformationisavailableaftertheWXR
switchoneitherEFIScontrolpanelispushedanda12secwarmupperiod,whereafterAlerts
becomeavailable.

AlertactivationregionsforTAKEOFFare:
WarningsandCautionsareenabledfrom0knotsuntiltheaircraftreaches80knots.
From80knotsuntiltheaircraftpasses400feet,onlyWarningsareenabled.
From400feetthrough1,200feet,WarningsandCautionsareenabled.
Allalertsaredisabledfromthetimetheaircraftpasses100knotsuntilitreaches50feet.

AlertactivationregionsforAPPROACHare:
PWSswitchesautomaticallyONwhentheairplanedescendsbelow2300feetRA.
PWSswitchesautomaticallyOFFwhenoneofthenextconditionsoccur:
o Aircraftspeedislessthan60knots.
o Aircraftclimbsabove2300feetRA.

IfPWSisONandWXRisnotselectedontheEFISpanel,allantennasweepssearchforwindshear.If
WXRisselected,theantennausesonesweeptosearchforwindshearandtheothersweeptosearch
fornormalweatherreturns.PWSoperationdoesnotaffecttheWXRmodeorrangeselectedbythe
flightcrew.

AlertactivationregionsforLANDINGare:
WarningsandCautionsareenabledfromthetimetheaircraftpasses1,200feetuntil400
feet.
From400feetuntil50feet,onlyWarningsareenabled.
From50feetuntiltouchdown(0feet),allalertsaredisabled.
NodisplayWindshearalertsareactiveinthecockpitbelow1,200feetAGL.


48

Theweatherradaractuallyentersthewindshearscanningmodeat2,300feetAGLtoprovidetime
forthesystemtopowerup(ifnecessary)andupdatethedisplaysbeforetheaircraftreachesthe
1,200feetAGLlevel.

TEST
Duringthetest:
TheR/TtransmitsafewpulsestolettheBITEmonitorforcorrectoperation
TheR/TmakesatestpatternandsendsittotheDEUtoshowontheNDs
TheR/Tsendstestmessages,mode,gainandtiltinformationtotheDEUstoshowonthe
NDs
WXRtestpatternshowsonNDs.
ThetestpatternshowsuntilanothermodeontheWXRpanelorEFISpanelisselected.


49

Dissolvedair
Afuelphenomenawithinhighaltitudeaviationiscalleddissolvedairoraeration.

Itisaresultfromthehighlyaeratedconditionoffuelcausedbyrapidlydecreasingtankpressure
duringclimb,allowingentrappedairinthefueltoexpand.Reducedairpressureabovethefuel
surfacepromotesthereleaseofdissolvedairfromthefuel.Airreleasedfromthefuelcanhave
degradingeffectsontheperformanceandsafeoperationofafuelsystem.

2MaintankfuelpumpLOWPRESSUREsduringrapidclimboutcancausethrustdeteriorationor
evenanengineflameoutontheaffectedengineathigheraltitudes(>13,000feet).
(QRH,FUELPUMPLOWPRESSURE)
Thisaltitudevarieswiththeprevailingfueltemperatureinthetank(thehigherthefueltemperature,
thelowerthealtitudeatwhichthegradualpowerlossoccurs).

Oncepressurehasstabilizedandexcessairhasescapedfromthefuel,lossofbothfuelboostpumps
hasnoeffectonengineoperationwithmaximumpowersettingsataltitudesuptoabove30,000
feet.Thetimerequiredtostabilizethefuelfromthishighlyaeratedconditioncannotbedetermined
exactly,sinceitisafunctionofbothrateofclimbandfueltemperature.

Solutiontotheproblemisleveloffandlettheenginesstabilizeataltitudeorpressurefeedthe
enginesassuctionfeedincreasestheaerationeffectandadsinthepossibilitytoingestaeratedfuel
intotheenginefeedline.

Fuelstabilizationshouldoccurafterafewminutesofstabilizedcruisingoperationorbackon
pressurefeed.


50

Frangiblefittings
Frangiblefittingsaremountedintherimofthemainwheelwellstopreventarotatingblowntireto
enterthewheelwell.Ifitshears,onlythatsidewillfreefallbackdownbyrelievingLandingGear
Actuatoruppressureoverboard.(4greenandtworedindications)
Notethatwedohaveretractbrakesthroughthealternatebrakesystem(hydraulicsystemA)but
whenatireblowsthereisagoodchancethatthebrakelineswillbesubstantiallydamagedcausing
theretractbrakesnottowork.

Retractbrakes(andnosewheelsnubbers)aremountedtostopthewheelsfromrotating,hangingin
theiruplocks.Ahighspeedrotatingwheelwouldcausetremendousprecessionforcestothe
structureduringaturnthatswhytheyarestoppedafterretraction.


51

Rudder(verticalstabilizer)loadreduction
Asonmostlargeaircrafttheverticalstabilizerisoneofthemostfragilestructuralparts.Itcannot
withstandlargeloadscausedbyfullrudderdeflectionathigherspeedsandthereforeisprotected
againstthosehighforces.The737ruddermainPCUreceivesinputfromthepedalsthroughinput
leversandafeelandcenteringunitwhichmovestherudderpanelbyhydraulicsystemA&B
pressure.Pressureswillbeatnormalvalues(3000PSI)whenflying<137Kts,above137Ktsaload
limiterreducessystemApressureto1450PSIresultingina25%reductionofthetotalloadonthe
rudder.Theresultofthisreductionprotectstheverticalstabilizeragainsthighforcesatahigher
speed,leavingfullpressureanddeflectionavailablewhenneeded,attakeoffsandlandingsfor
directionalcontrol.

Anexampleoftheverticalstabilizerweakpointisanattemptin2001torecoveranA300after
beingstruckbywaketurbulenceandaggressivemaximumrudderinputswhichshearedofthe
verticalstabilizer.AlsonotethattheverticalstabilizerwastheonlyintactpartoftheAirFrance447
incidentovertheAtlantic.

InthepastofmyfieldofexperienceIsawaverticalstabilizerofaP3Oriontotallybeingsheared
offlikeitwasremovedwithachainsawwhenitstruckawashrackwhentheaircrafthasbeen
swappedaroundbyatwisteratNASJacksonvilleandwhenaP3hitsapowercableatPagoPago
Hawaii.

Beawareofthestructuraldesignofyouraircraft!!